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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907062/sepsis-prevalence-and-outcome-on-the-general-wards-and-emergency-departments-in-wales-results-of-a-multi-centre-observational-point-prevalence-study
#1
Tamas Szakmany, Robert M Lundin, Ben Sharif, Gemma Ellis, Paul Morgan, Maja Kopczynska, Amrit Dhadda, Charlotte Mann, Danielle Donoghue, Sarah Rollason, Emma Brownlow, Francesca Hill, Grace Carr, Hannah Turley, James Hassall, James Lloyd, Llywela Davies, Michael Atkinson, Molly Jones, Nerys Jones, Rhodri Martin, Yousef Ibrahim, Judith E Hall
Data on sepsis prevalence on the general wards is lacking on the UK and in the developed world. We conducted a multicentre, prospective, observational study of the prevalence of patients with sepsis or severe sepsis on the general wards and Emergency Departments (ED) in Wales. During the 24-hour study period all patients with NEWS≥3 were screened for presence of 2 or more SIRS criteria. To be eligible for inclusion, patients had to have a high clinical suspicion of an infection, together with a systemic inflammatory response (sepsis) and evidence of acute organ dysfunction and/or shock (severe sepsis)...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875209/jacobi-fiber-surfaces-for-bivariate-reeb-space-computation
#2
Julien Tierny, Hamish Carr
This paper presents an efficient algorithm for the computation of the Reeb space of an input bivariate piecewise linear scalar function f defined on a tetrahedral mesh. By extending and generalizing algorithmic concepts from the univariate case to the bivariate one, we report the first practical, output-sensitive algorithm for the exact computation of such a Reeb space. The algorithm starts by identifying the Jacobi set of f, the bivariate analogs of critical points in the univariate case. Next, the Reeb space is computed by segmenting the input mesh along the new notion of Jacobi Fiber Surfaces, the bivariate analog of critical contours in the univariate case...
January 2017: IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871682/factors-affecting-mortality-after-penetrating-cardiac-injuries-10-year-experience-at-urban-level-i-trauma-center
#3
Michael J Mina, Rashi Jhunjhunwala, Rondi B Gelbard, Stacy D Dougherty, Jacquelyn S Carr, Christopher J Dente, Jeffrey M Nicholas, Amy D Wyrzykowski, Jeffrey P Salomone, Gary A Vercruysse, David V Feliciano, Bryan C Morse
BACKGROUND: Despite the lethality of injuries to the heart, optimizing factors that impact mortality for victims that do survive to reach the hospital is critical. METHODS: From 2003 to 2012, prehospital data, injury characteristics, and clinical patient factors were analyzed for victims with penetrating cardiac injuries (PCIs) at an urban, level I trauma center. RESULTS: Over the 10-year study, 80 PCI patients survived to reach the hospital...
October 15, 2016: American Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864051/individual-differences-in-speech-in-noise-perception-parallel-neural-speech-processing-and-attention-in-preschoolers
#4
Elaine C Thompson, Kali Woodruff Carr, Travis White-Schwoch, Sebastian Otto-Meyer, Nina Kraus
From bustling classrooms to unruly lunchrooms, school settings are noisy. To learn effectively in the unwelcome company of numerous distractions, children must clearly perceive speech in noise. In older children and adults, speech-in-noise perception is supported by sensory and cognitive processes, but the correlates underlying this critical listening skill in young children (3-5 year olds) remain undetermined. Employing a longitudinal design (two evaluations separated by ∼12 months), we followed a cohort of 59 preschoolers, ages 3...
November 15, 2016: Hearing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27806266/kinetic-insights-into-the-binding-between-the-nsh3-domain-of-crkii-and-proline-rich-motifs-in-cabl
#5
Danyun Zeng, Veer S Bhatt, Qingliang Shen, Jae-Hyun Cho
The interaction between CrkII and cAbl is implicated in diverse cellular processes. This interaction starts with the binding of the N-terminal Src homology 3 (nSH3) domain of CrkII to the proline-rich motifs of cAbl (PRMs(cAbl)). Despite its critical importance, the detailed binding mechanism between the nSH3 domain and PRMs remains elusive. In this study, we used nuclear magnetic resonance Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill relaxation dispersion experiment to study the binding kinetics between the nSH3 domain of CrkII and PRMs(cAbl)...
