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Muscle growth resistance training

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032435/effects-of-rest-intervals-and-training-loads-on-metabolic-stress-and-muscle-hypertrophy
#1
Julius Fink, Naoki Kikuchi, Koichi Nakazato
We investigated the effects of volume-matched resistance training (RT) with different training loads and rest intervals on acute responses and long-term muscle and strength gains. Ten subjects trained with short rest (30 s) combined with low load (20 RM) (SL) and ten subjects performed the same protocol with long rest (3 min) and high load (8 RM) (LH). Cross-sectional area (CSA) of the upper arm was measured by magnetic resonance imaging before and after 8 weeks of training. Acute stress markers such as growth hormone (GH) and muscle thickness (MT) changes have been assessed pre and post a single RT session...
December 28, 2016: Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028076/inorganic-nitrate-mimics-exercise-stimulated-muscular-fiber-type-switching-and-myokine-and-gaba-release
#2
Lee D Roberts, Tom Ashmore, Ben D McNally, Steven A Murfitt, Bernadette O Fernandez, Martin Feelisch, Ross Lindsay, Mario Siervo, Elizabeth A Williams, Andrew J Murray, Julian L Griffin
Exercise is an effective intervention for prevention and treatment of type 2 diabetes. Skeletal muscle combines multiple signals contributing to the beneficial effects of exercise on cardiometabolic health. Inorganic nitrate increases exercise efficiency, tolerance and performance. The transcriptional regulator peroxisome proliferator-activated receptorγ coactivator1α (PGC1α) coordinates the exercise-stimulated skeletal muscle fiber-type switch from glycolytic fast-twitch (type IIb) to oxidative slow-twitch (type I) and intermediate (type IIa) fibers; an effect reversed in insulin resistance and diabetes...
December 27, 2016: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012037/differentiating-swelling-and-hypertrophy-through-indirect-assessment-of-muscle-damage-in-untrained-men-following-repeated-bouts-of-resistance-exercise
#3
Samuel L Buckner, Scott J Dankel, Kevin T Mattocks, Matthew B Jessee, J Grant Mouser, Brittany R Counts, Gilberto C Laurentino, Jeremy P Loenneke
PURPOSE: To examine the swelling response and other markers of muscle damage throughout the early portions of a training program (Experiment 1). We also determined if a "swollen" muscle could swell further following additional exercise (Experiment 2). METHODS: Nine males performed four sets of biceps curls (or time-matched rest on control arm) at 70% of their one-repetition maximum three times over 8 days. Muscle thickness and torque were measured before and after exercise as well as on the days in between...
December 24, 2016: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28005636/exercise-induced-hormone-elevations-are-related-to-muscle-growth
#4
Gerald T Mangine, Jay R Hoffman, Adam M Gonzalez, Jeremy R Townsend, Adam J Wells, Adam R Jajtner, Kyle S Beyer, Carleigh H Boone, Ran Wang, Amelia A Miramonti, Michael B LaMonica, David H Fukuda, E Lea Witta, Nicholas A Ratamess, Jeffrey R Stout
Mangine, GT, Hoffman, JR, Gonzalez, AM, Townsend, JR, Wells, AJ, Jajtner, AR, Beyer, KS, Boone, CH, Wang, R, Miramonti, AA, LaMonica, MB, Fukuda, DH, Witta, EL, Ratamess, NA, and Stout, JR. Exercise-induced hormone elevations are related to muscle growth. J Strength Cond Res 31(1): 45-53, 2017-Partial least squares regression structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM) was used to examine relationships between the endocrine response to resistance exercise and muscle hypertrophy in resistance-trained men. Pretesting (PRE) measures of muscle size (thickness and cross-sectional area) of the vastus lateralis and rectus femoris were collected in 26 resistance-trained men...
January 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27984843/acute-and-long-term-responses-to-different-rest-intervals-in-low-load-resistance-training
#5
J E Fink, B J Schoenfeld, N Kikuchi, K Nakazato
We investigated the effects of low-load resistance training to failure performed with different rest intervals on acute hormonal responses and long-term muscle and strength gains. In the acute study, 14 participants were assigned to either a short rest (S, 30 s) or long rest (L, 150 s) protocol at 40% one-repetition maximum. Blood samples were taken before and after the workout. Both groups showed significant (p<0.05) increases in growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor 1 immediately post-workout...
