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Nutritional ketosis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861911/metabolism-of-ketone-bodies-during-exercise-and-training-physiological-basis-for-exogenous-supplementation
#1
Mark Evans, Karl E Cogan, Brendan Egan
Optimising training and performance through nutrition strategies is central to supporting elite sportspeople, much of which has focussed on manipulating the relative intake of carbohydrate and fat and their contributions as fuels for energy provision. The ketone bodies, namely acetoacetate, acetone, and β-hydroxybutyrate (βHB), are produced in the liver during conditions of reduced carbohydrate availability and serve as an alternative fuel source for peripheral tissues including brain, heart and skeletal muscle...
November 10, 2016: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27716805/how-metabolic-diseases-impact-the-use-of-antimicrobials-a-formal-demonstration-in-the-field-of-veterinary-medicine
#2
Didier Raboisson, Maxime Barbier, Elise Maigné
Decreasing the use of antimicrobials has become a primary objective for both human and veterinary medicine in many countries. Medical prevention and good nutrition are seen as key parameters for reducing antimicrobial use. However, little consideration has been given to how metabolic diseases may influence the use of antimicrobials in humans and animals through limiting the prevalence and severity of infectious diseases. To quantify this relationship using the example of a common metabolic disease in dairy cows (subclinical ketosis, SCK), we constructed a stochastic model reporting the total quantity of curative antimicrobials for a given population with the prevalence of cows at risk for SCK...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27663364/periparturient-immunosuppression-and-strategies-to-improve-dairy-cow-health-during-the-periparturient-period
#3
REVIEW
J W Aleri, B C Hine, M F Pyman, P D Mansell, W J Wales, B Mallard, A D Fisher
Common health problems observed during peripartum include milk fever, mastitis, fatty liver disease, ketosis, dystocia, retained placenta, metritis, hypomagnesaemia and abomasal displacements. The increased incidence of health problems observed during the periparturient period can be partly attributed to suboptimal immune responses. Factors contributing to decreased periparturient immunity include the act of parturition itself, impaired leukocytic activity, effects of colostrogenesis and lactogenesis, and associated hypocalcemia and negative energy balance...
October 2016: Research in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27651671/rumen-protected-choline-a-significance-effect-on-dairy-cattle-nutrition
#4
REVIEW
G Jayaprakash, M Sathiyabarathi, M Arokia Robert, T Tamilmani
Choline is a vitamin-like substance it has multi-function in animal production, reproduction, and health. The transition period is most crucial stage in lactation cycle of dairy cows due to its association with negative hormonal and energy balances. Unfortunately, unprotected choline easily degrades in the rumen; therefore, choline added to the diet in a rumen-protected form. The use of rumen-protected choline (RPC) is a preventive measurement for the fatty liver syndrome and ketosis; may improve milk production as well as milk composition and reproduction parameters...
August 2016: Veterinary World
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27626197/fueling-performance-ketones-enter-the-mix
#5
Brendan Egan, Dominic P D'Agostino
Ketone body metabolites serve as alternative energy substrates during prolonged fasting, calorie restriction, or reduced carbohydrate (CHO) availability. Using a ketone ester supplement, Cox et al. (2016) demonstrate that acute nutritional ketosis alters substrate utilization patterns during exercise, reduces lactate production, and improves time-trial performance in elite cyclists.
September 13, 2016: Cell Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27475046/nutritional-ketosis-alters-fuel-preference-and-thereby-endurance-performance-in-athletes
#6
Pete J Cox, Tom Kirk, Tom Ashmore, Kristof Willerton, Rhys Evans, Alan Smith, Andrew J Murray, Brianna Stubbs, James West, Stewart W McLure, M Todd King, Michael S Dodd, Cameron Holloway, Stefan Neubauer, Scott Drawer, Richard L Veech, Julian L Griffin, Kieran Clarke
Ketosis, the metabolic response to energy crisis, is a mechanism to sustain life by altering oxidative fuel selection. Often overlooked for its metabolic potential, ketosis is poorly understood outside of starvation or diabetic crisis. Thus, we studied the biochemical advantages of ketosis in humans using a ketone ester-based form of nutrition without the unwanted milieu of endogenous ketone body production by caloric or carbohydrate restriction. In five separate studies of 39 high-performance athletes, we show how this unique metabolic state improves physical endurance by altering fuel competition for oxidative respiration...
August 9, 2016: Cell Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27430501/ketone-bodies-and-exercise-performance-the-next-magic-bullet-or-merely-hype
#7
Philippe J M Pinckaers, Tyler A Churchward-Venne, David Bailey, Luc J C van Loon
Elite athletes and coaches are in a constant search for training methods and nutritional strategies to support training and recovery efforts that may ultimately maximize athletes' performance. Recently, there has been a re-emerging interest in the role of ketone bodies in exercise metabolism, with considerable media speculation about ketone body supplements being routinely used by professional cyclists. Ketone bodies can serve as an important energy substrate under certain conditions, such as starvation, and can modulate carbohydrate and lipid metabolism...
