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Christopher Noble, Nicole Smulders, Roger Lewis, Matt J Carré, Steve E Franklin, Sheila MacNeil, Zeike A Taylor
In this study, we examine the effect of collagenase, elastase and glutaraldehyde treatments on the response of porcine aorta to controlled peel testing. Specifically, the effects on the tissue׳s resistance to dissection, as quantified by critical energy release rate, are investigated. We further explore the utility of these treatments in creating model tissues whose properties emulate those of certain diseased tissues. Such model tissues would find application in, for example, development and physical testing of new endovascular devices...
October 7, 2016: Journal of Biomechanics
Darjan Košir, Franc Vrečer
CONTEXT: The flow and compaction properties of a compaction mixture or powder and the drug-release profile of final tablets are important critical quality attributes (CQAs) that have an impact on the overall performance of hydrophilic matrix tablets. The selection of granulation method can importantly affect these CQAs. OBJECTIVE: This study investigates various agglomeration methods of sustained-release formulation using HPMC K4M as a release polymer with various wet- and dry-granulation techniques...
October 14, 2016: Drug Development and Industrial Pharmacy
S Mathias, S Eich, J Urbancic, S Michael, A V Carr, S Emmerich, A Stange, T Popmintchev, T Rohwer, M Wiesenmayer, A Ruffing, S Jakobs, S Hellmann, P Matyba, C Chen, L Kipp, M Bauer, H C Kapteyn, H C Schneider, K Rossnagel, M M Murnane, M Aeschlimann
Capturing the dynamic electronic band structure of a correlated material presents a powerful capability for uncovering the complex couplings between the electronic and structural degrees of freedom. When combined with ultrafast laser excitation, new phases of matter can result, since far-from-equilibrium excited states are instantaneously populated. Here, we elucidate a general relation between ultrafast non-equilibrium electron dynamics and the size of the characteristic energy gap in a correlated electron material...
October 4, 2016: Nature Communications
M Parkinson, S M Carr, R Rushmer, C Abley
INTRODUCTION: Advances in longevity and medicine mean that many more people in the UK survive life-threatening diseases but are instead susceptible to life-limiting diseases such as dementia. Within the next 10 years those affected by dementia in the UK is set to rise to over 1 million, making reliance on family care of people with dementia (PWD) essential. A central challenge is how to improve family carer support to offset the demands made by dementia care which can jeopardise carers' own health...
September 27, 2016: Journal of Public Health
Justin R Caram, Sophie N Bertram, Hendrik Utzat, Whitney R Hess, Jessica A Carr, Thomas S Bischof, Andrew P Beyler, Mark W B Wilson, Moungi G Bawendi
Lead chalcogenide colloidal nanocrystals (NCs) are promising materials for solution processable optoelectronics. However, there is little agreement on the identity and character of PbS NC emission for different degrees of quantum confinement-a critical parameter for realizing applications for these nanocrystals. In this work, we combine ensemble and single NC spectroscopies to interrogate preparations of lead sulfide NCs. We use solution photon correlation Fourier spectroscopy (S-PCFS) to measure the average single NC linewidth of near-infrared-emitting PbS quantum dots and find it to be dominated by homogeneous broadening...
October 12, 2016: Nano Letters
Linda A LeBlanc, Paige B Raetz, Tyra P Sellers, James E Carr
Practicing behavior analysts frequently assess and treat problem behavior as part of their ongoing job responsibilities. Effective measurement of problem behavior is critical to success in these activities because some measures of problem behavior provide more accurate and complete information about the behavior than others. However, not every measurement procedure is appropriate for every problem behavior and therapeutic circumstance. We summarize the most commonly used measurement procedures, describe the contexts for which they are most appropriate, and propose a clinical decision-making model for selecting measurement produces given certain features of the behavior and constraints of the therapeutic environment...
March 2016: Behavior Analysis in Practice
KyungPyo Hong, Jeremy Collins, Daniel C Lee, Jane E Wilcox, Michael Markl, James Carr, Daniel Kim
This study was conducted to improve the precision of arrhythmia-insensitive rapid (AIR) cardiac T1 mapping through pulse sequence optimization and then evaluate the intra-scan repeatability in patients at 3T against investigational modified Look-Locker inversion recovery (MOLLI) T1 mapping. In the first development phase (five human subjects), we implemented and tested centric-pair k-space ordering to suppress image artifacts associated with eddy currents. In the second development phase (15 human subjects), we determined optimal flip angles to reduce the measurement variation in T1 maps...
