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Nutritional ketosis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29607218/nutritional-ketosis-and-mitohormesis-potential-implications-for-mitochondrial-function-and-human-health
#1
REVIEW
Vincent J Miller, Frederick A Villamena, Jeff S Volek
Impaired mitochondrial function often results in excessive production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and is involved in the etiology of many chronic diseases, including cardiovascular disease, diabetes, neurodegenerative disorders, and cancer. Moderate levels of mitochondrial ROS, however, can protect against chronic disease by inducing upregulation of mitochondrial capacity and endogenous antioxidant defense. This phenomenon, referred to as mitohormesis, is induced through increased reliance on mitochondrial respiration, which can occur through diet or exercise...
2018: Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29588985/ketogenic-parenteral-nutrition-in-17-pediatric-patients-with-epilepsy
#2
Anastasia Dressler, Nadja Haiden, Petra Trimmel-Schwahofer, Franz Benninger, Sharon Samueli, Gudrun Gröppel, Sina Spatzierer, Angelika Mühlebner, Klaus Abraham, Martha Feucht
Objective: Ketogenic parenteral nutrition (kPN) is indicated when enteral intake is temporarily limited or impossible, but evidence-based prescriptions are lacking. Objective was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of kPN in children with epileptic encephalopathies using a new computer-based algorithm for accurate component calculating. Methods: Children with epilepsy receiving kPN were included. A computer-based algorithm was established on the basis of guidelines of the European Society for Paediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition (ESPGHAN): fat intake not exceeding 4 g/kg/day, age-adequate supply of protein, electrolytes, vitamins, and trace elements, but reduced carbohydrates...
March 2018: Epilepsia open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29576959/the-use-of-nutritional-supplements-to-induce-ketosis-and-reduce-symptoms-associated-with-keto-induction-a-narrative-review
#3
Cliff J D C Harvey, Grant M Schofield, Micalla Williden
Background: Adaptation to a ketogenic diet (keto-induction) can cause unpleasant symptoms, and this can reduce tolerability of the diet. Several methods have been suggested as useful for encouraging entry into nutritional ketosis (NK) and reducing symptoms of keto-induction. This paper reviews the scientific literature on the effects of these methods on time-to-NK and on symptoms during the keto-induction phase. Methods: PubMed, Science Direct, CINAHL, MEDLINE, Alt Health Watch, Food Science Source and EBSCO Psychology and Behavioural Sciences Collection electronic databases were searched online...
2018: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29555548/working-party-approved-by-the-french-society-of-anaesthesia-and-intensive-care-medicine-sfar-and-the-french-society-for-the-study-of-diabetes-sfd
#4
Gaëlle Cheisson, Sophie Jacqueminet, Emmanuel Cosson, Carole Ichai, Anne-Marie Leguerrier, Bogdan Nicolescu-Catargi, Alexandre Ouattara, Igor Tauveron, Paul Valensi, Dan Benhamou
Follow on from continuous intravenous administration of insulin with an electronic syringe (IVES) is an important element in the postoperative management of a diabetic patient. The basal-bolus scheme is the most suitable taking into account the nutritional supply and variable needs for insulin, reproducing the physiology of a normal pancreas: (i) slow (long-acting) insulin (= basal) which should immediately take over from IVES insulin simulating basal secretion; (ii) ultra-rapid insulin to simulate prandial secretion (= bolus for the meal); and (iii) correction of possible hyperglycaemia with an additional ultra-rapid insulin bolus dose...
March 16, 2018: Anaesthesia, Critical Care & Pain Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29417495/effectiveness-and-safety-of-a-novel-care-model-for-the-management-of-type-2-diabetes-at-1%C3%A2-year-an-open-label-non-randomized-controlled-study
#5
Sarah J Hallberg, Amy L McKenzie, Paul T Williams, Nasir H Bhanpuri, Anne L Peters, Wayne W Campbell, Tamara L Hazbun, Brittanie M Volk, James P McCarter, Stephen D Phinney, Jeff S Volek
INTRODUCTION: Carbohydrate restriction markedly improves glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) but necessitates prompt medication changes. Therefore, we assessed the effectiveness and safety of a novel care model providing continuous remote care with medication management based on biometric feedback combined with the metabolic approach of nutritional ketosis for T2D management. METHODS: We conducted an open-label, non-randomized, controlled, before-and-after 1-year study of this continuous care intervention (CCI) and usual care (UC)...
