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Lipid droplets

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109148/-rat-bone-marrow-mesenchymal-stem-cells-promote-apoptosis-and-inhibit-proliferation-and-migration-of-rsc96-cells
#1
Yongbin Ma, Suohua Ge, Dan Zhou, Huanyan Zhang, Luyang Sun, Xuefeng Wang, Jianhua Su
Objective To investigate the effect of rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) on the proliferation and migration of rat RSC96 Schwann cells in vitro. Methods BMSCs of Sprague Dawley (SD) rats were isolated by bone marrow cell adherent method. The morphology of the third generation of BMSCs was observed by inverted microscopy. The cell surface antigen makers CD19, CD34, CD73, CD105 were detected by flow cytometry. The third-passage BMSCs differentiated into osteoblasts and adipocytes after exposed to bone-inducing and lipid-inducing media for 3 and 2 weeks, respectively, and then were identified by oil red O and alkaline phosphatase staining...
February 2017: Xi Bao Yu Fen Zi Mian Yi Xue za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Cellular and Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107086/interaction-between-lipid-droplets-and-endoplasmic-reticulum-in-human-atherosclerotic-plaques
#2
Ida Perrotta
Lipid droplets (LDs) are intracellular organelles that are found in nearly all cell types, where they serve fundamental roles in lipid metabolism and energy homeostasis. Traditionally considered as simple lipid storage deposits, these dynamic and remarkable organelles have recently been implicated in a number of other cellular functions, ranging from protein storage and degradation to virus replication. Intracellular accumulation of LDs is also a hallmark feature of diverse human diseases including diabetes type II, obesity, hepatosteatosis, cancer, and atherosclerosis...
January 20, 2017: Ultrastructural Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105255/pi3k-ship2-pten-pathway-in-cell-polarity-and-hepatitis-c-virus-pathogenesis
#3
REVIEW
Aline Awad, Ama Gassama-Diagne
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infects hepatocytes, polarized cells in the liver. Chronic HCV infection often leads to steatosis, fibrosis, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma, and it has been identified as the leading cause of liver transplantation worldwide. The HCV replication cycle is dependent on lipid metabolism and particularly an accumulation of lipid droplets in host cells. Phosphoinositides (PIs) are minor phospholipids enriched in different membranes and their levels are tightly regulated by specific PI kinases and phosphatases...
January 8, 2017: World Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103636/limited-excessive-voluntary-alcohol-drinking-leads-to-liver-dysfunction-in-mice
#4
Scott A Wegner, Katherine A Pollard, Viktor Kharazia, David Darevsky, Luz Perez, Sanjoy Roychowdhury, Allison Xu, Dorit Ron, Laura E Nagy, Frederic Woodward Hopf
BACKGROUND: Liver damage is a serious and sometimes fatal consequence of long-term alcohol intake, which progresses from early-stage fatty liver (steatosis) to later-stage steatohepatitis with inflammation and fibrosis/necrosis. However, very little is known about earlier stages of liver disruption that may occur in problem drinkers, those who drink excessively but are not dependent on alcohol. METHODS: We examined how repeated binge-like alcohol drinking in C57BL/6 mice altered liver function, as compared with a single binge-intake session and with repeated moderate alcohol consumption...
January 19, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103313/mycobacterium-marinum-degrades-both-triacylglycerols-and-phospholipids-from-its-dictyostelium-host-to-synthesise-its-own-triacylglycerols-and-generate-lipid-inclusions
#5
Caroline Barisch, Thierry Soldati
During a tuberculosis infection and inside lipid-laden foamy macrophages, fatty acids (FAs) and sterols are the major energy and carbon source for Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Mycobacteria can be found both inside a vacuole and the cytosol, but how this impacts their access to lipids is not well appreciated. Lipid droplets (LDs) store FAs in form of triacylglycerols (TAGs) and are energy reservoirs of prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Using the Dictyostelium discoideum/Mycobacterium marinum infection model we showed that M...
