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Cholesteryl Ester Storage Disease

Sandra Montero-Villegas, Mónica Polo, Marianela Galle, Boris Rodenak-Kladniew, María Castro, Ana Ves-Losada, Rosana Crespo, Margarita García de Bravo
The essential oils (EOs) of Lippia alba, an herb extensively used as a folk medicine in Latin America, are today promoted as an effective means of eliminating problems caused by hyperlipemia. We hypothesized that L.alba EOs inhibited cholesterol and triacylglycerols synthesis and decreased the intracellular depots of those lipids (lipid droplets), mechanisms involving the induction of a hypolipidemic response. Our aim was, therefore, to evaluate the hypolipogenic capability of the EOs of four L. alba chemotypes on liver-derived (HepG2) and non-liver (A549) human cell lines and to identify the potential biochemical targets of those chemotypes, particularly within the mevalonate pathway (MP)...
November 30, 2016: Lipids
James E Frampton
Sebelipase alfa (Kanuma(®), Kanuma™), the first commercially available recombinant human lysosomal acid lipase (LAL), is approved in various countries worldwide, including those of the EU, the USA and Japan, as a long-term enzyme replacement therapy for patients diagnosed with LAL deficiency (LAL-D), an ultra-rare, autosomal recessive, progressive metabolic liver disease. In an ongoing study in nine infants presenting with early-onset LAL-D (Wolman disease), open-label treatment with sebelipase alfa significantly improved 1-year survival compared with historical controls...
December 2016: American Journal of Cardiovascular Drugs: Drugs, Devices, and Other Interventions
Ryan W Himes, Sarah E Barlow, Kevin Bove, Norma M Quintanilla, Rachel Sheridan, Rohit Kohli
Lysosomal acid lipase deficiency (LAL-D) is a classic lysosomal storage disorder characterized by accumulation of cholesteryl ester and triglyceride. Although it is associated with progressive liver injury, fibrosis, and end-stage liver disease in children and adolescents, LAL-D frequently presents with nonspecific signs that overlap substantially with other, more common, chronic conditions like nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), metabolic syndrome, and certain inherited dyslipidemias. We present 2 children with NAFLD who achieved clinically significant weight reduction through healthy eating and exercise, but who failed to have the anticipated improvements in aminotransferases and γ-glutamyl transferase...
October 2016: Pediatrics
S Sreekantam, I Nicklaus-Wollenteit, J Orr, K Sharif, S Vijay, P J McKiernan, S Santra
Late-onset LAL deficiency, previously referred to as cholesteryl ester storage disorder, is a rare lysosomal storage disorder characterized by accumulation of cholesteryl esters. It has a heterogeneous clinical phenotype including abdominal pain, poor growth, hyperlipidemia with vascular complications and hepatosplenomegaly. End-stage liver disease may occur, but there are few reports of successful LT. There are also concerns that systemic manifestations of the disease might persist post-LT. We report a case with excellent outcome eight yr following LT...
September 2016: Pediatric Transplantation
Nosratola D Vaziri
Nephrotic syndrome results in hyperlipidemia and profound alterations in lipid and lipoprotein metabolism. Serum cholesterol, triglycerides, apolipoprotein B (apoB)-containing lipoproteins (very low-density lipoprotein [VLDL], immediate-density lipoprotein [IDL], and low-density lipoprotein [LDL]), lipoprotein(a) (Lp[a]), and the total cholesterol/high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol ratio are increased in nephrotic syndrome. This is accompanied by significant changes in the composition of various lipoproteins including their cholesterol-to-triglyceride, free cholesterol-to-cholesterol ester, and phospholipid-to-protein ratios...
July 2016: Kidney International
Francesco Baratta, Daniele Pastori, Licia Polimeni, Giulia Tozzi, Francesco Violi, Francesco Angelico, Maria Del Ben
Lysosomal Acid Lipase (LAL) is a key enzyme involved in lipid metabolism, responsible for hydrolysing the cholesteryl esters and triglycerides. Wolman Disease represents the early onset phenotype of LAL deficiency rapidly leading to death. Cholesterol Ester Storage Disease is a late onset phenotype that occurs with fatty liver, elevated aminotransferase levels, hepatomegaly and dyslipidaemia, the latter characterized by elevated LDL-C and low HDL-C. The natural history and the clinical manifestations of the LAL deficiency in adults are not well defined, and the diagnosis is often incidental...
2015: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Sofie M A Walenbergh, Tom Houben, Tim Hendrikx, Mike L J Jeurissen, Patrick J van Gorp, Nathalie Vaes, Steven W M Olde Damink, Fons Verheyen, Ger H Koek, Dieter Lütjohann, Alena Grebe, Eicke Latz, Ronit Shiri-Sverdlov
Recently, the importance of lysosomes in the context of the metabolic syndrome has received increased attention. Increased lysosomal cholesterol storage and cholesterol crystallization inside macrophages have been linked to several metabolic diseases, such as atherosclerosis and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Two-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HP-B-CD) is able to redirect lysosomal cholesterol to the cytoplasm in Niemann-Pick type C1 disease, a lysosomal storage disorder. We hypothesize that HP-B-CD ameliorates liver cholesterol and intracellular cholesterol levels inside Kupffer cells (KCs)...