October 2016: NMR in Biomedicine
Hem R Gurung, Meghan M Carr, Daniel J J Carr
Herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1) infection of the cornea induces vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A)-dependent lymphangiogenesis. However, the extent to which HSV-1-induced corneal lymphangiogenesis impacts the adaptive immune response has not been characterized. Here, we used floxed VEGF-A mice to study the importance of newly created corneal lymphatic vessels in the host adaptive immune response to infection. Whereas the mice infected with the parental virus (strain SC16) exhibited robust corneal lymphangiogenesis, mice that received the recombinant virus (SC16 ICP0-Cre) that expresses Cre recombinase under the control of infected cell protein 0 (ICP0), an HSV-1 immediate-early gene, showed a significant reduction in lymphangiogenesis...
October 4, 2016: Immunology and Cell Biology
Derek J Royer, Christopher D Conrady, Daniel J J Carr
Type I IFN (IFN-α/β)-driven immune responses to acute viral infection are critical to counter replication and prevent dissemination. However, the mechanisms underlying host resistance to HSV type 1 (HSV-1) are incompletely understood. In this study, we show that mice with deficiencies in IFN-α/β signaling or stimulator of IFN genes (STING) exhibit exacerbated neurovirulence and atypical lymphotropic dissemination of HSV-1 following ocular infection. Synergy between IFN-α/β signaling and efficacy of early adaptive immune responses to HSV-1 were dissected using bone marrow chimeras and adoptive cell transfer approaches to profile clonal expansion, effector function, and recruitment of HSV-specific CD8(+) T cells...
September 15, 2016: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
B Ingham, A Smialowska, G D Erlangga, L Matia-Merino, N M Kirby, C Wang, R G Haverkamp, A J Carr
An in-depth, critical review of model-dependent fitting of small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) data of bovine skim milk has led us to develop a new mathematical model for interpreting these data. Calcium-edge resonant soft X-ray scattering data provides unequivocal evidence as to the shape and location of the scattering due to colloidal calcium phosphate, which is manifested as a correlation peak centred at q = 0.035 Å(-1). In SAXS data this feature is seldom seen, although most literature studies attribute another feature centred at q = 0...
August 17, 2016: Soft Matter
Amy Reitmaier Koehler, Susan Davies, Linda Reveling Smith, Tisha Hooks, Hailee Schanke, April Loeffler, Courtney Carr, Nicole Ratzlaff
BACKGROUND: With an aging population, it is critical that nurses are educated and prepared to offer quality healthcare to this client group. Incorporating gerontology content into nursing curricula and addressing students' perceptions and career choices in relation to working with older adults are important faculty concerns. OBJECTIVES: To examine the impact of a stand-alone course in gerontological nursing on undergraduate nursing students' perceptions of working with older adults and career intentions...
November 2016: Nurse Education Today
Sara E Gillooly, Jessie L Carr Shmool, Drew R Michanowicz, Daniel J Bain, Leah K Cambal, Kyra Naumoff Shields, Jane E Clougherty
Fine particulate matter (PM2.5) air pollution, varying in concentration and composition, has been shown to cause or exacerbate adverse effects on both human and ecological health. The concept of biomonitoring using deciduous tree leaves as a proxy for intraurban PM air pollution in different areas has previously been explored using a variety of study designs (e.g., systematic coverage of an area, source-specific focus), deciduous tree species, sampling strategies (e.g., single day, multi-season), and analytical methods (e...
August 2016: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Anish K Agarwal, David F Gaieski, Sarah M Perman, Marion Leary, Gail Delfin, Benjamin S Abella, Brendan G Carr
BACKGROUND: Protocol-based resuscitation strategies in the Emergency Department (ED) improve survival for out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) and severe sepsis but implementation has been inconsistent. OBJECTIVE: To determine the feasibility of a real-time provider-to-provider telemedical intervention for the treatment of OHCA and severe sepsis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A three-center pilot study utilizing a "hub-spoke model" with an academic medical center acting both as the hub for teleconsultation as well as a spoke hospital enrolling patients...
April 2016: Heliyon
Fabio Gsaller, Peter Hortschansky, Takanori Furukawa, Paul D Carr, Bharat Rash, Javier Capilla, Christoph Müller, Franz Bracher, Paul Bowyer, Hubertus Haas, Axel A Brakhage, Michael J Bromley
Azole drugs selectively target fungal sterol biosynthesis and are critical to our antifungal therapeutic arsenal. However, resistance to this class of drugs, particularly in the major human mould pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus, is emerging and reaching levels that have prompted some to suggest that there is a realistic probability that they will be lost for clinical use. The dominating class of pan-azole resistant isolates is characterized by the presence of a tandem repeat of at least 34 bases (TR34) within the promoter of cyp51A, the gene encoding the azole drug target sterol C14-demethylase...