January 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102311/plin2-is-a-key-regulator-of-the-unfolded-protein-response-and-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-resolution-in-pancreatic-%C3%AE-cells
#6
Elaine Chen, Tsung Huang Tsai, Lan Li, Pradip Saha, Lawrence Chan, Benny Hung-Junn Chang
Progressive pancreatic β cell failure underlies the transition of impaired glucose tolerance to overt diabetes; endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress expedites β cell failure in this situation. ER stress can be elicited by lipotoxicity and an increased demand for insulin in diabetes. We previously reported that the lipid droplet protein perilipin 2 (PLIN2) modulates lipid homeostasis in the liver. Here, we show that PLIN2 modulates the unfolded protein response (UPR) and ER stress in pancreatic β cells. PLIN2 expression goes up when β cells are exposed to a lipid load or to chemical ER stress inducers...
January 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101467/some-qualitative-and-rheological-properties-of-virgin-olive-oil-apple-vinegar-salad-dressing-stabilized-with-xanthan-gum
#7
Solmaz Abedinzadeh, Mohammadali Torbati, Sodeif Azadmard-Damirchi
Purpose: Lipid oxidation and rheological properties are the main qualitative parameters determined in food emulsions. Salad dressings are food emulsions important in our daily diet, but conventional salad dressings have high amounts of cholesterol and saturated fatty acids because of egg yolk in their formulations. There are many studies on the modification of salad dressing formulations to replace egg yolk and saturated fats. The present study describes new formulation of salad dressing with olive oil and apple vinegar to produce a functional food product...
December 2016: Advanced Pharmaceutical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100635/phospholipase-lpl1-links-lipid-droplet-function-with-quality-control-protein-degradation
#8
Nina Weisshaar, Hendrik Welsch, Angel Guerra-Moreno, John Hanna
Protein misfolding is toxic to cells and is thought to underlie many human diseases, including many neurodegenerative diseases. Accordingly, cells have developed stress responses to deal with misfolded proteins. The transcription factor Rpn4 mediates one such response, and is best known for regulating the abundance of the proteasome, the complex multisubunit protease that destroys proteins. Here we identify Lpl1 as an unexpected target of the Rpn4 response. Lpl1 is a phospholipase and a component of the lipid droplet...
January 18, 2017: Molecular Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098251/unsaturated-lipid-bodies-as-a-hallmark-of-inflammation-studied-by-raman-2d-and-3d-microscopy
#9
K Czamara, K Majzner, A Selmi, M Baranska, Y Ozaki, A Kaczor
Endothelial HMEC-1 cells incubated with pro-inflammatory cytokine TNF-α for 6 and 24 hours were studied as a model of inflammation using Raman imaging. Striking changes in distribution, composition and concentration of cellular lipids were observed after exposure to TNF-α compared to the control. In particular, 3D Raman imaging revealed a significant increase in the amount of lipid entities formed under inflammation. Lipid bodies were randomly distributed in the cytoplasm and two types of droplets were assembled: more saturated one, in spectral characteristics resembling phosphatidylcholine and saturated cholesteryl esters, observed also in the control, and highly unsaturated one, containing also cholesterols, being a hallmark of inflamed cells...
January 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097097/mir-29a-promotes-lipid-droplet-and-triglyceride-formation-in-hcv-infection-by-inducing-expression-of-srebp-1c-and-cav1
#10
Mennatallah Mamdouh Mahdy, Nada Magdy El-Ekiaby, Rana Mahmoud Hashish, Radwa Ayman Salah, Rasha Sayed Hanafi, Hassan Mohamed El-Said Azzazy, Ahmed Ihab Abdelaziz
Aims: To examine the regulation of SREBP-1c and CAV1 by microRNA-29a (miR-29a) in cells infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV) in an attempt to control HCV-induced non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Methods: In order to examine the manipulation of SREBP-1c and CAV1 by miR-29a, oleic acid (OA)-treated JFH-I-infected Huh-7 cells were used. OA was added 24 h post-transfection and gene expression was investigated by qRT-PCR at 48 h post treatment. The functional impact of the observed alteration in SREBP-1c and CAV1 expression was analyzed by examining lipid droplet (LD) and triglyceride (TG) content at 72 h post-OA treatment using light microscopy and spectrophotometry, respectively...
