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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535373/a-molecular-switch-regulating-cell-fate-choice-between-muscle-progenitor-cells-and-brown-adipocytes
#1
Yitai An, Gang Wang, Yarui Diao, Yanyang Long, Xinrong Fu, Mingxi Weng, Liang Zhou, Kun Sun, Tom H Cheung, Nancy Y Ip, Hao Sun, Huating Wang, Zhenguo Wu
During mouse embryo development, both muscle progenitor cells (MPCs) and brown adipocytes (BAs) are known to derive from the same Pax7(+)/Myf5(+) progenitor cells. However, the underlying mechanisms for the cell fate control remain unclear. In Pax7-null MPCs from young mice, several BA-specific genes, including Prdm16 and Ucp1 and many other adipocyte-related genes, were upregulated with a concomitant reduction of Myod and Myf5, two muscle lineage-determining genes. This suggests a cell fate switch from MPC to BA...
May 22, 2017: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533326/prostaglandin-e-receptor-subtype-4-regulates-lipid-droplet-size-and-mitochondrial-activity-in-murine-subcutaneous-white-adipose-tissue
#2
Fan Ying, Yin Cai, Yu Cai, Yu Wang, Eva Hoi Ching Tang
The purpose of this study was to investigate whether genetic ablation of prostaglandin E receptor subtype 4 (EP4) affects white adipose tissue (WAT) remodeling mediated by β3-adrenergic stimulation. The selective β3-adrenergic agonist, CL316243 (1 mg/kg/d, i.p.) caused a greater increase in metabolic rate in EP4-knockout mice. CL316243 fragmented the unilocular lipid droplet into multilocular lipid vacuoles and increased mitochondrial biogenesis and its activity. These changes were amplified in mice with EP4 deficiency and were selectively seen in subcutaneous WAT...
May 22, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532507/isoprenoid-biosynthesis-in-dandelion-latex-is-enhanced-by-the-overexpression-of-three-key-enzymes-involved-in-the-mevalonate-pathway
#3
Katharina M Pütter, Nicole van Deenen, Kristina Unland, Dirk Prüfer, Christian Schulze Gronover
BACKGROUND: Latex from the dandelion species Taraxacum brevicorniculatum contains many high-value isoprenoid end products, e.g. triterpenes and polyisoprenes such as natural rubber. The isopentenyl pyrophosphate units required as precursors for these isoprenoids are provided by the mevalonate (MVA) pathway. The key enzyme in this pathway is 3-hydroxy-methyl-glutaryl-CoA reductase (HMGR) and its activity has been thoroughly characterized in many plant species including dandelion. However, two enzymes acting upstream of HMGR have not been characterized in dandelion latex: ATP citrate lyase (ACL), which provides the acetyl-CoA utilized in the MVA pathway, and acetoacetyl-CoA thiolase (AACT), which catalyzes the first step in the pathway to produce acetoacetyl-CoA...
May 22, 2017: BMC Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530121/glucocorticoids-retain-bi-potent-fibroblast-progenitors-during-alveolar-septation-in-mice
#4
Stephen E McGowan, Diann M McCoy
Glucocorticoids have been widely used and exert pleiotropic effects on alveolar structure and function, but do not improve the long-term clinical outcomes for patients with bronchopulmonary dysplasia, emphysema, or interstitial lung diseases. Treatments which foster alveolar regeneration could substantially improve the long-term outcomes for such patients. One approach to alveolar regeneration is to stimulate and guide intrinsic alveolar progenitors along developmental pathways used during secondary septation...
May 21, 2017: American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528432/lipid-droplets-formation-to-breakdown
#5
REVIEW
Alex Meyers, Taylor M Weiskittel, Paul Dalhaimer
One of the most exciting areas of cell biology during the last decade has been the study of lipid droplets. Lipid droplets allow cells to store non-polar molecules such as neutral lipids in specific compartments where they are sequestered from the aqueous environment of the cell yet can be accessed through regulated mechanisms. These structures are highly conserved, appearing in organisms throughout the phylogenetic tree. Until somewhat recently, lipid droplets were widely regarded as inert, however progress in the field has continued to demonstrate their vast roles in a number of cellular processes in both mitotic and post-mitotic cells...
