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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318286/asking-better-questions-how-presentation-formats-influence-information-search
#1
Charley M Wu, Björn Meder, Flavia Filimon, Jonathan D Nelson
While the influence of presentation formats have been widely studied in Bayesian reasoning tasks, we present the first systematic investigation of how presentation formats influence information search decisions. Four experiments were conducted across different probabilistic environments, where subjects (N = 2,858) chose between 2 possible search queries, each with binary probabilistic outcomes, with the goal of maximizing classification accuracy. We studied 14 different numerical and visual formats for presenting information about the search environment, constructed across 6 design features that have been prominently related to improvements in Bayesian reasoning accuracy (natural frequencies, posteriors, complement, spatial extent, countability, and part-to-whole information)...
March 20, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302594/a-human-centered-design-methodology-to-enhance-the-usability-human-factors-and-user-experience-of-connected-health-systems-a-three-phase-methodology
#2
Richard Harte, Liam Glynn, Alejandro Rodríguez-Molinero, Paul Ma Baker, Thomas Scharf, Leo R Quinlan, Gearóid ÓLaighin
BACKGROUND: Design processes such as human-centered design, which involve the end user throughout the product development and testing process, can be crucial in ensuring that the product meets the needs and capabilities of the user, particularly in terms of safety and user experience. The structured and iterative nature of human-centered design can often present a challenge when design teams are faced with the necessary, rapid, product development life cycles associated with the competitive connected health industry...
March 16, 2017: JMIR Human Factors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301531/the-myopia-of-crowds-cognitive-load-and-collective-evaluation-of-answers-on-stack-exchange
#3
Keith Burghardt, Emanuel F Alsina, Michelle Girvan, William Rand, Kristina Lerman
Crowds can often make better decisions than individuals or small groups of experts by leveraging their ability to aggregate diverse information. Question answering sites, such as Stack Exchange, rely on the "wisdom of crowds" effect to identify the best answers to questions asked by users. We analyze data from 250 communities on the Stack Exchange network to pinpoint factors affecting which answers are chosen as the best answers. Our results suggest that, rather than evaluate all available answers to a question, users rely on simple cognitive heuristics to choose an answer to vote for or accept...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296049/qsar-and-molecular-docking-studies-on-designing-inhibitors-of-the-perforin
#4
Fucheng Song, Lianhua Cui, Jinmei Piao, Hui Liang, Hongzong Si, Yunbo Duan, Honglin Zhai
Quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) studies were performed on a series of 5-Arylidene-2thioxoimidazolidin-4-ones derivatives as the inhibitors of perforin, and to gain insights about the structural determinants for designing new drug molecules. The heuristic method (HM) could explore the descriptors responsible for bioactivity and gain a best linear model with R(2) 0.82. Gene expression programming (GEP) method generated a novel nonlinear function model with R(2) 0.92 for training set, and R(2) 0...
March 14, 2017: Chemical Biology & Drug Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294109/goal-recognition-based-adaptive-brain-computer-interface-for-navigating-immersive-robotic-systems
#5
Mohammad Abu-Alqumsan, Felix Ebert, Angelika Peer
OBJECTIVE: This work proposes principled strategies for self-adaptations in EEG-based Brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) as a way out of the bandwidth bottleneck resulting from the considerable mismatch between the low-bandwidth interface and the bandwidth-hungry application, and a way to enable fluent and intuitive interaction in embodiment systems. The main focus is laid upon inferring the hidden target goals of users while navigating in a remote environment as a basis for possible adaptations...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287976/network-optimization-of-functional-connectivity-within-default-mode-network-regions-to-detect-cognitive-decline
#6
Wanpracha Art Chaovalitwongse, Daehan Won, Onur Seref, Paul Borghesani, Mary Katie Askren, Sherry Willis, Tom Grabowski
The rapid aging of the world's population is causing an increase in the prevalence of cognitive decline and degenerative brain disease in the elderly. Current diagnoses of amnestic and nonamnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI), which may represent early stage Alzheimer's disease or related degenerative conditions, are based on clinical grounds. The recent emergence of advanced network analyses of functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) data taken at cognitive rest has provided insight that declining functional connectivity of the default mode network (DMN) may be correlated with neurological disorders, and particularly prodromal Alzheimer's disease...
