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renal bone mineral disorder

Hai-Tao Hou, Ya-Nan Wang, Shi-Ze Shao, Song Fu, Xiang-Peng Huang, Xiao-Hui Wang
Dietary calcium (Ca) supplementation has beneficial effects on bone health. However, it is not clear whether a high calcium diet (HCD) following 5/6 nephrectomy (5/6 Nx) is beneficial to bone health. The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of an HCD on bone metabolism using a chronic kidney disease (CKD) mouse model. Male C57BL/6J mice were divided into three groups: Sham group, 5/6 Nx group and 5/6 Nx + HCD group. Mice were sacrificed 12 weeks post-surgery. Calcium (Ca) and creatinine (Cr) were measured using standard colorimetric methods and picric acid methods, respectively...
April 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Radosław Słopień, Piotr Rynio, Elżbieta Kubala, Ewa Milewska, Blazej Meczekalski
Osteoporosis is a chronic, systemic skeletal disorder characterised by decreased bone density. It leads to an increased risk of bone fractures - one of the major causes of disability in modern societies. Bisphosphonates are the most commonly used medications in the treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis. Denosumab, a new approach to fracture prevention, is a fully human monoclonal antibody that targets nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL), an important cytokine regulating formation and function of osteoclasts...
September 2017: Przeglad Menopauzalny, Menopause Review
Tatjana Kanjevac, Borivoj Bijelic, Denis Brajkovic, Miroslav Vasovic, Radojica Stolic
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) has become a worldwide public health problem. It is estimated that nearly 90% of patients with chronic renal failure manifest some symptoms of oral disease. With advances in medical treatment, CKD patients are living longer and require oral care. Chronic kidney disease is often accompanied by disturbances in mineral metabolism which are classified as their own clinical entity known as CKD-mineral and bone disorder (CKD-MBD). CKD-MBD affects all aspects of bone physiology: bone volume, bone turnover and bone mineralization...
2018: Oral Health & Preventive Dentistry
J Przedlacki, J Buczyńska-Chyl, P Koźmiński, E Niemczyk, E Wojtaszek, E Gieglis, P Żebrowski, A Podgórzak, J Wściślak, M Wieliczko, J Matuszkiewicz-Rowińska
We assessed the FRAX® method in 718 hemodialyzed patients in estimating increased risk of bone major and hip fractures. Over two prospective years, statistical analysis showed that FRAX® enables a better assessment of bone major fracture risk in these patients than any of its components and other risk factors considered in the analysis. INTRODUCTION: Despite the generally increased risk of bone fractures among patients with end-stage renal disease, no prediction models for identifying individuals at particular risk have been developed to date...
February 6, 2018: Osteoporosis International
Julien Paccou, Laetitia Michou, Sami Kolta, Françoise Debiais, Bernrard Cortet, Pascal Guggenbuhl
A finding of high bone mineral density (BMD) from routine dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) screening is not uncommon. No consensus exists about the definition of high BMD, and T-score and/or Z-score cutoffs of ≥+2.5 or ≥+4 have been suggested. The many disorders that can result in high BMD are usually classified based on whether the BMD changes are focal vs. generalized or acquired vs. constitutional. In over half the cases, careful interpretation of the DXA report and images identifies the cause as an artefact (e...
January 30, 2018: Joint, Bone, Spine: Revue du Rhumatisme
Siobhan Bacon, Rachel Crowley
In the last decade, there have been a number of significant advances made in the field of rare bone diseases. In this review, we discuss the expansion of the classification system for osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) and the resultant increase in therapeutic options available for management of OI. Bisphosphonates remain the most widely used intervention for OI, although the effect on fracture rate reduction is equivocal. We review the other therapies showing promising results, including denosumab, teriparatide, sclerostin, transforming growth factor β inhibition and gene targeted approaches...
January 2018: Therapeutic Advances in Chronic Disease
Maria Júlia Correia Lima Nepomuceno Araujo, Janaina Almeida Mota Ramalho, Rosilene Motta Elias, Vanda Jorgetti, William Nahas, Melani Custodio, Rosa M A Moysés, Elias David-Neto
BACKGROUND: Although a successful kidney transplant (KTx) improves most of the mineral and bone disorders (MBD) produced by chronic kidney disease (CKD), hyperparathyroidism may persist (pHPT). Current guidelines recommend parathyroidectomy if serum parathormone is persistently elevated 1 year after KTx, because pHPT has been recently associated with poor graft outcomes. However, whether patients with pHPT and adequate renal function are at risk for long-term graft failure is unknown...
