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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339458/rapid-surveillance-for-vector-presence-rsvp-development-of-a-novel-system-for-detecting-aedes-aegypti-and-aedes-albopictus
#1
Brian L Montgomery, Martin A Shivas, Sonja Hall-Mendelin, Jim Edwards, Nicholas A Hamilton, Cassie C Jansen, Jamie L McMahon, David Warrilow, Andrew F van den Hurk
BACKGROUND: The globally important Zika, dengue and chikungunya viruses are primarily transmitted by the invasive mosquitoes, Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus. In Australia, there is an increasing risk that these species may invade highly urbanized regions and trigger outbreaks. We describe the development of a Rapid Surveillance for Vector Presence (RSVP) system to expedite presence- absence surveys for both species. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We developed a methodology that uses molecular assays to efficiently screen pooled ovitrap (egg trap) samples for traces of target species ribosomal RNA...
March 24, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329279/performance-of-hospitals-according-to-the-esc-acca-quality-indicators-and-30-day-mortality-for-acute-myocardial-infarction-national-cohort-study-using-the-united-kingdom-myocardial-ischaemia-national-audit-project-minap-register
#2
Owen Bebb, Marlous Hall, Keith A A Fox, Tatendashe B Dondo, Adam Timmis, Hector Bueno, François Schiele, Chris P Gale
Aims: To investigate the application of the European Society of Cardiology Acute Cardiovascular Care Association quality indicators (QI) for acute myocardial infarction for the study of hospital performance and 30-day mortality. Methods and results: National cohort study (n = 118,075 patients, n = 211 hospitals, MINAP registry), 2012-13. Overall, 16 of the 20 QIs could be calculated. Eleven QIs had a significant inverse association with GRACE risk adjusted 30-day mortality (all P < 0...
February 20, 2017: European Heart Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323164/mapping-the-pharmacological-modulation-of-brain-oxygen-metabolism-the-effects-of-caffeine-on-absolute-cmro2-measured-using-dual-calibrated-fmri
#3
Alberto Merola, Michael A Germuska, Esther Ah Warnert, Lewys Richmond, Daniel Helme, Sharmila Khot, Kevin Murphy, Peter J Rogers, Judith E Hall, Richard G Wise
This study aims to map the acute effects of caffeine ingestion on grey matter oxygen metabolism and haemodynamics with a novel MRI method. Sixteen healthy caffeine consumers (8 males, age = 24.7±5.1) were recruited to this randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Each participant was scanned on two days before and after the delivery of an oral caffeine (250mg) or placebo capsule. Our measurements were obtained with a newly proposed estimation approach applied to data from a dual calibration fMRI experiment that uses hypercapnia and hyperoxia to modulate brain blood flow and oxygenation...
March 17, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317883/optical-determination-of-shockley-read-hall-and-interface-recombination-currents-in-hybrid-perovskites
#4
Valerio Sarritzu, Nicola Sestu, Daniela Marongiu, Xueqing Chang, Sofia Masi, Aurora Rizzo, Silvia Colella, Francesco Quochi, Michele Saba, Andrea Mura, Giovanni Bongiovanni
Metal-halide perovskite solar cells rival the best inorganic solar cells in power conversion efficiency, providing the outlook for efficient, cheap devices. In order for the technology to mature and approach the ideal Shockley-Queissier efficiency, experimental tools are needed to diagnose what processes limit performances, beyond simply measuring electrical characteristics often affected by parasitic effects and difficult to interpret. Here we study the microscopic origin of recombination currents causing photoconversion losses with an all-optical technique, measuring the electron-hole free energy as a function of the exciting light intensity...
March 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28306481/counteracting-the-influence-of-peer-smoking-on-youtube
#5
Daniel Romer, Patrick E Jamieson, Kathleen Hall Jamieson, Christopher Jones, Susan Sherr
YouTube, a popular online site for user-generated content, is emerging as a powerful source of peer modeling of smoking. Previous research suggests that in counteracting such influence, health messages may inadvertently increase the perceived prevalence of drug use (a descriptive norm) without reducing its acceptability (injunctive norm). This research tested the ability of health messages to reduce the social acceptability of peer smoking on YouTube despite enhancing its perceived prevalence. In an online experiment with 999 adolescents, participants were randomly assigned to view one of two videos: (a) a mosaic displaying a variety of YouTube videos of adolescents smoking followed by a message about the mortality risk to those smokers, or (b) a control video on a health topic unrelated to smoking...
