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Muscle growth resistance exercise

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777633/hypertrophic-effect-of-inhaled-beta-2-agonist-with-and-without-concurrent-exercise-training-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#1
Søren Jessen, Johan Onslev, Anders Lemminger, Vibeke Backer, Jens Bangsbo, Morten Hostrup
INTRODUCTION: Due to a high prevalence of asthma and exercise-induced bronchoconstriction in elite athletes, there is a high use of beta2 -adrenoceptor agonists (beta2 -agonists) in the athletic population. While anabolic in rodents, no study has been able to detect hypertrophy in humans after chronic beta2 -agonist inhalation. METHODS: We investigated if inhaled beta2 -agonist, terbutaline, alters body composition and metabolic rate with and without concurrent exercise training in healthy young men...
May 19, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29707959/acute-changes-in-muscle-thickness-and-pennation-angle-in-response-to-work-matched-concentric-and-eccentric-isokinetic-exercise
#2
Amilton Vieira, Anthony J Blazevich, Nuno Frade de Sousa, Rodrigo Celes, Savio Alex, James J Tufano, Martim Bottaro
Acute changes in muscle architecture influenced by muscle swelling might be associated with chronic adaptations to resistance exercise, including skeletal muscle growth. Concentric (CON) and eccentric (ECC) muscle actions both play a role in hypertrophic processes, but the influence of each on acute indices of muscle swelling [i.e. muscle thickness (MT) and pennation angle PA)] remain relatively unknown. Therefore, this study compared the acute changes in MT and PA in response to work-matched CON versus ECC isokinetic exercise...
April 30, 2018: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29698983/micrornas-in-high-and-low-responders-to-resistance-training-in-breast-cancer-survivors
#3
Amanda D Hagstrom, Joshua Denham
Accounting for one in three cancer diagnoses, breast cancer is the second most commonly diagnosed cancer in women. Exercise has a well-accepted role in the multi-disciplinary approach to rehabilitating breast cancer survivors. Despite the many known benefits of resistance training on women recovering from breast cancer, the molecular mechanisms are poorly understood. MicroRNAs are small non-coding RNAs that have crucial roles in growth and development. Here, we analysed the abundance of 9 miRNAs, with known roles in muscle physiology and some linked to cancer, in serum samples from 24 breast cancer survivors before and after a 16-week resistance training or usual care intervention...
April 26, 2018: International Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29623692/daily-muscle-stretching-enhances-blood-flow-endothelial-function-capillarity-vascular-volume-and-connectivity-in-aged-skeletal-muscle
#4
Kazuki Hotta, Bradley J Behnke, Bahram Arjmandi, Payal Ghosh, Bei Chen, Rachael Brooks, Joshua J Maraj, Marcus L Elam, Patrick Maher, Daniel Kurien, Alexandra Churchill, Jaime L Sepulveda, Max B Kabolowsky, Demetra D Christou, Judy M Muller-Delp
KEY POINTS: In aged rats, daily muscle stretching increases blood flow to skeletal muscle during exercise. Daily muscle stretching enhanced endothelium-dependent vasodilatation of skeletal muscle resistance arterioles of aged rats. Angiogenic markers and capillarity increased in response to daily stretching in muscles of aged rats. Muscle stretching performed with a splint could provide a feasible means of improving muscle blood flow and function in elderly patients who cannot perform regular aerobic exercise...
April 5, 2018: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29590537/assessing-the-mechanistic-target-of-rapamycin-complex-1-pathway-in-response-to-resistance-exercise-and-feeding-in-human-skeletal-muscle-by-multiplex-assay
#5
Chris McGlory, Everson A Nunes, Sara Y Oikawa, Evangelia Evelyn Tsakiridis, Stuart M Phillips
BACKGROUND: The mechanistic target of rapamycin complex-1 (mTORC-1) is a key nutrient and contraction-sensitive protein that regulates a pathway leading to skeletal muscle growth. Utilizing a multiplex assay, we aimed to examine the phosphorylation status of key mTORC-1-related signalling molecules in response to protein feeding and resistance exercise. METHODS: Eight healthy men (22.5 ± 3.1 yr, 80 ± 9 kg, 1-repetition maximum [1RM] leg extension: 87 ± 5 kg) performed 4 sets of unilateral leg extensions until volitional failure...
