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Nutritional ketosis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688615/innovative-dairy-cow-management-to-improve-resistance-to-metabolic-and-infectious-diseases-during-the-transition-period
#1
REVIEW
P Lacasse, N Vanacker, S Ollier, C Ster
The incidence of metabolic and infectious diseases varies greatly during the lactation cycle. Most new cases of clinical mastitis appear at the beginning of lactation, and the incidence increases with the level of milk production. In addition to mastitis, many other infectious diseases become clinically apparent during the first 2weeks of lactation. During this time, cows are in a negative energy balance and must mobilize body reserves to balance the deficit between food energy intake and energy required for milk production...
June 27, 2017: Research in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599043/ketones-and-human-performance
#2
Jonathan M Scott, Patricia A Deuster
Everyone is seeking nutritional strategies that might benefit performance. One approach receiving much attention is ketones, or ketosis. Ketones are very simple compounds made of hydrogen, carbon, and oxygen, and ketosis is a metabolic state whereby the body uses predominantly ketones. Ketosis can be achieved by fasting for longer than 72 hours or by following a very lowcarbohydrate, high-fat diet (ketogenic diet) for several days to weeks. Alternatively, ketone supplements purportedly induce ketosis rapidly and do not require strict adherence to any specific type of diet; however, much of the touted benefits are anecdotal...
2017: Journal of Special Operations Medicine: a Peer Reviewed Journal for SOF Medical Professionals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588304/plasma-fgf21-levels-in-obese-patients-undergoing-energy-restricted-diets-or-bariatric-surgery-a-marker-of-metabolic-stress
#3
A B Crujeiras, D Gomez-Arbelaez, M A Zulet, M C Carreira, I Sajoux, D de Luis, A I Castro, J Baltar, I Baamonde, A Sueiro, M Macias-Gonzalez, D Bellido, F J Tinahones, J A Martinez, F F Casanueva
BACKGROUND: Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) has been suggested to be an endocrine signal of nutritional status and an active regulator of metabolism. However, there is no agreement on the effect of weight-loss therapies on circulating levels of FGF21 in humans. OBJECTIVE: To assess FGF21 circulating levels in adiposity excess and after different weight-loss strategies prescribed in five different groups from four independent centers. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Body composition, ketosis, insulin sensitivity and FGF21 were evaluated in 181 excess body weight and 14 normal-weight subjects...
June 7, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28555095/nutritional-ketosis-affects-metabolism-and-behavior-in-sprague-dawley-rats-in-both-control-and-chronic-stress-environments
#4
Milene L Brownlow, Seung H Jung, Raquel J Moore, Naomi Bechmann, Ryan Jankord
Nutritional ketosis may enhance cerebral energy metabolism and has received increased interest as a way to improve or preserve performance and resilience. Most studies to date have focused on metabolic or neurological disorders while anecdotal evidence suggests that ketosis may enhance performance in the absence of underlying dysfunction. Moreover, decreased availability of glucose in the brain following stressful events is associated with impaired cognition, suggesting the need for more efficient energy sources...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382302/economic-synergy-between-dry-cow-diet-improvement-and-monensin-bolus-use-to-prevent-subclinical-ketosis-an-experimental-demonstration-based-on-available-literature
#5
Didier Raboisson, Maxime Barbier
The prevention of subclinical ketosis (SCK) is based on maintaining adequate nutrition in dairy cows during the dry period and close to calving. Recently, an oral-route monensin bolus to prevent SCK was approved in Europe. The present study aims to define the allocation of resources for SCK management at the herd level and evaluate the profitability of administering monensin boluses in cows at risk for SCK. A stochastic model was used to calculate the total cost of SCK for a population with a given prevalence of cows at risk for SCK...
2017: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294105/breath-acetone-as-a-potential-marker-in-clinical-practice
#6
Vera Ruzsanyi, Miklós Kalapos
In recent decades, two facts have changed the opinion of researchers about the function of acetone in humans. Firstly, it has turned out that acetone cannot be regarded as simply a waste product of metabolism, because there are several pathways in which acetone is produced or broken down. Secondly, methods have emerged making possible its detection in exhaled breath, thereby offering an attractive alternative to investigation of blood and urine samples. From a clinical point of view the measurement of breath acetone levels are important, but there are limitations to its wide application...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Breath Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28041921/rising-trend-of-diabetes-mellitus-amongst-the-undernourished-state-of-the-art-review
#7
REVIEW
Nimmy K Francis, Harpreet S Pawar, Anirban Mitra, Analava Mitra
Diabetes mellitus is prevailing in the malnourished populations congruently in well-nourished ones with an escalating trend in the former group regardless of the absence of obesity as an etiologic determining factor as per the studies in underprivileged sectors of the population. Chronic undernutrition across a lifetime may be an imperative stimulator of diabetes in an individual either by progressively reducing beta cell function alongside islet cell volume and increasing the individual predisposition to other genetic or environmental diabetogenic influences with modifying influence on the course of clinical syndrome...
