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Muscle growth resistance training

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699923/the-effects-of-moderate-versus-high-load-resistance-training-on-muscle-growth-body-composition-and-performance-in-collegiate-women
#1
Jason M Cholewa, Fabricio E Rossi, Christopher MacDonald, Amy Hewins, Samantha Gallo, Ashley Micenski, Layne Norton, Bill I Campbell
Twenty young women (20.3+1.5 years, 164+6 cm, 68.7+13.8 kg) without prior structured resistance training experience were recruited for this study. Body composition (BodPod), compartmental water (Bioelectrical Impedance), 7-site skinfold, and arm and thigh CSA were assessed pre- and post- 8 week training. Performance testing consisted of vertical jump, 3 kg chest pass initial velocity, squat 1RM and overhead press 1RM. Following 2 weeks of familiarization training, subjects were matched for body composition and relative squat strength, and randomly assigned to either a high- (HL: n=10; 4 sets of 5-7 repetitions) or moderate-load (ML: n=10; 2 sets of 10-14 repetitions) group that completed 6-7 exercises per day performed to momentary muscular failure...
June 2, 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630576/no-effect-of-a-whey-growth-factor-extract-during-resistance-training-on-strength-body-composition-or-hypertrophic-gene-expression-in-resistance-trained-young-men
#2
Michael J Dale, Alison M Coates, Peter R C Howe, Grant R Tomkinson, Matthew T Haren, Andrew Brown, Marissa Caldow, David Cameron-Smith, Jonathan D Buckley
Growth factors can be isolated from bovine milk to form a whey growth factor extract (WGFE). This study examined whether WGFE promoted activation of the AKT/mTOR pathway enabling increased lean tissue mass and strength in resistance trained men. Forty six men with >6 months of resistance training (RT) experience performed 12 weeks of RT. Participants consumed 20 g/day of whey protein and were randomised to receive either 1.6 g WGFE/day (WGFE; n = 22) or 1.6 g cellulose/day (control, CONT; n = 24). The primary outcome was leg press one-repetition maximum (LP1-RM) which was assessed at baseline, 6 and 12 weeks...
June 2017: Journal of Sports Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543604/muscle-growth-to-infinity-and-beyond
#3
REVIEW
Brittany R Counts, Samuel L Buckner, J Grant Mouser, Scott J Dankel, Matthew B Jessee, Kevin T Mattocks, Jeremy P Loenneke
Strength increases following training are thought to be influenced first by neural adaptions and second by large contributions from muscle growth. This is based largely on the idea that muscle growth is a slow process and that a plateau in muscle growth would substantially hinder long-term increases in strength. This Review examines the literature to determine the time course of skeletal muscle growth in the upper and lower body and to determine whether and when muscle growth plateaus. Studies were included if they had at least 3 muscle size time points, involved participants 18 years or older, and used a resistance training protocol...
May 23, 2017: Muscle & Nerve
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526870/time-course-responses-of-circulating-micrornas-to-three-resistance-training-protocols-in-healthy-young-men
#4
Shufang Cui, Biao Sun, Xin Yin, Xia Guo, Dingming Chao, Chunni Zhang, Chen-Yu Zhang, Xi Chen, Jizheng Ma
Circulating microRNAs (c-miRNAs) in human plasma have been described as a potential marker of exercise. The present study investigated the effects of three acute resistance training (RT) protocols on the time-course changes of the c-miRNAs profiles in young males. The subjects (n = 45) were randomly divided into three groups: muscular strength endurance (SE), muscular hypertrophy (MH) and maximum strength (MS). Venous blood samples were obtained before exercise and immediately, 1 h and 24 h after each RT protocol to assess the following biological parameters: c-miRNAs, anabolic and catabolic hormones, inflammatory cytokines and muscle damage markers...
May 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493406/beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate-supplementation-and-skeletal-muscle-in-healthy-and-muscle-wasting-conditions
#5
REVIEW
Milan Holeček
Beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate (HMB) is a metabolite of the essential amino acid leucine that has been reported to have anabolic effects on protein metabolism. The aims of this article were to summarize the results of studies of the effects of HMB on skeletal muscle and to examine the evidence for the rationale to use HMB as a nutritional supplement to exert beneficial effects on muscle mass and function in various conditions of health and disease. The data presented here indicate that the beneficial effects of HMB have been well characterized in strength-power and endurance exercise...
