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Iraj Salimikia, Hamid Reza Monsef-Esfahani, Ahmad Reza Gohari, Mehrnoosh Salek
BACKGROUND: Salvia, known as Maryam Goli in the Persian language, is an important genus that includes approximately 900 species in the Lamiaceae family. There are 58 Salvia species growing naturally in Iran, including Salvia chloroleuca Rech. f. and Allen., which grows wild in the northeastern and central parts of the country. OBJECTIVES: This study was designed to determine the chemical composition, in vitro antioxidant activity, and total phenol content of various extracts of S...
August 2016: Iranian Red Crescent Medical Journal
Lavanya Kakarla, Suresh Babu Katragadda, Ashok K Tiwari, K Srigiridhar Kotamraju, K Madhusudana, D Anand Kumar, Mahendran Botlagunta
BACKGROUND: Cyperus scariosus R. Br and Cyperus rotundus L are widely used in ayurvedic preparation for the treatment of diabetes and other diseases. The early literature, so far, does not indicate the presence of any bioactive principle isolated from these plants. OBJECTIVE: To identify free radical scavenging, anti-diabetic and anti- inflammatory principles from these two species. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The bioassay guided fractionation and isolation of active constituents was done by chromatographic techniques...
July 2016: Pharmacognosy Magazine
Jun-Chi Wang, Guang-Zhi Li, Na Lv, Lian-Gang Shen, Lei-Ling Shi, Jian-Yong Si
A new drimane-type sesquiterpene with an isocitric acid moiety, cryptoporic acid S (1), together with six known compounds, cryptoporic acid D (2), β-sitosterol (3), β-daucosterol (4), stigmast-4-en-3-one (5), ergosterol (6), and (22E,24R)-ergosta-7,22-diene-3β,5α,6β-triol (7), was isolated from the fruiting bodies of Cryptoporus volvatus. The structures of these compounds were established on the basis of UV, IR, MS, 1D and 2D NMR analysis. In the meanwhile, compounds 1 and 2 were evaluated for antioxidant activity using the methods of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl free radical scavenging activity (DPPH-RSA) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay, and they exhibited moderate antioxidant activities...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Asian Natural Products Research
Juliana Maria de Mello Andrade, Natasha Maurmann, Patricia Pranke, Izabel Cristina Casanova Turatti, Norberto Peporine Lopes, Amélia T Henriques
OBJECTIVES: The hexane (HEX) and dichloromethane (DCM) fractions from Blechnum binervatum, Blechnum brasiliense and Blechnum occidentale were studied about phytochemicals and biological properties using multitarget approach. METHODS: The chemical composition was performed by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry detector (GC-MS) analysis. Antioxidant capacity was evaluated against free radicals and on lipid peroxidation. Monoamine oxidases (MAO) and cholinesterases enzymatic modulation, as well as effects on rat and human cells, were assessed...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology
Wararut Buncharoen, Kanokporn Saenphet, Supap Saenphet, Chatchote Titaram
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Traditional medicine has used Uvaria rufa Blume as an ethnomedicinal plant for treating fever, skin allergies, intestinal ulcers and prostate disorders including BPH. However, no scientific evidence supports the traditional use. AIM OF THE STUDY: This study aimed to evaluate the therapeutic potential of U. rufa on BPH using in vitro and in vivo models. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In vitro studies screened the efficacy of a 5α-reductase (5αR) inhibition and antioxidant activity of petroleum ether, ethyl acetate, ethanol and aqueous extracts from the stem of U...
October 9, 2016: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Mahdi Moridi Farimani, Emad Nazarianpoor, Arezoo Rustaie, Maryam Akhbari
Phytochemical investigation of Cleome iberica DC. aerial parts led to the isolation and characterisation of six triterpenoid including glutinol (1), lupeol (2), β-sitosterol (3), cabraleadiol monoacetate (4), cabraleadiol (6) and daucosterol (8), one flavonoid, calycopterin (5) along with a fatty acid, tricosanoic acid (7). While studied samples showed weak potency in antimicrobial assessment, the acetone extract and some isolated compounds exhibited considerable cytotoxicity against cervical cancer cell line (HeLa) in MTT assay, among them calycopterin with IC50 equals to 5...
October 12, 2016: Natural Product Research
Xiaoli Qin, Jinfeng Zhong
Avocado fruit is rich in monounsaturated fat and contains relatively high level of important lipid-soluble compounds such as vitamin E, β-sitosterol and carotenoids. The consumption of avocado fruit is highly related to its potential benefits. However, with the increase of avocado production, short time of maturation and easy oxidation of avocado fruit are the main problem for producers. The production of oil from avocado fruit, thus, is highly promoted. This paper discusses the effects of different extraction methods on chemical composition and yield of oils from avocado fruits...
