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Muscle growth resistance exercise

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039838/fibroblast-growth-factor-21-and-its-novel-association-with-oxidative-stress
#1
REVIEW
Miguel Ángel Gómez-Sámano, Mariana Grajales-Gómez, Julia María Zuarth-Vázquez, Ma Fernanda Navarro-Flores, Mayela Martínez-Saavedra, Óscar Alfredo Juárez-León, Mariana G Morales-García, Víctor Manuel Enríquez-Estrada, Francisco J Gómez-Pérez, Daniel Cuevas-Ramos
Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) is an endocrine-member of the FGF family. It is synthesized mainly in the liver, but it is also expressed in adipose tissue, skeletal muscle, and many other organs. It has a key role in glucose and lipid metabolism, as well as in energy balance. FGF21 concentration in plasma is increased in patients with obesity, insulin resistance, and metabolic syndrome. Recent findings suggest that such increment protects tissue from an increased oxidative stress environment. Different types of physical stress, such as strenuous exercising, lactation, diabetic nephropathy, cardiovascular disease, and critical illnesses, also increase FGF21 circulating concentration...
December 22, 2016: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028076/inorganic-nitrate-mimics-exercise-stimulated-muscular-fiber-type-switching-and-myokine-and-gaba-release
#2
Lee D Roberts, Tom Ashmore, Ben D McNally, Steven A Murfitt, Bernadette O Fernandez, Martin Feelisch, Ross Lindsay, Mario Siervo, Elizabeth A Williams, Andrew J Murray, Julian L Griffin
Exercise is an effective intervention for prevention and treatment of type 2 diabetes. Skeletal muscle combines multiple signals contributing to the beneficial effects of exercise on cardiometabolic health. Inorganic nitrate increases exercise efficiency, tolerance and performance. The transcriptional regulator peroxisome proliferator-activated receptorγ coactivator1α (PGC1α) coordinates the exercise-stimulated skeletal muscle fiber-type switch from glycolytic fast-twitch (type IIb) to oxidative slow-twitch (type I) and intermediate (type IIa) fibers; an effect reversed in insulin resistance and diabetes...
December 27, 2016: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012037/differentiating-swelling-and-hypertrophy-through-indirect-assessment-of-muscle-damage-in-untrained-men-following-repeated-bouts-of-resistance-exercise
#3
Samuel L Buckner, Scott J Dankel, Kevin T Mattocks, Matthew B Jessee, J Grant Mouser, Brittany R Counts, Gilberto C Laurentino, Jeremy P Loenneke
PURPOSE: To examine the swelling response and other markers of muscle damage throughout the early portions of a training program (Experiment 1). We also determined if a "swollen" muscle could swell further following additional exercise (Experiment 2). METHODS: Nine males performed four sets of biceps curls (or time-matched rest on control arm) at 70% of their one-repetition maximum three times over 8 days. Muscle thickness and torque were measured before and after exercise as well as on the days in between...
December 24, 2016: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28005636/exercise-induced-hormone-elevations-are-related-to-muscle-growth
#4
Gerald T Mangine, Jay R Hoffman, Adam M Gonzalez, Jeremy R Townsend, Adam J Wells, Adam R Jajtner, Kyle S Beyer, Carleigh H Boone, Ran Wang, Amelia A Miramonti, Michael B LaMonica, David H Fukuda, E Lea Witta, Nicholas A Ratamess, Jeffrey R Stout
Mangine, GT, Hoffman, JR, Gonzalez, AM, Townsend, JR, Wells, AJ, Jajtner, AR, Beyer, KS, Boone, CH, Wang, R, Miramonti, AA, LaMonica, MB, Fukuda, DH, Witta, EL, Ratamess, NA, and Stout, JR. Exercise-induced hormone elevations are related to muscle growth. J Strength Cond Res 31(1): 45-53, 2017-Partial least squares regression structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM) was used to examine relationships between the endocrine response to resistance exercise and muscle hypertrophy in resistance-trained men. Pretesting (PRE) measures of muscle size (thickness and cross-sectional area) of the vastus lateralis and rectus femoris were collected in 26 resistance-trained men...