December 16, 2016: International Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897408/muscle-fibre-capillarization-is-a-critical-factor-in-muscle-fibre-hypertrophy-during-resistance-exercise-training-in-older-men
#6
Tim Snijders, Joshua P Nederveen, Sophie Joanisse, Marika Leenders, Lex B Verdijk, Luc J C van Loon, Gianni Parise
BACKGROUND: Adequate muscle fibre perfusion is critical for the maintenance of muscle mass; it is essential in the rapid delivery of oxygen, nutrients and growth factors to the muscle, stimulating muscle fibre growth. Muscle fibre capillarization is known to decrease substantially with advancing age. However, whether (relative) low muscle fibre capillarization negatively impacts the muscle hypertrophic response following resistance exercise training in older adults is unknown. METHODS: Twenty-two healthy older men (71 ± 1 years) performed 24 weeks of progressive resistance type exercise training...
August 4, 2016: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895593/baseline-muscle-mass-is-a-poor-predictor-of-functional-overload-induced-gain-in-the-mouse-model
#7
Audrius Kilikevicius, Lutz Bunger, Arimantas Lionikas
Genetic background contributes substantially to individual variability in muscle mass. Muscle hypertrophy in response to resistance training can also vary extensively. However, it is less clear if muscle mass at baseline is predictive of the hypertrophic response. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of genetic background on variability in muscle mass at baseline and in the adaptive response of the mouse fast- and slow-twitch muscles to overload. Males of eight laboratory mouse strains: C57BL/6J (B6, n = 17), BALB/cByJ (n = 7), DBA/2J (D2, n = 12), B6...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875635/muscle-adaptations-following-21-consecutive-days-of-strength-test-familiarization-compared-with-traditional-training
#8
Scott J Dankel, Brittany R Counts, Brian E Barnett, Samuel L Buckner, Takashi Abe, Jeremy P Loenneke
INTRODUCTION: Large increases in 1-repetition maximum (1RM) strength have been demonstrated from repeated testing, but it is unknown whether these increases can be augmented by resistance training. METHODS: Five trained individuals performed a 1RM test and maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVC) for unilateral elbow flexion exercise on 1 arm (testing arm), while the other arm performed a 1RM test and MVC, in addition to 3 sets of exercise (70% 1RM) (training arm) for 21 straight days...
November 22, 2016: Muscle & Nerve
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870699/resistance-training-alters-the-proportion-of-skeletal-muscle-fibers-but-not-brain-neurotrophic-factors-in-young-adult-rats
#9
José Antonio-Santos, Diórginis José S Ferreira, Gizelle L Gomes Costa, Rhowena Jane B Matos, Ana E Toscano, Raul Manhães-de-Castro, Carol G Leandro
Antonio-Santos, J, Ferreira, DJS, Gomes Costa, GL, Matos, RJB, Toscano, AE, Manhães-de-Castro, R, and Leandro, CG. Resistance training alters the proportion of skeletal muscle fibers but not brain neurotrophic factors in young adult rats. J Strength Cond Res 30(12): 3531-3538, 2016-Resistance training (RT) is related to improved muscular strength and power output. Different programs of RT for rats have been developed, but peripheral and central response has not been evaluated directly in the same animal. To test the hypothesis that RT induces central and peripheral adaptations, this study evaluated the effects of a RT on the performance of a weekly maximum overload test, fiber-type typology, and brain neurotrophic factors in young adult rats...
December 2016: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27752983/frequency-the-overlooked-resistance-training-variable-for-inducing-muscle-hypertrophy
#10
Scott J Dankel, Kevin T Mattocks, Matthew B Jessee, Samuel L Buckner, J Grant Mouser, Brittany R Counts, Gilberto C Laurentino, Jeremy P Loenneke
The principle of progressive overload must be adhered to for individuals to continually increase muscle size with resistance training. While the majority of trained individuals adhere to this principle by increasing the number of sets performed per exercise session, this does not appear to be an effective method for increasing muscle size once a given threshold is surpassed. Opposite the numerous studies examining differences in training loads and sets of exercise performed, a few studies have assessed the importance of training frequency with respect to muscle growth, none of which have tested very high frequencies of training (e...