May 20, 2017: Lipids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528274/angiopoietin-like-8-angptl8-controls-adipocyte-lipolysis-and-phospholipid-composition
#6
Raghavendra Mysore, Gerhard Liebisch, You Zhou, Vesa M Olkkonen, P A Nidhina Haridas
Angiopoietin-like 8 (Angptl8) inhibits lipolysis in the circulation together with Angplt3 and controls post-prandial fat storage in white adipose tissue (WAT). It is strongly induced by insulin in vivo in WAT and in vitro in adipocytes. In this study we addressed the function of Angptl8 in adipocytes by its stable lentivirus-mediated knock-down in 3T3-L1 cells, followed by analyses of triglyceride (TG) storage, lipid droplet (LD) morphology, the cellular lipidome, lipolysis, and gene expression. Depletion of Angptl8 did not drastically affect the adipocytic differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells but resulted in a moderate (18-19%) reduction of stored TGs...
May 17, 2017: Chemistry and Physics of Lipids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527945/targeting-lipid-metabolism-of-cancer-cells-a-promising-therapeutic-strategy-for-cancer
#7
Qiuping Liu, Qing Luo, Alexander Halim, Guanbin Song
One of the most important metabolic hallmarks of cancer cells is deregulation of lipid metabolism. In addition, enhancing de novo fatty acid (FA) synthesis, increasing lipid uptake and lipolysis have also been considered as means of FA acquisition in cancer cells. FAs are involved in various aspects of tumourigenesis and tumour progression. Therefore, targeting lipid metabolism is a promising therapeutic strategy for human cancer. Recent studies have shown that reprogramming lipid metabolism plays important roles in providing energy, macromolecules for membrane synthesis, and lipid signals during cancer progression...
May 17, 2017: Cancer Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526563/live-cell-imaging-and-analysis-of-lipid-droplets-biogenesis-in-hcv-infected-cells
#8
Inbar Nevo-Yassaf, Marcos Lovelle, Yaacov Nahmias, Koret Hirschberg, Ella H Sklan
Lipid droplets (LDs) are regulated neutral lipid storage organelles having a central role in numerous cellular processes as well as in various pathologies such as metabolic disorders, immune responses and during pathogen infection. Several viruses were found to use the interface between the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and LDs as the site for replication and assembly. Due to the growing significance of LDs, extensive efforts are made to study the mechanism and the dynamics of their formation and life history and how are these diverted or modified by pathogens...
May 16, 2017: Methods: a Companion to Methods in Enzymology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525763/principles-of-chemical-biology-from-antibiotic-resistance-to-rna-targeted-therapy-via-autoxidation-and-lipid-droplets
#9
(no author information available yet)
This month: Ribosome mutations and multi-antibiotic resistance, role of autoxidation in ferroptosis, ceramide metabolism, and finding RNA drug targets.
May 18, 2017: Cell Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521680/fatty-acids-and-effects-on-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-models-of-liver-steatosis
#10
Laura Vergani
Fatty liver, or steatosis, is a condition of excess accumulation of lipids, mainly under form of triglycerides (TG), in the liver, and it is the hallmark of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). NAFLD is the most common liver disorder world-wide and it has frequently been associated with obesity, hyperlipidemia and insulin resistance. Free fatty acids (FA) are the major mediators of hepatic steatosis; patients with NAFLD have elevated levels of circulating FA that correlate with disease severity. Steatosis is a reversible condition that can be resolved with changed behaviors, or that can progress towards more severe liver damages such as steatohepatitis (NASH), fibrosis and cirrhosis...
May 17, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520213/the-pnpla3-variant-associated-with-fatty-liver-disease-i148m-accumulates-on-lipid-droplets-by-evading-ubiquitylation
#11
Soumik BasuRay, Eriks Smagris, Jonathan C Cohen, Helen H Hobbs
A sequence variation (I148M) in patatin-like phospholipase domain-containing protein 3 (PNPLA3) is strongly associated with fatty liver disease (FLD), but the underlying mechanism remains obscure. Here we used knock-in (KI) mice (Pnpla3(148M/M) ) to examine the mechanism responsible for accumulation of triglyceride (TG) and PNPLA3 in hepatic lipid droplets (LDs). No differences were found between Pnpla3(148M/M) and Pnpla3(+/+) mice in hepatic TG synthesis, utilization, or secretion. These results are consistent with TG accumulation in the Pnpla3(148M/M) mice being caused by impaired TG mobilization from LDs...
