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renal bone mineral disorder

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753400/updates-on-the-mechanisms-and-the-care-of-cardiovascular-calcification-in-chronic-kidney-disease
#1
REVIEW
Lucie Hénaut, Jean-Marc Chillon, Saïd Kamel, Ziad A Massy
In chronic kidney disease (CKD), the progressive decrease in renal function leads to disturbances of mineral metabolism that generally cause secondary hyperparathyroidism. The increase in serum parathyroid hormone is associated with reduced serum calcium and calcitriol levels and/or increased serum fibroblast growth factor-23 and phosphate levels. The resulting CKD-associated disorder of mineral and bone metabolism is associated with various other metabolic dysregulations such as acidosis, malnutrition, inflammation, and accumulation of uremic toxins...
May 2018: Seminars in Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29745817/impaired-mineral-quality-in-dentin-in-x-linked-hypophosphatemia
#2
Benjamin R Coyac, Guillaume Falgayrac, Guillaume Penel, Alain Schmitt, Thorsten Schinke, Agnès Linglart, Marc D McKee, Catherine Chaussain, Claire Bardet
X-linked hypophosphatemia (XLH) is a skeletal disorder arising from mutations in the PHEX gene, transmitted in most cases as an X-linked dominant trait. PHEX deficiency leads to renal phosphate wasting and hypophosphatemia, as well as impaired mineralization of bone and dentin, resulting in severe skeletal and dental complications. Dentin mineralization defects appear as characteristic, large interglobular spaces resulting from the lack of fusion of calculospherites in the circumpulpal region during the mineralization process...
December 2018: Connective Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29733407/bone-inflammation-and-the-bone-marrow-niche-in-chronic-kidney-disease-what-do-we-know
#3
Sandro Mazzaferro, Giuseppe Cianciolo, Antonio De Pascalis, Chiara Guglielmo, Pablo A Urena Torres, Jordi Bover, Lida Tartaglione, Marzia Pasquali, Gaetano La Manna
Recent improvements in our understanding of physiology have altered the way in which bone is perceived: no longer is it considered as simply the repository of divalent ions, but rather as a sophisticated endocrine organ with potential extraskeletal effects. Indeed, a number of pathologic conditions involving bone in different ways can now be reconsidered from a bone-centred perspective. For example, in metabolic bone diseases like osteoporosis (OP) and renal osteodystrophy (ROD), the association with a worse cardiovascular outcome can be tentatively explained by the possible derangements of three recently discovered bone hormones (osteocalcin, fibroblast growth factor 23 and sclerostin) and a bone-specific enzyme (alkaline phosphatase)...
May 4, 2018: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29716795/metformin-prevents-the-development-of-severe-chronic-kidney-disease-and-its-associated-mineral-and-bone-disorder
#4
Ellen Neven, Benjamin Vervaet, Kerstin Brand, Ulrike Gottwald-Hostalek, Britt Opdebeeck, Annelies De Maré, Anja Verhulst, Jean-Daniel Lalau, Said Kamel, Marc E De Broe, Patrick C D'Haese
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) causes dysregulation of mineral metabolism, vascular calcification and renal osteodystrophy, an entity called 'CKD-Mineral and Bone Disorder' (CKD-MBD). Here we determine whether metformin, an anti-diabetic drug, exerts favorable effects on progressive, severe CKD and concomitant mineral metabolism disturbances. Rats with CKD-MBD, induced by a 0.25% adenine diet for eight weeks, were treated with 200 mg/kg/day metformin or vehicle from one week after CKD induction onward. Severe, stable CKD along with marked hyperphosphatemia and hypocalcemia developed in these rats which led to arterial calcification and high bone turnover disease...
April 28, 2018: Kidney International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29704936/associations-between-single-nucleotide-polymorphisms-in-the-calcium-sensing-receptor-and-chronic-kidney-disease-mineral-and-bone-disorder-in-cats
#5
R F Geddes, R E Jepson, Y Forcada, J Elliott, H M Syme
Feline chronic kidney disease (CKD) is associated with high variability in severity of CKD-mineral and bone disorder (CKD-MBD). The calcium sensing receptor (CaSR) regulates circulating parathyroid hormone (PTH) and calcium concentrations. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the CaSR are associated with severity of secondary renal hyperparathyroidism and total calcium concentrations in human patients receiving haemodialysis. The objective of this study was to explore associations between polymorphisms in the feline CaSR (fCaSR) and biochemical changes observed in CKD-MBD...
