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Adriana M Zago, Fabiano B Carvalho, Jessié Martins Gutierres, Crystiani Bohnert, Marilda da Cruz Fernandes, Liziane M Morandini, Helena S Coelho, Aline O Fogaça, Cinthia M Andrade, Marco A Mostardeiro, Ionara I Dalcol, Ademir F Morel
This study investigated the antioxidant activity of Cuphea glutinosa (CG) and its effect on Na+ , K+ -ATPase from cardiac muscle. The ethanolic extract showed higher antioxidant capacity compared to aqueous and ethyl acetate fraction. Ethyl acetate fraction showed β-sitosterol-3-O-β-glucoside, kaempferol, quercetin, isoquercetin, gallic acid methyl ester, and gallic acid. The ethanolic extract also reduced the Na+ ,K+ -ATPase activity. CG presented a promising antioxidant activity and inhibitory effect on the Na+ , K+ -ATPase activity, supporting biochemical evidences the popular use of this plant in the treatment of heart failure...
May 21, 2018: Natural Product Research
Junichi Yamaguchi, Erisa Kawada-Watanabe, Ryo Koyanagi, Hiroyuki Arashi, Haruki Sekiguchi, Koichi Nakao, Tetsuya Tobaru, Hiroyuki Tanaka, Toshiaki Oka, Yasuhiro Endo, Katsumi Saito, Tatsuro Uchida, Kunihiko Matsui, Hiroshi Ogawa, Nobuhisa Hagiwara
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: We aimed to examine the effect of serum sitosterol, a cholesterol absorption marker, on clinical outcomes in acute coronary syndrome patients with dyslipidaemia. METHODS: This is a sub-analysis of the HIJ-PROPER trial that assesses the effect of aggressive low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) lowering treatment with pitavastatin + ezetimibe in 1734 acute coronary syndrome (ACS) patients with dyslipidaemia. Patients were divided into two groups based on sitosterol level at enrolment (cut-off value was 2...
May 5, 2018: Atherosclerosis
Dieter Lütjohann, Adam M Lopez, Jen-Chieh Chuang, Anja Kerksiek, Stephen D Turley
Rett syndrome (RS) is a pervasive neurodevelopmental disorder resulting from loss-of-function mutations in the X-linked gene methyl-Cpg-binding protein 2 (MECP2). Using a well-defined model for RS, the C57BL6/Mecp2 tm1.1Bird mouse, we have previously found a moderate but persistently lower rate of cholesterol synthesis, measured in vivo, in the brains of Mecp2 -/y mice, starting from about the third week after birth. There was no genotypic difference in the total cholesterol concentration throughout the brain at any age...
May 17, 2018: Lipids
Sheena Philip, Greeshma Tom, Asha V Vasumathi
OBJECTIVES: Tinospora cordifolia (Willd.) Miers is an inevitable ingredient of Ayurvedic rasayanas for the treatment of disorders with unregulated inflammation. However, studies regarding the mechanism of anti-inflammatory potential of this plant at the molecular level are lacking. METHODS: In vitro evaluations were conducted in RAW264.7 macrophages which were preincubated with chloroform extract of T. cordifolia (CETC) and subsequently stimulated with LPS. The expressions of COX-2, TNF-α and iNOS genes were analysed by SQRT-PCR and Western blot, cytokines (IL-6, IL-1β and PGE2 ) levels by ELISA, NF-κB activation and p38 MAPK phosphorylation by Immunoblot and confocal imaging...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology
Mahban Rahimifard, Azadeh Manayi, Maryam Baeeri, Mahdi Gholami, Soodabeh Saeidnia, Mohammad Abdollahi
The genus Achillea (Asteraceae) consisting of important medicinal species, growing wildly in Iran, of which A. tenuifolia is found in Iran-o-Turan regions. Regarding the traditional use of Achillea species for treatment of diabetes and also lack of information on phyto-constituents of A. tenuifolia underground parts, in this study anti-diabetic activity of the plant have been reported. In order to find the main active components, underground parts of the plant were extracted with water and fractioned by hexane, ethyl acetate, and methanol and the separation of the main compounds were carried out via medium pressure liquid chromatography (MPLC)...