May 18, 2017: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516413/self-emulsification-of-lipidic-drug-delivery-system-in-pure-water-and-in-concentrated-glycerol-solution
#12
Carole Planchette, Annalisa Mercuri, Lorenzo Arcangeli, Manfred Kriechbaum, Peter Laggner
Self-emulsifying drug delivery systems (SEDDS), often intended for oral delivery, are normally explored in biorelevant aqueous media. The high complexity of these multi-component systems leaves the understanding of self-emulsification poor, hindering formulation rationalization. In this work, we aimed to fill this gap by studying the effects of glycerol on the self-emulsification of a ternary component formulation made of 20% w/w Tween 80, 15% w/w Span 80, and 65% w/w Captex 300 Low C6. The behavior of SEDDS in pure water and a binary mixture of water and glycerol (58...
May 17, 2017: AAPS PharmSciTech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515323/%C3%AE-adrenergic-induction-of-lipolysis-in-hepatocytes-is-inhibited-by-ethanol-exposure
#13
Micah B Schott, Karuna Rasineni, Shaun G Weller, Ryan J Schulze, Arthur C Sletten, Carol A Casey, Mark A McNiven
In liver steatosis i.e., fatty liver), hepatocytes accumulate many large neutral lipid-storage organelles known as lipid droplets (LDs). LDs are important in the maintenance of energy homeostasis, but the signaling mechanisms that stimulate LD metabolism in hepatocytes are poorly defined. In adipocytes, catecholamines target the β-adrenergic (β-AR)/cAMP pathway to activate cytosolic lipases and induce their recruitment to the LD surface. Therefore, the goal of this study was to determine whether hepatocytes, like adipocytes, also undergo cAMP-mediated lipolysis in response to β-AR stimulation...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513986/pleiotropic-effects-of-chronic-phorbol-ester-treatment-to-improve-glucose-transport-in-insulin-resistant-cardiomyocytes
#14
Christelle Viglino, Bahareh Khoramdin, Guillaume Praplan, Christophe Montessuit
Stimulation of glucose transport is an important determinant of myocardial susceptibility to ischemia and reperfusion. Stimulation of glucose transport is markedly impaired in cardiomyocytes exposed to free fatty acids (FFA). Deactivation of the Focal Adhesion Kinase (FAK) by FFA contributes to glucose transport impairment, and could be corrected by chronic treatment with the phorbol ester TPA. However, TPA must have effects in addition to FAK reactivation to restore stimulated glucose transport. Chronic treatment with TPA improved basal and stimulated glucose transport in FFA-exposed, but not in control cardiomyocytes...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513320/crispr-cas9-based-pten-knock-out-and-sleeping-beauty-transposon-mediated-nras-knock-in-induces-hepatocellular-carcinoma-and-hepatic-lipid-accumulation-in-mice
#15
Mingming Gao, Dexi Liu
Both Pten and Nras are downstream mediators of receptor tyrosine kinase activation that plays important roles in controlling cell survival and proliferation. Here, we investigated whether and how Pten loss cross-talks with Nras activation in driving liver cancer development in mice. Somatic disruption of hepatic Pten and overexpression of Nras were achieved in out-bred immunocompetent CD-1 mice through a hydrodynamic delivery of plasmids carrying Sleeping Beauty transposon-based integration of Nras and the CRISPR/Cas9-mediated Pten knock-out system...
May 17, 2017: Cancer Biology & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508410/lipid-distribution-composition-and-uptake-in-bovine-articular-cartilage-studied-using-raman-micro-spectrometry-and-confocal-microscopy
#16
Jessica Claire Mansfield, C Peter Winlove
The distribution and composition of endogenous lipids in articular cartilage and transport of exogenous fatty acids have been investigated on a microscopic scale in fresh bovine articular cartilage. To investigate the distribution and composition of the endogenous lipids, hyperspectral Raman maps were taken of chondrocytes and their surrounding matrix in both the deep and superficial zones. These revealed differences in both lipid distribution and composition between the two zones. Extracellular lipid was observed surrounding the cells in the superficial zone but not in the deep zone...