2015: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Naomi Kuranobu, Jun Murakami, Ken Okamoto, Rei Nishimura, Kei Murayama, Ayumi Takamura, Toshiko Umeda, Yoshikatsu Eto, Susumu Kanzaki
Cholesterol ester storage disease (CESD) is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by deficient lysosomal acid lipase (LAL) activity, resulting in cholesteryl ester (CE) accumulation. CESD patients have liver disease associated with mixed dyslipidemia leading to liver failure. We here report the case of an 11-year-old male CESD patient with a novel mutation who had the chief complaint of massive hepatomegaly. The patient's liver reached to his pelvis, and his spleen was 2 cm below the costal margin. The patient had elevated serum liver enzymes and mixed dyslipidemia...
March 2016: Hepatology Research: the Official Journal of the Japan Society of Hepatology
A Bornemann, Klaus Harzer
BACKGROUND: A considerable number of lysosomal storage diseases (LSD), which can occur at any age in life, should be included in the differential diagnosis of histiocytic diseases. OBJECTIVE: To what extent can pathologists contribute to the diagnostics of LSD? MATERIAL AND METHODS: In material collected from LSD, morphological storage phenomena in some disease forms, particularly in histiocytic cells from bone marrow smears and some tissues are highlighted, presented and described...
September 2015: Der Pathologe
Francesca Zimetti, Elda Favari, Paola Cagliero, Maria Pia Adorni, Nicoletta Ronda, Renato Bonardi, Monica Gomaraschi, Laura Calabresi, Franco Bernini, Ornella Guardamagna
OBJECTIVE: Serum lipoproteins influence cell cholesterol content by delivering and removing cholesterol to/from cells, functions mainly exerted by LDL and HDL, respectively. Especially in the case of HDL, structure and composition are crucial for function, beyond serum levels. Cholesteryl ester storage disease (CESD) is caused by LIPA gene mutations and reduced activity of lysosomal acid lipase (LAL), the enzyme responsible for hydrolysis of cholesteryl esters and TG. CESD patients typically present dyslipidaemia, liver damage and premature atherosclerosis...
October 2015: Atherosclerosis
Adam M Lopez, Jen-Chieh Chuang, Kenneth S Posey, Taichi Ohshiro, Hiroshi Tomoda, Lawrence L Rudel, Stephen D Turley
In most organs, the bulk of cholesterol is unesterified, although nearly all possess a varying capability of esterifying cholesterol through the action of either sterol O-acyltransferase (SOAT) 1 or, in the case of hepatocytes and enterocytes, SOAT2. Esterified cholesterol (EC) carried in plasma lipoproteins is hydrolyzed by lysosomal acid lipase (LAL) when they are cleared from the circulation. Loss-of-function mutations in LIPA, the gene that encodes LAL, result in Wolman disease or cholesteryl ester storage disease (CESD)...
November 2015: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
B Sjouke, J W J van der Stappen, J E M Groener, A Pepping, R A Wevers, A Gouw, L D Dikkeschei, S Mijnhout, G K Hovingh, M A Alleman
Cholesteryl ester storage disease (CESD) is a rare autosomal recessive disease caused by mutations in LIPA. Here we describe two different clinical presentations of this disease: one case with a clear phenotype of familial hypercholesterolaemia and one case with hepatosplenomegaly from childhood onwards. These two cases exemplify the diversity of clinical phenotypes of patients with CESD. Knowledge on the phenotypic variability of the disease is of clinical relevance in light of enzyme replacement therapy (sebelipase alpha) for patients with mutations in LIPA, which is currently under development...
March 2015: Netherlands Journal of Medicine
Karie A Heinecke, Adrienne Luoma, Alessandra d'Azzo, Daniel A Kirschner, Thomas N Seyfried
GM1-gangliosidosis is a glycosphingolipid lysosomal storage disease involving accumulation of GM1 and its asialo form (GA1) primarily in the brain. Thin-layer chromatography and X-ray diffraction were used to analyze the lipid content/composition and the myelin structure of the optic and sciatic nerves from 7- and 10-month old β-galactosidase (β-gal) +/? and β-gal -/- mice, a model of GM1gangliosidosis. Optic nerve weight was lower in the β-gal -/- mice than in unaffected β-gal +/? mice, but no difference was seen in sciatic nerve weight...