February 7, 2018: Diabetes Therapy: Research, Treatment and Education of Diabetes and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338584/effect-of-acute-ingestion-of-%C3%AE-hydroxybutyrate-salts-on-the-response-to-graded-exercise-in-trained-cyclists
#6
Mark Evans, Ella Patchett, Rickard Nally, Rachel Kearns, Matthew Larney, Brendan Egan
Acute ingestion of ketone salts induces nutritional ketosis by elevating β-hydroxybutyrate (βHB), but few studies have examined the metabolic effects of ingestion prior to exercise. Nineteen trained cyclists (12 male, 7 female) undertook graded exercise (8 min each at ∼30%, 40%, 50%, 60%, 70%, and 80% VO2peak ) on a cycle ergometer on two occasions separated by either 7 or 14 days. Trials included ingestion of boluses of either (i) plain water (3.8 mL kg body mass-1 ) (CON) or (ii) βHB salts (0.38 g kg body mass-1 ) in plain water (3...
April 2018: European Journal of Sport Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102145/modulating-adipose-tissue-lipolysis-and-remodeling-to-improve-immune-function-during-the-transition-period-and-early-lactation-of-dairy-cows
#7
G Andres Contreras, Clarissa Strieder-Barboza, Jenne De Koster
Despite major advances in our understanding of transition and early lactation cow physiology and the use of advanced dietary, medical, and management tools, at least half of early lactation cows are reported to develop disease and over half of cow deaths occur during the first week of lactation. Excessive lipolysis, usually measured as plasma concentrations of free fatty acids (FFA), is a major risk factor for the development of displaced abomasum, ketosis, fatty liver, and metritis, and may also lead to poor lactation performance...
October 25, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29077838/dietary-manipulations-that-induce-ketosis-activate-the-hpa-axis-in-male-rats-and-mice-a-potential-role-for-fibroblast-growth-factor-21
#8
Karen K Ryan, Amy E B Packard, Karlton R Larson, Jayna Stout, Sarah M Fourman, Abigail M K Thompson, Kristen Ludwick, Kirk M Habegger, Kerstin Stemmer, Nobuyuki Itoh, Diego Perez-Tilve, Matthias H Tschöp, Randy J Seeley, Yvonne M Ulrich-Lai
In response to an acute threat to homeostasis or well-being, the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis is engaged. A major outcome of this HPA axis activation is the mobilization of stored energy, to fuel an appropriate behavioral and/or physiological response to the perceived threat. Importantly, the extent of HPA axis activity is thought to be modulated by an individual's nutritional environment. In this study, we report that nutritional manipulations signaling a relative depletion of dietary carbohydrates, thereby inducing nutritional ketosis, acutely and chronically activate the HPA axis...
January 1, 2018: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040389/the-antiepileptic-ketogenic-diet-alters-hippocampal-transporter-levels-and-reduces-adiposity-in-aged-rats
#9
Abbi R Hernandez, Caesar M Hernandez, Keila T Campos, Leah M Truckenbrod, Yasemin Sakarya, Joseph A McQuail, Christy S Carter, Jennifer L Bizon, Andrew P Maurer, Sara N Burke
Nutritional ketosis is induced by high fat/low carbohydrate dietary regimens, which produce high levels of circulating ketone bodies, shifting metabolism away from glucose utilization. While ketogenic diets (KD) were initially introduced to suppress seizures, they are garnering attention for their potential to treat a myriad of neurodegenerative and metabolic disorders that are associated with advanced age. The feasibility and physiological impact of implementing a long-term KD in old animals, however, has not been systematically examined...
