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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29245171/effects-of-atorvastatin-on-autophagy-in-skeletal-muscles-of-diabetic-rats
#1
Bingquan Yang, Jie Sun, Yang Yuan, Zilin Sun
AIMS/INTRODUCTION: Atorvastatin is usually used to decrease the amount of fatty substances in individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus. However, it can cause side effects, such as breakdown of skeletal muscle tissue. This study focuses on the effects of atorvastatin on autophagy of the skeletal muscles in diabetic rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Diabetes in rats in the diabetic (D) and atorvastatin (T) groups was induced using streptozotocin (65 mg/kg, intraperitoneal injection)...
December 15, 2017: Journal of Diabetes Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244742/fibrinogen-gamma-chain-mutations-provoke-fibrinogen-and-apolipoprotein-b-plasma-deficiency-and-liver-storage
#2
Francesco Callea, Isabella Giovannoni, Sinan Sari, Esendagli Guldal, Buket Dalgic, Gulen Akyol, Tsuyoshi Sogo, Abdulrahman Al-Hussaini, Giuseppe Maggiore, Andrea Bartuli, Renata Boldrini, Paola Francalanci, Emanuele Bellacchio
p.R375W (Fibrinogen Aguadilla) is one out of seven identified mutations (Brescia, Aguadilla, Angers, Al du Pont, Pisa, Beograd, and Ankara) causing hepatic storage of the mutant fibrinogen γ. The Aguadilla mutation has been reported in children from the Caribbean, Europe, Japan, Saudi Arabia, Turkey, and China. All reported children presented with a variable degree of histologically proven chronic liver disease and low plasma fibrinogen levels. In addition, one Japanese and one Turkish child had concomitant hypo-APOB-lipoproteinemia of unknown origin...
December 15, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243589/defective-stim-mediated-store-operated-ca2-entry-in-hepatocytes-leads-to-metabolic-dysfunction-in-obesity
#3
Ana Paula Arruda, Benedicte Mengel Pers, Günes Parlakgul, Ekin Güney, Ted Goh, Erika Cagampan, Grace Yankun Lee, Renata L Goncalves, Gökhan S Hotamisligil
Defective Ca2+ handling is a key mechanism underlying hepatic endoplasmic reticulum (ER) dysfunction in obesity. ER Ca2+ level is in part monitored by the store-operated Ca2+ entry (SOCE) system, an adaptive mechanism that senses ER luminal Ca2+ concentrations through the STIM proteins and facilitates import of the ion from the extracellular space. Here, we show that hepatocytes from obese mice displayed significantly diminished SOCE as a result of impaired STIM1 translocation, which was associated with aberrant STIM1 O-GlycNAcylation...
December 15, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242597/rheological-droplet-interface-bilayers-rheo-dibs-probing-the-unstirred-water-layer-effect-on-membrane-permeability-via-spinning-disk-induced-shear-stress
#4
Nathan E Barlow, Guido Bolognesi, Stuart Haylock, Anthony J Flemming, Nicholas J Brooks, Laura M C Barter, Oscar Ces
A new rheological droplet interface bilayer (rheo-DIB) device is presented as a tool to apply shear stress on biological lipid membranes. Despite their exciting potential for affecting high-throughput membrane translocation studies, permeability assays conducted using DIBs have neglected the effect of the unstirred water layer (UWL). However as demonstrated in this study, neglecting this phenomenon can cause significant underestimates in membrane permeability measurements which in turn limits their ability to predict key processes such as drug translocation rates across lipid membranes...
December 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236949/seipin-deficiency-leads-to-increased-er-stress-and-apoptosis-in-mammary-gland-alveolar-epithelial-cells-during-lactation
#5
Ahmed E El Zowalaty, Rong Li, Weiqin Chen, Xiaoqin Ye
Seipin is an integral endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane protein encoded by Berardinelli-Seip congenital lipodystrophy type 2 (BSCL2/Bscl2) gene. Most litters (59%) from Bscl2-/- dams mated with WT (Bscl2+/+) males didn't survive PND5 and pups (Bscl2+/-) lacked milk in their stomachs. The survived litters had reduced pup survival rate at PND21. It was hypothesized that seipin was critical for lactation. Bscl2 was upregulated and highly detected in the lactation day 1 (LD1) WT mammary gland alveolar epithelial cells...