May 2018: Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29582958/-ckd-mbd-in-peritoneal-dialysis
#6
Anna Rachele Rocca, Tania Gnerre Musto, Sandro Mazzaferro
CKD-MBD is a systemic disorder of the mineral and bone metabolism as a result of CKD. The clinical relevance of this syndrome has led to the identification of the biochemical targets to be achieved in order to improve the outcome of the patient. However, in hemodialysis (HD) and peritoneal dialysis (DP) patients, these targets are not reached. Hyperphosphatemia is a predictor of cardiovascular and all-cause mortality. In DP the removal of phosphorus (P) occurs by diffusion and convection, with a contribution of ultrafiltration of about 11%...
March 2018: Giornale Italiano di Nefrologia: Organo Ufficiale Della Società Italiana di Nefrologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29552709/use-of-calcimimetics-in-children-with-normal-kidney-function
#7
Judith Sebestyen VanSickle, Tarak Srivastava, Uri S Alon
The calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) plays an important role in the homeostasis of serum ionized calcium by regulating parathyroid hormone (PTH) secretion and tubular calcium handling. Calcimimetics, which act by allosteric modulation of the CaSR, mimic hypercalcemia resulting in suppression of PTH release and increase in calciuria. Mostly used in children to treat secondary hyperparathyroidism associated with advanced renal failure, we have shown that calcimimetics can also be successfully used in children with bone and mineral disorders in which elevated PTH plays a detrimental role in skeletal pathophysiology in the face of normal kidney function...
March 19, 2018: Pediatric Nephrology: Journal of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29545872/high-calcium-diet-alleviates-5-6-nephrectomy-induced-bone-deteriorations-of-lumbar-vertebrae-in-mice
#8
Hai-Tao Hou, Ya-Nan Wang, Shi-Ze Shao, Song Fu, Xiang-Peng Huang, Xiao-Hui Wang
Dietary calcium (Ca) supplementation has beneficial effects on bone health. However, it is not clear whether a high calcium diet (HCD) following 5/6 nephrectomy (5/6 Nx) is beneficial to bone health. The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of an HCD on bone metabolism using a chronic kidney disease (CKD) mouse model. Male C57BL/6J mice were divided into three groups: Sham group, 5/6 Nx group and 5/6 Nx + HCD group. Mice were sacrificed 12 weeks post-surgery. Calcium (Ca) and creatinine (Cr) were measured using standard colorimetric methods and picric acid methods, respectively...
April 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29507572/denosumab-a-new-medication-in-the-treatment-of-postmenopausal-osteoporosis
#9
Radosław Słopień, Piotr Rynio, Elżbieta Kubala, Ewa Milewska, Blazej Meczekalski
Osteoporosis is a chronic, systemic skeletal disorder characterised by decreased bone density. It leads to an increased risk of bone fractures - one of the major causes of disability in modern societies. Bisphosphonates are the most commonly used medications in the treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis. Denosumab, a new approach to fracture prevention, is a fully human monoclonal antibody that targets nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL), an important cytokine regulating formation and function of osteoclasts...
September 2017: Przeglad Menopauzalny, Menopause Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29459907/impact-of-chronic-kidney-disease-mineral-and-bone-disorder-on-jaw-and-alveolar-bone-metabolism-a-narrative-review
#10
Tatjana Kanjevac, Borivoj Bijelic, Denis Brajkovic, Miroslav Vasovic, Radojica Stolic
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) has become a worldwide public health problem. It is estimated that nearly 90% of patients with chronic renal failure manifest some symptoms of oral disease. With advances in medical treatment, CKD patients are living longer and require oral care. Chronic kidney disease is often accompanied by disturbances in mineral metabolism which are classified as their own clinical entity known as CKD-mineral and bone disorder (CKD-MBD). CKD-MBD affects all aspects of bone physiology: bone volume, bone turnover and bone mineralization...
