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Muscle growth resistance training

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29875696/protein-and-the-adaptive-response-with-endurance-training-wishful-thinking-or-a-competitive-edge
#1
Pim Knuiman, Maria T E Hopman, Conor Verbruggen, Marco Mensink
The significance of carbohydrates for endurance training has been well established, whereas the role of protein and the adaptive response with endurance training is unclear. Therefore, the aim of this perspective is to discuss the current evidence on the role of dietary protein and the adaptive response with endurance training. On a metabolic level, a single bout of endurance training stimulates the oxidation of several amino acids. Although the amount of amino acids as part of total energy expenditure during exercise is relatively low compared to other substrates (e...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29803204/physiological-responses-to-different-neuromuscular-movement-task-during-eccentric-bench-press
#2
Michal Wilk, Petr Stastny, Artur Golas, Monika Nawrocka, Karel Jelen, Adam Zajac, James J Tufano
OBJECTIVES: Increasing muscular hypertrophy is one of the main reasons for participating in a resistance training program, where different movement task such as eccentric cadences may serve as a potent hypertrophic stimulus and improve movement stability. Aim of this study was to investigate the physiological responses between slow 6/0/2/0 (SLOW) and moderate 2/0/2/0 (REG) eccentric cadences during five sets of bench press to failure using 70% 1 repetition maximum (1RM). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Blood samples from sixteen men (21-29y, 85...
March 27, 2018: Neuro Endocrinology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777633/hypertrophic-effect-of-inhaled-beta-2-agonist-with-and-without-concurrent-exercise-training-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#3
Søren Jessen, Johan Onslev, Anders Lemminger, Vibeke Backer, Jens Bangsbo, Morten Hostrup
INTRODUCTION: Due to a high prevalence of asthma and exercise-induced bronchoconstriction in elite athletes, there is a high use of beta2 -adrenoceptor agonists (beta2 -agonists) in the athletic population. While anabolic in rodents, no study has been able to detect hypertrophy in humans after chronic beta2 -agonist inhalation. METHODS: We investigated if inhaled beta2 -agonist, terbutaline, alters body composition and metabolic rate with and without concurrent exercise training in healthy young men...
May 19, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29698983/micrornas-in-high-and-low-responders-to-resistance-training-in-breast-cancer-survivors
#4
Amanda D Hagstrom, Joshua Denham
Accounting for one in three cancer diagnoses, breast cancer is the second most commonly diagnosed cancer in women. Exercise has a well-accepted role in the multi-disciplinary approach to rehabilitating breast cancer survivors. Despite the many known benefits of resistance training on women recovering from breast cancer, the molecular mechanisms are poorly understood. MicroRNAs are small non-coding RNAs that have crucial roles in growth and development. Here, we analysed the abundance of 9 miRNAs, with known roles in muscle physiology and some linked to cancer, in serum samples from 24 breast cancer survivors before and after a 16-week resistance training or usual care intervention...
June 2018: International Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29621305/biomarkers-associated-with-low-moderate-and-high-vastus-lateralis-muscle-hypertrophy-following-12-weeks-of-resistance-training
#5
Christopher B Mobley, Cody T Haun, Paul A Roberson, Petey W Mumford, Wesley C Kephart, Matthew A Romero, Shelby C Osburn, Christopher G Vann, Kaelin C Young, Darren T Beck, Jeffrey S Martin, Christopher M Lockwood, Michael D Roberts
We sought to identify biomarkers which delineated individual hypertrophic responses to resistance training. Untrained, college-aged males engaged in full-body resistance training (3 d/wk) for 12 weeks. Body composition via dual x-ray absorptiometry (DXA), vastus lateralis (VL) thickness via ultrasound, blood, VL muscle biopsies, and three-repetition maximum (3-RM) squat strength were obtained prior to (PRE) and following (POST) 12 weeks of training. K-means cluster analysis based on VL thickness changes identified LOW [n = 17; change (mean±SD) = +0...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447936/inducing-hypertrophic-effects-of-type-i-skeletal-muscle-fibers-a-hypothetical-role-of-time-under-load-in-resistance-training-aimed-at-muscular-hypertrophy
#6
Jozo Grgic, Jan Homolak, Pavle Mikulic, Javier Botella, Brad J Schoenfeld
An emerging body of evidence is starting to suggest that the hypertrophy of skeletal muscle fibers might be load specific. In other words, it may be that resistance training with high loads (i.e., ≥60% of 1 repetition maximum [RM]) emphasizes a greater growth of type II muscle fibers, while resistance training with low loads (i.e., <60% of 1RM) might primarily augment hypertrophy of type I muscle fibers. Type I and type II muscle fibers possess certain distinct characteristics, with type II muscle fibers having faster calcium kinetics, faster shortening velocities, and ability to generate more power than type I muscle fibers...