July 2016: PLoS Pathogens
Eunüs S Ali, Harinda Rajapaksha, Jillian M Carr, Nikolai Petrovsky
Human noroviruses are the leading causative agents of epidemic and sporadic viral gastroenteritis and childhood diarrhoea worldwide. Human histo-blood group antigens (HBGA) serve as receptors for norovirus capsid protein attachment and play a critical role in infection. This makes HBGA-norovirus binding a promising target for drug development. Recently solved crystal structures of norovirus bound to HBGA have provided a structural basis for identification of potential anti-norovirus drugs and subsequently performed in silico and in vitro drug screens have identified compounds that block norovirus binding and may thereby serve as structural templates for design of therapeutic norovirus inhibitors...
September 2016: Antiviral Research
Naïma Azouzi, Jérémy Cailloux, Juliana Menezes Cazarin, Jeffrey A Knauf, Jennifer Cracchiolo, Abir Al Ghuzlan, Dana Hartl, Michel Polak, Aurore Carre, Mohammed El Mzibri, Abdelkarim Filali-Maltouf, Abderrahmane Al Bouzidi, Martin Schlumberger, James A Fagin, Rabii Ameziane-El-Hassani, Corinne Dupuy
AIMS: The BRAFV600E oncogene, reported in 40-60% of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC), has an important role in the pathogenesis of PTC. It is associated with the loss of thyroid iodide-metabolizing genes, such as sodium/iodide symporter (NIS) and therefore with radioiodide-refractoriness. Inhibition of MAPK pathway, constitutively activated by BRAFV600E, is not always efficient in resistant tumors suggesting that other compensatory mechanisms contribute to a BRAFV600E adaptive resistance...
July 11, 2016: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
Richard Carr, Justin Schilling, Jianliang Song, Rhonda L Carter, Yang Du, Sungsoo M Yoo, Christopher J Traynham, Walter J Koch, Joseph Y Cheung, Douglas G Tilley, Jeffrey L Benovic
β-adrenergic receptors (βARs) are critical regulators of acute cardiovascular physiology. In response to elevated catecholamine stimulation during development of congestive heart failure (CHF), chronic activation of Gs-dependent β1AR and Gi-dependent β2AR pathways leads to enhanced cardiomyocyte death, reduced β1AR expression, and decreased inotropic reserve. β-blockers act to block excessive catecholamine stimulation of βARs to decrease cellular apoptotic signaling and normalize β1AR expression and inotropy...
July 12, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Matthew J Carr, Yunyuan Li, Alireza Moeen Rezakhanlou, Aziz Ghahary
Interaction between keratinocytes and fibroblasts plays a critical role in maintaining skin integrity under both normal and pathological conditions. We have previously demonstrated that keratinocyte-releasable factors influence the expression of key extracellular matrix components, such as collagen and matrix metalloproteinases in dermal fibroblasts. In this study, we utilized DNA microarray analysis to examine the effects of keratinocyte-releasable factors on the expression of several cytokines in human dermal fibroblasts...
June 24, 2016: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
Irene Rebollo-Mesa, Estefania Nova-Lamperti, Paula Mobillo, Manohursingh Runglall, Sofia Christakoudi, Sonia Norris, Nicola Smallcombe, Yogesh Kamra, Rachel Hilton, Sunil Bhandari, Richard Baker, David Berglund, Sue Carr, David Game, Sian Griffin, Philip A Kalra, Robert Lewis, Patrick B Mark, Stephen Marks, Iain Macphee, William McKane, Markus G Mohaupt, R Pararajasingam, Sui Phin Kon, Daniel Serón, Manish Sinha, Beatriz Tucker, Ondrej Viklický, Robert I Lechler, Graham M Lord, Maria P Hernandez-Fuentes
We and others have previously described signatures of tolerance in kidney transplantation showing differential-expression of B-cell related genes and relative expansions of B-cell subsets. However, in all of these studies, the index group, namely the tolerant recipients, were not receiving immunosuppressive (IS) treatment unlike the rest of the comparator groups. We aimed to assess the confounding effect of these regimens and develop a novel IS-independent signature of tolerance. Analyzing gene-expression in three independent kidney transplant patient cohorts (232-recipients +14-tolerants), we have established that the expression of the previously reported signature was biased by IS regimens, which also influenced transitional B-cells...
June 21, 2016: American Journal of Transplantation
Tegbar Yigzaw, Catherine Carr, Jelle Stekelenburg, Jos van Roosmalen, Hannah Gibson, Mintwab Gelagay, Azeb Admassu
PURPOSE: Realizing aspirations for meeting the global reproductive, maternal, newborn, and child health goals depends not only on increasing the numbers but also on improving the capability of midwifery workforce. We conducted a task analysis study to identify the needs for strengthening the midwifery workforce in Ethiopia. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study of recently qualified midwives in Ethiopia. Purposively selected participants from representative geographic and practice settings completed a self-administered questionnaire, making judgments about the frequency of performance, criticality, competence, and location of training for a list of validated midwifery tasks...
2016: International Journal of Women's Health
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