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Lipid droplets

Ling Zheng, Jay Shockey, Feng Guo, Lingmin Shi, Xinguo Li, Lei Shan, Shubo Wan, Zhenying Peng
Triacylglycerols (TAGs) are the most important energy storage form in oilseed crops. Diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT) catalyzes the rate-limiting step of the Kennedy pathway of TAG biosynthesis. To date, little is known about the regulation of DGAT activity in peanut (Arachis hypogaea), an agronomically important oilseed crop that is cultivated in many parts of the world. In this study, seven distinct forms of type 1 DGAT (AhDGAT1.1-AhDGAT1.7) were identified, cloned, and characterized. Comparisons of the nucleotide sequences and gene structures revealed many different splicing variants of AhDGAT1, some of which displayed different organ-specific expression patterns...
October 6, 2017: Journal of Plant Physiology
G C Hayward, R K Fenech, A J Yang, B J Baranowski
In skeletal muscle, fatty acids are stored in vesicle-like organelles known as lipid droplets (LDs). The importance of how lipids are stored in skeletal muscle has emerged from studies demonstrating a strong association between muscle lipids and insulin sensitivity. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
October 13, 2017: Journal of Physiology
Guohua Chen, Guoli Zhou, Siddhesh Aras, Zhenhui He, Stephanie Lucas, Izabela Podgorski, Wael Skar, James G Granneman, Jian Wang
The accumulation of neutral lipids in intracellular lipid droplets has been associated with the formation and progression of many cancers, including prostate cancer (PCa). Alpha-beta Hydrolase Domain Containing 5 (ABHD5) is a key regulator of intracellular neutral lipids that has been recently identified as a tumor suppressor in colorectal cancer, yet its potential role in PCa has not been investigated. Through mining publicly accessible PCa gene expression datasets, we found that ABHD5 gene expression is markedly decreased in metastatic castration-resistant PCa (mCRPC) samples...
October 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
Takashi Watanabe, Ryo Sakiyama, Yuya Iimi, Satomi Sekine, Eriko Abe, Kazuko H Nomura, Kazuya Nomura, Yohei Ishibashi, Nozomu Okino, Masahiro Hayashi, Makoto Ito
Thraustochytrids are marine single-cell protists that produce large amounts of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) such as docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). They accumulate PUFAs in lipid droplets (LDs), mainly as constituent(s) of triacylglycerol (TG). We identified a novel protein in the LD fraction of Aurantiochytrium limacinum F26-b using 2-dimensional-difference gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE). The protein clustered with orthologues of thraustochytrids; however, the cluster was evolutionally different from known PAT family proteins or plant LD proteins, and, thus, we named it Thraustochytrid-specific Lipid Droplet Protein 1 (TLDP1)...
October 12, 2017: Journal of Lipid Research
Min Ho Han, Ji-Suk Jeong, Jin-Woo Jeong, Sung Hyun Choi, Sung Ok Kim, Su Hyun Hong, Cheol Park, Byung Woo Kim, Yung Hyun Choi
The leaves of Aster yomena (Kitam.) Honda have long been used as a traditional herb for treating disorders including coughs, asthma, and insect bites. According to recent studies, A. yomena leaf extracts have several pharmacological properties, including anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and anti-asthmatic activities. However, little information is available regarding their anti-obesity effect. In this study, we investigated the inhibitory effect of the ethanol extracts of A. yomena leaves (EEAY) on adipocyte differentiation and adipogenesis using 3T3-L1 preadipocytes...
October 11, 2017: Drug Discoveries & Therapeutics
Yixing Chen, Halil I Okur, Cornelis Lütgebaucks, Sylvie Roke
The molecular structure of zwitterionic and charged monolayers on small oil droplets in aqueous solutions is determined using a combined second harmonic and sum frequency study. From the interfacial vibrational signature of the acyl chains and phosphate head groups, as well as the response of the hydrating water, we find that zwitterionic and charged lipids with identical acyl chains form remarkably different monolayers. Zwitterionic phospholipids form a closely packed monolayer with highly ordered acyl tails...
October 11, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Takanori Saito, Shanshan Wang, Katsuya Ohkawa, Hitoshi Ohara, Hiromi Ikeura, Yukiharu Ogawa, Satoru Kondo
We found that lipid accumulation in the meristem region and the expression of MdLIP2A, which appears to be regulated by chromatin remodeling, coincided with endodormancy induction in the 'Fuji' apple. In deciduous trees, including apples (Malus × domestica Borkh.), lipid accumulation in the meristem region towards endodormancy induction has been thought to be an important process for the acquisition of cold tolerance. In this study, we conducted histological staining of crude lipids in the meristem region of 'Fuji' apples and found that lipid accumulation coincided with endodormancy induction...