May 10, 2017: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486337/hypertrophic-effects-of-concentric-versus-eccentric-muscle-actions-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#6
Brad J Schoenfeld, Dan Ogborn, Andrew D Vigotsky, Martino Franchi, James W Krieger
Controversy exists as to whether different dynamic muscle actions produce divergent hypertrophic responses. The purpose of this paper was to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials comparing the hypertrophic effects of concentric versus eccentric training in healthy adults following regimented resistance training (RT). Studies were deemed eligible for inclusion if they met the following criteria: 1) were an experimental trial published in an English-language refereed journal; 2) directly compared concentric and eccentric actions without the use of external implements (i...
May 5, 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445110/normobaric-hypoxia-increases-the-growth-hormone-response-to-maximal-resistance-exercise-in-trained-men
#7
Dean Filopoulos, Stuart J Cormack, Douglas G Whyte
This study examined the effect of hypoxia on growth hormone (GH) release during an acute bout of high-intensity, low-volume resistance exercise. Using a single-blinded, randomised crossover design, 16 resistance-trained males completed two resistance exercise sessions in normobaric hypoxia (HYP; inspiratory oxygen fraction, (FiO2) 0.12, arterial oxygen saturation (SpO2) 82 ± 2%) and normoxia (NOR; FiO2 0.21, SpO2 98 ± 0%). Each session consisted of five sets of three repetitions of 45° leg press and bench press at 85% of one repetition maximum...
August 2017: European Journal of Sport Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382551/high-doses-of-vitamin-c-plus-e-reduce-strength-training-induced-improvements-in-areal-bone-mineral-density-in-elderly-men
#8
Astrid Kamilla Stunes, Unni Syversen, Sveinung Berntsen, Gøran Paulsen, Tonje H Stea, Ken J Hetlelid, Hilde Lohne-Seiler, Mats Peder Mosti, Thomas Bjørnsen, Truls Raastad, Glenn Haugeberg
PURPOSE: Resistance training is beneficial for maintaining bone mass. We aimed to investigate the skeletal effects of high doses of antioxidants [vitamin C + E (α-tocopherol)] supplementation during 12-week supervised strength training in healthy, elderly men METHODS: Design: double-blinded randomized placebo-controlled study. Participants followed a supervised, undulating periodic exercise program with weekly adjusted load: 3 sessions/week and 3-15 repetitions maximum (RM) sets/exercise...
June 2017: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346813/protein-supplementation-does-not-affect-myogenic-adaptations-to-resistance-training
#9
Paul T Reidy, Christopher S Fry, Sherry Igbinigie, Rachel R Deer, Kristofer Jennings, Mark B Cope, Ratna Mukherjea, Elena Volpi, Blake B Rasmussen
It has been proposed that protein supplementation during resistance exercise training enhances muscle hypertrophy. The degree of hypertrophy during training is controlled in part through the activation of satellite cells and myonuclear accretion. PURPOSE: This study aimed to determine the efficacy of protein supplementation (and the type of protein) during traditional resistance training on myofiber cross-sectional area, satellite cell content, and myonuclear addition. METHODS: Healthy young men participated in supervised whole-body progressive resistance training 3 d·wk for 12 wk...
June 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28252552/effects-of-resistance-training-and-protein-supplementation-in-breast-cancer-survivors
#10
Takudzwa A Madzima, Michael J Ormsbee, Erica A Schleicher, Robert J Moffatt, Lynn B Panton
PURPOSE: This study aimed to evaluate 12 wk of resistance training (RT; n = 16) and protein supplementation (RT + protein; n = 17) on muscular strength, body composition, and blood biomarkers of muscle (insulin-like growth factor 1 [IGF-1]), fat (adiponectin), and inflammation (human C-reactive protein [CRP]) in breast cancer survivors (BCS). METHODS: Thirty-three BCS (59 ± 8 yr) were measured pre- and posttraining for one-repetition maximum (1-RM) muscular strength (chest press and leg extension), body composition (lean mass [LM] and fat mass [FM]) via dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, and serum concentrations of IGF-1, adiponectin, and CRP...
