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Vanessa El Kamari, Corrilynn O Hileman, Pierre M Gholam, Manjusha Kulkarni, Nicholas Funderburg, Grace A McComsey
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Therapies are needed to limit progression of fatty liver diseases in patients with HIV infection. We analyzed data from a prospective study of the effects of rosuvastatin (a statin) on hepatic steatosis in HIV-positive adults. METHODS: We performed secondary analysis of data from a double-blind trial of adult patients with HIV infection (78% male; 68% African American; mean age, 46 years; body mass index, 29 kg/m2 ; HIV1 RNA<1000 copies/mL; LDL-cholesterol <130 mg/dL) receiving antiretroviral therapy...
June 13, 2018: Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology
Rui Feng, Yuji Morine, Tetsuya Ikemoto, Satoru Imura, Syuichi Iwahashi, Yu Saito, Mitsuo Shimada
Cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs), which derived from cancer tissues stroma, interact with cancer cells and play an important role in cancer initiation, growth and metastasis. Nab-paclitaxel (nab-PTX) is the 130nm albumin binding paclitaxel and recommended for many kinds of cancer chemotherapy. It has been reported that nab-PTX stromal disrupting effect during pancreatic cancer treatment. The aim of this study is to illustrate the role of nab-PTX in cancer cells and CAFs interaction. The cancer cells (Mia paca2 and Panc-1) were co-cultured with CAFs or treat with CAFs conditioned medium, then their migration and invasion ability, epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) related markers expression and CXCL10 expression and secretion were detected...
June 14, 2018: Cancer Science
Bongjun Kim, Jong-Ho Lee, Won Jong Jin, Hong-Hee Kim, Hyunil Ha, Zang Hee Lee
C-X-C motif chemokine receptor 3 (CXCR3) is a G protein-coupled receptor for three ligands which are C-X-C motif chemokine 9 (CXCL9), CXCL10, and CXCL11 [1]. Previously we have reported that CXCL10 promotes pro-inflammatory cytokine expression, and forms positive feedback loop [2], [3]. In the present study, we described mRNA expression of CXCL9 and CXCL11 under CXCL10 stimuli in the presence or absence of CXCR3 antagonist, JN-2 in bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMMs) and CD4+ T cells. In addition, we examined pro-inflammatory cytokine expression under CXCL9 or CXCL11 stimuli in BMMs and CD4+ T cells...
June 2018: Data in Brief
Arif A Khan, Ruchi Srivastava, Hawa Vahed, Soumyabrata Roy, Sager S Walia, Grace J Kim, Mona A Fouladi, Taikun Yamada, Vincent T Ly, Cynthia Lam, Anthony Lou, Vivianna Nguyen, Undariya Boldbaatar, Roger Geertsema, Nigel W Fraser, Lbachir BenMohamed
Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) is a prevalent human pathogen that infects the cornea causing potentially blinding herpetic disease. A clinical herpes vaccine is still lacking. In the present study, a novel prime/pull vaccine was tested in Human Leukocyte Antigen- (HLA-) transgenic rabbit model of ocular herpes (HLA Tg rabbit). Three asymptomatic (ASYMP) peptide epitopes were selected from the HSV-1 membrane glycoprotein C (UL44400-408 ), the DNA replication binding helicase (UL9196-204 ), and the tegument protein (UL25572-580 ), all preferentially recognized by CD8+ T cells from "naturally protected" HSV-1-seropositive healthy ASYMP individuals (who never had recurrent corneal herpetic disease)...
June 13, 2018: Journal of Virology
J Vérité, T Janet, D Chassaing, B Fauconneau, H Rabeony, G Page
BACKGROUND: Alzheimer's disease is widely described since the discovery of histopathological lesions in Mrs. Auguste Deter in 1906. However to date, there is no effective treatment to deal with the many cellular and molecular alterations. The complexity is even higher with the growing evidence of involvement of the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Indeed, monocytes and T cells are shown in the cerebral parenchyma of AD patients, and these cells grafted to the periphery are able to go through the blood-brain barrier (BBB) in transgenic mouse models...
