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Lysosomal acid lipase

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302509/a-novel-homozygous-lipa-mutation-in-a-korean-child-with-lysosomal-acid-lipase-deficiency
#1
Kwang Yeon Kim, Ju Whi Kim, Kyung Jae Lee, Eunhyang Park, Gyeong Hoon Kang, Young Hun Choi, Woo Sun Kim, Jung Min Ko, Jin Soo Moon, Jae Sung Ko
Patients with lysosomal acid lipase (LAL) deficiency and glycogen storage disease (GSD) demonstrated hepatomegaly and dyslipidemia. In our case, a 6-year-old boy presented with hepatosplenomegaly. At 3 years of age, GSD had been diagnosed by liver biopsy at another hospital. He showed elevated serum liver enzymes and dyslipidemia. Liver biopsy revealed diffuse microvesicular fatty changes in hepatocytes, septal fibrosis and foamy macrophages. Ultrastructural examination demonstrated numerous lysosomes that contained lipid material and intracytoplasmic cholesterol clefts...
December 2017: Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology & Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29287906/mexican-consensus-on-lysosomal-acid-lipase-deficiency-diagnosis
#2
R Vázquez-Frias, J E García-Ortiz, P F Valencia-Mayoral, G E Castro-Narro, P G Medina-Bravo, Y Santillán-Hernández, J Flores-Calderón, R Mehta, C A Arellano-Valdés, L Carbajal-Rodríguez, J I Navarrete-Martínez, M L Urbán-Reyes, M T Valadez-Reyes, F Zárate-Mondragón, A Consuelo-Sánchez
INTRODUCTION: Lysosomal acid lipase deficiency (LAL-D) causes progressive cholesteryl ester and triglyceride accumulation in the lysosomes of hepatocytes and monocyte-macrophage system cells, resulting in a systemic disease with various manifestations that may go unnoticed. It is indispensable to recognize the deficiency, which can present in patients at any age, so that specific treatment can be given. The aim of the present review was to offer a guide for physicians in understanding the fundamental diagnostic aspects of LAL-D, to successfully aid in its identification...
December 26, 2017: Revista de Gastroenterología de México
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29246491/impact-of-loss-of-soat2-function-on-disease-progression-in-the-lysosomal-acid-lipase-deficient-mouse
#3
Adam M Lopez, Jen-Chieh Chuang, Stephen D Turley
Although only a small proportion of cholesterol in the body is esterified, in several diseases marked expansion of the esterified cholesterol (EC) pool occurs. These include Wolman disease (WD) and Cholesteryl Ester Storage Disease (CESD) which both result from mutations in LIPA, the gene that encodes lysosomal acid lipase (LAL). The respective contributions that our three cholesterol esterifying enzymes make to EC production, especially in disorders like CESD, are not well defined. The current studies represent a detailed exploration of our earlier findings in young male LAL-deficient mice also missing sterol-O-acyltransferase 2 (SOAT2, also called ACAT2)...
December 12, 2017: Steroids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234937/-lysosomal-acid-lipase-deficiency-lal-d-diagnostic-and-therapeutic-options-in-an-underdiagnosed-disease
#4
REVIEW
S Synoracki, S Kathemann, K W Schmid, H Jastrow, H A Baba
BACKGROUND AND CLINICAL SETTING: Lysosomal acid lipase deficiency is an autosomal recessive storage disease caused by mutations in the LIPA gene. The accumulation of cholesteryl esters and triglycerides in hepatocytes lead to hepatomegaly with progressive fibrosis and liver cirrhosis. Characteristically, patients have a hepatomegaly combined with high serum levels of cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and in some cases triglyceride, whereas HDL-cholesterol is decreased. Histologically, hepatocytes show a microvesicular steatosis with typically ballooned Kupffer cells...
December 12, 2017: Der Pathologe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196158/prevalence-of-cholesteryl-ester-storage-disease-among-hypercholesterolemic-subjects-and-functional-characterization-of-mutations-in-the-lysosomal-acid-lipase-gene
#5
Terje Vinje, Lene Wierød, Trond P Leren, Thea Bismo Strøm
Lysosomal acid lipase hydrolyzes cholesteryl esters and triglycerides contained in low density lipoprotein. Patients who are homozygous or compound heterozygous for mutations in the lysosomal acid lipase gene (LIPA), and have some residual enzymatic activity, have cholesteryl ester storage disease. One of the clinical features of this disease is hypercholesterolemia. Thus, patients with hypercholesterolemia who do not carry a mutation as a cause of autosomal dominant hypercholesterolemia, may actually have cholesteryl ester storage disease...
