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Aingeru Martínez, John Stephen Kominoski, Aitor Larrañaga
Climate change is increasing overall temporal variability in precipitation resulting in a seasonal water availability, both increasing periods of flooding and water scarcity. During low water availability periods, the concentration of leachates from riparian vegetation increases, subsequently increasing dissolved organic matter (DOM). Moreover, shifts in riparian vegetation by land use changes impact the quantity and quality of DOM. Our objective was to test effects of increasing DOM concentrations from Eucalyptus grandis (one of the most cultivated tree species in the world) leachates on the metabolism (respiration, R; gross primary productivity, GPP) and extracellular enzyme activities (EEAs) of freshwater biofilms...
May 19, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Meilian Chen, Sung-Han Kim, Heon-Jae Jung, Jung-Ho Hyun, Jung Hyun Choi, Hyo-Jin Lee, In-Ae Huh, Jin Hur
In order to understand the characteristics and dynamics of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in the sediment of rivers affected by impoundments, we examined the vertical profiles and the benthic fluxes of DOM in four different core sediments located at upstream sites of weirs in major rivers of South Korea. In three out of four sites, exponential accumulation of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) with depth was observed with the signature of seasonal variability. Except for the site displaying a below-detection limit of Fe(II), the general accumulation trends of DOC with depth was concurrent with the increases of Fe(II) and NH4(+) and the decrease of PO4(3-), signifying a close linkage of the DOM dynamics with anaerobic respiration via iron reduction, an important early diagenesis pathway...
May 12, 2017: Water Research
Beatriz Martines de Souza, Mariele Vertuan, Marília Afonso Rabelo Buzalaf, Ana Carolina Magalhães
This in vitro study compared the effect of TiF4 varnish with that of NaF varnish, applied on pre-eroded bovine dentin samples, with respect to the progression of erosive loss, in the presence or absence of the demineralized organic matrix (DOM). One hundred and sixty bovine dentin samples were pre-eroded (0.1% citric acid, pH 2.5, 30 min). Half of the samples were subjected to the DOM removal (collagenase solution, 5 days). Samples with and without the DOM were treated according to the groups (n = 20 with DOM and 20 without DOM/group): TiF4 varnish (2...
May 19, 2017: Caries Research
Shuran He, Qin Lu, Wenyan Li, Zongling Ren, Zhen Zhou, Xiao Feng, Yulong Zhang, Yongtao Li
Labile metals in agricultural soils are available to crops and thus pose a great health risk for human beings. Therefore, factors influencing heavy metal activity are of interest to researchers. In this study, a total of 142 soil samples representing 5 typical parent materials in the Pearl River Basin (PRB), China were collected to investigate factors impacting the distribution of labile Cd and Pb in the soils. The results showed that the labile fractions accounted for 0.03%-14.7% for Cd and 0.01%-0.39% for Pb of the total metals, and the labile fractions were linearly correlated to their corresponding total contents...
May 2, 2017: Chemosphere
Mia J Sullivan, Randy Kuhlmann, Julie A Peterson, Brian R Curtis
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 18, 2017: Transfusion
Maria de Lara Palmeira de Macedo Arguelho, José do Patrocínio Hora Alves, Adnívia Santos Costa Monteiro, Carlos Alexandre Borges Garcia
The Sal River estuary, which is located in the state of Sergipe, Northeastern Brazil, stands out as an urban estuary, anthropogenically impacted by untreated and treated wastewater discharge. Synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy and measurement of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) were used for characterization of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in the estuarine water. Dissolved organic carbon concentrations ranged from 7.5 to 19.0 mg L(-1) and, in general, the highest values were recorded during dry season...
June 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Zhao Zhao, Michael Gonsior, Jenna Luek, Stephen Timko, Hope Ianiri, Norbert Hertkorn, Philippe Schmitt-Kopplin, Xiaoting Fang, Qinglu Zeng, Nianzhi Jiao, Feng Chen
Marine chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) and its related fluorescent components (FDOM), which are widely distributed but highly photobleached in the surface ocean, are critical in regulating light attenuation in the ocean. However, the origins of marine FDOM are still under investigation. Here we show that cultured picocyanobacteria, Synechococcus and Prochlorococcus, release FDOM that closely match the typical fluorescent signals found in oceanic environments. Picocyanobacterial FDOM also shows comparable apparent fluorescent quantum yields and undergoes similar photo-degradation behaviour when compared with deep-ocean FDOM, further strengthening the similarity between them...