January 10, 2018: Surgery
Sezer Acar, Korcan Demir, Yufei Shi
Rickets is a metabolic bone disease that develops as a result of inadequate mineralization of growing bone due to disruption of calcium, phosphorus and/or vitamin D metabolism. Nutritional rickets remains a significant child health problem in developing countries. In addition, several rare genetic causes of rickets have also been described, which can be divided into two groups. The first group consists of genetic disorders of vitamin D biosynthesis and action, such as vitamin D-dependent rickets type 1A (VDDR1A), vitamin D-dependent rickets type 1B (VDDR1B), vitamin D-dependent rickets type 2A (VDDR2A), and vitamin D-dependent rickets type 2B (VDDR2B)...
December 30, 2017: Journal of Clinical Research in Pediatric Endocrinology
Annabelle N Chua, Bradley A Warady
Optimal care of the pediatric end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patient on chronic dialysis is complex and requires multidisciplinary care as well as patient/caregiver involvement. The dialysis team, along with the family and patient, should all play a role in choosing the dialysis modality which best meets the patient's needs, taking into account special considerations and management issues that may be particularly pertinent to children who receive peritoneal dialysis or hemodialysis. Meticulous attention to dialysis adequacy in terms of solute and fluid removal, as well as to a variety of clinical manifestations of ESRD, including anemia, growth and nutrition, chronic kidney disease-mineral bone disorder, cardiovascular health, and neurocognitive development, is essential...
November 2017: Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease
Wendy L St Peter, Lori D Wazny, Eric D Weinhandl
Medicare costs for phosphate binders for US dialysis patients and patients with chronic kidney disease enrolled in Medicare Part D exceeded $1.5 billion in 2015. Previous data have shown that Part D costs for mineral and bone disorder medications increased faster than costs for all Part D medications for dialysis patients. Despite extensive use of phosphate binders and escalating costs, conclusive evidence is lacking that they improve important clinical end points in dialysis patients or non-dialysis-dependent patients with chronic kidney disease...
February 2018: American Journal of Kidney Diseases: the Official Journal of the National Kidney Foundation
Anders Nordholm, Maria L Mace, Eva Gravesen, Jacob Hofman-Bang, Marya Morevati, Klaus Olgaard, Ewa Lewin
In a new paradigm of etiology related to Chronic Kidney Disease-Mineral and Bone Disorder (CKD-MBD) kidney injury may cause induction of factors in the injured kidney that are released into the circulation and thereby initiate and maintain renal fibrosis and CKD-MBD. Klotho is believed to ameliorate renal fibrosis and CKD-MBD, while ActivinA might have detrimental effects. The unilateral ureter obstruction (UUO) model is used here to examine this concept by investigating early changes related to renal fibrosis in obstructed kidney, untouched contralateral kidney and vasculature, which might be affected by secreted factors from the obstructed kidney, and compared to unilateral nephrectomized controls (UNX)...
November 29, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
Nadine Kaesler, Anja Verhulst, Annelies De Maré, Annika Deck, Geert J Behets, Ayshe Hyusein, Pieter Evenepoel, Jürgen Floege, Nikolaus Marx, Anne Babler, Ina Kramer, Michaela Kneissel, Rafael Kramann, Daniel Weis, Patrick C D'Haese, Vincent M Brandenburg
Sclerostin is a soluble antagonist of canonical Wnt signaling and a strong inhibitor of bone formation. We present experimental data on the role of sclerostin in chronic kidney disease - bone mineral disorder (CKD-MBD). METHODS: We performed 5/6 nephrectomies in 36-week-old sclerostin-deficient (SOST-/- ) B6-mice and in C57BL/6J wildtype (WT) mice. Animals received a high phosphate diet for 11weeks. The bones were analyzed by high-resolution micro-computed tomography (μCT) and quantitative bone histomorphometry...
February 2018: Bone
Bartlomiej Kalaska, Krystyna Pawlak, Tomasz Domaniewski, Ewa Oksztulska-Kolanek, Beata Znorko, Alicja Roszczenko, Joanna Rogalska, Malgorzata M Brzoska, Pawel Lipowicz, Michal Doroszko, Anna Pryczynicz, Dariusz Pawlak
The diagnosis and treatment of bone disorders in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) represent a clinical challenge. CKD leads to mineral and bone complications starting early in the course of renal failure. Recently, we have observed the positive relationship between intensified central kynurenine turnover and bone strength in rats with subtotal 5/6 nephrectomy (5/6 Nx)-induced CKD. The aim of the present study was to determine the association between peripheral kynurenine pathway metabolites and bone strength in rats with 5/6 Nx-induced CKD...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
Shatha Murad, Yuval Eisenberg
OBJECTIVE: Primary hyperoxaluria type 1 (PH1) is a rare metabolic disorder of oxalate overproduction. It is associated with urolithiasis and nephrocalcinosis which progress to ESRD and systemic oxalosis. As oxalate deposits in tissues, non-parathyroid hormone (nonPTH) mediated hypercalcemia, oxalate osteopathy, primary hypothyroidism and primary hypogonadism develop. In this review, we will present a case of PH1 and provide an overview of this clinical entity and its endocrine manifestations...