November 23, 2017: Molecular Genetics and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29091130/importance-of-liver-biopsy-in-the-diagnosis-of-lysosomal-acid-lipase-deficiency-a-case-report
#6
Adriana Maria Alves De Tommaso, Flávia Fonseca de Carvalho Barra, Gabriel Hessel, Carolina Araújo Moreno, Roberto Giugliani, Cecília Amélia Fazzio Escanhoela
OBJECTIVE: To describe a case of cholesteryl ester storage disease (CESD) and discuss the importance of liver biopsy for diagnosis. CASE DESCRIPTION: A female patient, aged two years and ten months, presented with an increased abdominal volume following hepatomegaly for four months. Abdominal ultrasound demonstrated hepatomegaly and hepatic steatosis. Laboratory tests showed elevated liver serum enzymes and dyslipidemia. Liver biopsy was consistent with CESD. COMMENTS: Although measuring enzyme activity is the gold standard for CESD diagnosis, liver biopsy is very helpful when investigating suspected cases of CESD, particularly upon other differential diagnoses to be considered...
October 30, 2017: Revista Paulista de Pediatria: Orgão Oficial da Sociedade de Pediatria de São Paulo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28987255/genetic-testing-in-liver-disease-what-to-order-in-whom-and-when
#7
REVIEW
Emily A Schonfeld, Robert S Brown
Genetic causes of liver disease lead to a wide range of presentations, from mildly abnormal liver tests to acute liver failure. This article discusses the indications for testing and what to test for hereditary hemochromatosis, progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis, benign recurrent intrahepatic cholestasis, lysosomal acid lipase deficiency, Gilbert syndrome, alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency, and Wilson disease.
November 2017: Clinics in Liver Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924047/endothelial-rab7-gtpase-mediates-tumor-growth-and-metastasis-in-lysosomal-acid-lipase-deficient-mice
#8
Ting Zhao, Xinchun Ding, Cong Yan, Hong Du
Tumors depend on their microenvironment for sustained growth, invasion and metastasis. In this environment, endothelial cells (ECs) are an important stromal cell type interacting with malignant cells to facilitate tumor angiogenesis and cancer cell extravasation. Of note, lysosomal acid lipase (LAL) deficiency facilitates melanoma growth and metastasis. ECs from LAL-deficient (lal-/-) mice possess enhanced proliferation, migration, and permeability of inflammatory cells by activating the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900817/spleen-dimensions-are-inversely-associated-with-lysosomal-acid-lipase-activity-in-patients-with-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#9
Licia Polimeni, Daniele Pastori, Francesco Baratta, Giulia Tozzi, Marta Novo, Roberto Vicinanza, Giovanni Troisi, Gaetano Pannitteri, Fabrizio Ceci, Laura Scardella, Francesco Violi, Francesco Angelico, Maria Del Ben
Fatty liver and splenomegaly are typical features of genetic lysosomal acid lipase (LAL) deficiency. No data in adult patients with non-genetic reduction of LAL activity are available. We investigate the association between spleen dimensions and LAL activity in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) patients, in whom a reduced LAL activity has been reported. We include 425 consecutive patients who underwent abdominal ultrasound to evaluate hepatic steatosis and spleen dimensions. LAL activity was measured with dried blood spot method (Lalistat2)...
December 2017: Internal and Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882870/crispr-cas9-mediated-gene-editing-in-human-ipsc-derived-macrophage-reveals-lysosomal-acid-lipase-function-in-human-macrophages-brief-report
#10
Hanrui Zhang, Jianting Shi, Melanie A Hachet, Chenyi Xue, Robert C Bauer, Hongfeng Jiang, Wenjun Li, Junichiro Tohyama, John Millar, Jeffrey Billheimer, Michael C Phillips, Babak Razani, Daniel J Rader, Muredach P Reilly
OBJECTIVE: To gain mechanistic insights into the role of LIPA (lipase A), the gene encoding LAL (lysosomal acid lipase) protein, in human macrophages. APPROACH AND RESULTS: We used CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats)/Cas9 (CRISPR-associated protein 9) technology to knock out LIPA in human induced pluripotent stem cells and then differentiate to macrophage (human-induced pluripotent stem cells-derived macrophage [IPSDM]) to explore the human macrophage LIPA loss-of-function phenotypes...