October 17, 2016: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27737674/effects-of-eight-weeks-of-time-restricted-feeding-16-8-on-basal-metabolism-maximal-strength-body-composition-inflammation-and-cardiovascular-risk-factors-in-resistance-trained-males
#11
Tatiana Moro, Grant Tinsley, Antonino Bianco, Giuseppe Marcolin, Quirico Francesco Pacelli, Giuseppe Battaglia, Antonio Palma, Paulo Gentil, Marco Neri, Antonio Paoli
BACKGROUND: Intermittent fasting (IF) is an increasingly popular dietary approach used for weight loss and overall health. While there is an increasing body of evidence demonstrating beneficial effects of IF on blood lipids and other health outcomes in the overweight and obese, limited data are available about the effect of IF in athletes. Thus, the present study sought to investigate the effects of a modified IF protocol (i.e. time-restricted feeding) during resistance training in healthy resistance-trained males...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27717161/the-problem-of-muscle-hypertrophy-revisited
#12
Samuel L Buckner, Scott J Dankel, Kevin T Mattocks, Matthew B Jessee, J Grant Mouser, Brittany R Counts, Jeremy P Loenneke
In this paper we revisit a topic originally discussed in 1955, namely the lack of direct evidence that muscle hypertrophy from exercise plays an important role in increasing strength. To this day, long-term adaptations in strength are thought to be primarily contingent on changes in muscle size. Given this assumption, there has been considerable attention placed on programs designed to allow for maximization of both muscle size and strength. However, the conclusion that a change in muscle size affects a change in strength is surprisingly based on little evidence...
December 2016: Muscle & Nerve
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27650251/cycle-training-modulates-satellite-cell-and-transcriptional-responses-to-a-bout-of-resistance-exercise
#13
Kevin A Murach, R Grace Walton, Christopher S Fry, Sami L Michaelis, Jason S Groshong, Brian S Finlin, Philip A Kern, Charlotte A Peterson
This investigation evaluated whether moderate-intensity cycle ergometer training affects satellite cell and molecular responses to acute maximal concentric/eccentric resistance exercise in middle-aged women. Baseline and 72 h postresistance exercise vastus lateralis biopsies were obtained from seven healthy middle-aged women (56 ± 5 years, BMI 26 ± 1, VO2max 27 ± 4) before and after 12 weeks of cycle training. Myosin heavy chain (MyHC) I- and II-associated satellite cell density and cross-sectional area was determined via immunohistochemistry...
September 2016: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27583459/the-differential-hormonal-milieu-of-morning-versus-evening-may-have-an-impact-on-muscle-hypertrophic-potential
#14
Simon D Burley, Jayde Whittingham-Dowd, Jeremy Allen, Jean-Francois Grosset, Gladys L Onambele-Pearson
Substantial gains in muscle strength and hypertrophy are clearly associated with the routine performance of resistance training. What is less evident is the optimal timing of the resistance training stimulus to elicit these significant functional and structural skeletal muscle changes. Therefore, this investigation determined the impact of a single bout of resistance training performed either in the morning or evening upon acute anabolic signalling (insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3), myogenic index and differentiation) and catabolic processes (cortisol)...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27575705/loss-of-strength-capacity-is-associated-with-mortality-but-resistance-exercise-training-promotes-only-modest-effects-during-cachexia-progression
#15
Willian das Neves, Christiano Robles Rodrigues Alves, Ney Robson de Almeida, Fátima Lúcia Rodrigues Guimarães, Paulo Rizzo Ramires, Patricia Chakur Brum, Antonio Herbert Lancha
AIMS: Resistance exercise training (RET) has been adopted as non-pharmacological anti-catabolic strategy. However, the role of RET to counteract cancer cachexia is still speculative. This study aimed to verify whether short-term RET would counteract skeletal muscle wasting in a severe cancer cachexia rat model. MAIN METHODS: Wistar rats were randomly allocated into four experimental groups; 1) untrained control rats (control), 2) rats submitted to RET (control+RET), 3) untrained rats injected with Walker 256 tumor cells in the bone marrow (tumor) and 4) rats injected with Walker 256 tumor cells in the bone marrow and submitted to RET (tumor+RET)...
