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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087891/physical-activity-and-exercise-for-chronic-pain-in-adults-an-overview-of-cochrane-reviews
#1
REVIEW
Louise J Geneen, R Andrew Moore, Clare Clarke, Denis Martin, Lesley A Colvin, Blair H Smith
BACKGROUND: Chronic pain is defined as pain lasting beyond normal tissue healing time, generally taken to be 12 weeks. It contributes to disability, anxiety, depression, sleep disturbances, poor quality of life, and healthcare costs. Chronic pain has a weighted mean prevalence in adults of 20%.For many years, the treatment choice for chronic pain included recommendations for rest and inactivity. However, exercise may have specific benefits in reducing the severity of chronic pain, as well as more general benefits associated with improved overall physical and mental health, and physical functioning...
January 14, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087797/the-cascading-effects-of-marginalization-and-pathways-of-resilience-in-attaining-good-health-among-lgbt-older-adults
#2
Karen I Fredriksen-Goldsen, Hyun-Jun Kim, Amanda E B Bryan, Chengshi Shiu, Charles A Emlet
PURPOSE OF THE STUDY: Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) older adults comprise a diverse and growing health disparate population. In the present study, using the Health Equity Promotion Model, we investigated pathways by which LGBT older adults experience resilience, risk, and marginalization and their relationship to attaining positive health outcomes. DESIGN AND METHODS: Aging with Pride: National Health, Aging, and Sexuality/Gender Study (NHAS) is the first longitudinal research project designed to examine the health, aging, and well-being of LGBT adults aged 50 and older...
February 2017: Gerontologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087794/bouncing-back-resilience-and-mastery-among-hiv-positive-older-gay-and-bisexual-men
#3
Charles A Emlet, Chengshi Shiu, Hyun-Jun Kim, Karen Fredriksen-Goldsen
PURPOSE OF THE STUDY: Adults with HIV infection are living into old age. It is critical we investigate positive constructs such as resilience and mastery to determine factors associated with psychological well-being. We examine HIV-related factors, adverse conditions, and psychosocial characteristics that are associated with resilience (the ability to bounce back) and mastery (sense of self-efficacy). DESIGN AND METHODS: We analyzed 2014 data from the longitudinal study Aging with Pride: National Health, Aging, and Sexuality/Gender Study (NHAS), focusing on a subsample of 335 gay and bisexual older men...
February 2017: Gerontologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087231/psychosocial-outcome-in-adult-men-born-with-hypospadias
#4
L Örtqvist, M Andersson, A Strandqvist, A Nordenström, L Frisén, G Holmdahl, A Nordenskjöld
INTRODUCTION: Hypospadias, which is a surgically treated congenital malformation of the male urethra, may have a negative impact on quality of life. This aspect has previously been subject to limited research. This study examined the long-term psychosocial outcome of a large cohort of adult males born with hypospadias. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this case-control study was to assess a possible negative influence on the psychosocial outcome in adult males with hypospadias...
September 9, 2016: Journal of Pediatric Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086836/an-internet-based-self-help-intervention-for-older-adults-after-marital-bereavement-separation-or-divorce-study-protocol-for-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#5
Jeannette Brodbeck, Thomas Berger, Hans Joerg Znoj
BACKGROUND: Marital bereavement and separation or divorce are among the most stressful critical life events in later life. These events require a dissolution of social and emotional ties, adjustments in daily routine and changes in identity and perspectives for the future. After a normative grief or distress reaction, most individuals cope well with the loss. However, some develop a prolonged grief reaction. Internet-based self-help interventions have proved beneficial for a broad range of disorders, including complicated grief...
January 13, 2017: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086827/mothers-accounts-of-the-impact-on-emotional-wellbeing-of-organised-peer-support-in-pregnancy-and-early-parenthood-a-qualitative-study
#6
Jenny McLeish, Maggie Redshaw
BACKGROUND: The transition to parenthood is a potentially vulnerable time for mothers' mental health and approximately 9-21% of women experience depression and/or anxiety at this time. Many more experience sub-clinical symptoms of depression and anxiety, as well as stress, low self-esteem and a loss of confidence. Women's emotional wellbeing is more at risk if they have little social support, a low income, are single parents or have a poor relationship with their partner. Peer support can comprise emotional, affirmational, informational and practical support; evidence of its impact on emotional wellbeing during pregnancy and afterwards is mixed...
January 13, 2017: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081448/the-relationships-among-fear-of-hypoglycaemia-diabetes-related-quality-of-life-and-psychological-well-being-in-norwegian-adults-with-type-1-diabetes
#7
Ragnhild B Strandberg, Marit Graue, Tore Wentzel-Larsen, Mark Peyrot, Astrid K Wahl, Berit Rokne
AIMS: To examine the associations among fear of hypoglycaemia, diabetes-related quality of life and psychological well-being, and determine whether diabetes-related quality of life is a mediator of the relationship between fear of hypoglycaemia and psychological well-being in adults with Type 1 diabetes. METHODS: A total of 235 of 319 invited adults (18-69years) with Type 1 diabetes agreed to participate. Hierarchical linear regression was applied to 188 individuals with complete data...