March 14, 2018: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022562/ketogenic-diet-in-endocrine-disorders-current-perspectives
#10
REVIEW
L Gupta, D Khandelwal, S Kalra, P Gupta, D Dutta, S Aggarwal
Ketogenic diet (KD) is a high-fat, adequate-protein, and low-carbohydrate diet that leads to nutritional ketosis, long known for antiepileptic effects and has been used therapeutically to treat refractory epilepsy. This review attempts to summarize the evidence and clinical application of KD in diabetes, obesity, and other endocrine disorders. KD is usually animal protein based. An empiric vegetarian Indian variant of KD has been provided keeping in mind the Indian food habits. KD has beneficial effects on cardiac ischemic preconditioning, improves oxygenation in patients with respiratory failure, improves glycemic control in diabetics, is associated with significant weight loss, and has a beneficial impact on polycystic ovarian syndrome...
October 2017: Journal of Postgraduate Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914421/acid-base-safety-during-the-course-of-a-very-low-calorie-ketogenic-diet
#11
Diego Gomez-Arbelaez, Ana B Crujeiras, Ana I Castro, Albert Goday, Antonio Mas-Lorenzo, Ana Bellon, Cristina Tejera, Diego Bellido, Cristobal Galban, Ignacio Sajoux, Patricio Lopez-Jaramillo, Felipe F Casanueva
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Very low-calorie ketogenic (VLCK) diets have been consistently shown to be an effective obesity treatment, but the current evidence for its acid-base safety is limited. The aim of the current work was to evaluate the acid-base status of obese patients during the course of a VLCK diet. METHOD: Twenty obese participants undertook a VLCK diet for 4 months. Anthropometric and biochemical parameters, and venous blood gases were obtained on four subsequent visits: visit C-1 (baseline); visit C-2, (1-2 months); maximum ketosis; visit C-3 (2-3 months), ketosis declining; and visit C-4 at 4 months, no ketosis...
October 2017: Endocrine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688615/innovative-dairy-cow-management-to-improve-resistance-to-metabolic-and-infectious-diseases-during-the-transition-period
#12
REVIEW
P Lacasse, N Vanacker, S Ollier, C Ster
The incidence of metabolic and infectious diseases varies greatly during the lactation cycle. Most new cases of clinical mastitis appear at the beginning of lactation, and the incidence increases with the level of milk production. In addition to mastitis, many other infectious diseases become clinically apparent during the first 2weeks of lactation. During this time, cows are in a negative energy balance and must mobilize body reserves to balance the deficit between food energy intake and energy required for milk production...
June 27, 2017: Research in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599043/ketones-and-human-performance
#13
REVIEW
Jonathan M Scott, Patricia A Deuster
Everyone is seeking nutritional strategies that might benefit performance. One approach receiving much attention is ketones, or ketosis. Ketones are very simple compounds made of hydrogen, carbon, and oxygen, and ketosis is a metabolic state whereby the body uses predominantly ketones. Ketosis can be achieved by fasting for longer than 72 hours or by following a very lowcarbohydrate, high-fat diet (ketogenic diet) for several days to weeks. Alternatively, ketone supplements purportedly induce ketosis rapidly and do not require strict adherence to any specific type of diet; however, much of the touted benefits are anecdotal...
December 0: Journal of Special Operations Medicine: a Peer Reviewed Journal for SOF Medical Professionals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588304/plasma-fgf21-levels-in-obese-patients-undergoing-energy-restricted-diets-or-bariatric-surgery-a-marker-of-metabolic-stress
#14
A B Crujeiras, D Gomez-Arbelaez, M A Zulet, M C Carreira, I Sajoux, D de Luis, A I Castro, J Baltar, I Baamonde, A Sueiro, M Macias-Gonzalez, D Bellido, F J Tinahones, J A Martinez, F F Casanueva
BACKGROUND: Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) has been suggested to be an endocrine signal of nutritional status and an active regulator of metabolism. However, there is no agreement on the effect of weight-loss therapies on circulating levels of FGF21 in humans. OBJECTIVE: To assess FGF21 circulating levels in adiposity excess and after different weight-loss strategies prescribed in five different groups from four independent centers. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Body composition, ketosis, insulin sensitivity and FGF21 were evaluated in 181 excess body weight and 14 normal-weight subjects...