2018: Oral Health & Preventive Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29411069/the-utility-of-frax%C3%A2-in-predicting-bone-fractures-in-patients-with-chronic-kidney-disease-on-hemodialysis-a-two-year-prospective-multicenter-cohort-study
#11
J Przedlacki, J Buczyńska-Chyl, P Koźmiński, E Niemczyk, E Wojtaszek, E Gieglis, P Żebrowski, A Podgórzak, J Wściślak, M Wieliczko, J Matuszkiewicz-Rowińska
We assessed the FRAX® method in 718 hemodialyzed patients in estimating increased risk of bone major and hip fractures. Over two prospective years, statistical analysis showed that FRAX® enables a better assessment of bone major fracture risk in these patients than any of its components and other risk factors considered in the analysis. INTRODUCTION: Despite the generally increased risk of bone fractures among patients with end-stage renal disease, no prediction models for identifying individuals at particular risk have been developed to date...
February 6, 2018: Osteoporosis International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29407041/high-bone-mass-in-adults
#12
Julien Paccou, Laetitia Michou, Sami Kolta, Françoise Debiais, Bernard Cortet, Pascal Guggenbuhl
A finding of high bone mineral density (BMD) from routine dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) screening is not uncommon. No consensus exists about the definition of high BMD, and T-score and/or Z-score cutoffs of ≥+2.5 or ≥+4 have been suggested. The many disorders that can result in high BMD are usually classified based on whether the BMD changes are focal vs. generalized or acquired vs. constitutional. In over half the cases, careful interpretation of the DXA report and images identifies the cause as an artefact (e...
March 1, 2018: Joint, Bone, Spine: Revue du Rhumatisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344330/developments-in-rare-bone-diseases-and-mineral-disorders
#13
REVIEW
Siobhan Bacon, Rachel Crowley
In the last decade, there have been a number of significant advances made in the field of rare bone diseases. In this review, we discuss the expansion of the classification system for osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) and the resultant increase in therapeutic options available for management of OI. Bisphosphonates remain the most widely used intervention for OI, although the effect on fracture rate reduction is equivocal. We review the other therapies showing promising results, including denosumab, teriparatide, sclerostin, transforming growth factor β inhibition and gene targeted approaches...
January 2018: Therapeutic Advances in Chronic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331397/persistent-hyperparathyroidism-as-a-risk-factor-for-long-term-graft-failure-the-need-to-discuss-indication-for-parathyroidectomy
#14
Maria Júlia Correia Lima Nepomuceno Araujo, Janaina Almeida Mota Ramalho, Rosilene Motta Elias, Vanda Jorgetti, William Nahas, Melani Custodio, Rosa M A Moysés, Elias David-Neto
BACKGROUND: Although a successful kidney transplant (KTx) improves most of the mineral and bone disorders (MBD) produced by chronic kidney disease (CKD), hyperparathyroidism may persist (pHPT). Current guidelines recommend parathyroidectomy if serum parathormone is persistently elevated 1 year after KTx, because pHPT has been recently associated with poor graft outcomes. However, whether patients with pHPT and adequate renal function are at risk for long-term graft failure is unknown...
January 10, 2018: Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29280738/genetic-causes-of-rickets
#15
Sezer Acar, Korcan Demir, Yufei Shi
Rickets is a metabolic bone disease that develops as a result of inadequate mineralization of growing bone due to disruption of calcium, phosphorus and/or vitamin D metabolism. Nutritional rickets remains a significant child health problem in developing countries. In addition, several rare genetic causes of rickets have also been described, which can be divided into two groups. The first group consists of genetic disorders of vitamin D biosynthesis and action, such as vitamin D-dependent rickets type 1A (VDDR1A), vitamin D-dependent rickets type 1B (VDDR1B), vitamin D-dependent rickets type 2A (VDDR2A), and vitamin D-dependent rickets type 2B (VDDR2B)...