July 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205203/effects-of-different-types-of-exercise-on-body-composition-muscle-strength-and-igf-1-in-the-elderly-with-sarcopenic-obesity
#11
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Hung-Ting Chen, Yu-Chun Chung, Yu-Jen Chen, Sung-Yen Ho, Huey-June Wu
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the influence of resistance training (RT), aerobic training (AT), or combination training (CT) interventions on the body composition, muscle strength performance, and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) of patients with sarcopenic obesity. DESIGN: Randomized controlled trial. SETTING: Community center and research center. PARTICIPANTS: Sixty men and women aged 65-75 with sarcopenic obesity...
April 2017: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28184235/phosphatidic-acid-biosynthesis-pharmacokinetics-mechanisms-of-action-and-effect-on-strength-and-body-composition-in-resistance-trained-individuals
#12
REVIEW
Peter Bond
The mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) has received much attention in the field of exercise physiology as a master regulator of skeletal muscle hypertrophy. The multiprotein complex is regulated by various signals such as growth factors, energy status, amino acids and mechanical stimuli. Importantly, the glycerophospholipid phosphatidic acid (PA) appears to play an important role in mTORC1 activation by mechanical stimulation. PA has been shown to modulate mTOR activity by direct binding to its FKBP12-rapamycin binding domain...
2017: Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28135215/muscular-strength-adaptations-and-hormonal-responses-after-two-different-multiple-set-protocols-of-resistance-training-in-postmenopausal-women
#13
Paulo Ricardo P Nunes, Larissa C Barcelos, Anselmo A Oliveira, Roberto Furlanetto Júnior, Fernanda M Martins, Elizabete Ap M R Resende, Fábio L Orsatti
We studied the effects of two different resistance training (RT) multiple-set protocols (three and six sets) on muscle strength and basal hormones concentrations in postmenopausal women (PW). Thirty-four PW were randomly allocated into three groups: control (CT, n=12), low RT volume (LV = three sets for each exercise, n=10) and high RT volume (HV = six sets for each exercise, n=12). The LV and HV groups performed eight exercises of a total body RT protocol three times a week, at 70 % of one repetition maximum (1RM) for 16 weeks...
January 20, 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28122522/acute-effects-of-physical-exercise-on-the-serum-insulin-like-growth-factor-system-in-women-with-fibromyalgia
#14
Kaisa Mannerkorpi, Kerstin Landin-Wilhelmsen, Anette Larsson, Åsa Cider, Olivia Arodell, Jan L Bjersing
BACKGROUND: Increased Serum insulin-like growth factor-1 (S-IGF-1) has been noted after physical activity in healthy subjects, while the acute release of S-IGF-1 in relation to exercise has not previously been studied in women with fibromyalgia (FM). S-IGF-1 and its binding protein (S-IGFBP-3) are mediated by growth hormone and have anabolic effects on the skeletal muscle. Aim of the study was to investigate acute release of IGF-1 after aerobic exercise in women with FM. METHODS: The acute effect of physical exercise on S-IGF-1 and S-IGFBP-3 were studied in 22 women with FM and in 27 healthy controls during moderate and high-intensity cycling (i...
January 25, 2017: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032435/effects-of-rest-intervals-and-training-loads-on-metabolic-stress-and-muscle-hypertrophy
#15
Julius Fink, Naoki Kikuchi, Koichi Nakazato
We investigated the effects of volume-matched resistance training (RT) with different training loads and rest intervals on acute responses and long-term muscle and strength gains. Ten subjects trained with short rest (30 s) combined with low load (20 RM) (SL) and ten subjects performed the same protocol with long rest (3 min) and high load (8 RM) (LH). Cross-sectional area (CSA) of the upper arm was measured by magnetic resonance imaging before and after 8 weeks of training. Acute stress markers such as growth hormone (GH) and muscle thickness (MT) changes have been assessed pre and post a single RT session...