March 28, 2018: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29472733/androgen-interacts-with-exercise-through-the-mtor-pathway-to-induce-skeletal-muscle-hypertrophy
#6
Fanxing Zeng, Hua Zhao, Jingwen Liao
This study was designed to investigate the effects of exogenous androgen and resistance exercise on skeletal muscle hypertrophy and the role of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signalling during the process. A total of 24 male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to sham operation and dihydrotestosterone (DHT) implantation groups with subgroups subjected to sedentary conditions or resistance exercise (SHAM+SED, SHAM+EX, DHT+SED, and DHT+EX). The experimental procedure lasted for 10 days. The mRNA expression of androgen receptor (AR) and insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I), the expression of myosin heavy chain (MHC), as well as the phosphorylation statuses of AR, mTOR, p70 ribosomal S6 kinase (p70S6K ), and eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E-binding protein 1 (4EBP1) were determined in the white gastrocnemius muscle...
December 2017: Biology of Sport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29414855/recent-perspectives-regarding-the-role-of-dietary-protein-for-the-promotion-of-muscle-hypertrophy-with-resistance-exercise-training
#7
REVIEW
Tanner Stokes, Amy J Hector, Robert W Morton, Chris McGlory, Stuart M Phillips
Skeletal muscle supports locomotion and serves as the largest site of postprandial glucose disposal; thus it is a critical organ for physical and metabolic health. Skeletal muscle mass is regulated by the processes of muscle protein synthesis (MPS) and muscle protein breakdown (MPB), both of which are sensitive to external loading and aminoacidemia. Hyperaminoacidemia results in a robust but transient increase in rates of MPS and a mild suppression of MPB. Resistance exercise potentiates the aminoacidemia-induced rise in MPS that, when repeated over time, results in gradual radial growth of skeletal muscle (i...
February 7, 2018: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29413364/arachidonic-acid-supplementation-modulates-blood-and-skeletal-muscle-lipid-profile-with-no-effect-on-basal-inflammation-in-resistance-exercise-trained-men
#8
James F Markworth, Cameron J Mitchell, Randall F D'Souza, Kirsten M M Aasen, Brenan R Durainayagam, Sarah M Mitchell, Alex H C Chan, Andrew J Sinclair, Manohar Garg, David Cameron-Smith
Arachidonic acid (ARA), an omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA), is the metabolic precursor to the eicosanoid family of lipid mediators. Eicosanoids have potent pro-inflammatory actions, but also act as important autocrine/paracrine signaling molecules in skeletal muscle growth and development. Whether dietary ARA is incorporated into skeletal muscle phospholipids and the resulting impact on intramuscular inflammatory and adaptive processes in-vivo is not known. In the current study, resistance trained men (≥1 year) received dietary supplementation with 1...
January 2018: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29406784/resistance-training-recovers-attenuated-appl1-expression-and-improves-insulin-induced-akt-signal-activation-in-skeletal-muscle-of-type-2-diabetic-rats
#9
Kohei Kido, Satoru Ato, Takumi Yokokawa, Koji Sato, Satoshi Fujita
Adapter protein containing PH domain, PTB domain, and leucine zipper motif 1 (APPL1) has been reported as a positive regulator of insulin-stimulated Akt activation. The expression of APPL1 is reduced in skeletal muscles of type 2 diabetic (T2D) animals, implying that APPL1 may be an important factor affecting insulin sensitivity. However, the regulation of APPL1 expression and the physiological interventions modulating these effects are unclear. Accordingly, we first confirmed that APPL1 expression and Akt phosphorylation were significantly attenuated in skeletal muscles of T2D rats...
February 6, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29382913/human-skeletal-muscle-possesses-an-epigenetic-memory-of-hypertrophy
#10
Robert A Seaborne, Juliette Strauss, Matthew Cocks, Sam Shepherd, Thomas D O'Brien, Ken A van Someren, Phillip G Bell, Christopher Murgatroyd, James P Morton, Claire E Stewart, Adam P Sharples
It is unknown if adult human skeletal muscle has an epigenetic memory of earlier encounters with growth. We report, for the first time in humans, genome-wide DNA methylation (850,000 CpGs) and gene expression analysis after muscle hypertrophy (loading), return of muscle mass to baseline (unloading), followed by later hypertrophy (reloading). We discovered increased frequency of hypomethylation across the genome after reloading (18,816 CpGs) versus earlier loading (9,153 CpG sites). We also identified AXIN1, GRIK2, CAMK4, TRAF1 as hypomethylated genes with enhanced expression after loading that maintained their hypomethylated status even during unloading where muscle mass returned to control levels, indicating a memory of these genes methylation signatures following earlier hypertrophy...