December 11, 2017: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234690/the-dataset-describes-phenotypic-changes-induced-by-cholesterol-loading-in-smooth-muscle-cells-isolated-from-the-aortae-of-c57bl-6-mice
#6
Silvia Castiglioni, Matteo Monti, Giuditta Ainis Buscherini, Lorenzo Arnaboldi, Monica Canavesi, Alberto Corsini, Stefano Bellosta
The data presented in this article is related to the research article entitled "ABCA1 and HDL3 are Required to Modulate Smooth Muscle Cells Phenotypic Switch after Cholesterol Loading" (Castiglioni et al., 2017) [1]. This data describes the characterization of the phenotypic changes induced by cholesterol loading in smooth muscle cells (SMCs) isolated from the aortae of C57BL/6 mice. Upon cholesterol loading, there is a significant and concentration-dependent decrease in the expression of Acta2 and a parallel increase in Mac-2, and ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporters Abca1 and Abcg1...
February 2018: Data in Brief
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234310/modulation-of-lipid-droplet-metabolism-a-potential-target-for-therapeutic-intervention-in-flaviviridae-infections
#7
REVIEW
Jingshu Zhang, Yun Lan, Sumana Sanyal
Lipid droplets (LDs) are endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-related dynamic organelles that store and regulate fatty acids and neutral lipids. They play a central role in cellular energy storage, lipid metabolism and cellular homeostasis. It has become evident that viruses have co-evolved in order to exploit host lipid metabolic pathways. This is especially characteristic of the Flaviviridae family, including hepatitis C virus (HCV) and several flaviviruses. Devoid of an appropriate lipid biosynthetic machinery of their own, these single-strand positive-sense RNA viruses can induce dramatic changes in host metabolic pathways to establish a favorable environment for viral multiplication and acquire essential components to facilitate their assembly and traffic...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233207/the-dynamic-pattern-of-plin3-in-pig-oocytes-and-cumulus-cells-during-in-vitro-maturation
#8
Mingzhu Xu, Yaqiong Zeng, Daming Chi, Linan Si, Xiao Qu, Juan Li
Lipid droplets (LDs) are the main energy resource for porcine preimplantation embryonic development. PLIN3 has been implicated in LD formation and regulation. Therefore, this study aimed to detect the dynamic pattern of PLIN3 in pig oocytes and cumulus cells (CC) during in vitro maturation (IVM), and to determine the relationship between PLIN3 and LD content. IVM with cumulus-enclosed oocytes (CEO), cumulus-denuded oocytes (DO) and the CCs denuded from the corresponding oocytes (DCC) was performed in porcine follicular fluid (PFF) or PFF-free optimized medium...
December 13, 2017: Zygote: the Biology of Gametes and Early Embryos
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230863/characterization-of-a-nilaparvata-lugens-st%C3%A3-l-brummer-gene-and-analysis-of-its-role-in-lipid-metabolism
#9
Jinming Zhou, Jing Yan, Keke You, Xia Chen, Zhineng Yuan, Qiang Zhou, Kai Lu
The brummer (bmm) genes encode the lipid storage droplet-associated triacylglycerols (TAG) lipases, which belong to the Brummer/Nutrin subfamily. These enzymes hydrolyze the ester bonds in TAG in lipid metabolism and act in insect energy homeostasis. Exposure to some agricultural chemicals leads to increased fecundity, which necessarily involves lipid metabolism, in some planthopper species. However, the biological roles of bmm in planthopper lipid storage and mobilization have not been investigated. Here, the open reading frame (ORF) of bmm (Nlbmm) was cloned and sequenced from the brown planthopper (BPH; Nilaparvata lugens)...
December 12, 2017: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230854/adjuvant-potential-of-virgin-coconut-oil-extract-on-antiretroviral-therapy-induced-testicular-toxicity-an-ultrastructural-study
#10
O O Ogedengbe, A I Jegede, I O Onanuga, U Offor, A I Peter, E N Akang, E C S Naidu, O O Azu
The effects of Virgin coconut oil as an adjuvant to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) were investigated on the testicular ultrastructure and biochemical markers in rats. Twenty male Sprague-Dawley rats, weighing 153-169 g were divided into four groups and treated as follows: control A (distilled water), B (HAART), C (HAART+Virgin coconut oil 10 ml/kg) and D (Virgin coconut oil [VCO] 10 ml/kg). Testicular segments were evaluated using transmission electron microscopy. Serum was assayed for testosterone, luteinising hormone, follicle stimulating hormone and testicular tissue for malondialdehyde and glutathione...