March 7, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286994/the-order-and-priority-of-research-and-design-method-application-within-an-assistive-technology-new-product-development-process-a-summative-content-analysis-of-20-case-studies
#7
George Edward Torrens
Summative content analysis was used to define methods and heuristics from each case study. The review process was in two parts: (1) A literature review to identify conventional research methods and (2) a summative content analysis of published case studies, based on the identified methods and heuristics to suggest an order and priority of where and when were used. Over 200 research and design methods and design heuristics were identified. From the review of the 20 case studies 42 were identified as being applied...
March 12, 2017: Disability and Rehabilitation. Assistive Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286426/a-heuristic-multi-criteria-classification-approach-incorporating-data-quality-information-for-choropleth-mapping
#8
Min Sun, David Wong, Barry Kronenfeld
Despite conceptual and technology advancements in cartography over the decades, choropleth map design and classification fail to address a fundamental issue: estimates that are statistically indifferent may be assigned to different classes on maps or vice versa. Recently, the class separability concept was introduced as a map classification criterion to evaluate the likelihood that estimates in two classes are statistical different. Unfortunately, choropleth maps created according to the separability criterion usually have highly unbalanced classes...
2017: Cartography and Geographic Information Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286237/retrospectively-supervised-click-decoder-calibration-for-self-calibrating-point-and-click-brain-computer-interfaces
#9
Beata Jarosiewicz, Anish A Sarma, Jad Saab, Brian Franco, Sydney S Cash, Emad N Eskandar, Leigh R Hochberg
Brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) aim to restore independence to people with severe motor disabilities by allowing control of acursor on a computer screen or other effectors with neural activity. However, physiological and/or recording-related nonstationarities in neural signals can limit long-term decoding stability, and it would be tedious for users to pause use of the BCI whenever neural control degrades to perform decoder recalibration routines. We recently demonstrated that a kinematic decoder (i.e. a decoder that controls cursor movement) can be recalibrated using data acquired during practical point-and-click control of the BCI by retrospectively inferring users' intended movement directions based on their subsequent selections...
March 8, 2017: Journal of Physiology, Paris
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285447/considerations-on-a-phronetic-proposal-a-bakhtinian-reply
#10
Ana Luiza Bustamante Smolka
The present text is a Bakhtinian reply to Eugene Matusov's conceptual elaborations on the Aristotelic notion of phronesis, related to contemporary teaching activity and to his research-on-teaching proposal, carried out to involve pre-service practitioners in the educational field. Following his line of reasoning, some of the arguments raised in his search to define the specificities of teaching and researching in education are taken as fruitful ground for discussing the possibilities and limits of the concept of phronesis, and the educational implications of his phronetic proposal...
March 11, 2017: Integrative Psychological & Behavioral Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282077/-endophenotypes-in-psychiatry
#11
Salvador M Guinjoan
We review the concept of endophenotype, and its relationship with related terms in use in the scientific literature, including "biomarker" and "intermediate phenotype". We then explain the importance of the concept in current psychiatry research. Specifically, we focus in the potential importance of endophenotypes in both disentangling the genetic causes, and improving the dimensional and pathophysiologic definition, of psychiatric nosological categories. After delineating which types of variables could constitute valid endophenotypes, we describe efforts in defining neurobiological signatures of social cognitive deficits in schizophrenia as an example with potential heuristic value...
September 2016: Vertex: Revista Argentina de Psiquiatriá
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28279413/a-primer-on-hemodialysis-from-an-interventional-radiology-perspective
#12
Rahul A Sheth, Anil U Sheth
Interventional radiologists play a central role in the care of patients with end-stage renal disease receiving renal replacement therapy. Ensuring that a patient׳s dialysis access remains suitable for high-quality dialysis is of paramount importance. However, although much has been spoken and written about endovascular techniques and outcomes based on angiographic criteria, little is generally known regarding the function and therefore the requirements of hemodialysis. In this article, we provide a heuristic overview of the mechanics of hemodialysis, with an emphasis on the "breaking points" in the extracorporeal circuit that trigger a patient׳s referral to Interventional Radiology...