June 13, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
Olga M Koper, Joanna Kamińska, Karol Sawicki, Halina Kemona
The aim of this review is to present data from the available literature concerning CXCL9, CXCL10 and CXCL11, as well as their receptor 3 (CXCR3) in selected diseases of the central nervous system (CNS), such as tickborne encephalitis (TBE), neuroborreliosis (NB), Alzheimer's disease (AD), and multiple sclerosis (MS). CXCL9, CXCL10, and CXCL11 lack glutamic acid-leucine-arginine (ELR), and are unique, because they are more closely related to each other than to any other chemokine. The aforementioned chemokines are especially involved in Th1-type response and in various diseases, as their expression correlates with the tissue infiltration of T cells...
June 8, 2018: Advances in Clinical and Experimental Medicine: Official Organ Wroclaw Medical University
Nan Gao, Rao Me, Chenyang Dai, Berhane Seyoum, Fu-Shin X Yu
Pseudomonas aeruginosa keratitis is characterized by severe corneal ulceration and may lead to blindness if not treated properly in a timely manner. Although the roles of the IL-1 subfamily of cytokines are well established, as a newly discovered subfamily, IL-36 cytokine regulation, immunological relevance, and relation with IL-1 cytokines in host defense remain largely unknown. In this study, we showed that P. aeruginosa infection induces the expression of IL-36α and IL-36γ, as well as IL-1β and secreted IL-1Ra (sIL-1Ra), but not IL-36Ra...
June 11, 2018: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
Rupak Shivakoti, Erin R Ewald, Nikhil Gupte, Wei-Teng Yang, Cecilia Kanyama, Sandra W Cardoso, Breno Santos, Khuanchai Supparatpinyo, Sharlaa Badal-Faesen, Javier R Lama, Umesh Lalloo, Fatima Zulu, Jyoti S Pawar, Cynthia Riviere, Nagalingeswaran Kumarasamy, James Hakim, Richard Pollard, Barbara Detrick, Ashwin Balagopal, David M Asmuth, Richard D Semba, Thomas B Campbell, Jonathan Golub, Amita Gupta
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Nutritional deficiency and inflammation may impact CD4+ T cell recovery during combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), particularly in resource-limited settings where malnutrition is prevalent. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship of micronutrient and inflammation biomarkers to CD4 recovery after cART initiation. METHODS: We conducted a secondary analysis of a random sub-cohort sample (n = 270) from a multinational randomized trial of cART regimen efficacy among 1571 cART-naïve adults...
May 29, 2018: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
Arnaud Chalin, Benjamin Lefevre, Christelle Devisme, Charlotte Pronier, Virginie Carrière, Vincent Thibault, Laurence Amiot, Michel Samson
BACKGROUND & AIMS: The chemokines CXCL10 (interferon ϒ-inducible protein 10 [IP-10]), CXCL11 (Human interferon inducible T cell alpha chemokine [I-TAC]), CXCL12 (stromal cell derived factor 1 [SDF-1]), and CXCL14 (breast and kidney-expressed chemokine [BRAK]) are involved in cell recruitment, migration, activation, and homing in liver diseases and have been shown to be upregulated during acute liver injury in animal models. However, their expression in patients with acute liver injury is unknown...
June 4, 2018: Cytokine
Willias Masocha, Krister Kristensson
In this review we describe how Trypanosoma brucei brucei, a rodent pathogenic strain of African trypanosomes, can invade the nervous system, first by localization to the choroid plexus, the circumventricular organs (CVOs) and peripheral ganglia, which have fenestrated vessels, followed by crossing of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) into the white matter, hypothalamus, thalamus and basal ganglia. White blood cells (WBCs) pave the way for the trypanosome neuroinvasion. Experiments with immune deficient mice show that the invasion of WBCs is initiated by the toll-like receptor 9, followed by an augmentation phase that depends on the cytokine IFN-γ and the chemokine CXCL10...
