Read by QxMD icon Read


Xin Lin, Ban-Ban Li, Le Zhang, Hao-Ze Li, Xiao Meng, Yi-Yu Jiang, Hyun-Sun Lee, Long Cui
A new bakuchiol compound Δ11 -12-hydroxy-12-dimethyl bakuchiol (1), a new flavanone compound 2(S)-6-methoxy-7- hydroxymethylene-4'-hydroxyl-flavanone (8), and two new isoflavanone compounds 4',7-dihydroxy-3'-(6"β-hydroxy-3″,7″-dimethyl-,2″,7″-dibutenyl)-geranylisoflavone (9) and 4',7-dihydroxy-3'-(7″-hydroxy-7″-methyl-2″,5″-dibutenyl)-geranylisoflavone (10) together with eight known compounds (2-7, 11, 12) were isolated from the P. corylifolia. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic and physico-chemical analyses...
May 14, 2018: Fitoterapia
Tao Yu, Chengde Wu, NengYang Shih, Qi Li, Chichung Chan, He Pan, Dan Yao, Yan Pan, Wei Liang, Liang Shen, Hui Zhao, Jian Li, Shuhui Chen
Diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT) is expressed abundantly in intestine, liver, and adipose tissues. DGAT1 is the crucial and rate-limiting enzyme that mediates the final step in triacylglycerol (TAG) resynthesis during dietary fat absorption. However, too much triacylglycerol (TAG) reserve will lead to genetic obesity (Hubert et al., 2000). DGAT1 knockout mice could survive and displayed a reduction in the postprandial rise of plasma TG, and increased sensitivity of insulin and leptin. Here we report the discovery and characterization of a novel selective DGAT1 inhibitor 29 to potentially treat obesity...
June 1, 2018: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
Thierry L Delatte, Giulia Scaiola, Jamil Molenaar, Katyuce de Sousa Farias, Leticia Alves Gomes Albertti, Jacqueline Busscher, Francel Verstappen, Carlos Carollo, Harro Bouwmeester, Jules Beekwilder
Plants store volatile compounds in specialized organs. The properties of these storage organs prevent precarious evaporation and protect neighbouring tissues from cytotoxicity. Metabolic engineering of plants is often done in tissues such as leaf mesophyll cells, which are abundant and easily accessible by engineering tools. However, these tissues are not suitable for the storage of volatile and hydrophobic compound such as sesquiterpenes and engineered volatiles are often lost into the headspace. In the present study we show that the seeds of Arabidopsis thaliana, which naturally contain lipid bodies, accumulate sesquiterpenes upon engineered expression...
April 23, 2018: Plant Biotechnology Journal
Shiqi Zhang, Guowen Liu, Chuang Xu, Lei Liu, Qiang Zhang, Qiushi Xu, Hongdou Jia, Xiaobing Li, Xinwei Li
Dairy cows with ketosis displayed lipid metabolic disorder and high inflammatory levels. Adipose tissue is an active lipid metabolism and endocrine tissue and is closely related to lipid metabolism homeostasis and inflammation. Perilipin 1 (PLIN1), an adipocyte-specific lipid-coated protein, may be involved in the above physiological function. The aim of this study is to investigate the role of PLIN1 in lipid metabolism regulation and inflammatory factor synthesis in cow adipocytes. The results showed that PLIN1 overexpression upregulated the expression of fatty acid and triglyceride (TAG) synthesis molecule sterol regulator element-binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c) and its target genes, diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT) 1, and DGAT2, but inhibited the expression of lipolysis enzymes hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) and CGI-58 for adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL), thus augmenting the fatty acids and TAG synthesis and inhibiting lipolysis...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Jizhou Xia, Liang Lu, Cuiyuan Jin, Siyu Wang, Jicong Zhou, Yingchun Ni, Zhengwei Fu, Yuanxiang Jin
Lead (Pb) is one of the most prevalent toxic, nonessential heavy metals that has been associated with a wide range of toxic effects in humans and environmental animals. Here, effects of short time exposure to 10 and 30 μg/L Pb on gut microbiota and hepatic metabolism were analyzed in adult male zebrafish. We observed that both 10 and 30 μg/L Pb increased the volume of mucus in the gut. At phylum level, the abundance of α-Proteobacteria decreased significantly and the abundance of Firmicutes increased significantly in the gut when treated with 30 μg/L Pb for 7 days...
