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Muscle growth resistance exercise

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878131/physiological-adaptations-to-resistance-exercise-as-a-function-of-age
#1
Bethan E Phillips, John P Williams, Paul L Greenhaff, Kenneth Smith, Philip J Atherton
BACKGROUND: The impact of resistance exercise training (RE-T) across the life span is poorly defined. METHODS: To resolve this, we recruited three distinct age cohorts of young (18-28 years; n = 11), middle-aged (45-55 years; n = 20), and older (nonsarcopenic; 65-75 years; n = 17) individuals to a cross-sectional intervention study. All subjects participated in 20 weeks of fully supervised whole-body progressive RE-T, undergoing assessment of body composition, muscle and vascular function, and metabolic health biomarkers before and after RE-T...
September 7, 2017: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28861930/electrical-pulse-stimulation-an-in-vitro-exercise-model-for-the-induction-of-human-skeletal-muscle-cell-hypertrophy-a-proof-of-concept-study
#2
Janelle Tarum, Mattias Folkesson, Philip J Atherton, Fawzi Kadi
Electrical Pulse Stimulation (EPS) of muscle cells has previously been used as an in vitro exercise model. The present study aims to establish an EPS protocol promoting the hypertrophy of human muscle cells, which represents a major physiological endpoint to resistance exercise in humans. We hypothesized that adding a resting period after EPS would be critical for the occurrence of the morphological change. Myoblasts obtained from human muscle biopsies (n = 5) were differentiated into multinucleated myotubes and exposed to 8 h EPS consisting of 2 ms pulses at 12 V with a frequency of 1 Hz...
August 31, 2017: Experimental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819744/correlations-do-not-show-cause-and-effect-not-even-for-changes-in-muscle-size-and-strength
#3
Scott J Dankel, Samuel L Buckner, Matthew B Jessee, J Grant Mouser, Kevin T Mattocks, Takashi Abe, Jeremy P Loenneke
It is well known that resistance exercise results in increased muscle strength, but the cause of the improvement is not well understood. It is generally thought that initial increases in strength are caused by neurological factors, before being predominantly driven by increases in muscle size. Despite this hypothesis, there is currently no direct evidence that training-induced increases in muscle size contribute to training-induced increases in muscle strength. The evidence used to support this hypothesis is exclusively correlational analyses and these are often an afterthought using data collected to answer a different question of interest...
August 17, 2017: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801668/exercise-leads-to-unfavourable-cardiac-remodelling-and-enhanced-metabolic-homeostasis-in-obese-mice-with-cardiac-and-skeletal-muscle-autophagy-deficiency
#4
Zhen Yan, Ana Kronemberger, Jay Blomme, Jarrod A Call, Hannah M Caster, Renata O Pereira, Henan Zhao, Vitor U de Melo, Rhianna C Laker, Mei Zhang, Vitor A Lira
Autophagy is stimulated by exercise in several tissues; yet the role of skeletal and cardiac muscle-specific autophagy on the benefits of exercise training remains incompletely understood. Here, we determined the metabolic impact of exercise training in obese mice with cardiac and skeletal muscle disruption of the Autophagy related 7 gene (Atg7(h&mKO)). Muscle autophagy deficiency did not affect glucose clearance and exercise capacity in lean adult mice. High-fat diet in sedentary mice led to endoplasmic reticulum stress and aberrant mitochondrial protein expression in autophagy-deficient skeletal and cardiac muscles...
August 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776271/do-metabolites-that-are-produced-during-resistance-exercise-enhance-muscle-hypertrophy
#5
REVIEW
Scott J Dankel, Kevin T Mattocks, Matthew B Jessee, Samuel L Buckner, J Grant Mouser, Jeremy P Loenneke
Many reviews conclude that metabolites play an important role with respect to muscle hypertrophy during resistance exercise, but their actual physiologic contribution remains unknown. Some have suggested that metabolites may work independently of muscle contraction, while others have suggested that metabolites may play a secondary role in their ability to augment muscle activation via inducing fatigue. Interestingly, the studies used as support for an anabolic role of metabolites use protocols that are not actually designed to test the importance of metabolites independent of muscle contraction...