December 28, 2016: Journal of Clinical and Translational Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095854/the-effects-of-detraining-and-training-on-adipose-tissue-lipid-droplet-in-obese-mice-after-chronic-high-fat-diet
#11
Ju Yong Bae, Jinhee Woo, Hee Tae Roh, Yul Hyo Lee, Kangeun Ko, Sunghwun Kang, Ki Ok Shin
BACKGROUND: It is well known that exercise promotes lipolysis by stimulating the lipid droplet (LD) signaling pathway. However, few studies have been conducted to examine the effect of detraining with high fat diet (HFD) and training effects after long-term HFD. Here, we investigated the effect of detraining and training on adipose tissue LD pathway in diet-induced obese mice after continuous HFD. METHODS: Seventy male C57BL/6 mice were randomly assigned into a Normal diet + Sedentary group (ND, n = 10) or a High-fat diet + Sedentary group (HF, n = 50); in the HF group, obesity was induced by a 45% fat chow for six weeks...
January 17, 2017: Lipids in Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095627/melatonin-regulates-lipid-metabolism-in-porcine-oocytes
#12
Jun-Xue Jin, Sanghoon Lee, Anukul Taweechaipaisankul, Geon A Kim, Byeong Chun Lee
It is being increasingly recognized that the processes of lipogenesis and lipolysis are important for providing an essential energy source during oocyte maturation and embryo development. Recent studies demonstrated that melatonin has a role in lipid metabolism regulation, including lipogenesis, lipolysis and mitochondrial biogenesis. In this study, we attempted to investigate the effects of melatonin on lipid metabolism during porcine oocyte in vitro maturation. Melatonin treatment significantly enhanced the number of lipid droplets (LDs) and upregulated gene expression related to lipogenesis (ACACA, FASN, PPARγ, and SREBF1)...
January 17, 2017: Journal of Pineal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088959/-effect-of-exendin-4-on-lipid-deposition-in-skeletal-muscle-of-diet-induced-obese-mice-and-its-underlying-mechanism
#13
H Y Cao, F Xu, Z L Chen, B S Lin, X B Zheng, S H Yuan, H Liang, J P Weng
Objective: To investigate the effect of exendin-4, a glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonist, on reducing lipid deposition and improving insulin resistance in skeletal muscle and the underlying mechanisms in high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese mice. Methods: Twelve male C57BL/6J mice were challenged with HFD for 12 weeks to induce obesity and then randomly divided into two groups: exendin-4 group (intraperitoneal injection of 24 nmol·kg(-1)·d(-1) exendin-4 for 4 weeks) and HFD group (intraperitoneal injection of normal saline for 4 weeks), with 6 mice in each group...
January 10, 2017: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087695/novel-interconnections-in-lipid-metabolism-revealed-by-overexpression-of-sphingomyelin-synthase-1
#14
Gergana M Deevska, Patrick P Dotson, Alexander A Karakashian, Giorgis Isaac, Mark Wrona, Samuel B Kelly, Alfred H Merrill, Mariana N Nikolova-Karakashian
This study investigates the consequences of elevating sphingomyelin synthase 1 (SMS1) activity, which generates the main mammalian sphingolipid, sphingomyelin. HepG2 cells stably transfected with SMS1 (HepG2-SMS1), exhibit elevated enzyme activity in vitro and increased sphingomyelin content (mainly C22:0- and C24:0-sphingomyelin), but lower hexosylceramide (Hex-Cer) levels. HepG2-SMS1 cells have less triacylglycerols than controls but similar diacylglycerol acyltransferase activity, triacylglycerol secretion, and mitochondrial function...