December 27, 2016: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081302/education-and-support-needs-in-patients-with-head-and-neck-cancer-a-multi-institutional-survey
#8
Joe Jabbour, Chris Milross, Puma Sundaresan, Ardalan Ebrahimi, Heather L Shepherd, Haryana M Dhillon, Gary Morgan, Bruce Ashford, Muzib Abdul-Razak, Eva Wong, Michael Veness, Carsten E Palme, Cate Froggatt, Ruben Cohen, Rafael Ekmejian, Jessica Tay, David Roshan, Jonathan R Clark
BACKGROUND: Head and neck cancer (HNC) encompasses a diverse group of tumors, and thus providing appropriate and tailored information to patients before, during, and after treatment is a challenge. The objective of the current study was to characterize the experience and unmet needs of patients with HNC with regard to information and support provision. METHODS: A 28-question, cross-sectional survey was completed by patients treated for HNC at 1 of 4 institutions in New South Wales, Australia (Chris O'Brien Lifehouse and Liverpool, Westmead, and Wollongong hospitals)...
January 12, 2017: Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080126/know-thy-enemy-education-about-terrorism-improves-social-attitudes-toward-terrorists
#9
Jordan Theriault, Peter Krause, Liane Young
Hatred of terrorists is an obstacle to the implementation of effective counterterrorism policies-it invites indiscriminate retaliation, whereas many of the greatest successes in counterterrorism have come from understanding terrorists' personal and political motivations. Drawing from psychological research, traditional prejudice reduction strategies are generally not well suited to the task of reducing hatred of terrorists. Instead, in 2 studies, we explored education's potential ability to reduce extreme negative attitudes toward terrorists...
January 12, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080101/racial-discrimination-and-psychological-health-among-polynesians-in-the-u-s
#10
G E Kawika Allen, Hokule'a Conklin, Davis K Kane
OBJECTIVES: There is a dearth of research on the mental health of Polynesians residing in the United States. The aims of this study were to examine experiences of racial discrimination, self-esteem, trait anger, satisfaction with life, and psychological well-being among 628 Polynesians (e.g., Native Hawaiian, Tongan, Samoan, Fijian, Tahitian, Maori; 60% women (n = 378) and 40% men (n = 249); mean age = 28.7). METHOD: Measures were administered through an online survey to 628 Polynesians residing in the United States...
January 12, 2017: Cultural Diversity & Ethnic Minority Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079405/posttraumatic-growth-following-pregnancy-termination-for-fetal-abnormality-the-predictive-role-of-coping-strategies-and-perinatal-grief
#11
Caroline Lafarge, Kathryn Mitchell, Pauline Fox
BACKGROUND: Research about termination for fetal abnormality (TFA) suggests that it is a traumatic event with potential negative psychological consequences. However, evidence also indicates that following traumatic events individuals may experience growth. Although TFA's negative psychological outcomes are well documented, little is known of the potential for growth following this event. Therefore, the study's objectives were to measure posttraumatic growth (PTG) post-TFA, examine the relationship between PTG, perinatal grief and coping, and determine the predictors of PTG...
January 12, 2017: Anxiety, Stress, and Coping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079394/the-positive-emotions-after-acute-coronary-events-behavioral-health-intervention-design-rationale-and-preliminary-feasibility-of-a-factorial-design-study
#12
Jeffery C Huffman, Ariana M Albanese, Kirsti A Campbell, Christopher M Celano, Rachel A Millstein, Carol A Mastromauro, Brian C Healy, Wei-Jean Chung, James L Januzzi, Linda M Collins, Elyse R Park
BACKGROUND: Positive psychological constructs, such as optimism, are associated with greater participation in cardiac health behaviors and improved cardiac outcomes. Positive psychology interventions, which target psychological well-being, may represent a promising approach to improving health behaviors in high-risk cardiac patients. However, no study has assessed whether a positive psychology intervention can promote physical activity following an acute coronary syndrome. OBJECTIVE: In this article we will describe the methods of a novel factorial design study to aid the development of a positive psychology-based intervention for acute coronary syndrome patients and aim to provide preliminary feasibility data on study implementation...