January 30, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29380855/single-arm-resistance-training-study-to-determine-the-relationship-between-training-outcomes-and-muscle-growth-factor-mrnas-in-older-adults-consuming-numerous-medications-and-supplements
#11
R A Dennis, K K Garner, P M Kortebein, C M Parkes, M M Bopp, S Li, K P Padala, P R Padala, D H Sullivan
OBJECTIVES: Determine if the muscle mRNA levels of three growth factors (insulin-like growth factor-1 [IGF1], ciliary neurotropic factor [CNTF], and vascular endothelial growth factor-D [VEGFD]) are correlated with muscle size and strength gains from resistance exercise while piloting a training program in older adults taking medications and supplements for age-associated problems. DESIGN: Single-arm prospective study. SETTING: US Veterans Affairs hospital...
2018: Journal of Nutrition, Health & Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346163/the-hippo-signaling-pathway-in-the-regulation-of-skeletal-muscle-mass-and-function
#12
Kevin I Watt, Craig A Goodman, Troy A Hornberger, Paul Gregorevic
The Hippo signaling pathway regulates the activity of the proteins Yes-associated protein (Yap) and transcriptional co-activator with PDZ-binding motif (Taz) to control tissue growth in many different cell types. Previously, we demonstrated that Yap is a critical regulator of skeletal muscle mass. We hypothesize that alterations in Yap and Taz activity modulate the anabolic adaptations of skeletal muscle to resistance exercise.
April 2018: Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343183/the-acute-angiogenic-signalling-response-to-low-load-resistance-exercise-with-blood-flow-restriction
#13
Richard A Ferguson, Julie E A Hunt, Mark P Lewis, Neil R W Martin, Darren J Player, Carolin Stangier, Conor W Taylor, Mark C Turner
This study investigated protein kinase activation and gene expression of angiogenic factors in response to low-load resistance exercise with or without blood flow restriction (BFR). In a repeated measures cross-over design, six males performed four sets of bilateral knee extension exercise at 20% 1RM (reps per set = 30:15:15:continued to fatigue) with BFR (110 mmHg) and without (CON). Muscle biopsies were obtained from the vastus lateralis before, 2 and 4 h post-exercise. mRNA expression was determined using real-time RT-PCR...
January 17, 2018: European Journal of Sport Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29246115/training-the-salmon-s-genes-influence-of-aerobic-exercise-swimming-performance-and-selection-on-gene-expression-in-atlantic-salmon
#14
Nicholas A Robinson, Gerrit Timmerhaus, Matthew Baranski, Øivind Andersen, Harald Takle, Aleksei Krasnov
BACKGROUND: Farmed and wild Atlantic salmon are exposed to many infectious and non-infectious challenges that can cause mortality when they enter the sea. Exercise before transfer promotes growth, health and survival in the sea. Swimming performance in juveniles at the freshwater parr stage is positively associated with resistance to some diseases. Genetic variation is likely to affect response to exercise. In this study we map genetic differences associated with aerobic exercise, swimming performance and genetic origin...
December 15, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228887/can-whole-body-vibration-exercises-affect-growth-hormone-concentration-a-systematic-review
#15
Laisa Liane Paineiras-Domingos, Danúbia da Cunha de Sá-Caputo, Eloá Moreira-Marconi, Danielle Soares Morel, Carla da Fontoura Dionello, Cintia Renata Sousa-Gonçalves, Éric Heleno Freire Ferreira Frederico, Pedro Jesus Marín, Sofia Tamini, Alessandro Sartorio, Mario Bernardo-Filho
Whole body vibration (WBV) has been recognized as an effective alternative exercise modality to resistance exercise for its ability in enhancing force and power, generating capacity in skeletal muscle, increasing bone mass and improving cardiovascular function. Since the effect of WBV exercises on growth hormone (GH) levels has been never compared and discussed, the aim of this study was to review systematically the literature to verify the WBV effects on GH concentration. By using PubMed, Scopus and PEDRo databases with the keywords 'growth hormone' or GH and 'whole body vibration' or WBV, we found and analysed 12 papers (182 subjects recruited), verifying their level of evidence (National Health and Medical Research Council hierarchy of evidence) and the methodological quality (PEDRo scale)...