June 2, 2018: Brain Research Bulletin
Casper Marsman, Fanny Lafouresse, Yang Liao, Tracey M Baldwin, Lisa A Mielke, Yifang Hu, Matthias Mack, Paul J Hertzog, Carolyn A de Graaf, Wei Shi, Joanna R Groom
Plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) play a critical role in bridging the innate and adaptive immune systems. pDCs are specialized type I interferon (IFN) producers, which has implicated them as initiators of autoimmune pathogenesis. However, little is known about the down-stream effectors of type I IFN signaling that amplify autoimmune responses. Here we have used a chemokine reporter mouse to determine the CXCR3 ligand responses in DCs subsets. Following TLR7 stimulation conventional type 1 and type 2 DCs (cDC1 and cDC2 respectively) uniformly upregulate CXCL10...
June 5, 2018: Immunology and Cell Biology
Qing-Zhi Liu, Wen-Tao Ma, Jing-Bo Yang, Zhi-Bin Zhao, Kai Yan, Yuan Yao, Liang Li, Qi Miao, M Eric Gershwin, Zhe-Xiong Lian
CXC chemokine receptor 3 (CXCR3), a receptor for the C-X-C motif chemokines (CXCL) CXCL9, CXCL10, and CXCL11, which not only plays a role in chemotaxis but also regulates differentiation and development of memory and effector T cell populations. Herein, we explored the function of CXCR3 in the modulation of different organ-specific autoimmune diseases in interleukin (IL)-2 receptor deficiency (CD25-/- ) mice, a murine model for both cholangitis and colitis. We observed higher levels of CXCL9 and CXCL10 in the liver and colon and higher expression of CXCR3 on T cells of the CD25-/- mice compared with control animals...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Xiaoyun Guo, Yu Cen, Jiaxu Wang, Haixing Jiang
Liver fibrosis is a typical complication of chronic liver diseases resulting in cirrhosis that remains a major public health problem. The aim of the present study was to identify the role of interleukin-9 (IL-9), an important regulator of inflammation and autoimmune diseases, in hepatic fibrosis progression. It was found that the expression of IL-9 was significantly increased in liver tissues of liver cirrhosis patients compared with that in healthy controls. Moreover, CXCL10, not CXCL9 or CXCL11, induced IL-9 expression in the liver tissue...
May 31, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Dimitrios Tsiantoulas, Andrew P Sage, Laura Göderle, Maria Ozsvar-Kozma, Deirdre Murphy, Florentina Porsch, Gerard Pasterkamp, Jörg Menche, Pascal Schneider, Ziad Mallat, Christoph J Binder
Background -Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (heart attacks and strokes) is the major cause of death globally and is caused by the buildup of a plaque in the arterial wall. Genomic data showed that the B cell activating factor receptor (BAFFR) pathway, which is specifically essential for the survival of conventional B lymphocytes (B-2 cells), is a key driver of coronary heart disease. Deletion or antibody-mediated blockade of BAFFR ablates B-2 cells and decreases experimental atherosclerosis. Anti-BAFF immunotherapy is approved for treatment of autoimmune systemic lupus erythematosus and can therefore be expected to limit their associated cardiovascular risk...
June 1, 2018: Circulation
Kevin G Burfeind, Xinxia Zhu, Peter R Levasseur, Katherine A Michaelis, Mason A Norgard, Daniel L Marks
Hypothalamic inflammation is a key component of acute sickness behavior and cachexia, yet mechanisms of inflammatory signaling in the central nervous system remain unclear. Previous work from our lab and others showed that while MyD88 is an important inflammatory signaling pathway for sickness behavior, MyD88 knockout (MyD88KO) mice still experience sickness behavior after inflammatory stimuli challenge. We found that after systemic lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge, MyD88KO mice showed elevated expression of several cytokine and chemokine genes in the hypothalamus...