May 16, 2017: Journal of Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507477/enzymatic-hydrolysate-from-velvet-antler-suppresses-adipogenesis-in-3t3-l1-cells-and-attenuates-obesity-in-high-fat-diet-fed-mice
#17
Yuling Ding, Yanmei Wang, Byong-Tae Jeon, Sang-Ho Moon, Seung-Hong Lee
The purpose of the current study was to investigate the potential anti-obesity activity of an enzymatic hydrolysate of velvet antler in inhibiting adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 cells and in high-fat diet (HFD)-fed obese mice. The enzymatic hydrolysate was prepared using the commercial food grade protease, Protamex. The velvet antler Protamex hydrolysate (VAPH) indicated profound inhibitory effects on adipogenesis dose-dependently by decreasing the accumulation of triglycerides and down-regulating expression levels of adipogenesis-related proteins C/EBPα, SREBP-1, and PPARγ...
2017: EXCLI journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507162/lipophagy-prevents-activity-dependent-neurodegeneration-due-to-dihydroceramide-accumulation-in-vivo
#18
Wei-Hung Jung, Chung-Chih Liu, Yu-Lian Yu, Yu-Chin Chang, Wen-Yu Lien, Hsi-Chun Chao, Shu-Yi Huang, Ching-Hua Kuo, Han-Chen Ho, Chih-Chiang Chan
Dihydroceramide desaturases are evolutionarily conserved enzymes that convert dihydroceramide (dhCer) to ceramide (Cer). While elevated Cer levels cause neurodegenerative diseases, the neuronal activity of its direct precursor, dhCer, remains unclear. We show that knockout of the fly dhCer desaturase gene, infertile crescent (ifc), results in larval lethality with increased dhCer and decreased Cer levels. Light stimulation leads to ROS increase and apoptotic cell death in ifc-KO photoreceptors, resulting in activity-dependent neurodegeneration...
May 15, 2017: EMBO Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503705/mri-in-neutral-lipid-storage-disease-nlsd
#19
Matteo Garibaldi, Giorgio Tasca, Jordi Diaz-Manera, Pierfancesco Ottaviani, Francesco Laschena, Donatella Pantoli, Simonetta Gerevini, Chiara Fiorillo, Lorenzo Maggi, Elisabetta Tasca, Adele D'Amico, Olimpia Musumeci, Antonio Toscano, Claudio Bruno, Roberto Massa, Corrado Angelini, Enrico Bertini, Giovanni Antonini, Elena Maria Pennisi
Neutral lipid storage disease (NLSD) is a rare inherited disorder of lipid metabolism resulting in lipid droplets accumulation in different tissues. Skeletal muscle could be affected in both two different form of disease: NLSD with myopathy (NLSD-M) and NLSD with ichthyosis (NLSD-I). We present the muscle imaging data of 12 patients from the Italian Network for NLSD: ten patients presenting NLSD-M and two patients with NLSD-I. In NLSD-M gluteus minimus, semimembranosus, soleus and gastrocnemius medialis in the lower limbs and infraspinatus in the upper limbs were the most affected muscles...
May 13, 2017: Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501567/depletion-of-jmjd1c-impairs-adipogenesis-in-murine-3t3-l1-cells
#20
Florian Buerger, Silvana Müller, Nadja Ney, Juliane Weiner, John T Heiker, Sonja Kallendrusch, Peter Kovacs, Dorit Schleinitz, Joachim Thiery, Sonja C Stadler, Ralph Burkhardt
Differentiation of adipocytes is a highly regulated process modulated by multiple transcriptional co-activators and co-repressors. JMJD1C belongs to the family of jumonji C (jmjC) domain-containing histone demethylases and was originally described as a ligand-dependent co-activator of thyroid hormone and androgen receptors. Here, we explored the potential role of Jmjd1c in white adipocyte differentiation. To investigate the relevance of Jmjd1c in adipogenesis, murine 3T3-L1 preadipocyte cells with transient knock-down of Jmjd1c (3T3_Jmjd1c) were generated...
May 10, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
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