March 2018: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29414855/recent-perspectives-regarding-the-role-of-dietary-protein-for-the-promotion-of-muscle-hypertrophy-with-resistance-exercise-training
#7
REVIEW
Tanner Stokes, Amy J Hector, Robert W Morton, Chris McGlory, Stuart M Phillips
Skeletal muscle supports locomotion and serves as the largest site of postprandial glucose disposal; thus it is a critical organ for physical and metabolic health. Skeletal muscle mass is regulated by the processes of muscle protein synthesis (MPS) and muscle protein breakdown (MPB), both of which are sensitive to external loading and aminoacidemia. Hyperaminoacidemia results in a robust but transient increase in rates of MPS and a mild suppression of MPB. Resistance exercise potentiates the aminoacidemia-induced rise in MPS that, when repeated over time, results in gradual radial growth of skeletal muscle (i...
February 7, 2018: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29413364/arachidonic-acid-supplementation-modulates-blood-and-skeletal-muscle-lipid-profile-with-no-effect-on-basal-inflammation-in-resistance-exercise-trained-men
#8
James F Markworth, Cameron J Mitchell, Randall F D'Souza, Kirsten M M Aasen, Brenan R Durainayagam, Sarah M Mitchell, Alex H C Chan, Andrew J Sinclair, Manohar Garg, David Cameron-Smith
Arachidonic acid (ARA), an omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA), is the metabolic precursor to the eicosanoid family of lipid mediators. Eicosanoids have potent pro-inflammatory actions, but also act as important autocrine/paracrine signaling molecules in skeletal muscle growth and development. Whether dietary ARA is incorporated into skeletal muscle phospholipids and the resulting impact on intramuscular inflammatory and adaptive processes in-vivo is not known. In the current study, resistance trained men (≥1 year) received dietary supplementation with 1...
January 2018: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29406784/resistance-training-recovers-attenuated-appl1-expression-and-improves-insulin-induced-akt-signal-activation-in-skeletal-muscle-of-type-2-diabetic-rats
#9
Kohei Kido, Satoru Ato, Takumi Yokokawa, Koji Sato, Satoshi Fujita
Adapter protein containing PH domain, PTB domain, and leucine zipper motif 1 (APPL1) has been reported as a positive regulator of insulin-stimulated Akt activation. The expression of APPL1 is reduced in skeletal muscles of type 2 diabetic (T2D) animals, implying that APPL1 may be an important factor affecting insulin sensitivity. However, the regulation of APPL1 expression and the physiological interventions modulating these effects are unclear. Accordingly, we first confirmed that APPL1 expression and Akt phosphorylation were significantly attenuated in skeletal muscles of T2D rats...
February 6, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29380855/single-arm-resistance-training-study-to-determine-the-relationship-between-training-outcomes-and-muscle-growth-factor-mrnas-in-older-adults-consuming-numerous-medications-and-supplements
#10
R A Dennis, K K Garner, P M Kortebein, C M Parkes, M M Bopp, S Li, K P Padala, P R Padala, D H Sullivan
OBJECTIVES: Determine if the muscle mRNA levels of three growth factors (insulin-like growth factor-1 [IGF1], ciliary neurotropic factor [CNTF], and vascular endothelial growth factor-D [VEGFD]) are correlated with muscle size and strength gains from resistance exercise while piloting a training program in older adults taking medications and supplements for age-associated problems. DESIGN: Single-arm prospective study. SETTING: US Veterans Affairs hospital...