July 18, 2016: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27383919/providing-oral-nutrition-to-women-in-labor-american-college-of-nurse-midwives
#8
(no author information available yet)
Historically, oral intake for women during labor has been limited to nothing by mouth or clear liquids only. These restrictions are based on the risk of aspiration during or after the administration of general anesthesia. While aspiration can be life threatening, older methods of anesthesia are rarely used in current intrapartum care, and evidence is inconclusive that withholding oral nutrition reduces the risk of gastric aspiration. Additionally, withholding oral nutrition may result in the development of ketosis and may potentially contribute to a woman's stress and dissatisfaction with the birth experience...
July 2016: Journal of Midwifery & Women's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27138530/the-role-of-rumen-protected-choline-in-hepatic-function-and-performance-of-transition-dairy-cows
#9
Arash Shahsavari, Michael J D'Occhio, Rafat Al Jassim
High-producing dairy cows enter a period of negative energy balance during the first weeks of lactation. Energy intake is usually sufficient to cover the increase in energy requirements for fetal growth during the period before calving, but meeting the demand for energy is often difficult during the early stages of lactation. A catabolic state predominates during the transition period, leading to the mobilisation of energy reserves (NEFA and amino acids) that are utilised mainly by the liver and muscle. Increased uptake of mobilised NEFA by the liver, combined with the limited capacity of hepatocytes to either oxidise fatty acids for energy or to incorporate esterified fatty acids into VLDL results in fatty liver syndrome and ketosis...
July 2016: British Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26855664/effects-of-exogenous-ketone-supplementation-on-blood-ketone-glucose-triglyceride-and-lipoprotein-levels-in-sprague-dawley-rats
#10
Shannon L Kesl, Angela M Poff, Nathan P Ward, Tina N Fiorelli, Csilla Ari, Ashley J Van Putten, Jacob W Sherwood, Patrick Arnold, Dominic P D'Agostino
BACKGROUND: Nutritional ketosis induced by the ketogenic diet (KD) has therapeutic applications for many disease states. We hypothesized that oral administration of exogenous ketone supplements could produce sustained nutritional ketosis (>0.5 mM) without carbohydrate restriction. METHODS: We tested the effects of 28-day administration of five ketone supplements on blood glucose, ketones, and lipids in male Sprague-Dawley rats. The supplements included: 1,3-butanediol (BD), a sodium/potassium β-hydroxybutyrate (βHB) mineral salt (BMS), medium chain triglyceride oil (MCT), BMS + MCT 1:1 mixture, and 1,3 butanediol acetoacetate diester (KE)...
2016: Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26830740/nutritional-strategies-to-optimize-dairy-cattle-immunity
#11
L M Sordillo
Dairy cattle are susceptible to increased incidence and severity of both metabolic and infectious diseases during the periparturient period. A major contributing factor to increased health disorders is alterations in bovine immune mechanisms. Indeed, uncontrolled inflammation is a major contributing factor and a common link among several economically important infectious and metabolic diseases including mastitis, retained placenta, metritis, displaced abomasum, and ketosis. The nutritional status of dairy cows and the metabolism of specific nutrients are critical regulators of immune cell function...
June 2016: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26766547/can-ketones-compensate-for-deteriorating-brain-glucose-uptake-during-aging-implications-for-the-risk-and-treatment-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#12
Stephen C Cunnane, Alexandre Courchesne-Loyer, Valérie St-Pierre, Camille Vandenberghe, Tyler Pierotti, Mélanie Fortier, Etienne Croteau, Christian-Alexandre Castellano
Brain glucose uptake is impaired in Alzheimer's disease (AD). A key question is whether cognitive decline can be delayed if this brain energy defect is at least partly corrected or bypassed early in the disease. The principal ketones (also called ketone bodies), β-hydroxybutyrate and acetoacetate, are the brain's main physiological alternative fuel to glucose. Three studies in mild-to-moderate AD have shown that, unlike with glucose, brain ketone uptake is not different from that in healthy age-matched controls...
March 2016: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26451842/alterations-in-hepatic-fgf21-co-regulated-genes-and-upstream-metabolic-genes-in-response-to-nutrition-ketosis-and-inflammation-in-peripartal-holstein-cows
#13
Haji Akbar, Fernanda Batistel, James K Drackley, Juan J Loor
In rodents, fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) has emerged as a key metabolic regulator produced by liver. To gather preliminary data on the potential importance of FGF1, co-regulated genes, and upstream metabolic genes, we examined the hepatic mRNA expression in response to nutrition and inflammation in dairy cows. In experiment 1, induction of ketosis through feed restriction on d 5 postpartum upregulated FGF21, its co-receptor KLB, and PPARA but only elicited a numerical increase in serum FGF21 concentration...