September 30, 2016: Journal of Oleo Science
Tamara Gojkovic, Sandra Vladimirov, Vesna Spasojevic-Kalimanovska, Aleksandra Zeljkovic, Jelena Vekic, Dimitra Kalimanovska-Ostric, Ivana Djuricic, Sladjana Sobajic, Zorana Jelic-Ivanovic
BACKGROUND: Cholesterol homeostasis disorders may cause dyslipidemia, atherosclerosis progression and coronary artery disease (CAD) development. Evaluation of non-cholesterol sterols (NCSs) as synthesis and absorption markers, and lipoprotein particles quality may indicate the dyslipidemia early development. This study investigates associations of different cholesterol homeostasis patterns with low-density (LDL) and high-density lipoproteins (HDL) subclasses distribution in statin-treated and statin-untreated CAD patients, and potential use of aforementioned markers for CAD treatment optimization...
October 8, 2016: Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine: CCLM
Ramith Ramu, Prithvi S Shirahatti, Shivasharanappa Nayakavadi, Vadivelan R, Farhan Zameer, Bhadrapura Lakkappa Dhananjaya, Nagendra Prasad Mn
Banana is an extensively cultivated plant worldwide, mainly for its fruit, while its ancillary product, the banana pseudostem, is consumed as a vegetable and is highly recommended for diabetics in the traditional Indian medicine system. The present study was aimed at elucidating the mechanism of antihyperglycaemia exerted by the ethanol extract of banana pseudostem (EE) and its isolated compounds viz., stigmasterol (C1) and β-sitosterol (C2), in an alloxan-induced diabetic rat model. Diabetic rats which were administered with C1, C2 and EE (100 and 200 mg per kg b...
September 14, 2016: Food & Function
Matthew Peach, Ren Xu, Dan Fitzpatrick, Lisa Hamilton, Ransi Somaratne, Rob Scott, Scott M Wasserman, C Stephen Djedjos
The effects of cholesterol-lowering drugs, including those that reduce cholesterol synthesis (statins) and those that reduce cholesterol absorption (ezetimibe), on cholesterol absorption and synthesis are well understood. PCSK9 inhibitors are a novel class of cholesterol-lowering drugs that robustly reduce LDL-C, but little is known about their effects on cholesterol absorption and synthesis. We evaluated how treatment with evolocumab, a fully human monoclonal IgG2 antibody to PCSK9, affects markers of cholesterol synthesis and absorption by measuring these markers in patients from an evolocumab clinical trial...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Lipid Research
Asmaa I Owis, Amira M Abo-Youssef, Ahmed H Osman
Cordia boissieri A. DC. (Boraginaceae) is traditionally used as an herbal remedy for diabetes by Hispanic women in Southwestern USA. A recent investigation showed the significant protective effect of ethyl acetate extract against metabolic syndrome (MS). However, the corresponding active principles responsible for this effect and relations between their structure and biological actions remain unclear. Thus, ethyl acetate extract was subjected to column chromatography, which yielded seven compounds identified on the basis of spectroscopic data as rutin, hesperidin, kaempferol-3-O-β-d-glucopyranoside, rosmarinic acid, β-sitosterol-3-O-β-d-glucopyranoside, quercetin, and kaempferol...
October 4, 2016: Zeitschrift Für Naturforschung. C, A Journal of Biosciences
S A Nusaibah, A Siti Nor Akmar, A S Idris, M Sariah, Z Mohamad Pauzi
Understanding the mechanism of interaction between the oil palm and its key pathogen, Ganoderma spp. is crucial as the disease caused by this fungal pathogen leads to a major loss of revenue in leading palm oil producing countries in Southeast Asia. Here in this study, we assess the morphological and biochemical changes in Ganoderma disease infected oil palm seedling roots in both resistant and susceptible progenies. Rubber woodblocks fully colonized by G. boninense were applied as a source of inoculum to artificially infect the roots of resistant and susceptible oil palm progenies...
September 19, 2016: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
Samah M El Sohafy, Aly M Metwally, Abdalla A Omar, Masouda E Amer, Mohamed M Radwan, Maged S Abdel-Kader, Sayed A El Toumy, Mahmoud A ElSohly
The ethanol extract of Cynara cornigera L. was fractionated and the fractions were subjected to hepatoprotective assays using Wistar albino rats at a dose of 500 and 250mg/kg. The liver injury was induced in rats using carbon tetrachloride. Biochemical parameters such as aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and total bilirubin were estimated as reflections of the liver condition, with silymarin as a positive control. Phytochemical investigation and chromatographic separation of the hepatoprotective fractions led to the isolation of a new sesqui-lignan namely cornigerin (1), along with eight known compounds: apigenin (2), luteolin (3), β-sitosterol glycoside (4), apigenin 7-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (5), luteolin-7-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (6), apigenin-7-O-rutinoside (7), cynarin 1,5-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid (8), and apigenin-7-O-β-D-glucuronide (9)...
September 28, 2016: Fitoterapia
Giancarlo Verardo, Andrea Gorassini, Donata Ricci, Daniele Fraternale
INTRODUCTION: Very rarely fruit pulp has been used in in vitro culture to produce secondary metabolites useful in promoting health. OBJECTIVES: The aims of this work were the study of the best conditions to obtain the callus cultures from the pulp of two varieties of apples, Golden Delicious (GD) and "Mela Rosa Marchigiana" (MRM), and the quali-quantitative analysis of secondary metabolites produced by the two in vitro callus cultures. METHODOLOGY: Callus was induced on both Murashige and Skoog and Gamborg B5 media containing various combinations of supplements...