November 1, 2016: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27743628/controlled-peel-testing-of-a-model-tissue-for-diseased-aorta
#6
Christopher Noble, Nicole Smulders, Roger Lewis, Matt J Carré, Steve E Franklin, Sheila MacNeil, Zeike A Taylor
In this study, we examine the effect of collagenase, elastase and glutaraldehyde treatments on the response of porcine aorta to controlled peel testing. Specifically, the effects on the tissue׳s resistance to dissection, as quantified by critical energy release rate, are investigated. We further explore the utility of these treatments in creating model tissues whose properties emulate those of certain diseased tissues. Such model tissues would find application in, for example, development and physical testing of new endovascular devices...
October 7, 2016: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27739880/the-performance-of-hpmc-matrix-tablets-using-various-agglomeration-manufacturing-processes
#7
Darjan Košir, Franc Vrečer
CONTEXT: The flow and compaction properties of a compaction mixture or powder and the drug-release profile of final tablets are important critical quality attributes (CQAs) that have an impact on the overall performance of hydrophilic matrix tablets. The selection of granulation method can importantly affect these CQAs. OBJECTIVE: This study investigates various agglomeration methods of sustained-release formulation using HPMC K4M as a release polymer with various wet- and dry-granulation techniques...
October 14, 2016: Drug Development and Industrial Pharmacy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27698341/self-amplified-photo-induced-gap-quenching-in-a-correlated-electron-material
#8
S Mathias, S Eich, J Urbancic, S Michael, A V Carr, S Emmerich, A Stange, T Popmintchev, T Rohwer, M Wiesenmayer, A Ruffing, S Jakobs, S Hellmann, P Matyba, C Chen, L Kipp, M Bauer, H C Kapteyn, H C Schneider, K Rossnagel, M M Murnane, M Aeschlimann
Capturing the dynamic electronic band structure of a correlated material presents a powerful capability for uncovering the complex couplings between the electronic and structural degrees of freedom. When combined with ultrafast laser excitation, new phases of matter can result, since far-from-equilibrium excited states are instantaneously populated. Here, we elucidate a general relation between ultrafast non-equilibrium electron dynamics and the size of the characteristic energy gap in a correlated electron material...
October 4, 2016: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27679663/investigating-what-works-to-support-family-carers-of-people-with-dementia-a-rapid-realist-review
#9
M Parkinson, S M Carr, R Rushmer, C Abley
INTRODUCTION: Advances in longevity and medicine mean that many more people in the UK survive life-threatening diseases but are instead susceptible to life-limiting diseases such as dementia. Within the next 10 years those affected by dementia in the UK is set to rise to over 1 million, making reliance on family care of people with dementia (PWD) essential. A central challenge is how to improve family carer support to offset the demands made by dementia care which can jeopardise carers' own health...
September 27, 2016: Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27627129/pbs-nanocrystal-emission-is-governed-by-multiple-emissive-states
#10
Justin R Caram, Sophie N Bertram, Hendrik Utzat, Whitney R Hess, Jessica A Carr, Thomas S Bischof, Andrew P Beyler, Mark W B Wilson, Moungi G Bawendi
Lead chalcogenide colloidal nanocrystals (NCs) are promising materials for solution processable optoelectronics. However, there is little agreement on the identity and character of PbS NC emission for different degrees of quantum confinement-a critical parameter for realizing applications for these nanocrystals. In this work, we combine ensemble and single NC spectroscopies to interrogate preparations of lead sulfide NCs. We use solution photon correlation Fourier spectroscopy (S-PCFS) to measure the average single NC linewidth of near-infrared-emitting PbS quantum dots and find it to be dominated by homogeneous broadening...