December 30, 2017: Journal of Clinical Research in Pediatric Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229170/care-of-the-pediatric-patient-on-chronic-dialysis
#16
REVIEW
Annabelle N Chua, Bradley A Warady
Optimal care of the pediatric end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patient on chronic dialysis is complex and requires multidisciplinary care as well as patient/caregiver involvement. The dialysis team, along with the family and patient, should all play a role in choosing the dialysis modality which best meets the patient's needs, taking into account special considerations and management issues that may be particularly pertinent to children who receive peritoneal dialysis or hemodialysis. Meticulous attention to dialysis adequacy in terms of solute and fluid removal, as well as to a variety of clinical manifestations of ESRD, including anemia, growth and nutrition, chronic kidney disease-mineral bone disorder, cardiovascular health, and neurocognitive development, is essential...
November 2017: Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29195858/phosphate-binder-use-in-us-dialysis-patients-prevalence-costs-evidence-and-policies
#17
Wendy L St Peter, Lori D Wazny, Eric D Weinhandl
Medicare costs for phosphate binders for US dialysis patients and patients with chronic kidney disease enrolled in Medicare Part D exceeded $1.5 billion in 2015. Previous data have shown that Part D costs for mineral and bone disorder medications increased faster than costs for all Part D medications for dialysis patients. Despite extensive use of phosphate binders and escalating costs, conclusive evidence is lacking that they improve important clinical end points in dialysis patients or non-dialysis-dependent patients with chronic kidney disease...
February 2018: American Journal of Kidney Diseases: the Official Journal of the National Kidney Foundation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29187373/klotho-activin-a-in-kidney-injury-plasma-klotho-is-maintained-in-unilateral-obstruction-despite-no-upregulation-of-klotho-biosynthesis-in-contralateral-kidney
#18
Anders Nordholm, Maria L Mace, Eva Gravesen, Jacob Hofman-Bang, Marya Morevati, Klaus Olgaard, Ewa Lewin
In a new paradigm of etiology related to Chronic Kidney Disease-Mineral and Bone Disorder (CKD-MBD) kidney injury may cause induction of factors in the injured kidney that are released into the circulation and thereby initiate and maintain renal fibrosis and CKD-MBD. Klotho is believed to ameliorate renal fibrosis and CKD-MBD, while ActivinA might have detrimental effects. The unilateral ureter obstruction (UUO) model is used here to examine this concept by investigating early changes related to renal fibrosis in obstructed kidney, untouched contralateral kidney and vasculature, which might be affected by secreted factors from the obstructed kidney, and compared to unilateral nephrectomized controls (UNX)...
November 29, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29175269/sclerostin-deficiency-modifies-the-development-of-ckd-mbd-in-mice
#19
Nadine Kaesler, Anja Verhulst, Annelies De Maré, Annika Deck, Geert J Behets, Ayshe Hyusein, Pieter Evenepoel, Jürgen Floege, Nikolaus Marx, Anne Babler, Ina Kramer, Michaela Kneissel, Rafael Kramann, Daniel Weis, Patrick C D'Haese, Vincent M Brandenburg
Sclerostin is a soluble antagonist of canonical Wnt signaling and a strong inhibitor of bone formation. We present experimental data on the role of sclerostin in chronic kidney disease - bone mineral disorder (CKD-MBD). METHODS: We performed 5/6 nephrectomies in 36-week-old sclerostin-deficient (SOST-/- ) B6-mice and in C57BL/6J wildtype (WT) mice. Animals received a high phosphate diet for 11weeks. The bones were analyzed by high-resolution micro-computed tomography (μCT) and quantitative bone histomorphometry...
February 2018: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163188/elevated-levels-of-peripheral-kynurenine-decrease-bone-strength-in-rats-with-chronic-kidney-disease
#20
Bartlomiej Kalaska, Krystyna Pawlak, Tomasz Domaniewski, Ewa Oksztulska-Kolanek, Beata Znorko, Alicja Roszczenko, Joanna Rogalska, Malgorzata M Brzoska, Pawel Lipowicz, Michal Doroszko, Anna Pryczynicz, Dariusz Pawlak
The diagnosis and treatment of bone disorders in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) represent a clinical challenge. CKD leads to mineral and bone complications starting early in the course of renal failure. Recently, we have observed the positive relationship between intensified central kynurenine turnover and bone strength in rats with subtotal 5/6 nephrectomy (5/6 Nx)-induced CKD. The aim of the present study was to determine the association between peripheral kynurenine pathway metabolites and bone strength in rats with 5/6 Nx-induced CKD...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
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