December 23, 2016: Diabetes & Metabolic Syndrome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27999529/exogenous-ketone-supplements-reduce-anxiety-related-behavior-in-sprague-dawley-and-wistar-albino-glaxo-rijswijk-rats
#8
Csilla Ari, Zsolt Kovács, Gabor Juhasz, Cem Murdun, Craig R Goldhagen, Andrew M Koutnik, Angela M Poff, Shannon L Kesl, Dominic P D'Agostino
Nutritional ketosis has been proven effective for seizure disorders and other neurological disorders. The focus of this study was to determine the effects of ketone supplementation on anxiety-related behavior in Sprague-Dawley (SPD) and Wistar Albino Glaxo/Rijswijk (WAG/Rij) rats. We tested exogenous ketone supplements added to food and fed chronically for 83 days in SPD rats and administered sub-chronically for 7 days in both rat models by daily intragastric gavage bolus followed by assessment of anxiety measures on elevated plus maze (EPM)...
2016: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27975191/significance-of-insulin-resistance-and-oxidative-stress-in-dairy-cattle-with-subclinical-ketosis-during-the-transition-period
#9
REVIEW
Mohamed Youssef, Maged El-Ashker
Health problems occurring during the transition period in dairy cattle are of utmost importance as they can decrease the animal's reproductive performance and favor the development of various metabolic diseases with resultant significant reproductive disorders. Among the commonly reported metabolic diseases occurring during that time, hyperketonemia is the most prevalent and could provoke a significant economic impact. The failing of a dairy cow to transit optimally between pregnancy and lactation is economically very relevant and should be considered...
February 2017: Tropical Animal Health and Production
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861911/metabolism-of-ketone-bodies-during-exercise-and-training-physiological-basis-for-exogenous-supplementation
#10
Mark Evans, Karl E Cogan, Brendan Egan
Optimising training and performance through nutrition strategies is central to supporting elite sportspeople, much of which has focused on manipulating the relative intake of carbohydrate and fat and their contributions as fuels for energy provision. The ketone bodies, namely acetoacetate, acetone and β-hydroxybutyrate (βHB), are produced in the liver during conditions of reduced carbohydrate availability and serve as an alternative fuel source for peripheral tissues including brain, heart and skeletal muscle...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27716805/how-metabolic-diseases-impact-the-use-of-antimicrobials-a-formal-demonstration-in-the-field-of-veterinary-medicine
#11
Didier Raboisson, Maxime Barbier, Elise Maigné
Decreasing the use of antimicrobials has become a primary objective for both human and veterinary medicine in many countries. Medical prevention and good nutrition are seen as key parameters for reducing antimicrobial use. However, little consideration has been given to how metabolic diseases may influence the use of antimicrobials in humans and animals through limiting the prevalence and severity of infectious diseases. To quantify this relationship using the example of a common metabolic disease in dairy cows (subclinical ketosis, SCK), we constructed a stochastic model reporting the total quantity of curative antimicrobials for a given population with the prevalence of cows at risk for SCK...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27663364/periparturient-immunosuppression-and-strategies-to-improve-dairy-cow-health-during-the-periparturient-period
#12
REVIEW
J W Aleri, B C Hine, M F Pyman, P D Mansell, W J Wales, B Mallard, A D Fisher
Common health problems observed during peripartum include milk fever, mastitis, fatty liver disease, ketosis, dystocia, retained placenta, metritis, hypomagnesaemia and abomasal displacements. The increased incidence of health problems observed during the periparturient period can be partly attributed to suboptimal immune responses. Factors contributing to decreased periparturient immunity include the act of parturition itself, impaired leukocytic activity, effects of colostrogenesis and lactogenesis, and associated hypocalcemia and negative energy balance...
October 2016: Research in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27651671/rumen-protected-choline-a-significance-effect-on-dairy-cattle-nutrition
#13
REVIEW
G Jayaprakash, M Sathiyabarathi, M Arokia Robert, T Tamilmani
Choline is a vitamin-like substance it has multi-function in animal production, reproduction, and health. The transition period is most crucial stage in lactation cycle of dairy cows due to its association with negative hormonal and energy balances. Unfortunately, unprotected choline easily degrades in the rumen; therefore, choline added to the diet in a rumen-protected form. The use of rumen-protected choline (RPC) is a preventive measurement for the fatty liver syndrome and ketosis; may improve milk production as well as milk composition and reproduction parameters...
August 2016: Veterinary World
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27626197/fueling-performance-ketones-enter-the-mix
#14
Brendan Egan, Dominic P D'Agostino
Ketone body metabolites serve as alternative energy substrates during prolonged fasting, calorie restriction, or reduced carbohydrate (CHO) availability. Using a ketone ester supplement, Cox et al. (2016) demonstrate that acute nutritional ketosis alters substrate utilization patterns during exercise, reduces lactate production, and improves time-trial performance in elite cyclists.