December 12, 2017: Andrologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229879/small-phosphatidate-phosphatase-ttpah2-of-tetrahymena-complements-respiratory-function-and-not-membrane-biogenesis-function-of-yeast-pah1
#11
Anoop Narayana Pillai, Sushmita Shukla, Sudhanshu Gautam, Abdur Rahaman
Phosphatidate phosphatases (PAH) play a central role in lipid metabolism and intracellular signaling. Herein, we report the presence of a low-molecular-weight PAH homolog in the single-celled ciliate Tetrahymena thermophila. In vitro phosphatase assay showed that TtPAH2 belongs to the magnesium-dependent phosphatidate phosphatase (PAP1) family. Loss of function of TtPAH2 did not affect the growth of Tetrahymena. Unlike other known PAH homologs, TtPAH2 did not regulate lipid droplet number and ER morphology...
December 2017: Journal of Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229414/lipid-droplets-induced-by-secreted-phospholipase-a2and-unsaturated-fatty-acids-protect-breast-cancer-cells-from-nutrient-and-lipotoxic-stress
#12
Eva Jarc, Ana Kump, Petra Malavašič, Thomas O Eichmann, Robert Zimmermann, Toni Petan
Cancer cells driven by the Ras oncogene scavenge unsaturated fatty acids (FAs) from their environment to counter nutrient stress. The human group X secreted phospholipase A2(hGX sPLA2) releases FAs from membrane phospholipids, stimulates lipid droplet (LD) biogenesis in Ras-driven triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) cells and enables their survival during starvation. Here we examined the role of LDs, induced by hGX sPLA2and unsaturated FAs, in protection of TNBC cells against nutrient stress. We found that hGX sPLA2releases a mixture of unsaturated FAs, including ω-3 and ω-6 polyunsaturated FAs (PUFAs), from TNBC cells...
December 8, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229387/mir-124-3p-affects-the-formation-of-intramuscular-fat-through-alterations-in-branched-chain-amino-acid-consumption-in-sheep
#13
Yangyang Pan, Jiongjie Jing, Liying Qiao, Jianhua Liu, Junxing Zhao, Lixia An, Baojun Li, Weiwei Wang, Chen Liang, Wenzhong Liu
Intramuscular fat is used to determine meat quality in animals; however, factors affecting branched chain amino acid (BCAA) catabolism, which fuels adipogenesis and lipogenesis, remain unclear. To better understand the post-transcriptional influence on BCAA catabolism during adipogenesis, we investigated the role of miR-124-3p. Stromal vascular fraction (SVF) cells were isolated from skeletal muscle of sheep, and induced to differentiate. We determined the roles of miR-124-3p and its predicted target, branched chain keto acid dehydrogenase E1, alpha polypeptide (BCKDHA), in adipogenic differentiation and lipogenesis of SVFs after overexpressing or inhibiting miR-124-3p or BCKDHA, respectively...
December 8, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229368/pharmacodynamic-evaluation-of-self-micro-emulsifying-formulation-of-standardized-extract-of-lagerstroemia-speciosa-for-antidiabetic-activity
#14
Vipin Kumar Agarwal, Gupta Amresh, Phool Chandra
BACKGROUND: Lagerstroemia speciosa (SEL) leaves are a popular folk medicine for diabetes treatment due to presence of corosolic acid. It has low water solubility resulting poor absorption after oral administration. Self micro-emulsified drug delivery system is the way by which we can improve the oral absorption of drug. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to develop the self micro-emulsifying formulation of standardized extract of SEL leaves and evaluate its pharmacodynamic performance for antidiabetic activity...
December 8, 2017: Journal of Ayurveda and Integrative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228968/feces-and-liver-tissue-metabonomics-studies-on-the-regulatory-effect-of-aspirin-eugenol-eater-in-hyperlipidemic-rats
#15
Ning Ma, Xiwang Liu, Xiaojun Kong, Shihong Li, Zenghua Jiao, Zhe Qin, Pengcheng Dong, Yajun Yang, Jianyong Li
BACKGROUND: Based on the pro-drug principle, aspirin and eugenol were esterified to synthesize aspirin eugenol ester (AEE). The anti-hyperlipidemia effect of aspirin eugenol ester has been confirmed in hyperlipidemic rat induced by high fat diet (HFD). However, its effect on liver and feces metabonomic profiles remains unknown. METHODS: Suspension of AEE was prepared in 5% carboxymethyl cellulose sodium (CMC-Na). Thirty rats were divided into control, model and AEE groups...