October 12, 2016: Nano Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27606232/a-proposed-model-for-selecting-measurement-procedures-for-the-assessment-and-treatment-of-problem-behavior
#11
Linda A LeBlanc, Paige B Raetz, Tyra P Sellers, James E Carr
Practicing behavior analysts frequently assess and treat problem behavior as part of their ongoing job responsibilities. Effective measurement of problem behavior is critical to success in these activities because some measures of problem behavior provide more accurate and complete information about the behavior than others. However, not every measurement procedure is appropriate for every problem behavior and therapeutic circumstance. We summarize the most commonly used measurement procedures, describe the contexts for which they are most appropriate, and propose a clinical decision-making model for selecting measurement produces given certain features of the behavior and constraints of the therapeutic environment...
March 2016: Behavior Analysis in Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27593977/optimized-air-and-investigational-molli-cardiac-t1-mapping-pulse-sequences-produce-similar-intra-scan-repeatability-in-patients-at-3t
#12
KyungPyo Hong, Jeremy Collins, Daniel C Lee, Jane E Wilcox, Michael Markl, James Carr, Daniel Kim
This study was conducted to improve the precision of arrhythmia-insensitive rapid (AIR) cardiac T1 mapping through pulse sequence optimization and then evaluate the intra-scan repeatability in patients at 3T against investigational modified Look-Locker inversion recovery (MOLLI) T1 mapping. In the first development phase (five human subjects), we implemented and tested centric-pair k-space ordering to suppress image artifacts associated with eddy currents. In the second development phase (15 human subjects), we determined optimal flip angles to reduce the measurement variation in T1 maps...
October 2016: NMR in Biomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27577867/cornea-lymphatics-drive-the-cd8-t-cell-response-to-herpes-simplex-virus-1
#13
Hem R Gurung, Meghan M Carr, Daniel J J Carr
Herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1) infection of the cornea induces vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A)-dependent lymphangiogenesis. However, the extent to which HSV-1-induced corneal lymphangiogenesis impacts the adaptive immune response has not been characterized. Here, we used floxed VEGF-A mice to study the importance of newly created corneal lymphatic vessels in the host adaptive immune response to infection. Whereas the mice infected with the parental virus (strain SC16) exhibited robust corneal lymphangiogenesis, mice that received the recombinant virus (SC16 ICP0-Cre) that expresses Cre recombinase under the control of infected cell protein 0 (ICP0), an HSV-1 immediate-early gene, showed a significant reduction in lymphangiogenesis...
October 4, 2016: Immunology and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27511736/herpesvirus-associated-lymphadenitis-distorts-fibroblastic-reticular-cell-microarchitecture-and-attenuates-cd8-t-cell-responses-to-neurotropic-infection-in-mice-lacking-the-sting-ifn%C3%AE-%C3%AE-defense-pathways
#14
Derek J Royer, Christopher D Conrady, Daniel J J Carr
Type I IFN (IFN-α/β)-driven immune responses to acute viral infection are critical to counter replication and prevent dissemination. However, the mechanisms underlying host resistance to HSV type 1 (HSV-1) are incompletely understood. In this study, we show that mice with deficiencies in IFN-α/β signaling or stimulator of IFN genes (STING) exhibit exacerbated neurovirulence and atypical lymphotropic dissemination of HSV-1 following ocular infection. Synergy between IFN-α/β signaling and efficacy of early adaptive immune responses to HSV-1 were dissected using bone marrow chimeras and adoptive cell transfer approaches to profile clonal expansion, effector function, and recruitment of HSV-specific CD8(+) T cells...
September 15, 2016: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27491477/revisiting-the-interpretation-of-casein-micelle-saxs-data
#15
B Ingham, A Smialowska, G D Erlangga, L Matia-Merino, N M Kirby, C Wang, R G Haverkamp, A J Carr
An in-depth, critical review of model-dependent fitting of small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) data of bovine skim milk has led us to develop a new mathematical model for interpreting these data. Calcium-edge resonant soft X-ray scattering data provides unequivocal evidence as to the shape and location of the scattering due to colloidal calcium phosphate, which is manifested as a correlation peak centred at q = 0.035 Å(-1). In SAXS data this feature is seldom seen, although most literature studies attribute another feature centred at q = 0...