2018: Iranian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research: IJPR
Yvonne Oligschlaeger, Tom Houben, Mike L J Jeurissen, Albert V Bitorina, Maurice Konings, Sabine Baumgartner, Jogchum Plat, Ronit Shiri-Sverdlov
Although phytosterols, plant-derived sterol-like components, are well known for their cholesterol-lowering properties, their atherogenic potential is still under debate. Although they are known to share structural similarities with cholesterol, it is unclear whether their oxidized forms (oxyphytosterols) have the capacity to mediate proinflammatory responses in macrophages. In the present study, bone marrow-derived macrophages were treated with oxidized low-density lipoproteins, oxyphytosterols (7keto-sito/campesterol [7keto-sit/camp] or 7-beta-hydroxy-sito/campesterol [7βOH-sit/camp]), nonoxidized phytosterol (β-sitosterol), or carrier-control (cyclodextrin) in a dose- and time-dependent manner...
May 10, 2018: Lipids
Fernanda Demoliner, Priscila de Britto Policarpi, Juliano Carvalho Ramos, Vera Lúcia Azzolin Frescura Bascuñan, Roseli Aparecida Ferrari, Iván Jachmanián, Alicia de Francisco de Casas, Lúcio Flavo Lopes Vasconcelos, Jane Mara Block
The nutritional composition of the sapucaia nut, cake and shell, the nut and cake minerals content and the lipid profile of the nut oil (fatty acids, tocopherols, phytosterols and triacylglycerols) were determined. The nuts and cake exhibited a high content of lipid (47.9 to 60.8 mg 100 g-1 ), protein (15.8 to 19.5 mg 100 g-1 ), dietary fiber (16.5 to 22.6 mg 100 g-1 ) and provided an excellent source of selenium (26.4 to 46.94 μg g-1 ). The oil contained a high amount of unsaturated fatty acids (39...
June 2018: Food Research International
Enass Y A Salih, Riitta Julkunen-Tiitto, Anna-Maija Lampi, Markku Kanninen, Olavi Luukkanen, Marketta Sipi, Mari Lehtonen, Heikki Vuorela, Pia Fyhrquist
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Terminalia laxiflora Engl. & Diels, (Sudanese Arabic name: Darout الدروت) and Terminalia brownii Fresen (Sudanese Arabic name: Alshaf ألشاف) (Combretaceae) are used in Sudanese traditional folk medicine and in other African countries for treatment of infectious diseases, TB and its symptoms, such as cough, bronchitis and chest pain. AIM OF STUDY: Because of the frequent use of T. laxiflora and T. brownii in African traditional medicine and due to the absence of studies regarding their antimycobacterial potential there was a need to screen extracts of T...
May 4, 2018: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Eun Hye Kim, Chang Soo Jo, Shi Yong Ryu, Seong Hwan Kim, Ji Young Lee
Methanol (MeOH) extract of the aerial parts of Dendropanax morbifera (Araliaceae) has demonstrated a significant dose-dependent inhibitory effect on the RANKL-induced differentiation of bone marrow-derived macrophages to osteoclasts. Bioassay-guided fractionation of the extract resulted in the isolation of a novel diacetylene carboxylic acid (1), together with a known diacetylenic compounds (2) as phytochemicals to strongly inhibit the osteoclast differentiation. The chemical structure of 1 was determined by spectroscopic analyses as (9Z,16S)-16-O-acetyl-9,17-octadecadiene-12,14-diynoic acid, that is acetyl derivative of 2...