November 1, 2016: Clinical Trials: Journal of the Society for Clinical Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078688/when-things-are-not-the-same-a-review-of-research-into-relations-of-difference
#13
Siri Ming, Ian Stewart
Responding to stimuli as same and different can be considered a critical component of a variety of language and academic repertoires. Whereas responding to "sameness" and generalized identity matching (i.e., coordination) have been studied extensively, there appears to be a significant gap in behavior analytic research and educational programs with regard to nonmatching relations or relations of difference. We review research on difference relations from a variety of domains, including comparative psychology, as well as experimental, and translational behavior analysis...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077721/temporal-expectations-guide-dynamic-prioritization-in-visual-working-memory-through-attenuated-%C3%AE-oscillations
#14
Freek van Ede, Marcel Niklaus, Anna C Nobre
: Although working memory is generally considered a highly dynamic mnemonic store, popular laboratory tasks used to understand its psychological and neural mechanisms (such as change detection and continuous reproduction) often remain relatively "static," involving the retention of a set number of items throughout a shared delay interval. In the current study, we investigated visual working memory in a more dynamic setting, and assessed the following: (1) whether internally guided temporal expectations can dynamically and reversibly prioritize individual mnemonic items at specific times at which they are deemed most relevant; and (2) the neural substrates that support such dynamic prioritization...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077234/evidence-for-overuse-of-medical-services-around-the-world
#15
REVIEW
Shannon Brownlee, Kalipso Chalkidou, Jenny Doust, Adam G Elshaug, Paul Glasziou, Iona Heath, Somil Nagpal, Vikas Saini, Divya Srivastava, Kelsey Chalmers, Deborah Korenstein
Overuse, which is defined as the provision of medical services that are more likely to cause harm than good, is a pervasive problem. Direct measurement of overuse through documentation of delivery of inappropriate services is challenging given the difficulty of defining appropriate care for patients with individual preferences and needs; overuse can also be measured indirectly through examination of unwarranted geographical variations in prevalence of procedures and care intensity. Despite the challenges, the high prevalence of overuse is well documented in high-income countries across a wide range of services and is increasingly recognised in low-income countries...
January 6, 2017: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077018/patient-factors-and-quality-of-life-outcomes-differ-among-four-subgroups-of-oncology-patients-based-on-symptom-occurrence
#16
Guro Lindviksmoen Astrup, Kristin Hofsø, Kristin Bjordal, Marianne Grønlie Guren, Ingvild Vistad, Bruce Cooper, Christine Miaskowski, Tone Rustøen
CONTEXT: Reviews of the literature on symptoms in oncology patients undergoing curative treatment, as well as patients receiving palliative care, suggest that they experience multiple, co-occurring symptoms and side effects. OBJECTIVES: The purposes of this study were to determine if subgroups of oncology patients could be identified based on symptom occurrence rates and if these subgroups differed on a number of demographic and clinical characteristics, as well as on quality of life (QoL) outcomes...
January 12, 2017: Acta Oncologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077010/positive-aspects-of-caregiving-questionnaire
#17
Ibrahim Abdollahpour, Saharnaz Nedjat, Maryam Noroozian, Yahya Salimi, Reza Majdzadeh
OBJECTIVE: The potential role of positive aspects of caregiving in enhancing caregivers' health is an important issue. The aim of this study was to develop and validate Positive Aspects of Caregiving Questionnaire (PACQ) in caregivers of patients with dementia in Iran. METHODS: Content validation process was used to content valid development. Cronbach α and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) were calculated as reliability indices. We used exploratory factor analysis to extract potential latent factors and evaluate the factor structure of PACQ...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry and Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075205/a-genomic-and-protein-protein-interaction-analyses-of-nonsyndromic-hearing-impairment-in-cameroon-using-targeted-genomic-enrichment-and-massively-parallel-sequencing
#18
Kamogelo Lebeko, Noluthando Manyisa, Emile R Chimusa, Nicola Mulder, Collet Dandara, Ambroise Wonkam
Hearing impairment (HI) is one of the leading causes of disability in the world, impacting the social, economic, and psychological well-being of the affected individual. This is particularly true in sub-Saharan Africa, which carries one of the highest burdens of this condition. Despite this, there are limited data on the most prevalent genes or mutations that cause HI among sub-Saharan Africans. Next-generation technologies, such as targeted genomic enrichment and massively parallel sequencing, offer new promise in this context...
January 11, 2017: Omics: a Journal of Integrative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074915/psychological-distress-and-cancer-pain-results-from-a-controlled-cross-sectional-survey-in-china
#19
Xiao-Mei Li, Wen-Hua Xiao, Ping Yang, Hui-Xia Zhao
We evaluated the pain associated with cancer and its impact on pain management, anxiety, and depression in Chinese patients using a controlled cross-sectional study. One hundred and twenty-six cancer outpatients were evaluated from January 2012 to June 2014; 64 reported pain and 62 did not. Patients with cancer eligible for this study were older than 18 years and able to effectively communicate with medical personnel. Patients were administered a questionnaire regarding their medical status. The information collected was used along with patient charts to complete a socio-demographic and clinical characteristic summary for each patient...
January 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074605/eyetracking-based-assessment-suggests-preserved-wellbeing-in-locked-in-patients
#20
Katharina Linse, Wolfgang Rüger, Markus Joos, Henning Schmitz-Peiffer, Alexander Storch, Andreas Hermann
We assessed quality of life (QoL) and psychological wellbeing in patients with ALS-induced locked-in-state and their next of kin in a fully unbiased manner using eye-tracking computer systems (ETCS). Eleven of 30 screened patients and nine next of kin completed study procedures. Patients reported good QoL which appeared to be at the cost of the QoL of their next of kin. Next of kin rated their own or patients' QoL similarly, but they identified different areas as important as compared with patients. Our results are of importance for the discussion of end-of-life-decisions and the evaluation of the patient's presumed wishes as well as for psychosocial interventions...
January 11, 2017: Annals of Neurology
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