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Lipid droplets

Luis Antonio D Silva, Susana L Almeida, Ellen C P Alonso, Priscila B R Rocha, Felipe T Martins, Luís A P Freitas, Stephania F Taveira, Marcilio S S Cunha-Filho, Ricardo N Marreto
Hot-melt extrusion (HME) has gained increasing attention in the pharmaceutical industry; however, its potential in the preparation of solid self-emulsifying drug delivery systems (S-SMEDDS) is still unexplored. This study sought to prepare enteric S-SMEDDS by HME and evaluate the effects of the process and formulation variables on S-SMEDDS properties via Box-Behnken design. Liquid SMEDDS were developed, and carvedilol was used as a class II model drug. Mean size, polydispersity index (PdI) and zeta potential of the resulting microemulsions were determined...
February 16, 2018: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
Tamara Tomin, Katarina Fritz, Juergen Gindlhuber, Linda Waldherr, Bettina Pucher, Gerhard G Thallinger, Daniel K Nomura, Matthias Schittmayer, Ruth Birner-Gruenberger
Adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) catalyzes the rate limiting step in triacylglycerol breakdown in adipocytes but is expressed in most tissues. The enzyme was shown to be lost in many human tumors, and its loss may play a role in early stages of cancer development. Here we report that loss of ATGL supports a more aggressive cancer phenotype in a model system where ATGL was deleted in A549 lung cancer cells by CRISPR/Cas9. We observed that loss of ATGL led to triacylglycerol accumulation in lipid droplets, and higher levels of cellular phospholipid and bioactive lipid species (lyso- and ether-phospholipids)...
February 19, 2018: Journal of Proteome Research
Zifang Shang, Hao Song, Yi Shi, Jianxun Qi, George F Gao
Recently, Zika virus (ZIKV) emerged as a global public health concern, and is distinct from other flaviviruses in many aspects, e.g., causing transplacental infection, fetal abnormalities and vector-independent transmission through body fluids in humans. The capsid (C) protein is a multifunctional protein, since it binds to viral RNA in the process of nucleocapsid assembly and plays important roles in virus infection processes by interacting with cellular proteins, modulating cellular metabolism, apoptosis and immune response...
February 15, 2018: Journal of Molecular Biology
Mayeul Collot, Tkhe-Kyong Fam, Pichandi Ashokkumar, Orestis Faklaris, Thierry Galli, Lydia Danglot, Andrey S Klymchenko
Lipid droplets (LDs) are intracellular lipid-rich organelles that regulate the storage of neutral lipids and were recently found to be involved in many physiological processes, metabolic disorders as well as diseases including obesity, diabetes and cancers. Herein we present a family of new fluorogenic merocyanine fluorophores based on an indolenine moiety and a dioxaborine barbiturate derivative. These so-called StatoMerocyanines (SMCy) span their fluorescence from yellow to the near infrared (NIR) in oil with an impressive fluorescence enhancement compared to aqueous media...
February 15, 2018: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Yongnan Li, Shuodong Wu
This study aims to explore the effect of epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) on blood lipids, liver lipids, and cholesterol synthesis in hyperlipidemic rats. SREBP-2 transgenic rats were used to investigate the transcriptional level of SREBP-2 regulated by SIRT-1/FOXO1 and the molecular mechanism of rate-limiting enzyme HMGCR that affects cholesterol synthesis. Rat models of hyperlipidemia were established and administered EGCG. Cholesterol synthesis was observed. Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay was used to determine serum triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), free fatty acid (FFA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), malondialdehyde (MDA), and T-AOC contents...
February 14, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
Xinhong Zhu, Ting Xiong, Peiyi Liu, Xiaoping Guo, Lin Xiao, Feng Zhou, Yuhan Tang, Ping Yao
The consumption of a quercetin-rich diet has been well-established as a feasible method against non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD); however, the molecular mechanisms underlying the progression of NAFLD and its intervention by quercetin remain largely obscure. Male Sprague-Dawley rats fed high-fat diet (HFD), and HepG2 cells stimulated with free fatty acid, were treated with quercetin and various pharmacological reagents to explore the effect of signaling pathways involved in endoplasmic reticulum stress on very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) assembly and lipophagy...