May 17, 2017: Nature Communications
Thilo Hotfiel, Marion Kellermann, Bernd Swoboda, Dane Wildner, Tobias Golditz, Casper Grim, Martin Raithel, Michael Uder, Rafael Heiss
CONTEXT: DOMS is one of the most common reasons for impaired muscle performance in sports and is associated with reduced muscle strength and frequently observed both in professional and recreational athletes. OBJECTIVE: To emphasize the diagnostic value of Acoustic Radiation Force Impulse (ARFI) in imaging of Delayed Onset Muscle Soreness by comparing findings to high-resolution 3T MRI T2 weighted sequences. DESIGN: Case series. SETTING: Laboratory environment...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Sport Rehabilitation
Laura Hernández, Robert Jandl, Viorel N B Blujdea, Aleksi Lehtonen, Kaie Kriiska, Iciar Alberdi, Veiko Adermann, Isabel Cañellas, Gheorghe Marin, Daniel Moreno-Fernández, Ivika Ostonen, Mats Varik, Markus Didion
Accurate carbon-balance accounting in forest soils is necessary for the development of climate change policy. However, changes in soil organic carbon (SOC) occur slowly and these changes may not be captured through repeated soil inventories. Simulation models may be used as alternatives to SOC measurement. The Yasso07 model presents a suitable alternative because most of the data required for the application are readily available in countries with common forest surveys. In this study, we test the suitability of Yasso07 for simulating SOC stocks and stock changes in a variety of European forests affected by different climatic, land use and forest management conditions and we address country-specific cases with differing resources and data availability...
May 12, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Pradeep Nareddy, Frank Jordan, Michal Szostak
The ruthenium(ii)-catalyzed oxidative cross-coupling of C(sp(2))-H bonds with organosilanes has been accomplished for the first time. This novel protocol enlists challenging cyclic and N,N-dialkyl benzamides as weakly-coordinating substrates to achieve highly regioselective C(sp(2))-H arylation as a proof-of-concept, taking advantage of the attractive features of organosilanes as coupling partners. This innovative method is characterized by very high chemoselectivity, installing halide functional groups (I, Br, Cl) that are incompatible with Ru(ii)-carboxylate systems employing halides as cross-coupling partners, while obviating the need for sensitive organometallic reagents and cryogenic temperatures typical to the classic directed-ortho-metallation (DoM) techniques, employing benzamides to afford bioactive structural motifs...
April 1, 2017: Chemical Science
Hugo A Kerhervé, Pierre Samozino, Fabrice Descombe, Matthieu Pinay, Guillaume Y Millet, Marion Pasqualini, Thomas Rupp
Introduction: The aim of this study was to determine whether calf compression sleeves (CS) affects physiological and biomechanical parameters, exercise performance, and perceived sensations of muscle fatigue, pain and soreness during prolonged (~2 h 30 min) outdoor trail running. Methods: Fourteen healthy trained males took part in a randomized, cross-over study consisting in two identical 24-km trail running sessions (each including one bout of running at constant rate on moderately flat terrain, and one period of all-out running on hilly terrain) wearing either degressive CS (23 ± 2 mmHg) or control sleeves (CON, <4 mmHg)...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
Meilian Chen, Ji-Hoon Kim, Jiyoung Choi, Yun Kyung Lee, Jin Hur
The dynamics of a large stock of organic matter contained in deep sediments of marginal seas plays pivotal role in global carbon cycle, yet it is poorly constrained. Here, dissolved organic matter (DOM) in sediments was investigated for core sediment up to ~240 meters deep in the East/Japan Sea. The upper downcore profile (≤118 mbsf, or meters below seafloor) at a non-chimney site (U1) featured the exponential production of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and optically active DOM with time in the pore water above sulfate-methane-transition-zone (SMTZ), concurrent with the increases of nutrients and alkalinity, and the reduction of sulfate...
May 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
Andrew W Vermilyea, Sonia A Nagorski, Carl H Lamborg, Eran W Hood, Durelle Scott, Gretchen J Swarr
In this study, a stream from a glacially dominated watershed and one from a wetland, temperate forest dominated watershed in southeast Alaska were continuously monitored for turbidity and fluorescence from dissolved organic matter (FDOM) while grab samples for unfiltered (UTHg), particulate (PTHg), and filtered mercury (FTHg) where taken over three 4-day periods (May snowmelt, July glacial melt, and September rainy season) during 2010. Strong correlations were found between FDOM and UTHg concentrations in the wetland, temperate forest watershed (r(2)=0...