March 22, 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
Jieyu Wu, Xue Jiang, Yamei Li, Tingting Zhu, Jingjing Zhang, Zhiguo Zhang, Linqiang Zhang, Yuru Zhang, Yanli Wang, Xiaoju Zou, Bin Liang
The primary function of the nucleolus is ribosome biogenesis, which is an extremely energetically expensive process. Failures in ribosome biogenesis cause nucleolar stress with an altered energy status. However, little is known about the underlying mechanism linking nucleolar stress to energy metabolism. Here we show that nucleolar stress is triggered by inactivation of RSKS-1 (ribosomal protein S6 kinase), RRP-8 (ribosomal RNA processing 8), and PRO-2/3 (proximal proliferation), all of which are involved in ribosomal RNA processing or inhibition of rDNA transcription by actinomycin D (AD), leading to excessive lipid accumulation in Caenorhabditis elegans...
March 22, 2018: Nature Communications
Nathan D Roe, Michal K Handzlik, Tao Li, Rong Tian
It is increasingly recognized that synthesis and turnover of cardiac triglyceride (TG) play a pivotal role in the regulation of lipid metabolism and function of the heart. The last step in TG synthesis is catalyzed by diacylglycerol:acyltransferase (DGAT) which esterifies the diacylglycerol with a fatty acid. Mammalian heart has two DGAT isoforms, DGAT1 and DGAT2, yet their roles in cardiac metabolism and function remain poorly defined. Here, we show that inactivation of DGAT1 or DGAT2 in adult mouse heart results in a moderate suppression of TG synthesis and turnover...
March 21, 2018: Scientific Reports
Yang Xu, Roman Holic, Darren Li, Xue Pan, Elzbieta Mietkiewska, Guanqun Chen, Jocelyn Ozga, Randall J Weselake
Seed oil from flax ( Linum usitatissimum ) is enriched in α-linolenic acid (ALA; 18:3Δ9 cis ,12 cis ,15 cis ), but the biochemical processes underlying the enrichment of flax seed oil with this polyunsaturated fatty acid are not fully elucidated. Here, a potential process involving the catalytic actions of long-chain acyl-CoA synthetase (LACS) and diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT) is proposed for ALA enrichment in triacylglycerol (TAG). LACS catalyzes the ATP-dependent activation of free fatty acid to form acyl-CoA, which in turn may serve as an acyl-donor in the DGAT-catalyzed reaction leading to TAG...
April 30, 2018: Biochemical Journal
Hideaki Yokoyama, Akio Kobayashi, Kazuma Kondo, Shin-Ichi Oshida, Tadakazu Takahashi, Taku Masuyama, Toshiyuki Shoda, Shoichiro Sugai
Acyl CoA: diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT) 1 is an enzyme that catalyzes the re-synthesis of triglycerides (TG) from free fatty acids and diacylglycerol. JTT-553 is a DGAT1 inhibitor and exhibits its pharmacological action (inhibition of re-synthesis of TG) in the enterocytes of the small intestine leading to suppression of a postprandial elevation of plasma lipids. After repeated oral dosing JTT-553 in rats and monkeys, plasma transaminase levels were increased but there were neither changes in other hepatic function parameters nor histopathological findings suggestive of hepatotoxicity...
2018: Journal of Toxicological Sciences
Yulin Cui, Jialin Zhao, Yinchu Wang, Song Qin, Yandu Lu
Background: Photosynthetic oleaginous microalgae are promising feedstocks for biofuels. Acyl-CoA:diacylglycerol acyltransferases (DGATs) represent rich sources for engineering microalgal lipid production. The principal activity of DGATs has been defined as a single-function enzyme catalyzing the esterification of diacylglycerol with acyl-CoA. Results: A dual-function PtWS/DGAT associated with diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum is discovered in the current study. Distinctive to documented microalgal DGAT types, PtWS/DGAT exhibits activities of both a wax ester synthase (WS) and a DGAT...
