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Samantha E Kaplan, Christine M Gunn, Anthony K Kulukulualani, Anita Raj, Karen M Freund, Phyllis L Carr
BACKGROUND: Despite individual and institutional awareness of the inequity in retention, promotion and leadership of racially and ethnically underrepresented minority faculty in academic medicine, the number of such faculty remains unacceptably low. The authors explored challenges to the recruitment, retention and promotion of underrepresented faculty among a sample of leaders at academic medical centers. METHODS: Semi-structured interviews were conducted from 2011 to 2012 with 44 senior faculty leaders, predominantly members of the Group on Diversity and Inclusion (GDI) and/or the Group on Women in Medical Sciences (GWIMS), at the 24 randomly selected medical schools of the National Faculty Survey of 1995...
February 2018: Journal of the National Medical Association
Larry A Cogburn, Danielle N Smarsh, Xiaofei Wang, Nares Trakooljul, Wilfrid Carré, Harold B White
BACKGROUND: A strain of Leghorn chickens (rd/rd), unable to produce a functional riboflavin-binding protein, lays riboflavin-deficient eggs, in which all embryos suddenly die at mid-incubation (days 13-15). This malady, caused by riboflavin deficiency, leads to excessive lipid accumulation in liver, impaired β-oxidation of lipid, and severe hypoglycemia prior to death. We have used high-density chicken microarrays for time-course transcriptional scans of liver in chicken embryos between days 9-15 during this riboflavin-deficiency-induced metabolic catastrophe...
March 5, 2018: BMC Genomics
Andrew Cameron, Kosalan Akilan, David Carr
Infectious mononucleosis is typically a self-limited viral infection of adolescence and early adulthood that resolves in a period of weeks, causing no major sequelae. We describe a case of a healthy 18-year-old female diagnosed with infectious mononucleosis who also presented with right upper quadrant abdominal pain, moderate transaminitis, and cholestatic biochemistry. An ultrasound revealed acute acalculous cholecystitis, generally a condition seen in the context of critical illness. Further investigating emergency department patients with infectious mononucleosis is often not indicated, but may be important for those who present atypically...
March 1, 2018: CJEM
James J McCarthy, Brendan Carr, Comilla Sasson, Bentley J Bobrow, Clifton W Callaway, Robert W Neumar, Jose Maria E Ferrer, J Lee Garvey, Joseph P Ornato, Louis Gonzales, Christopher B Granger, Monica E Kleinman, Chris Bjerke, Graham Nichol
The American Heart Association previously recommended implementation of cardiac resuscitation systems of care that consist of interconnected community, emergency medical services, and hospital efforts to measure and improve the process of care and outcome for patients with cardiac arrest. In addition, the American Heart Association proposed a national process to develop and implement evidence-based guidelines for cardiac resuscitation systems of care. Significant experience has been gained with implementing these systems, and new evidence has accumulated...
February 26, 2018: Circulation
George P Lisi, Allen A Currier, J Patrick Loria
The enzyme imidazole glycerol phosphate synthase (IGPS) is a model for studies of long-range allosteric regulation in enzymes. Binding of the allosteric effector ligand N'-[5'-phosphoribulosyl)formimino]-5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-ribonucleotide (PRFAR) stimulates millisecond (ms) timescale motions in IGPS that enhance its catalytic function. We studied the effect of temperature on these critical conformational motions and the catalytic mechanism of IGPS from the hyperthermophile Thermatoga maritima in an effort to understand temperature-dependent allostery...
2018: Frontiers in Molecular Biosciences
Brian M Chase, J Tyler Faith, Alex Mackay, Manuel Chevalier, Andrew S Carr, Arnoud Boom, Sophak Lim, Paula J Reimer
Africa's southern Cape is a key region for the evolution of our species, with early symbolic systems, marine faunal exploitation, and episodic production of microlithic stone tools taken as evidence for the appearance of distinctively complex human behavior. However, the temporally discontinuous nature of this evidence precludes ready assumptions of intrinsic adaptive benefit, and has encouraged diverse explanations for the occurrence of these behaviors, in terms of regional demographic, social and ecological conditions...