August 17, 2016: Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27475123/impact-of-a-stand-alone-course-in-gerontological-nursing-on-undergraduate-nursing-students-perceptions-of-working-with-older-adults-a-quasi-experimental-study
#16
Amy Reitmaier Koehler, Susan Davies, Linda Reveling Smith, Tisha Hooks, Hailee Schanke, April Loeffler, Courtney Carr, Nicole Ratzlaff
BACKGROUND: With an aging population, it is critical that nurses are educated and prepared to offer quality healthcare to this client group. Incorporating gerontology content into nursing curricula and addressing students' perceptions and career choices in relation to working with older adults are important faculty concerns. OBJECTIVES: To examine the impact of a stand-alone course in gerontological nursing on undergraduate nursing students' perceptions of working with older adults and career intentions...
November 2016: Nurse Education Today
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27450373/framework-for-using-deciduous-tree-leaves-as-biomonitors-for-intraurban-particulate-air-pollution-in-exposure-assessment
#17
Sara E Gillooly, Jessie L Carr Shmool, Drew R Michanowicz, Daniel J Bain, Leah K Cambal, Kyra Naumoff Shields, Jane E Clougherty
Fine particulate matter (PM2.5) air pollution, varying in concentration and composition, has been shown to cause or exacerbate adverse effects on both human and ecological health. The concept of biomonitoring using deciduous tree leaves as a proxy for intraurban PM air pollution in different areas has previously been explored using a variety of study designs (e.g., systematic coverage of an area, source-specific focus), deciduous tree species, sampling strategies (e.g., single day, multi-season), and analytical methods (e...
December 0: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27441272/telemedicine-resuscitation-and-arrest-trial-treat-a-feasibility-study-of-real-time-provider-to-provider-telemedicine-for-the-care-of-critically-ill-patients
#18
Anish K Agarwal, David F Gaieski, Sarah M Perman, Marion Leary, Gail Delfin, Benjamin S Abella, Brendan G Carr
BACKGROUND: Protocol-based resuscitation strategies in the Emergency Department (ED) improve survival for out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) and severe sepsis but implementation has been inconsistent. OBJECTIVE: To determine the feasibility of a real-time provider-to-provider telemedical intervention for the treatment of OHCA and severe sepsis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A three-center pilot study utilizing a "hub-spoke model" with an academic medical center acting both as the hub for teleconsultation as well as a spoke hospital enrolling patients...
April 2016: Heliyon
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27438727/sterol-biosynthesis-and-azole-tolerance-is-governed-by-the-opposing-actions-of-srba-and-the-ccaat-binding-complex
#19
Fabio Gsaller, Peter Hortschansky, Takanori Furukawa, Paul D Carr, Bharat Rash, Javier Capilla, Christoph Müller, Franz Bracher, Paul Bowyer, Hubertus Haas, Axel A Brakhage, Michael J Bromley
Azole drugs selectively target fungal sterol biosynthesis and are critical to our antifungal therapeutic arsenal. However, resistance to this class of drugs, particularly in the major human mould pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus, is emerging and reaching levels that have prompted some to suggest that there is a realistic probability that they will be lost for clinical use. The dominating class of pan-azole resistant isolates is characterized by the presence of a tandem repeat of at least 34 bases (TR34) within the promoter of cyp51A, the gene encoding the azole drug target sterol C14-demethylase...
July 2016: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27421712/norovirus-drug-candidates-that-inhibit-viral-capsid-attachment-to-human-histo-blood-group-antigens
#20
REVIEW
Eunüs S Ali, Harinda Rajapaksha, Jillian M Carr, Nikolai Petrovsky
Human noroviruses are the leading causative agents of epidemic and sporadic viral gastroenteritis and childhood diarrhoea worldwide. Human histo-blood group antigens (HBGA) serve as receptors for norovirus capsid protein attachment and play a critical role in infection. This makes HBGA-norovirus binding a promising target for drug development. Recently solved crystal structures of norovirus bound to HBGA have provided a structural basis for identification of potential anti-norovirus drugs and subsequently performed in silico and in vitro drug screens have identified compounds that block norovirus binding and may thereby serve as structural templates for design of therapeutic norovirus inhibitors...
September 2016: Antiviral Research
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