January 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28002685/effects-of-blood-flow-restriction-on-biomarkers-of-myogenesis-in-response-to-resistance-exercise
#5
Andrew S Layne, Kelly Larkin-Kaiser, R Gavin MacNeil, Marvin Dirain, Bhanuprasad Sandesara, Todd M Manini, Thomas W Buford
We investigated the acute myogenic response to resistance exercise with and without blood-flow restriction (BFR). Six men and women (age, 22 ± 1 years) performed unilateral knee extensions at 40% of 1-repetition maximum with or without (CNTRL) BFR applied via pressure cuff inflated to 220 mm Hg. Muscle biopsies were collected at 4 h and 24 h postexercise. Addition of BFR increased myoD and c-Met messenger RNA expression relative to CNTRL. Expression of hepatocyte growth factor protein was significantly higher following CNTRL...
January 2017: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932674/metabolic-adaptations-in-skeletal-muscle-after-84-days-of-bed-rest-with-and-without-concurrent-flywheel-resistance-exercise
#6
José M Irimia, Mario Guerrero, Paula Rodriguez-Miguelez, Joan A Cadefau, Per A Tesch, Roser Cussó, Rodrigo Fernandez-Gonzalo
As metabolic changes in human skeletal muscle after long-term (simulated) spaceflight are not well understood, this study examined the effects of long-term microgravity, with and without concurrent resistance exercise, on skeletal muscle oxidative and glycolytic capacity. Twenty-one men were subjected to 84 days head-down tilt bed rest with (BRE; n = 9) or without (BR; n = 12) concurrent flywheel resistance exercise. Activity and gene expression of glycogen synthase, glycogen phosphorylase (GPh), hexokinase, phosphofructokinase-1 (PFK-1), and citrate synthase (CS), as well as gene expression of succinate dehydrogenase (SDH), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEFG), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1 (PGC-1α), and myostatin, were analyzed in samples from m...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897408/muscle-fibre-capillarization-is-a-critical-factor-in-muscle-fibre-hypertrophy-during-resistance-exercise-training-in-older-men
#7
Tim Snijders, Joshua P Nederveen, Sophie Joanisse, Marika Leenders, Lex B Verdijk, Luc J C van Loon, Gianni Parise
BACKGROUND: Adequate muscle fibre perfusion is critical for the maintenance of muscle mass; it is essential in the rapid delivery of oxygen, nutrients and growth factors to the muscle, stimulating muscle fibre growth. Muscle fibre capillarization is known to decrease substantially with advancing age. However, whether (relative) low muscle fibre capillarization negatively impacts the muscle hypertrophic response following resistance exercise training in older adults is unknown. METHODS: Twenty-two healthy older men (71 ± 1 years) performed 24 weeks of progressive resistance type exercise training...
August 4, 2016: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888112/satellite-cell-activation-induced-by-aerobic-muscle-adaptation-in-response-to-endurance-exercise-in-humans-and-rodents
#8
REVIEW
Phablo Abreu, Sávio Victor Diógenes Mendes, Vânia Marilande Ceccatto, Sandro Massao Hirabara
Although the requirement of satellite cells activation and expansion following injury, mechanical load or growth stimulus provoked by resistance exercise has been well established, their function in response to aerobic exercise adaptation remains unclear. A clear relationship between satellite cell expansion in fiber-type specific myosin heavy chain and aerobic performance has been related, independent of myonuclear accretion or muscle growth. However, the trigger for this activation process is not fully understood yet and it seems to be a multi-faceted and well-orchestrated process...
November 22, 2016: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875635/muscle-adaptations-following-21-consecutive-days-of-strength-test-familiarization-compared-with-traditional-training
#9
Scott J Dankel, Brittany R Counts, Brian E Barnett, Samuel L Buckner, Takashi Abe, Jeremy P Loenneke
INTRODUCTION: Large increases in 1-repetition maximum (1RM) strength have been demonstrated from repeated testing, but it is unknown whether these increases can be augmented by resistance training. METHODS: Five trained individuals performed a 1RM test and maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVC) for unilateral elbow flexion exercise on 1 arm (testing arm), while the other arm performed a 1RM test and MVC, in addition to 3 sets of exercise (70% 1RM) (training arm) for 21 straight days...