September 13, 2016: Cell Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27475046/nutritional-ketosis-alters-fuel-preference-and-thereby-endurance-performance-in-athletes
#15
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Pete J Cox, Tom Kirk, Tom Ashmore, Kristof Willerton, Rhys Evans, Alan Smith, Andrew J Murray, Brianna Stubbs, James West, Stewart W McLure, M Todd King, Michael S Dodd, Cameron Holloway, Stefan Neubauer, Scott Drawer, Richard L Veech, Julian L Griffin, Kieran Clarke
Ketosis, the metabolic response to energy crisis, is a mechanism to sustain life by altering oxidative fuel selection. Often overlooked for its metabolic potential, ketosis is poorly understood outside of starvation or diabetic crisis. Thus, we studied the biochemical advantages of ketosis in humans using a ketone ester-based form of nutrition without the unwanted milieu of endogenous ketone body production by caloric or carbohydrate restriction. In five separate studies of 39 high-performance athletes, we show how this unique metabolic state improves physical endurance by altering fuel competition for oxidative respiration...
August 9, 2016: Cell Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27430501/ketone-bodies-and-exercise-performance-the-next-magic-bullet-or-merely-hype
#16
Philippe J M Pinckaers, Tyler A Churchward-Venne, David Bailey, Luc J C van Loon
Elite athletes and coaches are in a constant search for training methods and nutritional strategies to support training and recovery efforts that may ultimately maximize athletes' performance. Recently, there has been a re-emerging interest in the role of ketone bodies in exercise metabolism, with considerable media speculation about ketone body supplements being routinely used by professional cyclists. Ketone bodies can serve as an important energy substrate under certain conditions, such as starvation, and can modulate carbohydrate and lipid metabolism...
March 2017: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27383919/providing-oral-nutrition-to-women-in-labor-american-college-of-nurse-midwives
#17
(no author information available yet)
Historically, oral intake for women during labor has been limited to nothing by mouth or clear liquids only. These restrictions are based on the risk of aspiration during or after the administration of general anesthesia. While aspiration can be life threatening, older methods of anesthesia are rarely used in current intrapartum care, and evidence is inconclusive that withholding oral nutrition reduces the risk of gastric aspiration. Additionally, withholding oral nutrition may result in the development of ketosis and may potentially contribute to a woman's stress and dissatisfaction with the birth experience...
July 2016: Journal of Midwifery & Women's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27138530/the-role-of-rumen-protected-choline-in-hepatic-function-and-performance-of-transition-dairy-cows
#18
REVIEW
Arash Shahsavari, Michael J D'Occhio, Rafat Al Jassim
High-producing dairy cows enter a period of negative energy balance during the first weeks of lactation. Energy intake is usually sufficient to cover the increase in energy requirements for fetal growth during the period before calving, but meeting the demand for energy is often difficult during the early stages of lactation. A catabolic state predominates during the transition period, leading to the mobilisation of energy reserves (NEFA and amino acids) that are utilised mainly by the liver and muscle. Increased uptake of mobilised NEFA by the liver, combined with the limited capacity of hepatocytes to either oxidise fatty acids for energy or to incorporate esterified fatty acids into VLDL results in fatty liver syndrome and ketosis...
July 2016: British Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26855664/effects-of-exogenous-ketone-supplementation-on-blood-ketone-glucose-triglyceride-and-lipoprotein-levels-in-sprague-dawley-rats
#19
Shannon L Kesl, Angela M Poff, Nathan P Ward, Tina N Fiorelli, Csilla Ari, Ashley J Van Putten, Jacob W Sherwood, Patrick Arnold, Dominic P D'Agostino
BACKGROUND: Nutritional ketosis induced by the ketogenic diet (KD) has therapeutic applications for many disease states. We hypothesized that oral administration of exogenous ketone supplements could produce sustained nutritional ketosis (>0.5 mM) without carbohydrate restriction. METHODS: We tested the effects of 28-day administration of five ketone supplements on blood glucose, ketones, and lipids in male Sprague-Dawley rats. The supplements included: 1,3-butanediol (BD), a sodium/potassium β-hydroxybutyrate (βHB) mineral salt (BMS), medium chain triglyceride oil (MCT), BMS + MCT 1:1 mixture, and 1,3 butanediol acetoacetate diester (KE)...
2016: Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26830740/nutritional-strategies-to-optimize-dairy-cattle-immunity
#20
REVIEW
L M Sordillo
Dairy cattle are susceptible to increased incidence and severity of both metabolic and infectious diseases during the periparturient period. A major contributing factor to increased health disorders is alterations in bovine immune mechanisms. Indeed, uncontrolled inflammation is a major contributing factor and a common link among several economically important infectious and metabolic diseases including mastitis, retained placenta, metritis, displaced abomasum, and ketosis. The nutritional status of dairy cows and the metabolism of specific nutrients are critical regulators of immune cell function...
June 2016: Journal of Dairy Science
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