August 3, 2017: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740219/role-of-p66shc-in-skeletal-muscle-function
#6
Veronica Granatiero, Gaia Gherardi, Matteo Vianello, Elsa Salerno, Erika Zecchini, Luana Toniolo, Giorgia Pallafacchina, Marta Murgia, Bert Blaauw, Rosario Rizzuto, Cristina Mammucari
p66shc is a growth factor adaptor protein that contributes to mitochondrial ROS production. p66shc is involved in insulin signaling and its deletion exerts a protective effect against diet-induced obesity. In light of the role of skeletal muscle activity in the control of systemic metabolism and obesity, we investigated which is the contribution of p66shc in regulating muscle structure and function. Here, we show that p66shc(-/-) muscles are undistinguishable from controls in terms of size, resistance to denervation-induced atrophy, and force...
July 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704095/sarcopenia-an-endocrine-disorder
#7
Alexis McKee, John E Morley, Alvin M Matsumoto, Aaron Vinik
Sarcopenia is defined as low muscle function (walking speed or grip strength) in the presence of low muscle mass. A simple screening test - the SARC-F - is available to identify persons with sarcopenia. The major endocrine causes of sarcopenia are diabetes mellitus and male hypogonadism. Other causes are decreased physical activity, loss of motor neuron units, weight loss, inflammatory cytokines, reduced blood flow to muscles, very low 25(OH) vitamin D levels and decreased growth hormone and IGF-1. Treatment for sarcopenia includes resistance and aerobic exercise, leucine enriched essential amino acids, and vitamin D...
July 13, 2017: Endocrine Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699923/the-effects-of-moderate-versus-high-load-resistance-training-on-muscle-growth-body-composition-and-performance-in-collegiate-women
#8
Jason M Cholewa, Fabricio E Rossi, Christopher MacDonald, Amy Hewins, Samantha Gallo, Ashley Micenski, Layne Norton, Bill I Campbell
Twenty young women (20.3+1.5 years, 164+6 cm, 68.7+13.8 kg) without prior structured resistance training experience were recruited for this study. Body composition (BodPod), compartmental water (Bioelectrical Impedance), 7-site skinfold, and arm and thigh CSA were assessed pre- and post- 8 week training. Performance testing consisted of vertical jump, 3 kg chest pass initial velocity, squat 1RM and overhead press 1RM. Following 2 weeks of familiarization training, subjects were matched for body composition and relative squat strength, and randomly assigned to either a high- (HL: n=10; 4 sets of 5-7 repetitions) or moderate-load (ML: n=10; 2 sets of 10-14 repetitions) group that completed 6-7 exercises per day performed to momentary muscular failure...
June 2, 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689564/sarcopenia
#9
REVIEW
Jean Woo
Sarcopenia refers to age-related muscle loss, defined using a combination of appendicular muscle mass, muscle strength, and physical performance measures. The pathogenesis depends on a balance between positive and negative regulators of muscle growth. Sarcopenia increases the risk for falls, fractures, dependency, use of hospital services, institutionalization, poor quality of life, and mortality. In clinical practice, brief screening tools, such as the 5-item SARC-F score, may be useful. Although pharmacologic treatments are actively being studied, the current mainstay consists of optimizing nutrition status, in particular protein and vitamin D status, and resistance exercises...
August 2017: Clinics in Geriatric Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28659288/overload-mediated-skeletal-muscle-hypertrophy-is-not-impaired-by-loss-of-myofiber-stat3
#10
Joaquín Pérez-Schindler, Mary Esparza, James McKendry, Leigh Breen, Andrew Philp, Simon Schenk
Although the signal pathways mediating muscle protein synthesis and degradation are well characterized, the transcriptional processes modulating skeletal muscle mass and adaptive growth are poorly understood. Recently, studies in mouse models of muscle wasting or acutely exercised human muscle have suggested a potential role for the transcription factor, signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), in adaptive growth. Hence, in the present study we sought to define the contribution of STAT3 to skeletal muscle adaptive growth...