March 17, 2017: Journal of Health Communication
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285218/selection-and-adaptation-of-microalgae-to-growth-in-100-unfiltered-coal-fired-flue-gas
#6
Ambreen Aslam, Skye R Thomas-Hall, Tahira Aziz Mughal, Peer M Schenk
Microalgae have been considered for biological carbon capture and sequestration to offset carbon emissions from fossil fuel combustion. This study shows that mixed biodiverse microalgal communities can be selected for and adapted to tolerate growth in 100% flue gas from an unfiltered coal-fired power plant that contained 11% CO2. The high SOx and NOx emissions required slow adaptation of microalgae over many months, with step-wise increases from 10% to 100% flue gas supplementation and phosphate buffering at higher concentrations...
March 1, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276850/associations-between-period-3-gene-polymorphisms-and-sleep-chronotype-related-variables-in-patients-with-late-life-insomnia
#7
Hader A Mansour, Joel Wood, Kodavali V Chowdari, Divya Tumuluru, Mikhil Bamne, Timothy H Monk, Martica H Hall, Daniel J Buysse, Vishwajit L Nimgaonkar
A variable number tandem repeat polymorphism (VNTR) in the period 3 (PER3) gene has been associated with heritable sleep and circadian variables, including self-rated chronotypes, polysomnographic (PSG) variables, insomnia and circadian sleep-wake disorders. This report describes novel molecular and clinical analyses of PER3 VNTR polymorphisms to better define their functional consequences. As the PER3 VNTR is located in the exonic (protein coding) region of PER3, we initially investigated whether both alleles (variants) are transcribed into messenger RNA in human fibroblasts...
February 27, 2017: Chronobiology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270532/autophagy-dependent-beneficial-effects-of-exercise
#8
Jens Frey Halling, Henriette Pilegaard
Exercise has long been recognized as a powerful physiological stimulus for a wide variety of metabolic adaptations with implications for health and performance. The metabolic effects of exercise occur during and after each exercise bout and manifest as cumulative adaptive responses to successive exercise bouts. Studies on the beneficial effects of exercise have traditionally focused on the biosynthesis of metabolic proteins and organelles. However, the recycling of cellular components by autophagy has recently emerged as an important process involved in the adaptive responses to exercise...
March 7, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28268257/risk-factors-for-incident-asthma-and-copd-in-a-cohort-of-young-adults
#9
Lisbet Krogh Traulsen, Jesper Baelum, Anders Halling, Gert Thomsen, Trine Thilsing, David Sherson, Torben Sigsgaard, Øyvind Omland, Tine Malling, Lars Rauff Skadhauge
INTRODUCTION: The aim of the study was to describe potential shared risk factors for incident asthma and COPD in a population-based, nine-year follow-up study. METHODS: From a cohort of 1,191 individuals, aged 20-44, who participated in baseline survey including spirometry, bronchial challenge, and skin prick test (SPT) 742 subjects (62%) were reexamined at follow-up in 2012-2014. RESULTS: A total of 27 incident cases of asthma and 22 cases of COPD were identified at follow-up corresponding to an incidence rate of 5...
March 7, 2017: Clinical Respiratory Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28264711/findings-phenotypes-and-outcomes-in-freeman-sheldon-and-sheldon-hall-syndromes-and-distal-arthrogryposis-types-1-and-3-protocol-for-systematic-review-and-patient-level-data-meta-analysis
#10
Mikaela I Poling, José Andrés Morales Corado, Robert L Chamberlain
BACKGROUND: Freeman-Sheldon and Sheldon-Hall syndromes (FSS and SHS) and distal arthrogryposis types 1 and 3 (DA1 and DA3) are rare, often confused, congenital syndromes. Few studies exist. With reported diagnosis unreliable, it would be scientifically inappropriate to consider articles describing FSS, SHS, DA1, or DA3, unless diagnoses were independently verified, rendering conventional systematic review and meta-analysis methodology inappropriate and necessitating patient-level data analysis (PROSPERO: CRD42015024740)...