May 2, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Julia Raeke, Oliver J Lechtenfeld, Bettina Seiwert, Till Meier, Christina Riemenschneider, Thorsten Reemtsma
More than 400 new nitrogen containing products were detected upon experimental sunlight photolysis of the pharmaceutical carbamazepine (CBZ) in the presence of dissolved organic matter (DOM) by Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FTICR-MS). These products were presumably formed through covalent binding of CBZ phototransformation products with DOM molecules. About 50% of these newly formed bound residues contained one nitrogen atom and had a molecular mass between 375 and 525 Da, which was 150 to 200 Da higher than for an average DOM molecule...
May 5, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
Dpr Herlemann, M Manecki, T Dittmar, K Jürgens
In response to global warming, increasing quantities of tDOM are transported through estuaries from land to the sea. In this study we investigated microbial responses to increased tDOM concentrations in three salinity regimes (salinity: 32, 7 and 3) characteristic of the Baltic Sea. Mesocosm experiments performed in May and November revealed low (0-6%) dissolved organic carbon (DOC) utilization. Molecular DOM analyses using ultra-high-resolution mass spectrometry identified the terrigenous signal in the tDOM manipulation, but the molecular changes in DOM levels over the course of the experiment were subtle...
May 4, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
Leander K Mitchell, Bob G Knight, Nancy A Pachana
Wisdom is derived (in modern language terms) from the Old English words wis ("of a certainty, for certain"; "Wisdom," 2015) and dóm ("statute, judgment, jurisdiction"; "Wisdom," 2015); wisdom is, at its broadest, defined as the "Capacity of judging rightly in matters relating to life and conduct; soundness of judgement in the choice of means and ends; sometimes less strictly, sound sense, esp. in practical affairs" ("Wisdom," 2015). As a concept, wisdom has been acknowledged within our history since the time of the Sumerians (and estimated to have originated in around 2,500 BCE)...
May 5, 2017: International Psychogeriatrics
Grant C Wallace, Michael Sander, Yu-Ping Chin, William A Arnold
Electron donating capacity (EDC) values were determined for a set of pore water samples collected from the sediments of four separate wetlands in the Cottonwood Lakes Study Area in Jamestown, ND by mediated electrochemical analysis, reaction with substituted nitro(so)benzenes, and calculation based on measured organic carbon and sulfide concentrations. The samples were taken from four hydrologically connected and increasingly sulfidic wetlands within the study site. Parallel trends in EDC values related to hydrologic conditions and to in situ reduced sulfur content were observed by all three methodologies...
May 3, 2017: Environmental Science. Processes & Impacts
Leilei Bai, Chicheng Cao, Changhui Wang, Huacheng Xu, Hui Zhang, Vera I Slaveykova, Helong Jiang
Occurrence of cyanobacterial harmful algal blooms (CyanoHAB) can induce considerable patchiness in the concentration and bioavailability of dissolved organic matter (DOM), which could influence biogeochemical processes and fuel microbial metabolism. In the present study, a laboratory 4-stage plug-flow bioreactor was used to successfully separate the CyanoHAB-derived DOM isolated from the eutrophic Lake Taihu (China) into continuum classes of bioavailable compounds. A combination of new state-of-the-art tools borrowed from analytical chemistry and microbial ecology were used to characterize quantitatively the temporary evolution of DOM and to get deeper insights into its bioavailability...
May 11, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
Lili Song, Bo Zhu, Veeriah Jegatheesan, Stephen Gray, Mikel Duke, Shobha Muthukumaran
The aim of the present work was to experimentally evaluate an alternative advanced wastewater treatment system, which combines the action of photocatalytic oxidation with ceramic membrane filtration. Experiments were carried out using laboratory scale TiO2/UV photocatalytic reactor and tubular ceramic microfiltration (CMF) system to treat the secondary effluent (SE). A 100-nm pore size CMF membrane was investigated in cross flow mode under constant transmembrane pressure of 20 kPa. The results show that specific flux decline of CMF membrane with and without TiO2/UV photocatalytic treatment was 30 and 50%, respectively, after 60 min of filtration...
May 1, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Jos P M Vink, Andre van Zomeren, Joris J Dijkstra, Rob N J Comans
Simulating the storage of aerobic soils under water, the chemical speciation of heavy metals and arsenic was studied over a long-term reduction period. Time-dynamic and redox-discrete measurements in reactors were used to study geochemical changes. Large kinetic differences in the net-complexation quantities of heavy metals with sulfides was observed, and elevated pore water concentrations remained for a prolonged period (>1 year) specifically for As, B, Ba, Co, Mo, and Ni. Arsenic is associated to the iron phases as a co-precipitate or sorbed fraction to Fe-(hydr)oxides, and it is being released into solution as a consequence of the reduction of iron...
April 27, 2017: Environmental Pollution
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