November 16, 2017: Endocrine Practice
Vikram Vinod Shanbhogue, Stinus Hansen, Niklas Rye Jørgensen, Signe Sparre Beck-Nielsen
X-linked hypophosphatemia (XLH) is a rare, inheritable disorder manifesting as rickets in children and osteomalacia in adults. While conventional medical treatment with oral phosphate and alfacalcidol is recommended in childhood, it is undecided whether adults should continue therapy. The aim of this 6-year prospective study was to determine the impact of conventional medical treatment on areal bone mineral density (aBMD), bone turnover markers (BTMs) and measures of calcium homeostasis in 27 adult patients with XLH, 11 of whom received medical treatment...
November 15, 2017: Calcified Tissue International
Sibel Gulcicek, Carmine Zoccali, Deniz Çebi Olgun, Giovanni Tripepi, Selma Alagoz, Serkan Feyyaz Yalın, Sinan Trabulus, Mehmet R Altiparmak, Nurhan Seyahi
Aims: Compared to the general population, mortality is significantly increased in renal transplant recipients. In the general population, coronary artery calcification (CAC) and its evolution over time are associated with cardiovascular and all-cause mortality, and the study of this biomarker could provide useful information for describing the long-term progression of coronary heart disease in renal transplant recipients. Methods: We followed up a cohort of 113 renal transplant patients by performing three multi-detector computed tomography studies over 83...
October 2017: Cardiorenal Medicine
Flávia Sirotheau Corrêa Pontes, Márcio Ajudarte Lopes, Lucas Lacerda de Souza, Diogo Dos Santos da Mata Rezende, Alan Roger Santos-Silva, Jacks Jorge, Wagner Gomes da Silva, Fábio Ramôa Pires, André Caroli Rocha, Wladimir Gushiken de Campos, Milena Coelho Fernandes Caldato, Regina Matsunaga Martin, Felipe Paiva Fonseca, Hélder Antônio Rebelo Pontes
OBJECTIVE: To describe the oral and maxillofacial manifestations of patients diagnosed with chronic kidney disease-mineral and bone disorders. STUDY DESIGN: Over a 13-year period, clinicopathologic data of patients diagnosed with CKD-MBD who had oral and maxillofacial alterations were retrieved from the files of 4 Brazilian institutions. Data included clinical, radiographic, microscopic, and biochemical findings; treatment employed; and follow-up status. RESULTS: Twenty-one cases were identified, with 13 patients diagnosed as brown tumor of hyperparathyroidism (BTH) and 8 as osteitis fibrosa/renal osteodystrophy (OF/RO) (4 of them clinically consistent with Sagliker syndrome)...
January 2018: Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology and Oral Radiology
Ladan Zand, Rajiv Kumar
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) are associated with abnormalities in bone and mineral metabolism, known as CKD-bone mineral disorder. CKD and ESRD cause skeletal abnormalities characterized by hyperparathyroidism, mixed uremic osteodystrophy, osteomalacia, adynamic bone disease, and frequently enhanced vascular and ectopic calcification. Hyperparathyroidism and mixed uremic osteodystrophy are the most common manifestations due to phosphate retention, reduced concentrations of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D, intestinal calcium absorption, and negative calcium balance...
December 2017: Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinics of North America
Khuraijam Bembem, Tejinder Singh, Narinder Pal Singh, Alpana Saxena, Shyama Lata Jain
Chronic Kidney Disease-Mineral Bone Disorder(CKD-MBD) is a systemic disorder of the mineral and bone metabolism seen in patients with Chronic Kidney Disease(CKD). It is manifested by either one or a combination of the following: (a) Abnormalities of calcium, phosphorus, PTH, or vitamin D metabolism. (b) Abnormalities in bone turnover, mineralization, volume, linear growth, or strength. (c) Vascular or other soft- tissue calcification. Renal osteodystrophy measures the skeletal component of CKD-MBD. To study the histomorphology of bone marrow biopsy in patients with CKD-MBD and correlate the histological features of bone biopsy with the clinicobiochemical parameters...
December 2017: Indian Journal of Hematology & Blood Transfusion
Marta Miernik, Katarzyna Madziarska, Marian Klinger, Wacław Weyde, Włodzimierz Więckiewicz
BACKGROUND: End-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients are considered as a group of high risk of oral cavity diseases. One of the determinants of alveolar bone loss and increased teeth mobility in ESRD patients might be the bone abnormalities associated with chronic kidney disease-mineral and bone disorder (CKD-MBD). OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to compare the general health condition, number and location of teeth in a group of ESRD patients with the group of peers from general population and revealing the risk factors of tooth loss...
August 2017: Advances in Clinical and Experimental Medicine: Official Organ Wroclaw Medical University
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