October 2017: Growth Factors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207472/effects-of-%C3%AE-hydroxy-%C3%AE-methylbutyrate-free-acid-supplementation-on-strength-power-and-hormonal-adaptations-following-resistance-training
#16
Abbas Asadi, Hamid Arazi, Katsuhiko Suzuki
BACKGROUND: β-Hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate-free acid (HMB-FA) has been ingested prior to exercise to reduce muscle damage, however the effects of HMB-FA supplementation on hormonal, strength and power adaptation are unclear. METHODS: Sixteen healthy men were matched and randomized into two groups and performed six-week resistance training while supplementing with either HMB-FA or placebo (3 g per day). The subjects were evaluated for 1 repetition maximum (1RM) bench press and leg press and vertical jump (VJ) prior to and after training intervention...
December 2, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154428/muscle-wasting-and-sarcopenia-in-heart-failure-and-beyond-update-2017
#17
REVIEW
Jochen Springer, Joshua-I Springer, Stefan D Anker
Sarcopenia (loss of muscle mass and muscle function) is a strong predictor of frailty, disability and mortality in older persons and may also occur in obese subjects. The prevalence of sarcopenia is increased in patients suffering from chronic heart failure. However, there are currently few therapy options. The main intervention is resistance exercise, either alone or in combination with nutritional support, which seems to enhance the beneficial effects of training. Also, testosterone has been shown to increased muscle power and function; however, a possible limitation is the side effects of testosterone...
November 2017: ESC Heart Failure
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123172/transcriptomic-and-epigenetic-responses-to-short-term-nutrient-exercise-stress-in-humans
#18
R C Laker, C Garde, D M Camera, W J Smiles, J R Zierath, J A Hawley, R Barrès
High fat feeding impairs skeletal muscle metabolic flexibility and induces insulin resistance, whereas exercise training exerts positive effects on substrate handling and improves insulin sensitivity. To identify the genomic mechanisms by which exercise ameliorates some of the deleterious effects of high fat feeding, we investigated the transcriptional and epigenetic response of human skeletal muscle to 9 days of a high-fat diet (HFD) alone (Sed-HFD) or in combination with resistance exercise (Ex-HFD), using genome-wide profiling of gene expression and DNA methylation...
November 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29080996/impact-of-local-heating-and-cooling-on-skeletal-muscle-transcriptional-response-related-to-myogenesis-and-proteolysis
#19
Roksana B Zak, B M Hassenstab, L K Zuehlke, M W S Heesch, R J Shute, T L Laursen, D T LaSalle, D R Slivka
PURPOSE: To determine the impact of local muscle heating and cooling on myogenic and proteolytic gene responses following resistance exercise. METHODS: Recreationally trained males (n = 12), age 25.3 ± 1.5, % body fat 13.6 ± 1.92, completed four sets of 8-12 repetitions of unilateral leg press and leg extension while heating one leg, and cooling the other. Muscle biopsies were taken from the vastus lateralis of each leg pre and 4 h post exercise. RESULTS: MyoD, FOXO1, and MuRF1 mRNA increased with exercise regardless of temperature (p < 0...
January 2018: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036766/resistance-training-increases-fibroblast-growth-factor-21-and-irisin-levels-in-the-skeletal-muscle-of-zucker-diabetic-fatty-rats
#20
Hee-Jae Kim, Wook Song
PURPOSE: Although the fibroblast growth factor-21 (FGF-21) and irisin roles are well demonstrated in metabolic disease, there have been no reports investigating the effect of resistance exercise on FGF-21 and irisin levels in diabetic skeletal muscles. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the change of FGF-21 and irisin levels in various skeletal muscles, and their association with muscle strength, following 8 weeks of resistance training using Zucker diabetic fatty rats (type 2 diabetic animal models)...
September 30, 2017: Journal of Exercise Nutrition & Biochemistry
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