February 10, 2018: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Meenu Maan, Jeffrey M Peters, Mainak Dutta, Andrew Patterson
The tumor microenvironment can be hypoxic, acidic, and deficient in nutrients. This can cause the metabolism of tumor cells as well as the neighboring stromal cells to be remodelled to facilitate tumor survival, proliferation, and metastasis. Abnormal tumor lipid metabolism is a fairly new field, which has received attention in the past few years. Cross-talk between tumor cells and tumor associated stromal cells modulates the high metabolic needs of the tumor. Fatty acid turnover is high in tumor cells to meet the energy as well as synthetic requirements of the growing tumor...
February 10, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Jianghua Ju, Qingxian Huang, Jing Sun, Yongcheng Jin, Wenjie Ma, Xiaohui Song, Huibo Sun, Wenhui Wang
The correlation between the methylation levels of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α (PPAR-α) in the peripheral blood and the inflammatory factors associated with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) was investigated. Thirty-two samples of normal liver tissues (group N) and 35 samples of liver tissues from NAFLD patients with DM (group M) were used for the present study. The levels of alanine transaminase (ALT) and aspartate transaminase (AST) were measured using commercially available kits...
February 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Bahar Mehrad, Raheleh Ravanfar, Jonathan Licker, Joe M Regenstein, Alireza Abbaspourrad
β-Carotene is a nutraceutical that acts as a coloring agent and as pro-vitamin A, but its incorporation into foods is limited because of its hydrophobicity and low chemical stability. The aim of this study was to improve the physicochemical stability of β-carotene by encapsulating into solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNPs) containing palmitic acid and corn oil, stabilized using whey protein isolate (WPI). The palmitic acid crystals covered the surface of the oil droplets and formed a solid shell to protect the encapsulated β-carotene...
March 2018: Food Research International
Cheryl Chung, Alexander Sher, Philippe Rousset, David Julian McClements
The development of plant-based foods and beverages is becoming increasingly popular because of growing consumer concerns about perceived ethical, health, and environmental issues. The current study examined the influence of oil droplet concentration on the physicochemical properties of oil-in-water (O/W) emulsions stabilized with a plant-based surfactant. Emulsions were utilized as model creamers, which consisted of medium chain triglycerides (MCT) as the oil phase and quillaja saponin as a plant-based surfactant...
March 2018: Food Research International
Fei Xu, Janam K Pandya, Cheryl Chung, David Julian McClements, Amanda J Kinchla
Tocotrienols have been reported to have stronger bioactivities than tocopherols, and may therefore be suitable as a potent source of vitamin E in functional foods, supplements, and pharmaceuticals. However, their inclusion into new products is hindered by their low water-solubility and oral bioavailability. Oil-in-water emulsions (O/W) could provide an adequate delivery system for these bioactive compounds. Tocotrienols were tested in bulk oil and within O/W conventional emulsions (>10μm) and nanoemulsions (<350nm)...
March 2018: Food Research International
Shinjae Park, Saehun Mun, Yong-Ro Kim
The aim of this study was to examine the effects of xanthan gum on the lipid digestibility, rheological properties, and β-carotene bioaccessibility of rice starch-based filled hydrogels. β-Carotene was solubilized within lipid droplets of emulsion that were then entrapped within rice starch hydrogels fabricated with different concentrations of xanthan gum. At a low concentration of xanthan gum (<0.5wt%), the viscous characteristics of the filled starch hydrogels increased. Furthermore, these hydrogels had a slower rate of lipid digestion than the β-carotene-loaded emulsion...
March 2018: Food Research International
Jonathan Andrade, Amanda J Wright, Milena Corredig
Double emulsions may be able to protect and release in a controlled manner bioactive compounds during digestion of food matrices. It was hypothesized that the physical state and solid content in the inner phases of water-in-oil-in-water (W1/O/W2) emulsions may affect the overall stability and the release behavior of bioactives during in vitro digestion. Therefore, hydrophobic (phytosterols or Vitamin D3) and hydrophilic (Vitamin B12) molecules were incorporated in double emulsions prepared either with a liquid (soybean oil - SO) or oil-fat gel (soybean oil+trimyristin - STO) lipid phase and liquid internal aqueous phase...
March 2018: Food Research International
E Clavijo Rivera, V Montalescot, M Viau, D Drouin, P Bourseau, M Frappart, C Monteux, E Couallier
Samples of nitrogen-starved Parachlorella kessleri containing intact cells (IC), cells ground by bead milling (BM), and cells subjected to high-pressure cell disruption (HPD), together with their supernatants after centrifugation, were compared for granulometry and lipid profiles. The effects of disruption on the lipid profile and organisation were evaluated. The quantity of lipids available for extraction increased with disruption, and up to 81% could be recovered in supernatants after centrifugation, but a marked reorganization occurred...