January 2015: ASN Neuro
Yuritzi Santillán-Hernández, Enory Almanza-Miranda, Winnie W Xin, Kendrick Goss, Aurea Vera-Loaiza, María T Gorráez-de la Mora, Raul E Piña-Aguilar
Lysosomal acid lipase (LAL) deficiency is an under-recognized lysosomal disease caused by deficient enzymatic activity of LAL. In this report we describe two affected female Mexican siblings with early hepatic complications. At two months of age, the first sibling presented with alternating episodes of diarrhea and constipation, and later with hepatomegaly, elevated transaminases, high levels of total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and low levels of high-density lipoprotein. Portal hypertension and grade 2 esophageal varices were detected at four years of age...
January 21, 2015: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
Francis Rajamohan, Allan R Reyes, Wanida Ruangsiriluk, Lise R Hoth, Seungil Han, Nicole Caspers, Meihua Tu, Jessica Ward, Ravi G Kurumbail
Lysosomal acid lipase (LAL) is a serine hydrolase which hydrolyzes cholesteryl ester and triglycerides delivered to the lysosomes into free cholesterol and free fatty acids. Mutations in the LAL gene (LIPA) result in accumulation of triglycerides and cholesterol esters in various tissues of the body, leading to pathological conditions such as Wolman's disease (WD) and cholesteryl ester storage disease (CESD). CESD patients homozygous for His295Tyr (H295Y) mutation have less than 5% of normal LAL activity. To shed light on the molecular basis for this loss-of-function phenotype, we have generated the recombinant H295Y enzyme and studied its biophysical and biochemical properties...
June 2015: Protein Expression and Purification
Adam M Lopez, Kenneth S Posey, Stephen D Turley
Sterol O-acyltransferase 2 (SOAT2), also known as ACAT2, is the major cholesterol esterifying enzyme in the liver and small intestine (SI). Esterified cholesterol (EC) carried in certain classes of plasma lipoproteins is hydrolyzed by lysosomal acid lipase (LAL) when they are cleared from the circulation. Loss-of-function mutations in LIPA, the gene that encodes LAL, result in Wolman disease (WD) or cholesteryl ester storage disease (CESD). Hepatomegaly and a massive increase in tissue EC levels are hallmark features of both disorders...
November 7, 2014: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Anthony F Porto
Lysosomal acid lipase (LAL) is responsible for the hydrolysis of cholesterol esters and triglycerides. LAL is coded by the LIPA gene on chromosome 10q23.31. Its deficiency leads to two autosomal recessive disorders, Wolman disease (WD) and Cholesteryl Ester Storage Disease (CESD). WD has an estimated incidence of 1 in 500,000 live births and is the result of a complete loss of LAL and presents in infancy with vomiting, diarrhea, poor weight gain and hepatomegaly subsequently leading to death. CESD is the result of partial loss of LAL and its presentation is more variable...
September 2014: Pediatric Endocrinology Reviews: PER
W Virgil Brown, Robert J Desnick, Gregory A Grabowski
There are several inherited disorders that involve abnormal storage of lipids in tissues leading to severe compromise of organs. Sadly, these are often accompanied by lifelong morbidity and early mortality. Disorders such as Gaucher, Fabry, and lysosomal acid lipase deficiencies (Wolman and cholesteryl ester storage diseases) have been known for many years, and provide a difficult and frustrating set of problems for patients, their families, and their physicians. With recombinant methods of protein synthesis, it is now possible to literally replace the defective enzymes that underlie the basic pathophysiology of many such disorders...
September 2014: Journal of Clinical Lipidology
Amal Aqul, Adam M Lopez, Kenneth S Posey, Anna M Taylor, Joyce J Repa, Dennis K Burns, Stephen D Turley
Cholesteryl ester storage disease (CESD) results from loss-of-function mutations in LIPA, the gene that encodes lysosomal acid lipase (LAL). Hepatomegaly and deposition of esterified cholesterol (EC) in multiple organs ensue. The present studies quantitated rates of synthesis, absorption, and disposition of cholesterol, and whole body cholesterol pool size in a mouse model of CESD. In 50-day-old lal(-/-) and matching lal(+/+) mice fed a low-cholesterol diet, whole animal cholesterol content equalled 210 and 50 mg, respectively, indicating that since birth the lal(-/-) mice sequestered cholesterol at an average rate of 3...
October 15, 2014: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
Robert Scott Kiss, Tommy Nilsson
Abnormal intracellular accumulation or transport of lipids contributes greatly to the pathogenesis of human diseases. In the liver, excess accumulation of triacylglycerol (TG) leads to fatty liver disease encompassing steatosis, steatohepatitis and fibrosis. This places individuals at risk of developing cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma or hepatic decompensation and also contributes to the emergence of insulin resistance and dyslipidemias affecting many other organs. Excessive accumulation of TG in adipose tissue contributes to insulin resistance as well as to the release of cytokines attracting leucocytes leading to a pro-inflammatory state...
May 2014: Journal of Biomedical Research
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