October 10, 2017: Plant Molecular Biology
Akhila Rajan, Benjamin E Housden, Frederik Wirtz-Peitz, Laura Holderbaum, Norbert Perrimon
Adipocytes sense systemic nutrient status and systemically communicate this information by releasing adipokines. The mechanisms that couple nutritional state to adipokine release are unknown. Here, we investigated how Unpaired 2 (Upd2), a structural and functional ortholog of the primary human adipokine leptin, is released from Drosophila fat cells. We find that Golgi reassembly stacking protein (GRASP), an unconventional secretion pathway component, is required for Upd2 secretion. In nutrient-rich fat cells, GRASP clusters in close proximity to the apical side of lipid droplets (LDs)...
October 9, 2017: Developmental Cell
Trang H Luu, Jean-Marie Bard, Delphine Carbonnelle, Chloé Chaillou, Jean-Michel Huvelin, Christine Bobin-Dubigeon, Hassan Nazih
BACKGROUND: It has amply been documented that mammary tumor cells may exhibit an increased lipogenesis. Biliary acids are currently recognized as signaling molecules in the intestine, in addition to their classical roles in the digestion and absorption of lipids. The aim of our study was to evaluate the impact of lithocholic acid (LCA) on the lipogenesis of breast cancer cells. The putative cytotoxic effects of LCA on these cells were also examined. METHODS: The effects of LCA on breast cancer-derived MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells were studied using MTT viability assays, Annexin-FITC and Akt phosphorylation assays to evaluate anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic properties, qRT-PCR and Western blotting assays to assess the expression of the bile acid receptor TGR5 and the estrogen receptor ERα, and genes and proteins involved in apoptosis (Bax, Bcl-2, p53) and lipogenesis (SREBP-1c, FASN, ACACA)...
October 9, 2017: Cellular Oncology (Dordrecht)
Judit Iván, Evelin Major, Adrienn Sipos, Katalin Kovács, Dániel Horváth, István Tamás, Péter Bay, Viktor Dombrádi, Beata Lontay
Free fatty acid receptor 2 (FFAR2, also known as GPR43) is a G-protein-coupled receptor activated by short-chain fatty acids that are produced by gut microbiota through fermentation of non-digestible carbohydrates. FFAR2 functions as a metabolic sensor and is expressed in metabolically active tissues, such as adipose tissue. Earlier studies proved the connection between FFAR2 and adipocyte differentiation in mice. The aim of this study was to investigate the implication of FFAR2 receptor in adipogenesis in human chorion-derived mesenchymal stem cells (cMSCs)...
October 9, 2017: Stem Cells and Development
Hyunsu Shin, Yinyan Ma, Tatyana Chanturiya, Qiang Cao, Youlin Wang, Anil K G Kadegowda, Rachel Jackson, Dominic Rumore, Bingzhong Xue, Hang Shi, Oksana Gavrilova, Liqing Yu
Lipid droplet (LD) lipolysis in brown adipose tissue (BAT) is generally considered to be required for cold-induced nonshivering thermogenesis. Here, we show that mice lacking BAT Comparative Gene Identification-58 (CGI-58), a lipolytic activator essential for the stimulated LD lipolysis, have normal thermogenic capacity and are not cold sensitive. Relative to littermate controls, these animals had higher body temperatures when they were provided food during cold exposure. The increase in body temperature in the fed, cold-exposed knockout mice was associated with increased energy expenditure and with increased sympathetic innervation and browning of white adipose tissue (WAT)...
October 5, 2017: Cell Metabolism
Linzhao Li, Guang Yang, Guangneng Liao, Jie Mei, Lan Li, Chengshi Wang, Yujia Yuan, Yujun Shi, Jingping Liu, Zhihui Zhong, Jingqiu Cheng, Yanrong Lu, Iain J Clarke, Younan Chen
Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is characterized by a cluster of key features, which include abdominal obesity, insulin resistance, hypertension, and dyslipidemia. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of elevated glucocorticoid levels on the development of MetS in middle-aged female rhesus monkeys (Macaca Mulatta) after ovariectomy. Six female ovariectomized rhesus monkeys (9-13 years) were randomly assigned to either a control group (normal diet, n=3) or a group in which MetS was facilitated (n=3). The MetS group fed with HFD (15% fat) and received oral prednisone acetate treatment (50 mg/day)...
October 4, 2017: Steroids
Beata Kaczmarek, Jean-Marc Verbavatz, Catherine L Jackson
The Arf small G proteins act as molecular switches to coordinate multiple downstream pathways that regulate membrane dynamics. Their activation is spatially and temporally controlled by the guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs). Members of the evolutionarily conserved GBF/Gea family of Arf GEFs are well known for their roles in formation of coat protein complex I (COPI) vesicles, essential for maintaining the structure and function of the Golgi apparatus. However, studies over the past ten years have found new functions for these GEFs, along with their substrate Arf1, in lipid droplet metabolism, clathrin-independent endocytosis, signaling at the plasma membrane, mitochondrial dynamics and transport along microtubules...