January 2018: Journal of Human Evolution
Juliet M Pullar, Simone Bayer, Anitra C Carr
Vitamin C (ascorbate) is the major water-soluble antioxidant in plasma and its oxidation to dehydroascorbic acid (DHA) has been proposed as a marker of oxidative stress in vivo. However, controversy exists in the literature around the amount of DHA detected in blood samples collected from various patient cohorts. In this study, we report on DHA concentrations in a selection of different clinical cohorts (diabetes, pneumonia, cancer, and critically ill). All clinical samples were collected into EDTA anticoagulant tubes and processed at 4 °C prior to storage at -80 °C for subsequent analysis by HPLC with electrochemical detection...
February 11, 2018: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
Bin Chen, Andrew P Longhini, Felix Nußbaumer, Christoph Kreutz, Jonathan Dinman, T Kwaku Dayie
Conformational dynamics of RNA molecules play a critical role in governing their biological functions. Measurements of RNAs' dynamic behaviour shed important light on sites that interact with their binding partners or cellular stimulators. However, such measurements using solution NMR are difficult for large RNAs (>70 nt) due to severe spectral overlap, homonuclear 13C scalar couplings, and line-broadening. In this work, a strategic combination of solid-phase synthesis, site-specific isotopic labeled phosphoramidites and enzymatic ligation is introduced...
February 7, 2018: Chemistry: a European Journal
Greg J Carr, A John Bailer, Jane M Rawlings, Scott E Belanger
The fish acute toxicity test method is foundational to aquatic toxicity testing strategies, yet the literature lacks a concise sample size assessment. While various sources address sample size, historical precedent seems to play a larger role than objective measures. Here, a novel and comprehensive quantification of the effect of sample size on estimation of the LC50 is presented, covering a wide range of scenarios. The results put into perspective the practical differences across a range of sample sizes, from N = 5/concentration up to N = 23/concentration...
January 19, 2018: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
Sarah H Stout, Ganesh M Babulal, Chunyu Ma, David B Carr, Denise M Head, Elizabeth A Grant, Monique M Williams, David M Holtzman, Anne M Fagan, John C Morris, Catherine M Roe
INTRODUCTION: With 36 million older adult U.S. drivers, safety is a critical concern, particularly among those with dementia. It is unclear at what stage of Alzheimer's disease (AD) older adults stop driving and whether preclinical AD affects driving cessation. METHODS: Time to driving cessation was examined based on Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR) and AD cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers. 1795 older adults followed up to 24 years received CDR ratings. A subset (591) had cerebrospinal fluid biomarker measurements and was followed up to 17 years...
January 9, 2018: Alzheimer's & Dementia: the Journal of the Alzheimer's Association
Marc Andrew Valdez, Daniel Jaschke, David L Vargas, Lincoln D Carr
We quantify the emergent complexity of quantum states near quantum critical points on regular 1D lattices, via complex network measures based on quantum mutual information as the adjacency matrix, in direct analogy to quantifying the complexity of electroencephalogram or functional magnetic resonance imaging measurements of the brain. Using matrix product state methods, we show that network density, clustering, disparity, and Pearson's correlation obtain the critical point for both quantum Ising and Bose-Hubbard models to a high degree of accuracy in finite-size scaling for three classes of quantum phase transitions, Z_{2}, mean field superfluid to Mott insulator, and a Berzinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless crossover...
December 1, 2017: Physical Review Letters
Kyle L Ploense, Philip Vieira, Lana Bubalo, Gema Olivarria, Amanda E Carr, Karen K Szumlinski, Tod E Kippin
Similar to the pattern observed in people with substance abuse disorders, laboratory animals will exhibit escalation of cocaine intake when the drug is available over prolonged periods of time. Here, we investigated the contribution of behavioral contingency of cocaine administration on escalation of cocaine intake and gene expression in the dorsal medial prefrontal cortex (dmPFC) in adult male rats. Rats were allowed to self-administer intravenous cocaine (0.25 mg/infusion) under either limited cocaine-(1 h/day), prolonged cocaine-(6 h/day), or limited cocaine-(1 h/day) plus yoked cocaine-access (5 h/day); a control group received access to saline (1 h/day)...
December 12, 2017: Psychopharmacology
Therese I Poirier, Connie Stamper-Carr, Kate Newman
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: To design and implement an undergraduate honors course for pre-health professional students that develops interpersonal skills through use of a variety of humanities. EDUCATIONAL ACTIVITY AND SETTING: A three credit hour course in an honors seminar sequence was developed by pharmacy practice faculty and with input from faculty in mass communications, philosophy, applied communication studies and history. The course utilized a variety of media such as literature, film, and podcasts to foster student discussion about a variety of health-related topics...