March 6, 2017: Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28242557/sensitive-dip-str-markers-for-the-analysis-of-unbalanced-mixtures-from-touch-dna-samples
#11
Fabio Oldoni, Vincent Castella, Frederic Grosjean, Diana Hall
Casework samples collected for forensic DNA analysis can produce genomic mixtures in which the DNA of the alleged offender is masked by high quantities of DNA coming from the victim. DIP-STRs are novel genetic markers specifically developed to enable the target analysis of a DNA of interest in the presence of exceeding quantities of a second DNA (up to 1000-fold). The genotyping system, which is based on allele-specific amplifications of haplotypes formed by a deletion/insertion polymorphism (DIP) and a short tandem repeat (STR), combines the capacity of targeting the DNA of an individual with a strong identification power...
February 14, 2017: Forensic Science International. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28240392/abnormal-task-driven-neural-oscillations-in-multiple-sclerosis-a-visuomotor-meg-study
#12
Eleanor L Barratt, Prejaas K Tewarie, Margareta A Clarke, Emma L Hall, Penny A Gowland, Peter G Morris, Susan T Francis, Nikos Evangelou, Matthew J Brookes
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a debilitating disease commonly attributed to degradation of white matter myelin. Symptoms include fatigue, as well as problems associated with vision and movement. Although areas of demyelination in white matter are observed routinely in patients undergoing MRI scans, such measures are often a poor predictor of disease severity. For this reason, it is instructive to measure associated changes in brain function. Widespread white-matter demyelination may lead to delays of propagation of neuronal activity, and with its excellent temporal resolution, magnetoencephalography can be used to probe such delays in controlled conditions (e...
February 27, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215233/task-switching-in-older-adults-with-and-without-insomnia
#13
Kristine A Wilckens, Martica H Hall, Kirk I Erickson, Anne Germain, Vishwajit L Nimgaonkar, Timothy H Monk, Daniel J Buysse
BACKGROUND: Task-switching deficits are common in older adults and in those with insomnia. Such deficits may be driven by difficulties with sleep continuity and dampened homeostatic sleep drive. OBJECTIVE: To identify the aspects of task switching affected by insomnia and its treatment, and to determine whether such effects are associated with sleep continuity and homeostatic sleep drive. METHODS: Polysomnographic sleep and task switching were tested in healthy older adults aged 60-93 years with insomnia (n = 48) and normal sleeping controls (n = 51)...
February 2017: Sleep Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198734/new-frontiers-in-intravital-microscopy-of-the-kidney
#14
Andrew M Hall, Claus D Schuh, Dominik Haenni
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Intravital imaging with multiphoton microscopy enables the detailed study of dynamic cellular processes within functioning organs in living animals, in ways that would not otherwise be possible. It therefore represents a powerful tool in translational kidney research. In this article, we will discuss several new technical developments that have significantly increased the capabilities of kidney imaging. RECENT FINDINGS: Important contemporary advances in biomedical imaging technology include longer wavelength excitation lasers, far-red emitting fluorescent reporters, highly sensitive detectors, fluorescence lifetime measurements, adaptive optics, microendoscopes, high-throughput automated analysis algorithms and tissue clearing techniques...
February 13, 2017: Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197566/lateral-and-flexural-phonon-thermal-transport-in-graphene-and-stanene-bilayers
#15
Yang Hong, Chongqin Zhu, Minggang Ju, Jingchao Zhang, Xiao Cheng Zeng
Stanene, a low thermal conductivity two-dimensional (2D) sheet composed of group-IV element Sn, is a prototype material with novel properties such as 2D topological insulating behavior and near-room-temperature quantum Hall effects. Monolayer graphene, on the other hand, possesses unusual thermal properties, but has a zero bandgap. By stacking stanene and graphene monolayers vertically into a hetero-bilayer, an indirect bandgap can be obtained, making the hetero-bilayer a good candidate for special applications...