November 22, 2016: Muscle & Nerve
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870699/resistance-training-alters-the-proportion-of-skeletal-muscle-fibers-but-not-brain-neurotrophic-factors-in-young-adult-rats
#10
José Antonio-Santos, Diórginis José S Ferreira, Gizelle L Gomes Costa, Rhowena Jane B Matos, Ana E Toscano, Raul Manhães-de-Castro, Carol G Leandro
Antonio-Santos, J, Ferreira, DJS, Gomes Costa, GL, Matos, RJB, Toscano, AE, Manhães-de-Castro, R, and Leandro, CG. Resistance training alters the proportion of skeletal muscle fibers but not brain neurotrophic factors in young adult rats. J Strength Cond Res 30(12): 3531-3538, 2016-Resistance training (RT) is related to improved muscular strength and power output. Different programs of RT for rats have been developed, but peripheral and central response has not been evaluated directly in the same animal. To test the hypothesis that RT induces central and peripheral adaptations, this study evaluated the effects of a RT on the performance of a weekly maximum overload test, fiber-type typology, and brain neurotrophic factors in young adult rats...
December 2016: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865349/whey-protein-increases-muscle-weight-gain-through-inhibition-of-oxidative-effects-induced-by-resistance-exercise-in-rats
#11
Kely R Teixeira, Marcelo E Silva, Wanderson G de Lima, Maria L Pedrosa, Fabiano K Haraguchi
Whey protein (WP) is known for its nutritional value and antioxidant properties. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the antioxidant properties of WP could contribute to muscle weight gain in response to resistance exercise (RE). We hypothesized that WP ingestion could increase muscle weight gain in rats subjected to an RE program, through inhibition of oxidative effects induced by high-intensity RE. Thirty-two male Fischer rats were randomly assigned to control sedentary, control exercised, WP sedentary, and WP exercised groups (n=8/group)...
October 2016: Nutrition Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863277/vitamin-d-supplementation-affects-the-igf-system-in-men-after-acute-exercise
#12
Rachel L Darr, Kathleen J Savage, Mark Baker, Gregory E Wilding, Amy Raswalsky, Todd Rideout, Richard W Browne, Peter J Horvath
OBJECTIVE: Contradictory data between the Insulin-Like Growth Factor System (IGF) system and exercise may be due to alteration in IGF binding proteins. Vitamin D (D) deficiency has been related to muscle weakness and Insulin Like Growth Factor Binding Protein 3 (IGFBP3). A Vit. D and acute exercise merge is proposed to modify the IGF system. DESIGN: D insufficient and deficient men (39.0±8.6yo with serum D (25OH D) 20.0±7.7ng/mL) did 1h of stretching (ST), aerobic (AB), and resistance (RT) exercises, before and after 28d of 4000IU/d Vit...
October 2016: Growth Hormone & IGF Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856715/highlighted-topics-recovery-from-exercise-recovery-responses-of-testosterone-growth-hormone-and-igf-1-after-resistance-exercise
#13
William J Kraemer, Nicholas A Ratamess, Bradley C Nindl
The complexity of the endocrine pathways during recovery related to anabolic function belie an over simplistic approach to its study. This review is to examines the role of resistance exercise (RE) on the recovery responses of three major anabolic hormones testosterone, growth hormone(s) and insulin-like growth factor-I. Each hormone has a complexity related to differential pathways of action as well as interactions with binding proteins and receptor interactions. Testosterone is the primary anabolic hormone and its concentration changes during the recovery period depending upon the up- or down-regulation of the androgen receptor...
November 17, 2016: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27845200/a-combination-of-korean-mistletoe-extract-and-resistance-exercise-retarded-the-decline-in-muscle-mass-and-strength-in-the-elderly-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#14
Nam Ju Lim, Jun Ho Shin, Hye Jin Kim, Yeni Lim, Ji Yeon Kim, Won Jun Lee, Soo Jeong Han, Oran Kwon
Given the increased concerns about the degenerative decline in the physical performance of the elderly, there is a need for developing effective strategies to suppress the age-related loss of skeletal muscle mass and functional capacity through a lifestyle intervention. This randomized controlled trial examined whether a combination of Korean mistletoe extract (KME) supplement and exercise affected muscle mass, muscle function, and targeted molecular expressions. Sixty-seven subjects aged 55-75years were assigned to placebo, low-dose (1g/d), or high-dose (2g/d) of KME for 12weeks...
January 2017: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27752983/frequency-the-overlooked-resistance-training-variable-for-inducing-muscle-hypertrophy
#15
Scott J Dankel, Kevin T Mattocks, Matthew B Jessee, Samuel L Buckner, J Grant Mouser, Brittany R Counts, Gilberto C Laurentino, Jeremy P Loenneke
The principle of progressive overload must be adhered to for individuals to continually increase muscle size with resistance training. While the majority of trained individuals adhere to this principle by increasing the number of sets performed per exercise session, this does not appear to be an effective method for increasing muscle size once a given threshold is surpassed. Opposite the numerous studies examining differences in training loads and sets of exercise performed, a few studies have assessed the importance of training frequency with respect to muscle growth, none of which have tested very high frequencies of training (e...