May 4, 2018: Archives of Pharmacal Research
Preeti Rawat, Anil Kumar, Tryambak Deo Singh, Mahesh Pal
Background: Streblus asper , family Moraceae is well-known important medicinal plant used in the Indian system of medicine. In Ayurveda, stem bark of S. asper is recommended against elephantiasis for which there is still no any other effective medicine in the modern system of medicine. Objectives: In the present work, methanol extract (SAM) and its fractions of S. asper leave tested for in vitro anticancer activity against cancer cell lines (MCF-7, A-549, Hep-G2, and K-562) which claims its folklore importance in cancer and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry identification of extracts was also performed...
April 2018: Pharmacognosy Magazine
Yaqi Wang, Jiaojiao Jiao, Yuanzhen Yang, Ming Yang, Qin Zheng
The method of cell biospecific extraction coupled with UPLC/Q-TOF-MS has been developed as a tool for the screening and identification of potential immunological active components from Andrographis Herba (AH). In our study, a macrophage cell line (RAW264.7) was used to extract cell-combining compounds from the ethanol extract of AH. The cell binding system was then analyzed and identified by UPLC/Q-TOF-MS analysis. Finally, nine compounds, which could combine with macrophages, in an ethanol extract of AH were detected by comparing basic peak intensity (BPI) profiles of macrophages before and after treatment with AH...
April 30, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Satish Kanhar, Atish Kumar Sahoo, Ajay Kumar Mahapatra
The purpose of this study was to evaluate ameliorative effects of Homalium nepalense Benth. (Flacourtiaceae) on CCl4 -induced hepatocellular injury in rats. Oxygen-radical absorbance-capacity (ORAC) and cell-based-antioxidant-protection-in-erythrocytes (CAP-e) were performed and found that the ethyl acetate fractions of bark (HNEB) and leaf (HNEL) showed a remarkable degree of antioxidant activities in a dose dependent manner. Antioxidant potential HNEB was higher than HNEL and was comparable with trolox. HNEB and HNEL at 300 and 400 mg/kg showed significant hepatoprotective activities against CCl4 -induced hepatotoxicity as evidenced by restoration of SGOT, SGPT, ALP, TB and TP level...
April 23, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Yasamin Soleimanian, Sayed Amir Hossein Goli, Jaleh Varshosaz, Francesca Maestrelli
Preparation and characterization of novel functional nanostructured lipid carriers containing β sitosterol has been studied. The nanostructured lipid carrires (NLCs) were formulated with propolis wax (PW) alone or in mixture (1:1 w/w) with glyceryl behenate (GB), and pomegranate seed oil (PSO) and produced by a hot melt emulsification method. Response surface methodology was used to optimize formulations with respect to β sitosterol concentration, liquid lipid content and solid lipid composition. The NLCs formulated with less oil and higher drug content showed higher size and lower encapsulation efficiency...
September 15, 2018: Food Chemistry
Jihed Boubaker, Imene Ben Toumia, Aicha Sassi, Imen Bzouich-Mokded, Sonia Ghoul Mazgar, Fairouz Sioud, Ahmed Bedoui, Sihem Safta Skhiri, Kamel Ghedira, Leila Chekir-Ghedira
This study evaluated the antitumoral effect of Chloroform extract from Nitraria retusa leaves, via its major compounds β-sitosterols and palmitic acid. BALB/c mice were subcutaneously inoculated with B16-F10 cells, then treated intra-peritoneally after 7 days with the chloroform extract for 21 days. They were then euthanized, and the tumors were weighed. Lung parenchyma was analyzed. Lymphocyte and macrophages proliferation, cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) activities were evaluated using the MTT assay. Macrophage phagocytosis was evaluated by measuring the lysosomal activity and nitric oxide production...
May 2018: Nutrition and Cancer
Li Ji, Li Xue Yang
Phenolic acids are one of the most important factors that influence microbial community structure. Investigating the dynamic changes of phenolic acids and their relationship with the microbial community structure in plantation soils with different tree species could contribute to better understanding and revealing the mechanisms of microbial community changes under afforestation restoration in coal-mining subsidence areas. In this study, plantations of three conifer and one deciduous species (Pinus koraiensis, Larix gmelinii, Pinus sylvestris var...