October 15, 2016: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27480315/post-exercise-blood-flow-restriction-attenuates-muscle-hypertrophy
#16
Scott J Dankel, Samuel L Buckner, Matthew B Jessee, Kevin T Mattocks, J Grant Mouser, Brittany R Counts, Gilberto C Laurentino, Takashi Abe, Jeremy P Loenneke
PURPOSE: Applying blood flow restriction during low-load resistance training has been shown to augment muscle hypertrophy which has been attributed to metabolic accumulation. It remains unknown, however, whether metabolites can augment muscle growth when maintained post-exercise. METHODS: Thirteen untrained individuals (6 males and 7 females) performed 24 training sessions. The control arm performed one set of elbow flexion (70 % 1RM) to volitional fatigue, while the experimental arm performed the same protocol immediately followed by 3 min of blood flow restriction (70 % arterial occlusion)...
October 2016: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27458592/neuromuscular-electrical-stimulation-and-testosterone-did-not-influence-heterotopic-ossification-size-after-spinal-cord-injury-a-case-series
#17
Pamela D Moore, Ashraf S Gorgey, Rodney C Wade, Refka E Khalil, Timothy D Lavis, Rehan Khan, Robert A Adler
Neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) and testosterone replacement therapy (TRT) are effective rehabilitation strategies to attenuate muscle atrophy and evoke hypertrophy in persons with spinal cord injury (SCI). However both interventions might increase heterotopic ossification (HO) size in SCI patients. We present the results of two men with chronic traumatic motor complete SCI who also had pre-existing HO and participated in a study investigating the effects of TRT or TRT plus NMES resistance training (RT) on body composition...
July 16, 2016: World Journal of Clinical Cases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27396416/resting-extracellular-signal-regulated-protein-kinase-1-2-expression-following-a-continuum-of-chronic-resistance-exercise-training-paradigms
#18
Andrew J Galpin, Andrew C Fry, Justin X Nicoll, Christopher A Moore, Brian K Schilling, Donald B Thomason
Extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) moderates skeletal muscle growth; however, chronic responses of this protein to unique resistance exercise (RE) paradigms are yet to be explored. The purpose of this investigation was to describe the long-term response of ERK1/2 following circuit weight training (CWT), recreationally weight training (WT), powerlifting (PL) and weightlifting (WL). Independent t-tests were used to determine differences in trained groups compared to sedentary controls...
July 2016: Research in Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27374049/resistance-training-and-sarcopenia
#19
Francesco Giallauria, Antonio Cittadini, Neil Andrew Smart, Carlo Vigorito
Aging is inexorably accompanied by a progressive decline of muscle mass, quality and strength. The resulting condition has been termed sarcopenia. Age-related sarcopenia can be accelerated by a variety of factors including changes in the hormonal milieu, inactivity, poor nutrition, chronic illness, and loss of integrity and function in the peripheral and central nervous systems. The downstream mechanisms by which these risk factors cause sarcopenia are not completely understood. Exercise training (particularly resistance training) has long been identified as the most promising method for increasing muscle mass and strength among older people...
2016: Monaldi Archives for Chest Disease, Archivio Monaldi Per le Malattie del Torace
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27348867/impact-of-physical-exercise-on-endocrine-aging
#20
Joseph A M J L Janssen
Physical exercise may be vital to the maintenance of the endocrine system with aging and its helps to restore loss of activity of the endocrine system with aging. There is evidence that physical exercise induces activity of the growth hormone-insulin-like growth factor-1 axis and so produces anabolic effects in skeletal muscles. Mechano growth factor (MGF), a locally produced isoform of IGF-1, has been hypothesized to be important for the maintenance of skeletal muscles with aging. Short-term high-resistance exercise results in an increase of MGF mRNA in young but not in elderly subjects...
2016: Frontiers of Hormone Research
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