October 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28555095/nutritional-ketosis-affects-metabolism-and-behavior-in-sprague-dawley-rats-in-both-control-and-chronic-stress-environments
#15
Milene L Brownlow, Seung H Jung, Raquel J Moore, Naomi Bechmann, Ryan Jankord
Nutritional ketosis may enhance cerebral energy metabolism and has received increased interest as a way to improve or preserve performance and resilience. Most studies to date have focused on metabolic or neurological disorders while anecdotal evidence suggests that ketosis may enhance performance in the absence of underlying dysfunction. Moreover, decreased availability of glucose in the brain following stressful events is associated with impaired cognition, suggesting the need for more efficient energy sources...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382302/economic-synergy-between-dry-cow-diet-improvement-and-monensin-bolus-use-to-prevent-subclinical-ketosis-an-experimental-demonstration-based-on-available-literature
#16
Didier Raboisson, Maxime Barbier
The prevention of subclinical ketosis (SCK) is based on maintaining adequate nutrition in dairy cows during the dry period and close to calving. Recently, an oral-route monensin bolus to prevent SCK was approved in Europe. The present study aims to define the allocation of resources for SCK management at the herd level and evaluate the profitability of administering monensin boluses in cows at risk for SCK. A stochastic model was used to calculate the total cost of SCK for a population with a given prevalence of cows at risk for SCK...
2017: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294105/breath-acetone-as-a-potential-marker-in-clinical-practice
#17
REVIEW
Veronika Ruzsányi, Miklós Péter Kalapos
In recent decades, two facts have changed the opinion of researchers about the function of acetone in humans. Firstly, it has turned out that acetone cannot be regarded as simply a waste product of metabolism, because there are several pathways in which acetone is produced or broken down. Secondly, methods have emerged making possible its detection in exhaled breath, thereby offering an attractive alternative to investigation of blood and urine samples. From a clinical point of view the measurement of breath acetone levels is important, but there are limitations to its wide application...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Breath Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28041921/rising-trend-of-diabetes-mellitus-amongst-the-undernourished-state-of-the-art-review
#18
REVIEW
Nimmy K Francis, Harpreet S Pawar, Anirban Mitra, Analava Mitra
Diabetes mellitus is prevailing in the malnourished populations congruently in well-nourished ones with an escalating trend in the former group regardless of the absence of obesity as an etiologic determining factor as per the studies in underprivileged sectors of the population. Chronic undernutrition across a lifetime may be an imperative stimulator of diabetes in an individual either by progressively reducing beta cell function alongside islet cell volume and increasing the individual predisposition to other genetic or environmental diabetogenic influences with modifying influence on the course of clinical syndrome...
December 23, 2016: Diabetes & Metabolic Syndrome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27999529/exogenous-ketone-supplements-reduce-anxiety-related-behavior-in-sprague-dawley-and-wistar-albino-glaxo-rijswijk-rats
#19
Csilla Ari, Zsolt Kovács, Gabor Juhasz, Cem Murdun, Craig R Goldhagen, Andrew P Koutnik, Angela M Poff, Shannon L Kesl, Dominic P D'Agostino
Nutritional ketosis has been proven effective for seizure disorders and other neurological disorders. The focus of this study was to determine the effects of ketone supplementation on anxiety-related behavior in Sprague-Dawley (SPD) and Wistar Albino Glaxo/Rijswijk (WAG/Rij) rats. We tested exogenous ketone supplements added to food and fed chronically for 83 days in SPD rats and administered sub-chronically for 7 days in both rat models by daily intragastric gavage bolus followed by assessment of anxiety measures on elevated plus maze (EPM)...
2016: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27975191/significance-of-insulin-resistance-and-oxidative-stress-in-dairy-cattle-with-subclinical-ketosis-during-the-transition-period
#20
REVIEW
Mohamed Youssef, Maged El-Ashker
Health problems occurring during the transition period in dairy cattle are of utmost importance as they can decrease the animal's reproductive performance and favor the development of various metabolic diseases with resultant significant reproductive disorders. Among the commonly reported metabolic diseases occurring during that time, hyperketonemia is the most prevalent and could provoke a significant economic impact. The failing of a dairy cow to transit optimally between pregnancy and lactation is economically very relevant and should be considered...
February 2017: Tropical Animal Health and Production
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