October 17, 2016: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27717161/the-problem-of-muscle-hypertrophy-revisited
#16
Samuel L Buckner, Scott J Dankel, Kevin T Mattocks, Matthew B Jessee, J Grant Mouser, Brittany R Counts, Jeremy P Loenneke
In this paper we revisit a topic originally discussed in 1955, namely the lack of direct evidence that muscle hypertrophy from exercise plays an important role in increasing strength. To this day, long-term adaptations in strength are thought to be primarily contingent on changes in muscle size. Given this assumption, there has been considerable attention placed on programs designed to allow for maximization of both muscle size and strength. However, the conclusion that a change in muscle size affects a change in strength is surprisingly based on little evidence...
December 2016: Muscle & Nerve
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27694473/simvastatin-prevents-and-reverses-chronic-pulmonary-hypertension-in-newborn-rats-via-pleiotropic-inhibition-of-rhoa-signaling
#17
Mathew J Wong, Crystal Kantores, Julijana Ivanovska, Amish Jain, Robert P Jankov
Chronic neonatal pulmonary hypertension (PHT) frequently results in early death. Systemically administered Rho-kinase (ROCK) inhibitors prevent and reverse chronic PHT in neonatal rats, but at the cost of severe adverse effects, including systemic hypotension and growth restriction. Simvastatin has pleiotropic inhibitory effects on isoprenoid intermediates that may limit activity of RhoA, which signals upstream of ROCK. We therefore hypothesized that statin treatment would safely limit pulmonary vascular RhoA activity and prevent and reverse experimental chronic neonatal PHT via downstream inhibitory effects on pathological ROCK activity...
September 30, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27650251/cycle-training-modulates-satellite-cell-and-transcriptional-responses-to-a-bout-of-resistance-exercise
#18
Kevin A Murach, R Grace Walton, Christopher S Fry, Sami L Michaelis, Jason S Groshong, Brian S Finlin, Philip A Kern, Charlotte A Peterson
This investigation evaluated whether moderate-intensity cycle ergometer training affects satellite cell and molecular responses to acute maximal concentric/eccentric resistance exercise in middle-aged women. Baseline and 72 h postresistance exercise vastus lateralis biopsies were obtained from seven healthy middle-aged women (56 ± 5 years, BMI 26 ± 1, VO2max 27 ± 4) before and after 12 weeks of cycle training. Myosin heavy chain (MyHC) I- and II-associated satellite cell density and cross-sectional area was determined via immunohistochemistry...
September 2016: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27587568/orai1-enhances-muscle-endurance-by-promoting-fatigue-resistant-type-i-fiber-content-but-not-through-acute-store-operated-ca2-entry
#19
Ellie M Carrell, Aundrea R Coppola, Helen J McBride, Robert T Dirksen
Orai1 is a transmembrane protein that forms homomeric, calcium-selective channels activated by stromal interaction molecule 1 (STIM1) after depletion of intracellular calcium stores. In adult skeletal muscle, depletion of sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium activates STIM1/Orai1-dependent store-operated calcium entry. Here, we used constitutive and inducible muscle-specific Orai1-knockout (KO) mice to determine the acute and long-term developmental effects of Orai1 ablation on muscle structure and function. Skeletal muscles from constitutive, muscle-specific Orai-KO mice exhibited normal postnatal growth and fiber type differentiation...
December 2016: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27583459/the-differential-hormonal-milieu-of-morning-versus-evening-may-have-an-impact-on-muscle-hypertrophic-potential
#20
Simon D Burley, Jayde Whittingham-Dowd, Jeremy Allen, Jean-Francois Grosset, Gladys L Onambele-Pearson
Substantial gains in muscle strength and hypertrophy are clearly associated with the routine performance of resistance training. What is less evident is the optimal timing of the resistance training stimulus to elicit these significant functional and structural skeletal muscle changes. Therefore, this investigation determined the impact of a single bout of resistance training performed either in the morning or evening upon acute anabolic signalling (insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3), myogenic index and differentiation) and catabolic processes (cortisol)...
2016: PloS One
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