2018: Biotechnology for Biofuels
Yongfeng Zhang, Xiaoyun Wu, Chunnian Liang, Pengjia Bao, Xuezhi Ding, Min Chu, Congjun Jia, Xian Guo, Ping Yan
The domestic yak (Bos grunniens) is a culturally important animal that lives at high altitude and is farmed by Tibetan herders for its meat, milk, and other animal by-products. Within the animal, adipose tissue is an important store and source of energy and is used to maintain adequate body temperature during the extended cold seasons. Exploring the biomolecular role of microRNAs (miRNAs) in the regulation of growth, development, and metabolism of yak adipocytes may provide valuable insights into the physiology of adipogenesis in the yak...
April 15, 2018: Gene
Yongjun Wei, David Bergenholm, Michael Gossing, Verena Siewers, Jens Nielsen
BACKGROUND: Cocoa butter (CB) extracted from cocoa beans (Theobroma cacao) is the main raw material for chocolate production, but CB supply is insufficient due to the increased chocolate demand and limited CB production. CB is mainly composed of three different kinds of triacylglycerols (TAGs), 1,3-dipalmitoyl-2-oleoyl-glycerol (POP, C16:0-C18:1-C16:0), 1-palmitoyl-3-stearoyl-2-oleoyl-glycerol (POS, C16:0-C18:1-C18:0) and 1,3-distearoyl-2-oleoyl-glycerol (SOS, C18:0-C18:1-C18:0). In general, Saccharomyces cerevisiae produces TAGs as storage lipids, which consist of C16 and C18 fatty acids...
January 25, 2018: Microbial Cell Factories
Helen K Woodfield, Amaury Cazenave-Gassiot, Richard P Haslam, Irina A Guschina, Markus R Wenk, John L Harwood
With dwindling available agricultural land, concurrent with increased demand for oil, there is much current interest in raising oil crop productivity. We have been addressing this issue by studying the regulation of oil accumulation in oilseed rape (Brassica napus L). As part of this research we have carried out a detailed lipidomic analysis of developing seeds. The molecular species distribution in individual lipid classes revealed quite distinct patterns and showed where metabolic connections were important...
March 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Luning Zhang, Huaiyuan Zhang, Yuanda Song
Acyl-CoA:diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT) is a pivotal regulator of triacylglycerol (TAG) synthesis. The oleaginous fungus Mucor circinelloides has four putative DGATs: McDGAT1A, McDGAT1B, McDGAT2A, and McDGAT2B, classified into the DGAT1 and DGAT2 subfamilies, respectively. To identify and characterize DGATs in M. circinelloides, these four genes were expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae H1246 (TAG-deficient quadruple mutant), individually. TAG biosynthesis was restored only by the expression of McDGAT2B, and TAG content was significantly higher in the mutants with McDGAT2B expression than in a S...
January 24, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Ruijuan Ma, Skye R Thomas-Hall, Elvis T Chua, Faisal Alsenani, Eladl Eltanahy, Michael E Netzel, Gabriele Netzel, Yinghua Lu, Peer M Schenk
Haematococcus pluvialis is a green microalga of major interest to industry based on its ability to produce large amounts of astaxanthin. Biosynthesis of astaxanthin and its mono- and di-esters was significantly stimulated under 150 μmol m-2 s-1 of white LED (W-150) compared with lower light intensities, but the highest astaxanthin amounts were produced under 70 μmol m-2 s-1 of blue LED (B-70). Transcripts of astaxanthin biosynthesis genes psy, crtO, and bkt2 were upregulated under W-150, while psy, lcy, crtO, and crtR-B were upregulated by B-70...