December 2017: Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao, the Journal of Applied Ecology
Kathryn E Hargan, Emily M Stewart, Neal Michelutti, Christopher Grooms, Linda E Kimpe, Mark L Mallory, John P Smol, Jules M Blais
With the expansion of urban centres in the mid-twentieth century and the post-1970 decrease in pesticides, populations of double-crested cormorants ( Phalacrocorax auritus ) and ring-billed gulls ( Larus delawarensis ) around Lake Ontario (Canada and USA) have rapidly rebounded, possibly to unprecedented numbers. Along with the use of traditional palaeolimnological methods (e.g. stable isotopes, biological proxies), we now have the capacity to develop specific markers for directly tracking the presence of waterbirds on nesting islands...
April 25, 2018: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
Rajapandiyan Krishnamoorthy, Jegan Athinarayanan, Vaiyapuri Subbarayan Periyasamy, Abdulraheem R Adisa, Mohammed A Al-Shuniaber, Mustafa A Gassem, Ali A Alshatwi
The appearance of drug-resistant (DR) bacteria in the community is a crucial development, and is associated with increased morbidity, mortality, healthcare costs, and antibiotic use. Natural oil nanoemulsions (NEs) have potential for antimicrobial applications. In the present study, we determined the antimicrobial activity of an NE against DR bacterial pathogens in vitro. The NE comprised Cleome viscosa essential oil, Tween 80 nonionic surfactant, and water. We found that an NE with a droplet size of 7 nm and an oil:surfactant (v/v) ratio of 1:3 was effective against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), DR Streptococcus pyogenes, and DR extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa...
April 20, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
Pere Leyes, Montserrat Cofan, Ana González-Cordón, Elisa de Lazzari, Joan Trabal, Pere Domingo, Eugenia Negredo, Francesc Vidal, Maria T Forga, Jose M Gatell, Emili Ros, Esteban Martínez
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to compare the differential effects of first-line efavirenz (EFV)-based vs. boosted lopinavir-based antiretroviral regimens on cholesterol metabolism. DESIGN: Multicentre, open-label, randomized clinical trial. METHODS: Forty-nine naïve HIV-infected patients were randomized (1 : 1) to receive either ritonavir-boosted lopinavir (LPV/r) or EFV both in combination with tenofovir and emtricitabine (ClinicalTrials...
April 19, 2018: AIDS
Blaise Kemajou Nganou, Ingrid Simo Konga, Aimé G Fankam, Gabin Thierry M Bitchagno, Gaielle Sonfack, Paul Nayim, Ilhami Celik, Sema Koyutürk, Victor Kuete, Pierre Tane
Allanblackia genus, an endless source of bioactive compounds, was investigated for its antibacterial properties. The chemical study of the methanol extract from the fruits of Allanblackia gabonensis resulted in the isolation of the undescribed guttiferone BL (1) along with the known kaempferol (2), morelloflavone (3), morelloflavone 7″-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (4), β-sitosterol 3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside and β-sitosterol. Their structures were determined using spectrometry and spectroscopic techniques. The antibacterial activity was evaluated against five Gram-negative and two Gram-positive strains using a broth micro-dilution method...
April 23, 2018: Natural Product Research
Valéria Sutti Nunes, Patrícia Miralda Cazita, Sérgio Catanozi, Edna Regina Nakandakare, Eder Carlos Rocha Quintão
Apolipoprotein E knockout (apoE-KO) mice present synaptic loss, cognitive dysfunction, and high plasma lipid levels that may affect brain function simulating Alzheimer disease. Plasma and brain sterols were measured in apoE-KO and in wild type control mice on a cholesterol-free, phytosterol-containing diet by gas chromatography coupled to a mass spectrometer. Plasma cholesterol and phytosterols (campesterol and sitosterol) were higher in apoE-KO compared to control mice. Cholesterol precursors (desmosterol and lathosterol) were not detected in plasma of control mice but were present in apoE-KO mice...
April 20, 2018: Journal of Bioenergetics and Biomembranes
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