December 28, 2016: Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028076/inorganic-nitrate-mimics-exercise-stimulated-muscular-fiber-type-switching-and-myokine-and-%C3%AE-aminobutyric-acid-release
#16
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Lee D Roberts, Tom Ashmore, Ben D McNally, Steven A Murfitt, Bernadette O Fernandez, Martin Feelisch, Ross Lindsay, Mario Siervo, Elizabeth A Williams, Andrew J Murray, Julian L Griffin
Exercise is an effective intervention for the prevention and treatment of type 2 diabetes. Skeletal muscle combines multiple signals that contribute to the beneficial effects of exercise on cardiometabolic health. Inorganic nitrate increases exercise efficiency, tolerance, and performance. The transcriptional regulator peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator 1α (PGC1α) coordinates the exercise-stimulated skeletal muscle fiber-type switch from glycolytic fast-twitch (type IIb) to oxidative slow-twitch (type I) and intermediate (type IIa) fibers, an effect reversed in insulin resistance and diabetes...
March 2017: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012037/differentiating-swelling-and-hypertrophy-through-indirect-assessment-of-muscle-damage-in-untrained-men-following-repeated-bouts-of-resistance-exercise
#17
Samuel L Buckner, Scott J Dankel, Kevin T Mattocks, Matthew B Jessee, J Grant Mouser, Brittany R Counts, Gilberto C Laurentino, Jeremy P Loenneke
PURPOSE: To examine the swelling response and other markers of muscle damage throughout the early portions of a training program (Experiment 1). We also determined if a "swollen" muscle could swell further following additional exercise (Experiment 2). METHODS: Nine males performed four sets of biceps curls (or time-matched rest on control arm) at 70% of their one-repetition maximum three times over 8 days. Muscle thickness and torque were measured before and after exercise as well as on the days in between...
December 24, 2016: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28005636/exercise-induced-hormone-elevations-are-related-to-muscle-growth
#18
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Gerald T Mangine, Jay R Hoffman, Adam M Gonzalez, Jeremy R Townsend, Adam J Wells, Adam R Jajtner, Kyle S Beyer, Carleigh H Boone, Ran Wang, Amelia A Miramonti, Michael B LaMonica, David H Fukuda, E Lea Witta, Nicholas A Ratamess, Jeffrey R Stout
Mangine, GT, Hoffman, JR, Gonzalez, AM, Townsend, JR, Wells, AJ, Jajtner, AR, Beyer, KS, Boone, CH, Wang, R, Miramonti, AA, LaMonica, MB, Fukuda, DH, Witta, EL, Ratamess, NA, and Stout, JR. Exercise-induced hormone elevations are related to muscle growth. J Strength Cond Res 31(1): 45-53, 2017-Partial least squares regression structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM) was used to examine relationships between the endocrine response to resistance exercise and muscle hypertrophy in resistance-trained men. Pretesting (PRE) measures of muscle size (thickness and cross-sectional area) of the vastus lateralis and rectus femoris were collected in 26 resistance-trained men...
January 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27984843/acute-and-long-term-responses-to-different-rest-intervals-in-low-load-resistance-training
#19
Julius Etienne Fink, Brad Jon Schoenfeld, Naoki Kikuchi, Koichi Nakazato
We investigated the effects of low-load resistance training to failure performed with different rest intervals on acute hormonal responses and long-term muscle and strength gains. In the acute study, 14 participants were assigned to either a short rest (S, 30 s) or long rest (L, 150 s) protocol at 40% one-repetition maximum. Blood samples were taken before and after the workout. Both groups showed significant (p<0.05) increases in growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor 1 immediately post-workout...
February 2017: International Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897408/muscle-fibre-capillarization-is-a-critical-factor-in-muscle-fibre-hypertrophy-during-resistance-exercise-training-in-older-men
#20
Tim Snijders, Joshua P Nederveen, Sophie Joanisse, Marika Leenders, Lex B Verdijk, Luc J C van Loon, Gianni Parise
BACKGROUND: Adequate muscle fibre perfusion is critical for the maintenance of muscle mass; it is essential in the rapid delivery of oxygen, nutrients and growth factors to the muscle, stimulating muscle fibre growth. Muscle fibre capillarization is known to decrease substantially with advancing age. However, whether (relative) low muscle fibre capillarization negatively impacts the muscle hypertrophic response following resistance exercise training in older adults is unknown. METHODS: Twenty-two healthy older men (71 ± 1 years) performed 24 weeks of progressive resistance type exercise training...
April 2017: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
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