2018: Journal of Nutrition, Health & Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335023/early-neonatal-glutaric-aciduria-type-i-hidden-by-perinatal-asphyxia-a-case-report
#11
Giacomo Biasucci, Nicola Morelli, Federica Natacci, Massimo Mastrangelo
BACKGROUND: Perinatal asphyxia (PA) occurs in about 2 to 10 per 1000 live full-term births. Although neonatal epileptic seizures are observed in up to 60% of cases, PA may mimic or subtend other conditions. Hypoxia related brain injury is particularly relevant, as it may have permanent effects on neuropsychomotor development. Antepartum obstetric conditions, may, in turn, lead to hypoxic-ischemic damage to the fetus and the newborn, often underlying PA. Herein, a case of PA that hid and triggered signs and symptoms of Glutaric Aciduria type I (GA-I), is reported...
January 15, 2018: Italian Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29246115/training-the-salmon-s-genes-influence-of-aerobic-exercise-swimming-performance-and-selection-on-gene-expression-in-atlantic-salmon
#12
Nicholas A Robinson, Gerrit Timmerhaus, Matthew Baranski, Øivind Andersen, Harald Takle, Aleksei Krasnov
BACKGROUND: Farmed and wild Atlantic salmon are exposed to many infectious and non-infectious challenges that can cause mortality when they enter the sea. Exercise before transfer promotes growth, health and survival in the sea. Swimming performance in juveniles at the freshwater parr stage is positively associated with resistance to some diseases. Genetic variation is likely to affect response to exercise. In this study we map genetic differences associated with aerobic exercise, swimming performance and genetic origin...
December 15, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207472/effects-of-%C3%AE-hydroxy-%C3%AE-methylbutyrate-free-acid-supplementation-on-strength-power-and-hormonal-adaptations-following-resistance-training
#13
Abbas Asadi, Hamid Arazi, Katsuhiko Suzuki
BACKGROUND: β-Hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate-free acid (HMB-FA) has been ingested prior to exercise to reduce muscle damage, however the effects of HMB-FA supplementation on hormonal, strength and power adaptation are unclear. METHODS: Sixteen healthy men were matched and randomized into two groups and performed six-week resistance training while supplementing with either HMB-FA or placebo (3 g per day). The subjects were evaluated for 1 repetition maximum (1RM) bench press and leg press and vertical jump (VJ) prior to and after training intervention...
December 2, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29172848/the-role-of-hormones-in-muscle-hypertrophy
#14
Julius Fink, Brad Jon Schoenfeld, Koichi Nakazato
Anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) and other hormones such as growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) have been shown to increase muscle mass in patients suffering from various diseases related to muscle atrophy. Despite known side-effects associated with supraphysiologic doses of such drugs, their anabolic effects have led to their widespread use and abuse by bodybuilders and athletes such as strength athletes seeking to improve performance and muscle mass. On the other hand, resistance training (RT) has also been shown to induce significant endogenous hormonal (testosterone (T), GH, IGF-1) elevations...
February 2018: Physician and Sportsmedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154428/muscle-wasting-and-sarcopenia-in-heart-failure-and-beyond-update-2017
#15
REVIEW
Jochen Springer, Joshua-I Springer, Stefan D Anker
Sarcopenia (loss of muscle mass and muscle function) is a strong predictor of frailty, disability and mortality in older persons and may also occur in obese subjects. The prevalence of sarcopenia is increased in patients suffering from chronic heart failure. However, there are currently few therapy options. The main intervention is resistance exercise, either alone or in combination with nutritional support, which seems to enhance the beneficial effects of training. Also, testosterone has been shown to increased muscle power and function; however, a possible limitation is the side effects of testosterone...