November 2017: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28881270/molecular-and-clinical-characterization-of-a-series-of-patients-with-childhood-onset-lysosomal-acid-lipase-deficiency-retrospective-investigations-follow-up-and-detection-of-two-novel-lipa-pathogenic-variants
#11
Livia Pisciotta, Giulia Tozzi, Lorena Travaglini, Roberta Taurisano, Tiziano Lucchi, Giuseppe Indolfi, Francesco Papadia, Maja Di Rocco, Lorenzo D'Antiga, Patricia Crock, Komal Vora, Scott Nightingale, Helen Michelakakis, Anastasia Garoufi, Lilia Lykopoulou, Stefano Bertolini, Sebastiano Calandra
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Childhood/Adult-onset Lysosomal Acid Lipase Deficiency (LAL-D) is a recessive disorder due to loss of function variants of LAL, the enzyme which hydrolyses cholesteryl esters, derived from internalized apoB containing lipoproteins. The disease is characterized by multi-organ involvement including the liver, spleen, intestine and cardiovascular system. The aim of this study was the clinical and molecular characterization of 14 (13 unrelated) previously unreported patients with childhood-onset LAL-D...
October 2017: Atherosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28860124/quantitative-analysis-of-the-proteome-response-to-the-histone-deacetylase-inhibitor-hdaci-vorinostat-in-niemann-pick-type-c1-disease
#12
Kanagaraj Subramanian, Navin Rauniyar, Mathieu Lavalleé-Adam, John R Yates, William E Balch
Niemann-Pick type C (NPC) disease is an inherited, progressive neurodegenerative disorder principally caused by mutations in the NPC1 gene. NPC disease is characterized by the accumulation of unesterified cholesterol in the late endosomes (LE) and lysosomes (Ly) (LE/Ly). Vorinostat, a histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi), restores cholesterol homeostasis in fibroblasts derived from NPC patients; however, the exact mechanism by which Vorinostat restores cholesterol level is not known yet. In this study, we performed comparative proteomic profiling of the response of NPC1(I1061T) fibroblasts to Vorinostat...
November 2017: Molecular & Cellular Proteomics: MCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804516/the-role-of-sebelipase-alfa-in-the-treatment-of-lysosomal-acid-lipase-deficiency
#13
REVIEW
Angelika L Erwin
Lysosomal acid lipase deficiency (LALD) is a lysosomal storage disorder (LSD) characterized either by infantile onset with fulminant clinical course and very poor prognosis or childhood/adult-onset disease with an attenuated phenotype. The disorder is often misdiagnosed or remains undiagnosed in children and adults due to a rather unspecific clinical presentation with dyslipidemia and steatohepatitis. Until recently, no good treatment options were available for LALD. Despite supportive and symptomatic therapies, death occurred before 1 year of age in patients with infantile-onset disease and patients with childhood/adult-onset LALD suffered from significant complications, such as liver cirrhosis, requiring liver transplantation and early-onset cardiovascular disease...
July 2017: Therapeutic Advances in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28677503/peroxisome-proliferator-activated-receptor-gamma-ppar%C3%AE-as-a-target-for-concurrent-management-of-diabetes-and-obesity-related-cancer
#14
Qingqing Wang, Mustapha Umar Imam, Zhang Yida, Fudi Wang
BACKGROUND: Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) is a member of the nuclear receptor superfamily of ligand-inducible transcription factors that regulate adipogenesis, lipid metabolism, cell proliferation, inflammation and insulin sensitization. Abnormalities in PPARγ signaling have been associated with obesity, diabetes and cancer. The use of agonists to manage these diseases has been limited by their side effects. Accordingly, dual or pan agonists targeting the PPARα or PPARα and PPARδ, respectively, in addition to the PPARγ have been developed to overcome these side effects...
2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28659158/neural-stem-cells-for-disease-modeling-of-wolman-disease-and-evaluation-of-therapeutics
#15
Francis Aguisanda, Charles D Yeh, Catherine Z Chen, Rong Li, Jeanette Beers, Jizhong Zou, Natasha Thorne, Wei Zheng
BACKGROUND: Wolman disease (WD) is a rare lysosomal storage disorder that is caused by mutations in the LIPA gene encoding lysosomal acid lipase (LAL). Deficiency in LAL function causes accumulation of cholesteryl esters and triglycerides in lysosomes. Fatality usually occurs within the first year of life. While an enzyme replacement therapy has recently become available, there is currently no small-molecule drug treatment for WD. RESULTS: We have generated induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) from two WD patient dermal fibroblast lines and subsequently differentiated them into neural stem cells (NSCs)...