June 28, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630576/no-effect-of-a-whey-growth-factor-extract-during-resistance-training-on-strength-body-composition-or-hypertrophic-gene-expression-in-resistance-trained-young-men
#11
Michael J Dale, Alison M Coates, Peter R C Howe, Grant R Tomkinson, Matthew T Haren, Andrew Brown, Marissa Caldow, David Cameron-Smith, Jonathan D Buckley
Growth factors can be isolated from bovine milk to form a whey growth factor extract (WGFE). This study examined whether WGFE promoted activation of the AKT/mTOR pathway enabling increased lean tissue mass and strength in resistance trained men. Forty six men with >6 months of resistance training (RT) experience performed 12 weeks of RT. Participants consumed 20 g/day of whey protein and were randomised to receive either 1.6 g WGFE/day (WGFE; n = 22) or 1.6 g cellulose/day (control, CONT; n = 24). The primary outcome was leg press one-repetition maximum (LP1-RM) which was assessed at baseline, 6 and 12 weeks...
June 2017: Journal of Sports Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596299/postexercise-essential-amino-acid-supplementation-amplifies-skeletal-muscle-satellite-cell-proliferation-in-older-men-24%C3%A2-hours-postexercise
#12
Paul T Reidy, Christopher S Fry, Jared M Dickinson, Micah J Drummond, Blake B Rasmussen
Aged skeletal muscle has an attenuated and delayed ability to proliferate satellite cells in response to resistance exercise. The mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) signaling pathway is a focal point for cell growth, however, the effect of postexercise mTORC1 activation on human skeletal muscle satellite cell (SC) proliferation is unknown. To test the proliferative capacity of skeletal muscle SC in aging muscle to a potent mTORC1 activator (i.e., EAA; essential amino acids) we recruited older (~72y) men to conduct leg resistance exercise (8setsx10reps) without (-EAA; n = 8) and with (+EAA: n = 11) ingestion of 10 g of EAA 1 h postexercise...
June 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28553200/phase-ii-clinical-validation-of-a-powered-exoskeleton-for-the-treatment-of-elbow-spasticity
#13
Simona Crea, Marco Cempini, Stefano Mazzoleni, Maria Chiara Carrozza, Federico Posteraro, Nicola Vitiello
Introduction: Spasticity is a typical motor disorder in patients affected by stroke. Typically post-stroke rehabilitation consists of repetition of mobilization exercises on impaired limbs, aimed to reduce muscle hypertonia and mitigate spastic reflexes. It is currently strongly debated if the treatment's effectiveness improves with the timeliness of its adoption; in particular, starting intensive rehabilitation as close as possible to the stroke event may counteract the growth and postpone the onset of spasticity...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545403/long-lasting-effect-of-obesity-on-skeletal-muscle-transcriptome
#14
Ilhem Messaoudi, Mithila Handu, Maham Rais, Suhas Sureshchandra, Byung S Park, Suzanne S Fei, Hollis Wright, Ashley E White, Ruhee Jain, Judy L Cameron, Kerri M Winters-Stone, Oleg Varlamov
BACKGROUND: Reduced physical activity and increased intake of calorically-dense diets are the main risk factors for obesity, glucose intolerance, and type 2 diabetes. Chronic overnutrition and hyperglycemia can alter gene expression, contributing to long-term obesity complications. While caloric restriction can reduce obesity and glucose intolerance, it is currently unknown whether it can effectively reprogram transcriptome to a pre-obesity level. The present study addressed this question by the preliminary examination of the transcriptional dynamics in skeletal muscle after exposure to overnutrition and following caloric restriction...
May 25, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526870/time-course-responses-of-circulating-micrornas-to-three-resistance-training-protocols-in-healthy-young-men
#15
Shufang Cui, Biao Sun, Xin Yin, Xia Guo, Dingming Chao, Chunni Zhang, Chen-Yu Zhang, Xi Chen, Jizheng Ma
Circulating microRNAs (c-miRNAs) in human plasma have been described as a potential marker of exercise. The present study investigated the effects of three acute resistance training (RT) protocols on the time-course changes of the c-miRNAs profiles in young males. The subjects (n = 45) were randomly divided into three groups: muscular strength endurance (SE), muscular hypertrophy (MH) and maximum strength (MS). Venous blood samples were obtained before exercise and immediately, 1 h and 24 h after each RT protocol to assess the following biological parameters: c-miRNAs, anabolic and catabolic hormones, inflammatory cytokines and muscle damage markers...