2015: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26164745/the-adverse-effect-of-4-tert-octylphenol-on-fat-metabolism-in-pregnant-rats-via-regulation-of-lipogenic-proteins
#14
Jun Kim, Eun-Jin Kang, Mee-Na Park, Ji-Eun Kim, Seung-Chul Kim, Eui-Bae Jeung, Geun-Shik Lee, Dae-Youn Hwang, Beum-Soo An
Alkylphenols such as 4-tert-octylphenol (OP), nonylphenol, and bisphenol A are classified as endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs). Digestion and metabolism of food are controlled by many endocrine factors, including insulin, glucagon, and estrogen. These factors are differentially regulated during pregnancy. The alteration of nutritional intake and fat metabolism may affect the maintenance of pregnancy and supplementation of nutrients to the fetus, and therefore can cause severe metabolic diseases such as ketosis, marasmus and diabetes mellitus in pregnant individuals...
July 2015: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26074408/screening-for-ketosis-using-multiple-logistic-regression-based-on-milk-yield-and-composition
#15
Mitsunori Kayano, Tomoko Kataoka
Multiple logistic regression was applied to milk yield and composition data for 632 records of healthy cows and 61 records of ketotic cows in Hokkaido, Japan. The purpose was to diagnose ketosis based on milk yield and composition, simultaneously. The cows were divided into two groups: (1) multiparous, including 314 healthy cows and 45 ketotic cows and (2) primiparous, including 318 healthy cows and 16 ketotic cows, since nutritional status, milk yield and composition are affected by parity. Multiple logistic regression was applied to these groups separately...
November 2015: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25395047/fibrocalculous-pancreatic-diabetes-fcpd
#16
REVIEW
Ranjit Unnikrishnan, Viswanathan Mohan
Fibrocalculous pancreatic diabetes (FCPD) is an uncommon form of diabetes that occurs as a result of chronic calcific pancreatitis, in the absence of alcohol abuse. The disease is restricted to tropical regions of the world, and southern India has the highest known prevalence of FCPD. The typical patient with FCPD is a lean adolescent or young adult of either sex, presenting with history of recurrent bouts of abdominal pain and steatorrhea. Demonstration of large, discrete pancreatic calculi by plain radiographs or ultrasonography of the abdomen is diagnostic...
February 2015: Acta Diabetologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25379174/acute-nutritional-ketosis-implications-for-exercise-performance-and-metabolism
#17
REVIEW
Pete J Cox, Kieran Clarke
Ketone bodies acetoacetate (AcAc) and D-β-hydroxybutyrate (βHB) may provide an alternative carbon source to fuel exercise when delivered acutely in nutritional form. The metabolic actions of ketone bodies are based on sound evolutionary principles to prolong survival during caloric deprivation. By harnessing the potential of these metabolic actions during exercise, athletic performance could be influenced, providing a useful model for the application of ketosis in therapeutic conditions. This article examines the energetic implications of ketone body utilisation with particular reference to exercise metabolism and substrate energetics...
2014: Extreme Physiology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25364576/restricting-carbohydrates-to-fight-head-and-neck-cancer-is-this-realistic
#18
REVIEW
Rainer J Klement
Head and neck cancers (HNCs) are aggressive tumors that typically demonstrate a high glycolytic rate, which results in resistance to cytotoxic therapy and poor prognosis. Due to their location these tumors specifically impair food intake and quality of life, so that prevention of weight loss through nutrition support becomes an important treatment goal. Dietary restriction of carbohydrates (CHOs) and their replacement with fat, mostly in form of a ketogenic diet (KD), have been suggested to accommodate for both the altered tumor cell metabolism and cancer-associated weight loss...
September 2014: Cancer Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25353003/cardiomyocyte-specific-deficiency-of-ketone-body-metabolism-promotes-accelerated-pathological-remodeling
#19
Rebecca C Schugar, Ashley R Moll, D André d'Avignon, Carla J Weinheimer, Attila Kovacs, Peter A Crawford
OBJECTIVE: Exploitation of protective metabolic pathways within injured myocardium still remains an unclarified therapeutic target in heart disease. Moreover, while the roles of altered fatty acid and glucose metabolism in the failing heart have been explored, the influence of highly dynamic and nutritionally modifiable ketone body metabolism in the regulation of myocardial substrate utilization, mitochondrial bioenergetics, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, and hemodynamic response to injury remains undefined...
October 2014: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25275931/rethinking-fat-as-a-fuel-for-endurance-exercise
#20
REVIEW
Jeff S Volek, Timothy Noakes, Stephen D Phinney
A key element contributing to deteriorating exercise capacity during physically demanding sport appears to be reduced carbohydrate availability coupled with an inability to effectively utilize alternative lipid fuel sources. Paradoxically, cognitive and physical decline associated with glycogen depletion occurs in the presence of an over-abundance of fuel stored as body fat that the athlete is apparently unable to access effectively. Current fuelling tactics that emphasize high-carbohydrate intakes before and during exercise inhibit fat utilization...
2015: European Journal of Sport Science
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