September 2017: Currents in Pharmacy Teaching & Learning
Anitra C Carr, Patrice C Rosengrave, Simone Bayer, Steve Chambers, Jan Mehrtens, Geoff M Shaw
BACKGROUND: Vitamin C is an essential water-soluble nutrient which cannot be synthesised or stored by humans. It is a potent antioxidant with anti-inflammatory and immune-supportive roles. Previous research has indicated that vitamin C levels are depleted in critically ill patients. In this study we have assessed plasma vitamin C concentrations in critically ill patients relative to infection status (septic shock or non-septic) and level of inflammation (C-reactive protein concentrations)...
December 11, 2017: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
Meghan M Kozub, Ryan M Carr, Gwen L Lomberk, Martin E Fernandez-Zapico
Histone-modifying enzymes play a critical role in chromatin remodeling and are essential for influencing several genome processes such as gene expression and DNA repair, replication, and recombination. The discovery of lysine-specific demethylase 1 (LSD1), the first identified histone demethylase, dramatically revolutionized research in the field of epigenetics. LSD1 plays a pivotal role in a wide range of biological operations, including development, cellular differentiation, embryonic pluripotency, and disease (for example, cancer)...
2017: F1000Research
W Morita, S G Dakin, S J B Snelling, A J Carr
OBJECTIVES: Emerging evidence indicates that tendon disease is an active process with inflammation that is critical to disease onset and progression. However, the key cytokines responsible for driving and sustaining inflammation have not been identified. METHODS: We performed a systematic review of the literature using MEDLINE (U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, Maryland) in March 2017. Studies reporting the expression of interleukins (ILs), tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and interferon gamma in diseased human tendon tissues, and animal models of tendon injury or exercise in comparison with healthy control tissues were included...
December 2017: Bone & Joint Research
Jithender G Reddy, Supriya Pratihar, David Ban, Sebastian Frischkorn, Stefan Becker, Christian Griesinger, Donghan Lee
Molecular dynamics play a significant role in how molecules perform their function. A critical method that provides information on dynamics, at the atomic level, is NMR-based relaxation dispersion (RD) experiments. RD experiments have been utilized for understanding multiple biological processes occurring at micro-to-millisecond time, such as enzyme catalysis, molecular recognition, ligand binding and protein folding. Here, we applied the recently developed high-power RD concept to the Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill sequence (extreme CPMG; E-CPMG) for the simultaneous detection of fast and slow dynamics...
January 2018: Journal of Biomolecular NMR
Deborah Carr, Jennifer C Cornman, Vicki A Freedman
We use daily diary data from the Disability and Use of Time supplement to the 2013 Panel Study of Income Dynamics ( n = 1,162) to evaluate (1) the extent to which marital/partner support and strain moderate the effects of disability on five activity-related emotions (happiness, calm, sadness, frustration, worry) and overall negative and positive emotion among older married, cohabiting, and dating persons and (2) whether such patterns differ significantly by gender. Marital support buffers against negative emotions and increases feelings of calm among severely impaired women...
September 2017: Journal of Health and Social Behavior
Michael Ayodele Odeniyi, Babatunde Mukhtar Oyedokun, Oluyemisi Adebowale Bamiro
BACKGROUND: Hydrophilic polymers provide a means of sustaining drug delivery. Native gums may be limited in function, but modification may improve their activity. OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to evaluate native and modified forms of Terminalia mantaly gum for their sustained-release and bioadhesive properties. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The native gum (NTM) was modified by microwave irradiation for 20 seconds (MTM20) and 60 seconds (MTM60) and characterized using microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and packing properties...
January 2017: Polimery W Medycynie
G Chanques, T Tarri, A Ride, A Prades, A De Jong, J Carr, N Molinari, S Jaber
Background: Behavioural pain tools are used in Intensive Care Unit (ICU) patients unable to self-report their pain-intensity but need sustained efforts to educate and train the ICU team because of the subjective nature of these clinical tools. This study measured the validity and performance of an electrophysiological monitoring tool based on the spectral analysis of heart rate variability, the Analgesia Nociception Index (ANI) which varies from 0 (minimal parasympathetic tone, maximal stress-response and pain) to 100 (maximal parasympathetic tone, minimal stress-response and pain)...
October 1, 2017: British Journal of Anaesthesia
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