May 28, 2018: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
Stephen R Reeves, Kaitlyn A Barrow, Maria P White, Lucille M Rich, Maryam Naushab, Jason S Debley
BACKGROUND: An increasing number of studies using primary human bronchial epithelial cells (BECs) have reported intrinsic differences in the expression of several genes between cells from asthmatic and non-asthmatic donors. The stability of gene expression by primary BECs with increasing cell passage number has not been well characterized. METHODS: To determine if expression by primary BECs from asthmatic and non-asthmatic children of selected genes associated with airway remodeling, innate immune response, immunomodulatory factors, and markers of differentiated airway epithelium, are stable over increasing cell passage number, we studied gene expression patterns in passages 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 BECs from asthmatic (n = 6) and healthy (n = 6) subjects that were differentiated at an air-liquid interface...
May 29, 2018: BMC Pulmonary Medicine
J Gonnet, H Perrin, A J Hutton, D Boccara, O Bonduelle, M Mimoun, M Atlan, A Soria, B Combadière
BACKGROUND: Cross-talk between skin keratinocytes (KCs) and Langerhans cells (LCs) plays a fundamental role in the body's first line of immunological defences. However, the mechanism behind the interaction between these two major epidermal cells is unknown. Interleukin (IL)-32 is produced in inflammatory skin disorders. We questioned the role of IL-32 in the epidermis. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to determine the role of IL-32 produced by KCs on surrounding LCs. METHODS: We used an ex vivo human explant model from healthy donors and investigated the role of IL-32 on LC activation using imaging, flow cytometry, reverse transcriptase quantitative polymerase chain reaction and small interfering (si)RNA treatment...
May 28, 2018: British Journal of Dermatology
Seraina Beyeler, Savvina Chortarea, Barbara Rothen-Rutishauser, Alke Petri-Fink, Peter Wick, Stefan A Tschanz, Christophe von Garnier, Fabian Blank
The risks of occupational exposure during handling of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) have received limited attention to date, in particular for potentially susceptible individuals with highly prevalent chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). In this in vitro study, we simulated acute inhalation of MWCNTs employing an air-liquid interface cell exposure (ALICE) system: primary human bronchial epithelial cells from COPD patients and healthy donors (controls), cultured at the air-liquid interface (ALI) were exposed to MWCNTs...
May 26, 2018: Nanotoxicology
Ruud P H Raijmakers, Anne F M Jansen, Stephan P Keijmel, Teske Schoffelen, Anja Scholzen, Jos W M van der Meer, Leo A B Joosten, Mihai G Netea, Marcel van Deuren, Chantal P Bleeker-Rovers
Approximately 20% of patients with acute Q fever develop Q fever fatigue syndrome (QFS), a debilitating fatigue syndrome. This study further investigates the role of C. burnetii-specific IFNγ, but also IL-2, CXCL9, CXCL10, and CXLC11 production in QFS patients. C. burnetii-specific IFNy, IL-2, CXCL9, CXCL10, and CXCL11 production were tested in ex vivo stimulated whole blood of QFS patients who recovered from their complaints (n = 8), QFS patients with persisting complaints (n = 27), and asymptomatic Q fever seropositive controls (n = 10)...
May 26, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
Liran Levy, Stephen C Juvet, Kristen Boonstra, Lianne G Singer, Sassan Azad, Betty Joe, Marcelo Cypel, Shaf Keshavjee, Tereza Martinu
BACKGROUND: Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) has proven to be very useful to monitor the lung allograft after transplantation. In addition to allowing detection of infections, multiple BAL analytes have been proposed as potential biomarkers of lung allograft rejection or dysfunction. However, BAL collection is not well standardized and differences in BAL collection represent an important source of variation. We hypothesized that there are systematic differences between sequential BALs that are relevant to BAL analysis...
May 25, 2018: Respiratory Research
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