December 11, 2017: Lipids in Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228701/a-systematic-assessment-of-chemical-genetic-and-epigenetic-factors-influencing-the-activity-of-anticancer-drug-kp1019-ffc14a
#16
Upendarrao Golla, Swati Swagatika, Sakshi Chauhan, Raghuvir Singh Tomar
KP1019 ([trans-RuCl4(1H-indazole)2]; FFC14A) is one of the promising ruthenium-based anticancer drugs undergoing clinical trials. Despite the pre-clinical and clinical success of KP1019, the mode of action and various factors capable of modulating its effects are largely unknown. Here, we used transcriptomics and genetic screening approaches in budding yeast model and deciphered various genetic targets and plethora of cellular pathways including cellular signaling, metal homeostasis, vacuolar transport, and lipid homeostasis that are primarily targeted by KP1019...
November 17, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227542/characterization-of-peanut-oil-bodies-integral-proteins-lipids-and-their-associated-phytochemicals
#17
Farah Zaaboul, Husnain Raza, Cao Chen, Yuanfa Liu
A microscopic image of a section of a peanut seed shows that oil bodies (OBs) are a small droplet of oil that is dispersed throughout the whole seed. The protein profile of peanut's OBs recovered using the aqueous extraction method at different pH was found to have 2 oleosin isoforms of 14 and 16 kDa. Moreover, OBs essential amino acids are 1.52 higher than those in the PPI. Oleic acid and linoleic acid are the major fatty acids in both cold press peanut oil and OBs regardless of pH. Tocopherol content went from 270...
December 11, 2017: Journal of Food Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227097/interfacial-antioxidants-a-review-of-natural-and-synthetic-emulsifiers-and-co-emulsifiers-that-can-inhibit-lipid-oxidation
#18
David Julian McClements, Eric A Decker
There has been strong interest in developing effective strategies to inhibit lipid oxidation in emulsified food products due to the need to incorporate oxidatively labile bioactive lipids, such as w-3 fatty acids, conjugated linoleic acids, or carotenoids. Emulsifiers or co-emulsifiers can be utilized to inhibit lipid oxidation in emulsions. Both of these molecular types can adsorb to droplet surfaces and inhibit lipid oxidation, but emulsifiers can also stabilize droplets against aggregation whereas co-emulsifiers cannot...
December 11, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223733/mitochondrial-pore-opening-and-loss-of-ca2-exchanger-nclx-levels-occur-after-frataxin-depletion
#19
R Purroy, E Britti, F Delaspre, J Tamarit, J Ros
Frataxin-deficient neonatal rat cardiomyocytes and dorsal root ganglia neurons have been used as cell models of Friedreich ataxia. In previous work we show that frataxin depletion resulted in mitochondrial swelling and lipid droplet accumulation in cardiomyocytes, and compromised DRG neurons survival. Now, we show that these cells display reduced levels of the mitochondrial calcium transporter NCLX that can be restored by calcium-chelating agents and by external addition of frataxin fused to TAT peptide. Also, the transcription factor NFAT3, involved in cardiac hypertrophy and apoptosis, becomes activated by dephosphorylation in both cardiomyocytes and DRG neurons...
December 6, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221849/molecular-regulation-of-fatty-acid-oxidation-in-skeletal-muscle-during-aerobic-exercise
#20
REVIEW
Anne-Marie Lundsgaard, Andreas Mæchel Fritzen, Bente Kiens
This review summarizes how fatty acid (FA) oxidation is regulated in skeletal muscle during exercise. From the available evidence it seems that acetyl-CoA availability in the mitochondrial matrix adjusts FA oxidation to exercise intensity and duration. This is executed at the step of mitochondrial fatty acyl import, as the extent of acetyl group sequestration by carnitine determines the availability of carnitine for the carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 (CPT1) reaction. The rate of glycolysis seems therefore to be central to the amount of β-oxidation-derived acetyl-CoA that is oxidized in the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle...
December 5, 2017: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
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