January 13, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081181/aronia-melanocarpa-extract-ameliorates-hepatic-lipid-metabolism-through-ppar%C3%AE-2-downregulation
#15
Chung-Hwa Park, Jung-Hee Kim, Eun Byul Lee, Wonhee Hur, Oh-Joo Kwon, Hyoung-Jin Park, Seung Kew Yoon
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a hepatic manifestation of metabolic syndrome. Studies have demonstrated that anthocyanin-rich foods may improve hyperlipidemia and ameliorate hepatic steatosis. Here, effects of Aronia melanocarpa (AM), known to be rich of anthocyanins, on hepatic lipid metabolism and adipogenic genes were determined. AM was treated to C57BL/6N mice fed with high fat diet (HFD) or to FL83B cells treated with free fatty acid (FFA). Changes in levels of lipids, enzymes and hormones were observed, and expressions of adipogenic genes involved in hepatic lipid metabolism were detected by PCR, Western blotting and luciferase assay...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078077/a-novel-method-for-the-quantification-of-fatty-infiltration-in-skeletal-muscle
#16
Nicole K Biltz, Gretchen A Meyer
BACKGROUND: Fatty infiltration of the skeletal muscle is a common but poorly understood feature of many myopathies. It is best described in human muscle, where non-invasive imaging techniques and representative histology have been optimized to view and quantify infiltrating fat. However, human studies are limited in their ability to identify cellular and molecular mechanisms regulating fatty infiltration, a likely prerequisite to developing targeted interventions. As mechanistic investigations move to small animals, studies may benefit from new or adapted imaging tools optimized for high resolution and whole muscle quantification...
2017: Skeletal Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077646/adenovirus-modulates-toll-like-receptor-4-signaling-by-reprogramming-orp1l-vap-protein-contacts-for-cholesterol-transport-from-endosomes-to-the-endoplasmic-reticulum
#17
Nicholas L Cianciola, Stacey Chung, Danny Manor, Cathleen R Carlin
: Human adenoviruses generally cause mild self-limiting infections but can lead to serious disease and even be fatal in high-risk individuals, underscoring the importance of understanding how the virus counteracts host defense mechanisms. This study had two goals. First, determine the molecular basis of cholesterol homeostatic responses induced by the early region 3 membrane protein RIDα via its direct interaction with the sterol-binding protein ORP1L. Second, determine how this interaction regulates innate immunity to adenovirus...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077357/triglyceride-rich-lipoprotein-lipolysis-products-increase-blood-brain-barrier-transfer-coefficient-and-induce-astrocyte-lipid-droplets-and-cell-stress
#18
Linda L Lee, Hnin Hnin Aung, Dennis W Wilson, Steven E Anderson, John C Rutledge, Jennifer M Rutkowsky
Elevation of blood triglycerides, primarily as triglyceride-rich lipoproteins (TGRL), has been linked to cerebrovascular inflammation, vascular dementia, and Alzheimer's disease (AD). Brain microvascular endothelial cells and astrocytes, two cell components of the neurovascular unit, participate in controlling blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability and regulating neurovascular unit homeostasis. Our studies showed that infusion of high physiological concentrations of TGRL lipolysis products (TGRL + lipoprotein lipase) activate and injure brain endothelial cells and transiently increases the BBB transfer coefficient (Ki=permeability x surface area/volume) in vivo...
January 11, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077274/the-role-and-regulation-of-the-peroxisome-proliferator-activated-receptor-alpha-in-human-liver
#19
REVIEW
Sander Kersten, Rinke Stienstra
The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα) is a ligand-activated transcription factor that is abundantly expressed in liver. PPARα is activated by fatty acids and various other lipid species, as well as by a class of chemicals referred to as peroxisome proliferators. Studies in mice have shown that PPARα serves as the master regulator of hepatic lipid metabolism during fasting. In addition, PPARα suppresses inflammation and the acute phase response. Comparatively little is known about PPARα in human liver...
January 7, 2017: Biochimie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074943/the-influence-of-flaxseed-gum-on-the-microrheological-properties-and-physicochemical-stability-of-whey-protein-stabilized-%C3%AE-carotene-emulsions
#20
Duoxia Xu, Yameng Qi, Xu Wang, Xin Li, Shaojia Wang, Yanping Cao, Chengtao Wang, Baoguo Sun, Eric Decker, Atikorn Panya
The impact of flaxseed gum (FG) on the microrheological properties and physicochemical stability of whey protein isolate (WPI) stabilized β-carotene emulsions at pH 3.0 was studied. A layer-by-layer electrostatic deposition method was used to prepare multilayered β-carotene emulsions with interfacial membranes consisting of WPI and FG. The microrheological behavior of the multilayered β-carotene emulsions was measured through the diffusive wave spectroscopy technique. WPI alone and WPI-FG (concentration of FG = 0...
January 11, 2017: Food & Function
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