December 4, 2017: Bioresource Technology
H G Mao, X Y Dong, H Y Cao, N Y Xu, Z Z Yin
1. Diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT) plays an important role in the synthesis of triacylglycerol, but its effects on meat quality and carcass composition in pigeons are unclear. In this study, single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the exons of the DGAT2 gene were identified and analysed by using DNA sequencing methods in 200 domestic pigeons (Columba livia). The associations between DGAT2 polymorphisms and carcass and meat quality traits were also analysed. 2. Sequencing results showed that 5 nucleotide mutations were detected in exons 3, 4, 5 and 6 of the DGAT2 gene...
January 15, 2018: British Poultry Science
Pirapan Polburee, Takao Ohashi, Yung-Yu Tsai, Thitinun Sumyai, Noppon Lertwattanasakul, Savitree Limtong, Kazuhito Fujiyama
Triacylglycerol (TAG) is a major component of lipid storage in yeast. The acyl CoA: diacylgycerol acyltransferase (DGAT) that catalyzes the final and rate-limiting step in the production of TAG is rather interesting. Consequently, cloning and analysis of the gene-encoding TAG synthase, diacylglycerol acyltransferase gene (DGA1), of the oleaginous yeast Rhodosporidiobolus fluvialis DMKU-RK253 were undertaken. Analysis of the deduced amino acid sequence of DGA1 from R. fluvialis DMKU-RK253 (RfDGA1) showed similarity with the acyl-CoA:diacylglycerol acyltransferase 2 (DGAT2) from other organisms...
January 2018: Microbiology
Sukanya Jeennor, Mayura Veerana, Jutamas Anantayanon, Sarocha Panchanawaporn, Chanikul Chutrakul, Kobkul Laoteng
Based on available genome sequences and bioinformatics tools, we searched for an uncharacterized open reading frame of Mortierella alpina (MaDGAT2) using diacylglycerol acyltransferase sequence (fungal DGAT type 2B) as a query. Functional characterization of the identified native and codon-optimized M. alpina genes were then performed by heterologous expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain defective in synthesis of neutral lipid (NL). Lipid analysis of the yeast tranformant carrying MaDGAT2 showed that the NL biosynthesis and lipid particle formation were restored by the gene complementation...
October 16, 2017: Journal of Biotechnology
Neeti Agarwal, Dinakar Iyer, Chiara Gabbi, Pradip Saha, Sanjeet G Patel, Qianxing Mo, Benny Chang, Biman Goswami, Ulrich Schubert, Jeffrey B Kopp, Dorothy E Lewis, Ashok Balasubramanyam
HIV patients develop hepatic steatosis. We investigated hepatic steatosis in transgenic mice expressing the HIV-1 accessory protein Vpr (Vpr-Tg) in liver and adipose tissues, and WT mice infused with synthetic Vpr. Vpr-Tg mice developed increased liver triglyceride content and elevated ALT, bilirubin and alkaline phosphatase due to three hepatic defects: 1.6-fold accelerated de novo lipogenesis (DNL), 45% slower fatty acid ß-oxidation, and 40% decreased VLDL-triglyceride export. Accelerated hepatic DNL was due to coactivation by Vpr of liver X receptor-α (LXRα) with increased expression of its lipogenic targets Srebp1c, Chrebp, Lpk, Dgat, Fasn and Scd1, and intranuclear SREBP1c and ChREBP...
October 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
Ling Zheng, Jay Shockey, Feng Guo, Lingmin Shi, Xinguo Li, Lei Shan, Shubo Wan, Zhenying Peng
Triacylglycerols (TAGs) are the most important energy storage form in oilseed crops. Diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT) catalyzes the rate-limiting step of the Kennedy pathway of TAG biosynthesis. To date, little is known about the regulation of DGAT activity in peanut (Arachis hypogaea), an agronomically important oilseed crop that is cultivated in many parts of the world. In this study, seven distinct forms of type 1 DGAT (AhDGAT1.1-AhDGAT1.7) were identified, cloned, and characterized. Comparisons of the nucleotide sequences and gene structures revealed many different splicing variants of AhDGAT1, some of which displayed different organ-specific expression patterns...
October 6, 2017: Journal of Plant Physiology
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"