February 2, 2018: Bioresource Technology
Jayram Sastry, Heba Mohammed, Maria Mercedes Campos, Jack Uetrecht, Mones Abu-Asab
Nevirapine (NVP) therapy is associated with a high risk of serious liver injury and skin rash. Treatment of Brown Norway rats with NVP causes an immune-mediated skin rash. Even though NVP does not cause serious liver injury in wildtype animals, incubation of hepatocytes with NVP leads to the release of presumably danger-associated molecular pattern molecules (DAMPs), which activate macrophages. In this study, we examined the liver biopsies of Brown Norway rats treated with NVP to determine the histologic correlate to the release of DAMPs by hepatocytes...
February 9, 2018: Ultrastructural Pathology
Kathryn Leslie, Denis Jacquemin, Elizabeth New, Katrina Jolliffe
Fluorescent sensors that illuminate specific molecules and chemical events allow the selective and sensitive study of the cellular environment. At the centre of this technology lies the fluorescent reporter molecule, and it is therefore crucial to provide a breadth of fluorophores with varying photophysical and biological behaviour. 4-Amino-1,8-naphthalimides are commonly employed in fluorescent sensors, but the narrow range of structural derivatives limits versatility of application. Here we report the synthesis and investigation of a set of twelve 4-amino-1,8-naphthalimides bearing an additional substituent on the aromatic core...
February 8, 2018: Chemistry: a European Journal
Mingxia Liu, Chia-Chi Chuang Key, Allison Weckerle, Elena Boudyguina, Janet K Sawyer, Abraham K Gebre, Wayne Spoo, Om Makwana, John S Parks
Although epidemiological data and results from rodent studies support an inverse relationship between nicotine consumption and body weight, the molecular mechanisms are poorly understood. CD-1 mice were fed a basal diet or a basal diet containing low or high dose smokeless tobacco blend or high dose nicotine tartrate for 14 weeks. High dose tobacco blend and nicotine tartrate diets vs. basal diet reduced mouse body weight (16.3% and 19.7%, respectively), epididymal (67.6% and 72.5%, respectively) and brown adipose weight (42% and 38%, respectively), epididymal adipocyte size (46...
February 5, 2018: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Rui Zhang, Huimin Ma, Yuan Gao, Yanjun Wu, Yuemei Qiao, Ajun Geng, Cheguo Cai, Yingying Han, Yi Arial Zeng, Xiaolong Liu, Gaoxiang Ge
The Th-inducing POK (Th-POK, also known as ZBTB7B or cKrox) transcription factor is a key regulator of lineage commitment of immature T cell precursors. It is yet unclear the physiological functions of Th-POK besides helper T cell differentiation. Here we show that Th-POK is restrictedly expressed in the luminal epithelial cells in the mammary glands that is upregulated at late pregnancy and lactation. Lineage restrictedly expressed Th-POK exerts distinct biological functions in the mammary epithelial cells and T cells in a tissue-specific manner...
February 8, 2018: PLoS Genetics
Wei Zhang, Hanning Wang, Shaopeng Zhang, Liang Zhong, Yanliang Wang, Yangli Pei, Jianyong Han, Suying Cao
Large numbers of lipids exist in the porcine oocytes and early embryos and have the positive effects on their development, suggesting that the lipids may play an important role in pluripotency establishment and maintenance in pigs. However, the effects of lipids and their metabolites, such as fatty acids on reprogramming and the pluripotency gene expression of porcine-induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), are unclear. Here, we generated the porcine iPSCs that resemble the mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs) under lipid and fatty-acid-enriched cultural conditions (supplement of AlbuMAX)...
February 8, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Mohammed A Dallak, Ismaeel Bin-Jaliah, Alia Albawardi, Mohamed A Haidara, Hussein F Sakr, Refaat A Eid, W N Hassan, Bahjat Al-Ani
Excessive consumption of carbohydrate and fat increases the risk of liver disease. We hypothesized that swim exercise can protect hepatocytes from ultra-structural damage induced by high cholesterol and fructose diets (HCFD). Rats were either fed with HCFD (model group) or a standard laboratory chow (control group) for 15 weeks before being sacrificed. Swim exercise trained rats started the treatment from the 11th week until the sacrifice day, end of week 15. Blood samples were assayed for biomarkers of liver injury and adiponectin...
February 8, 2018: Ultrastructural Pathology
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