November 2017: ESC Heart Failure
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123172/transcriptomic-and-epigenetic-responses-to-short-term-nutrient-exercise-stress-in-humans
#16
R C Laker, C Garde, D M Camera, W J Smiles, J R Zierath, J A Hawley, R Barrès
High fat feeding impairs skeletal muscle metabolic flexibility and induces insulin resistance, whereas exercise training exerts positive effects on substrate handling and improves insulin sensitivity. To identify the genomic mechanisms by which exercise ameliorates some of the deleterious effects of high fat feeding, we investigated the transcriptional and epigenetic response of human skeletal muscle to 9 days of a high-fat diet (HFD) alone (Sed-HFD) or in combination with resistance exercise (Ex-HFD), using genome-wide profiling of gene expression and DNA methylation...
November 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120984/effects-of-different-resistance-training-systems-on-muscular-strength-and-hypertrophy-in-resistance-trained-older-women
#17
Alex S Ribeiro, Andreo F Aguiar, Brad J Schoenfeld, João P Nunes, Edilaine F Cavalcante, Eduardo L Cadore, Edilson S Cyrino
Ribeiro, AS, Aguiar, AF, Schoenfeld, BJ, Nunes, JP, Cavalcanti, EF, Cadore, EL, and Cyrino, ES. Effects of different resistance training systems on muscular strength and hypertrophy in resistance-trained older women. J Strength Cond Res 32(2): 545-553, 2018-The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of resistance training (RT) performed in a pyramid (PR) vs. constant (CT) load system on muscular strength and hypertrophy in resistance-trained older women. Thirty-three older women (69.7 ± 5.9 years, 69...
February 2018: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29080996/impact-of-local-heating-and-cooling-on-skeletal-muscle-transcriptional-response-related-to-myogenesis-and-proteolysis
#18
Roksana B Zak, B M Hassenstab, L K Zuehlke, M W S Heesch, R J Shute, T L Laursen, D T LaSalle, D R Slivka
PURPOSE: To determine the impact of local muscle heating and cooling on myogenic and proteolytic gene responses following resistance exercise. METHODS: Recreationally trained males (n = 12), age 25.3 ± 1.5, % body fat 13.6 ± 1.92, completed four sets of 8-12 repetitions of unilateral leg press and leg extension while heating one leg, and cooling the other. Muscle biopsies were taken from the vastus lateralis of each leg pre and 4 h post exercise. RESULTS: MyoD, FOXO1, and MuRF1 mRNA increased with exercise regardless of temperature (p < 0...
January 2018: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045191/the-efficacy-of-resistance-training-in-hypoxia-to-enhance-strength-and-muscle-growth-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#19
Domingo J Ramos-Campo, Brendan R Scott, Pedro E Alcaraz, Jacobo A Rubio-Arias
Recent studies have reported that resistance training in hypoxia (RTH) may augment muscle size and strength development. However, consensus on the effects of RTH via systematic review and meta-analysis is not yet available. This work aimed to systematically review studies which have investigated using RTH versus normoxic resistance training (NRT) to improve muscular size and strength, and to perform a meta-analysis to determine the effect of RTH on these adaptive parameters. Searches were conducted in PubMed, Web of Science and the Cochrane Library from database inception until 17 June 2017 for original articles assessing the effects of RTH on muscle size and strength versus NRT...
February 2018: European Journal of Sport Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036766/resistance-training-increases-fibroblast-growth-factor-21-and-irisin-levels-in-the-skeletal-muscle-of-zucker-diabetic-fatty-rats
#20
Hee-Jae Kim, Wook Song
PURPOSE: Although the fibroblast growth factor-21 (FGF-21) and irisin roles are well demonstrated in metabolic disease, there have been no reports investigating the effect of resistance exercise on FGF-21 and irisin levels in diabetic skeletal muscles. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the change of FGF-21 and irisin levels in various skeletal muscles, and their association with muscle strength, following 8 weeks of resistance training using Zucker diabetic fatty rats (type 2 diabetic animal models)...
September 30, 2017: Journal of Exercise Nutrition & Biochemistry
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