October 6, 2017: Biology of the Cell
Yuko Okamatsu-Ogura, Junko Nio-Kobayashi, Kazuki Nagaya, Ayumi Tsubota, Kazuhiro Kimura
To investigate the postnatal development of brown adipose tissue (BAT) in Syrian hamsters, we histologically examined interscapular fat tissue from 5 to 16-day-old pups, focusing on how brown adipocytes arise. Interscapular fat of 5-day-old hamsters mainly consisted of white adipocytes containing large unilocular lipid droplets, as observed in typical white adipose tissue (WAT). On day 7, clusters of small, proliferative nonadipocytes with a strong immunoreactivity for Ki67 appeared near the edge of the interscapular fat tissue...
October 5, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
Jian-Hua Chen, Kim Jee Goh, Nuno Rocha, Matthijs P Groeneveld, Marina Minic, Timothy G Barrett, David Savage, Robert K Semple
Adipose tissue is the primary tissue affected in most single gene forms of severe insulin resistance, and growing evidence has implicated it as a site where many risk alleles for insulin resistance identified in population-wide studies may exert their effect. There is thus increasing need for human adipocyte models in which to interrogate the function of known and emerging genetic risk variants, yet primary adipocyte cultures, existing immortalised cell lines, and stem-cell based models all have significant biological or practical limitations...
October 5, 2017: Disease Models & Mechanisms
Grace E Jefferson, David M Schnell, D Travis Thomas, Lance M Bollinger
Vitamin D reduces myocellular insulin resistance, but the effects of vitamin D on intramyocellular lipid (IMCL) partitioning are unknown. The purpose of this study was to understand how calcitriol, the active vitamin D metabolite, affects insulin sensitivity and lipid partitioning in skeletal muscle cells. C2C12 myotubes were treated with calcitriol (100 nM) or vehicle control for 96 h. Insulin-stimulated Akt phosphorylation (Thr 308) was determined by western blot. Intramyocellular triacylglycerol (IMTG), diacylglycerol (DAG), and ceramide content were measured by LC/MS...
October 4, 2017: Journal of Physiology and Biochemistry
Reuben Hoffman, Kariona Grabińska, Ziqiang Guan, William C Sessa, Aaron M Neiman
Dolichols are isoprenoid lipids of varying length, which act as sugar carriers in glycosylation reactions in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, there are two cis-prenyltransferases that synthesize polyprenol, an essential precursor to dolichol. These enzymes are heterodimers composed of Nus1 and either Rer2 or Srt1. Rer2-Nus1 and Srt1-Nus1 can both generate dolichol in vegetative cells, but srt1∆ cells grow normally while rer2∆ grows very slowly, indicating that Rer2-Nus1 is the primary enzyme used in mitotically dividing cells...
October 4, 2017: Genetics
Bruno Mesmin, Joëlle Bigay, Joël Polidori, Denisa Jamecna, Sandra Lacas-Gervais, Bruno Antonny
The network of proteins that orchestrate the distribution of cholesterol among cellular organelles is not fully characterized. We previously proposed that oxysterol-binding protein (OSBP) drives cholesterol/PI4P exchange at contact sites between the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and the trans-Golgi network (TGN). Using the inhibitor OSW-1, we report here that the sole activity of endogenous OSBP makes a major contribution to cholesterol distribution, lipid order, and PI4P turnover in living cells. Blocking OSBP causes accumulation of sterols at ER/lipid droplets at the expense of TGN, thereby reducing the gradient of lipid order along the secretory pathway...
October 4, 2017: EMBO Journal
Pradeep Kumar Yadav, Ram Rajasekharan
In eukaryotes, the precise transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulations of gene expression are crucial for the developmental processes. More than 100 types of post-transcriptional RNA modifications have been identified in eukaryotes. The deposition of N(6)-methyladenosine (m(6)A) into mRNA is among the most common post-transcriptional RNA modifications known in eukaryotes. It has been reported that m(6)A RNA modification can regulate gene expression. The role of yeast m(6)A methyltransferase (Ime4) in meiosis and sporulation in diploid cells is very well proven, but its physiological role in haploid cells has remained unknown until recently...
October 3, 2017: Current Genetics
Zhiyuan Niu, Qian Shi, Wenlong Zhang, Yuxin Shu, Nanfei Yang, Bing Chen, Qingsong Wang, Xuyang Zhao, Jiajia Chen, Nan Cheng, Xiujing Feng, Zichun Hua, Jianguo Ji, Pingping Shen
Tumor-associated macrophages are increasingly viewed as a target of great relevance in the tumor microenvironment, because of their important role in cancer progression and metastasis. However, the endogenous regulatory mechanisms underlying tumor-associated macrophage differentiation remain largely unknown. Here, we report that caspase-1 promotes tumor-associated macrophage differentiation by cleaving peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) at Asp64, thus generating a 41 kDa fragment. This truncated PPARγ translocates to mitochondria, where it directly interacts with medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (MCAD)...
October 3, 2017: Nature Communications
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