February 15, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28153336/genome-wide-regional-heritability-mapping-identifies-a-locus-within-the-tox2-gene-associated-with-major-depressive-disorder
#16
Yanni Zeng, Pau Navarro, Masoud Shirali, David M Howard, Mark J Adams, Lynsey S Hall, Toni-Kim Clarke, Pippa A Thomson, Blair H Smith, Alison Murray, Sandosh Padmanabhan, Caroline Hayward, Thibaud Boutin, Donald J MacIntyre, Cathryn M Lewis, Naomi R Wray, Divya Mehta, Brenda W J H Penninx, Yuri Milaneschi, Bernhard T Baune, Tracy Air, Jouke-Jan Hottenga, Hamdi Mbarek, Enrique Castelao, Giorgio Pistis, Thomas G Schulze, Fabian Streit, Andreas J Forstner, Enda M Byrne, Nicholas G Martin, Gerome Breen, Bertram Müller-Myhsok, Susanne Lucae, Stefan Kloiber, Enrico Domenici, Ian J Deary, David J Porteous, Chris S Haley, Andrew M McIntosh
BACKGROUND: Major depressive disorder (MDD) is the second largest cause of global disease burden. It has an estimated heritability of 37%, but published genome-wide association studies have so far identified few risk loci. Haplotype-block-based regional heritability mapping (HRHM) estimates the localized genetic variance explained by common variants within haplotype blocks, integrating the effects of multiple variants, and may be more powerful for identifying MDD-associated genomic regions...
December 16, 2016: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28145540/thermoelectric-properties-of-bi1-xsnxcuseo-solid-solutions
#17
Yuqing Yang, Xiaocun Liu, Xin Liang
We report the enhanced thermoelectric properties of p-type BiCuSeO by tin doping on bismuth sites. Powder X-ray diffraction analysis and Hall measurements indicated effective tin doping in all samples. We found that the doping efficiency of Sn is lower than expected, as seen from the measured carrier concentration. First-principles calculations indicate that the Sn lone pair modifies the band structure at the Fermi level, with the consequent effect observed in the electrical transport and Seebeck coefficient measurements...
February 1, 2017: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28119276/epidemiology-of-patient-harms-in-new-zealand-protocol-of-a-general-practice-records-review-study
#18
Susan M Dovey, Sharon Leitch, Katharine A Wallis, Kyle S Eggleton, Wayne K Cunningham, Martyn I Williamson, Steven Lillis, Andrew W McMenamin, Murray W Tilyard, David M Reith, Ari Samaranayaka, Jason E Hall
BACKGROUND: Knowing where and why harm occurs in general practice will assist patients, doctors, and others in making informed decisions about the risks and benefits of treatment options. Research to date has been unable to verify the safety of primary health care and epidemiological research about patient harms in general practice is now a top priority for advancing health systems safety. OBJECTIVE: We aim to study the incidence, distribution, severity, and preventability of the harms patients experience due to their health care, from the whole-of-health-system lens afforded by electronic general practice patient records...
January 24, 2017: JMIR Research Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28114305/targeted-sequencing-of-lung-function-loci-in-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-cases-and-controls
#19
María Soler Artigas, Louise V Wain, Nick Shrine, Tricia M McKeever, Ian Sayers, Ian P Hall, Martin D Tobin
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is the third leading cause of death worldwide; smoking is the main risk factor for COPD, but genetic factors are also relevant contributors. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of the lung function measures used in the diagnosis of COPD have identified a number of loci, however association signals are often broad and collectively these loci only explain a small proportion of the heritability. In order to examine the association with COPD risk of genetic variants down to low allele frequencies, to aid fine-mapping of association signals and to explain more of the missing heritability, we undertook a targeted sequencing study in 300 COPD cases and 300 smoking controls for 26 loci previously reported to be associated with lung function...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28113942/decoding-local-field-potentials-for-neural-interfaces
#20
Andrew Jackson, Thomas M Hall
The stability and frequency content of the local field potentials (LFP) offer key advantages for long-term, low-power neural interfaces. However, interpreting LFPs may require new signal processing techniques which should be informed by a scientific understanding of how these recordings arise from the coordinated activity of underlying neuronal populations. We review current approaches to decoding LFPs for Brain-Machine Interface (BMI) applications, and suggest several directions for future research. To facilitate an improved understanding of the relationship between LFPs and spike activity, we share a dataset of multielectrode recordings from monkey motor cortex, and describe two unsupervised analysis methods we have explored for extracting a low-dimensional feature space that is amenable to biomimetic decoding and biofeedback training...
November 14, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
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