June 28, 2017: Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642584/molecular-switching-system-using-glycosylphosphatidylinositol-to-select-cells-highly-expressing-recombinant-proteins
#16
Emmanuel Matabaro, Zeng'an He, Yi-Shi Liu, Hui-Jie Zhang, Xiao-Dong Gao, Morihisa Fujita
Although many pharmaceutical proteins are produced in mammalian cells, there remains a challenge to select cell lines that express recombinant proteins with high productivity. Since most biopharmaceutical proteins are secreted by cells into the medium, it is difficult to select cell lines that produce large amounts of the target protein. To address this issue, a new protein expression system using the glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchor was developed. PGAP2 is involved in processing GPI-anchored proteins (GPI-APs) during transport...
June 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615446/lysosome-mediated-degradation-of-a-distinct-pool-of-lipid-droplets-during-hepatic-stellate-cell-activation
#17
Maidina Tuohetahuntila, Martijn R Molenaar, Bart Spee, Jos F Brouwers, Richard Wubbolts, Martin Houweling, Cong Yan, Hong Du, Brian C VanderVen, Arie B Vaandrager, J Bernd Helms
Activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) is a critical step in the development of liver fibrosis. During activation, HSCs lose their lipid droplets (LDs) containing triacylglycerols (TAGs), cholesteryl esters, and retinyl esters (REs). We previously provided evidence for the presence of two distinct LD pools, a preexisting and a dynamic LD pool. Here we investigate the mechanisms of neutral lipid metabolism in the preexisting LD pool. To investigate the involvement of lysosomal degradation of neutral lipids, we studied the effect of lalistat, a specific lysosomal acid lipase (LAL/Lipa) inhibitor on LD degradation in HSCs during activation in vitro The LAL inhibitor increased the levels of TAG, cholesteryl ester, and RE in both rat and mouse HSCs...
July 28, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612634/lysosomal-acid-lipase-deficiency-a-form-of-non-obese-fatty-liver-disease-nofld
#18
Hassan H A-Kader
With the growing obesity epidemic, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is rapidly becoming one of the leading causes of liver disease worldwide. Although obesity is a main risk factor for the development of NAFLD, it can also develop in lean subjects and can be encountered in different clinical setting and in association with an array of genetic, metabolic, nutritional, infectious and drug-induced disorders. Areas covered: This article discusses causes of fatty liver in non-obese subjects focusing on Lysosomal acid lipase deficiency (LAL-D), a commonly overlooked disorder reviewing its prevalence, genetics, pathogenesis, clinical features, diagnosis and treatment...
October 2017: Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587063/a-relative-deficiency-of-lysosomal-acid-lypase-activity-characterizes-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#19
Francesco Tovoli, Lucia Napoli, Giulia Negrini, Sergio D'Addato, Giulia Tozzi, Jessica D'Amico, Fabio Piscaglia, Luigi Bolondi
Lysosomal acid lipase (LAL) is a key enzyme in lipid metabolism. Initial reports have suggested a role for a relative acquired LAL deficiency in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD)-however, it is still unclear whether this mechanism is specific for NAFLD. We aimed to determine LAL activity in a cohort of NAFLD subjects and in a control group of hepatitis C virus (HCV)-infected patients, investigating the role of liver cirrhosis. A total of 81 patients with a diagnosis of NAFLD, and 78 matched controls with HCV-related liver disease were enrolled...
May 25, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538091/wolman-disease-a-mimic-of-infant-leukemia
#20
Kaduveettil G Gopakumar, Priyakumari Thankamony, Sheela Nampoothiri, Deeksha Bali, Jubie Raj, Jayasudha A Vasudevan, Ramachandran K Nair
BACKGROUND: Infant leukemia most commonly present with pallor and hepatosplenomegaly. The possibility of other differential diagnosis also has to be kept in mind during evaluation, as identifying the precise etiology for this clinical presentation is crucial for management. OBSERVATION: An infant, was referred to us with suspected infant leukemia and was subsequently diagnosed to have lysosomal acid lipase deficiency/Wolman disease with a novel 5 bp deletion "c...
November 2017: Journal of Pediatric Hematology/oncology
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