September 30, 2016: Phytochemical Analysis: PCA
J N Valitova, A G Sulkarnayeva, F V Minibayeva
Sterols, which are isoprenoid derivatives, are structural components of biological membranes. Special attention is now being given not only to their structure and function, but also to their regulatory roles in plants. Plant sterols have diverse composition; they exist as free sterols, sterol esters with higher fatty acids, sterol glycosides, and acylsterol glycosides, which are absent in animal cells. This diversity of types of phytosterols determines a wide spectrum of functions they play in plant life. Sterols are precursors of a group of plant hormones, the brassinosteroids, which regulate plant growth and development...
August 2016: Biochemistry. Biokhimii︠a︡
Sara Savini, Alessio Correani, Daniele Pupillo, Rita D'Ascenzo, Chiara Biagetti, Adriana Pompilio, Manuela Simonato, Giovanna Verlato, Paola Cogo, Marina Taus, Albano Nicolai, Virgilio Paolo Carnielli
Several studies reported the association between total plasma phytosterol concentrations and the parenteral nutrition-associated cholestasis (PNAC). To date, no data are available on phytosterol esterification in animals and in humans during parenteral nutrition (PN). We measured free and esterified sterols (cholesterol, campesterol, stigmasterol, and sitosterol) plasma concentrations during PN in 16 preterm infants (500-1249 g of birth weight; Preterm-PN), in 11 term infants (Term-PN) and in 12 adults (Adult-PN)...
September 24, 2016: Lipids
Rosine D K Chougouo, Yves M M Nguekeu, Jean P Dzoyem, Maurice D Awouafack, Jonas Kouamouo, Pierre Tane, Lyndy J McGaw, Jacobus N Eloff
BACKGROUND: Natural products, including those derived from higher plants have, over the years, contributed greatly to the development of modern therapeutic drugs. Due to the medicinal importance in traditional practice and the diversified biology and chemistry of the constituents from Artemisia spp., the genus has been receiving growing attention. The aim of this study was to investigate the ability of the ethanol extract, four fractions (F1-F4) and five compounds namely artemisinin (1), scopoletin (2), chrysosplenetin (3), eupatin (4) and 3-O-β-d-glucopyranoside of sitosterol (5) isolated from A...
2016: SpringerPlus
Martina Wimmerová, Věra Siglerová, David Šaman, Miroslav Šlouf, Eva Kaletová, Zdeněk Wimmer
Naturally occurring acylated β-sitosteryl glucosides have been investigated for their novel properties. The synthetic protocol based on the literature data was improved and optimized. The main improvement consists in employing systems of ionic liquids combined with organic solvents in lipase-mediated esterification of (3β)-stigmast-5-en-3-yl β-d-glucopyranoside to get (3β)-stigmast-5-en-3-yl 6-O-acyl-β-d-glucopyranosides. Maximum yields of these products were achieved with Candida antarctica lipase B immobilized on Immobead 150, recombinant from yeast, in absolute THF and in the presence of either ionic liquid [1-butyl-3-methyl imidazolium tetrafluoroborate ([BMIM]BF4) or 1-butyl-3-methyl imidazolium hexafluorophosphate ([BMIM]PF6)] employed...
September 17, 2016: Steroids
Akash Tariq, Muhammad Adnan, Rahila Amber, Kaiwen Pan, Sakina Mussarat, Zabta Khan Shinwari
BACKGROUND: Leishmaniasis and malaria are the two most common parasitic diseases and responsible for large number of deaths per year particularly in developing countries like Pakistan. Majority of Pakistan population rely on medicinal plants due to their low socio-economic status. The present review was designed to gather utmost fragmented published data on traditionally used medicinal plants against leishmaniasis and malaria in Pakistan and their scientific validation. METHODS: Pub Med, Google Scholar, Web of Science, ISI Web of knowledge and Flora of Pakistan were searched for the collection of data on ethnomedicinal plants...
2016: Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials
Mohammed B Al-Barham, Hala I Al-Jaber, Mahmoud A Al-Qudah, Musa H Abu Zarga
Investigation of the chemical constituents of Aristolochia maurorum growing wild in Jordan resulted in the isolation and characterisation of one new compound in addition to 19 known compounds. The new compound was identified as aristolochic acid II alanine amide (14). The other known compounds were the following: palmitic acid (1), β-sitosterol (2), E-ethyl-p-coumarate (3), Z-ethyl-p-coumarate (4), aristolochic acid IV methyl ester (5), aristolactam I (6), loliolide (7), (+)-dehydrovomifoliol (8), glycerol-1-palmitate (9), aristolochic acid I (10), E-p-coumaric acid (11), E-N-coumaroyltyramine (12), β-sitosteryl glucoside (13), aristolochic acid IV (15), aristolochic acid III (16), esculetin (17), uracil (18), shepherdine (19) and adenosine (20)...
September 15, 2016: Natural Product Research
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