May 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493406/beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate-supplementation-and-skeletal-muscle-in-healthy-and-muscle-wasting-conditions
#16
REVIEW
Milan Holeček
Beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate (HMB) is a metabolite of the essential amino acid leucine that has been reported to have anabolic effects on protein metabolism. The aims of this article were to summarize the results of studies of the effects of HMB on skeletal muscle and to examine the evidence for the rationale to use HMB as a nutritional supplement to exert beneficial effects on muscle mass and function in various conditions of health and disease. The data presented here indicate that the beneficial effects of HMB have been well characterized in strength-power and endurance exercise...
August 2017: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486337/hypertrophic-effects-of-concentric-vs-eccentric-muscle-actions-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#17
Brad J Schoenfeld, Dan I Ogborn, Andrew D Vigotsky, Martino V Franchi, James W Krieger
Schoenfeld, BJ, Ogborn, DI, Vigotsky, AD, Franchi, MV, and Krieger, JW. Hypertrophic effects of concentric vs. eccentric muscle actions: A systematic review and meta-analysis. J Strength Cond Res 31(9): 2599-2608, 2017-Controversy exists as to whether different dynamic muscle actions produce divergent hypertrophic responses. The purpose of this paper was to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials comparing the hypertrophic effects of concentric vs. eccentric training in healthy adults after regimented resistance training (RT)...
September 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28474561/hormones-and-sarcopenia
#18
John E Morley
Sarcopenia is defined as the loss of muscle mass associated with a loss of muscle function, e.g., walking speed. A number of consensus definitions exist for sarcopenia with cut-off points being ethnically specific. A rapid screen test (SARC-F) is available and does not require different ethnic cut-off points. Sarcopenia leads to the development of frailty, disability and mortality. The prevalence of sarcopenia varies from 1-29% in community-dwelling and 14 to 33% in long-term care populations. Hormones play a role in the development of muscle mass and in the regulation of muscle strength...
November 23, 2016: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28462123/resistance-exercise-reduced-the-expression-of-fibroblast-growth-factor-2-in-skeletal-muscle-of-aged-mice
#19
Jin-Soo Kim, Dong Hyun Yoon, Hee-Jae Kim, Mi-Jung Choi, Wook Song
BACKGROUND: Fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) protein level has been shown to be elevated in aged mice muscle compared to adult mice. It activates the satellite cell quiescence, which leads to satellite cell depletion and may accelerate aging process. The purpose of this study was to see the effect of resistance exercise on skeletal muscle FGF-2 protein level in aged mice. METHODS: This study included eight young adult control C57BL/6 male mice (age 12 weeks, YCON group) and 14 aged C57BL/6 male mice (age 19 months), randomly divided into two groups (old control, OCON, n = 7; old resistance exercise, ORT, n = 7)...
September 2016: Integrative medicine research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445110/normobaric-hypoxia-increases-the-growth-hormone-response-to-maximal-resistance-exercise-in-trained-men
#20
Dean Filopoulos, Stuart J Cormack, Douglas G Whyte
This study examined the effect of hypoxia on growth hormone (GH) release during an acute bout of high-intensity, low-volume resistance exercise. Using a single-blinded, randomised crossover design, 16 resistance-trained males completed two resistance exercise sessions in normobaric hypoxia (HYP; inspiratory oxygen fraction, (FiO2) 0.12, arterial oxygen saturation (SpO2) 82 ± 2%) and normoxia (NOR; FiO2 0.21, SpO2 98 ± 0%). Each session consisted of five sets of three repetitions of 45° leg press and bench press at 85% of one repetition maximum...
August 2017: European Journal of Sport Science
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