March 2017: Techniques in Vascular and Interventional Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277716/from-anomalies-to-forecasts-toward-a-descriptive-model-of-decisions-under-risk-under-ambiguity-and-from-experience
#13
Ido Erev, Eyal Ert, Ori Plonsky, Doron Cohen, Oded Cohen
Experimental studies of choice behavior document distinct, and sometimes contradictory, deviations from maximization. For example, people tend to overweight rare events in 1-shot decisions under risk, and to exhibit the opposite bias when they rely on past experience. The common explanations of these results assume that the contradicting anomalies reflect situation-specific processes that involve the weighting of subjective values and the use of simple heuristics. The current article analyzes 14 choice anomalies that have been described by different models, including the Allais, St...
March 9, 2017: Psychological Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276976/anchoring-effects-on-early-autobiographical-memories
#14
Daniel L Greenberg, Anthony J Bishara, Marino A Mugayar-Baldocchi
Studies of childhood memory typically show that our earliest memories come from between three and four years of age. This finding is not universal, however. The age estimate varies across cultures and is affected by social influences. Research from the judgments and decision-making literature suggests that these estimates might also involve a judgment under uncertainty. Therefore, they might be susceptible to less social influences such as heuristics and biases. To investigate this possibility, we conducted two experiments that used anchoring paradigms to influence participants' estimates of their age during early autobiographical memories...
February 28, 2017: Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276494/image-deformation-as-a-cue-to-material-category-judgment
#15
Takahiro Kawabe, Rok Kogovšek
Human observers easily recognize complex natural phenomena, such as flowing water, which often generate highly chaotic dynamic arrays of light on the retina. It has not been clarified how the visual system discerns the source of a fluid flow. Here we show that the magnitude of image deformation caused by light refraction is a critical factor for the visual system to determine the perceptual category of fluid flows. Employing a physics engine, we created computer-rendered scenes of water and hot air flows. For each flow, we manipulated the rendering parameters (distortion factors and the index of refraction) that strongly influence the magnitude of image deformation...
March 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273831/a-scheme-to-smooth-aggregated-traffic-from-sensors-with-periodic-reports
#16
Sungmin Oh, Ju Wook Jang
The possibility of smoothing aggregated traffic from sensors with varying reporting periods and frame sizes to be carried on an access link is investigated. A straightforward optimization would take O(pn) time, whereas our heuristic scheme takes O(np) time where n, p denote the number of sensors and size of periods, respectively. Our heuristic scheme performs local optimization sensor by sensor, starting with the smallest to largest periods. This is based on an observation that sensors with large offsets have more choices in offsets to avoid traffic peaks than the sensors with smaller periods...
March 3, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28271620/pedigree-reconstruction-from-snp-data-parentage-assignment-sibship-clustering-and-beyond
#17
Jisca Huisman
Data on hundreds or thousands of Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) provides detailed information about the relationships between individuals, but currently few tools can turn this information into a multi-generational pedigree. I present the R package sequoia, which assigns parents, clusters half-siblings sharing an unsampled parent, and assigns grandparents to half-sibships. Assignments are made after consideration of the likelihoods of all possible first, second and third degree relationships between the focal individuals, as well as the traditional alter native of being unrelated...
March 7, 2017: Molecular Ecology Resources
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28269390/beacon-based-opportunistic-scheduling-in-wireless-body-area-network
#18
Yang Zhou, Zhengguo Sheng, Victor C M Leung, Peyman Servati
Wireless Body Area Networks (WBANs) are one of the key technologies that support the development of digital health care, which has attracted increasing attention in recent years. Compared with general Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs), WBANs have more stringent requirements on reliability and energy efficiency. Though WBANs are applied within limited transmission range, the on-body channel condition can be very challenging because of blocking or absorbing of signal. In this paper, we are looking into the design of Medium Access Control (MAC) protocols and propose an opportunistic scheduling scheme by applying heuristic scheduling and dynamic superframe length adjustment to improve the system performance...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28269257/enhancing-improved-heuristic-drift-elimination-for-step-and-heading-based-pedestrian-dead-reckoning-systems
#19
Luis E Diez, Alfonso Bahillo, Safaa Bataineh, Antonio D Masegosa, Asier Perallos
Location based services can improve the quality of patient care and increase the efficiency of the healthcare systems. Among the different technologies that provide indoor positioning, inertial sensors based pedestrian dead-reckoning (PDR) is one of the more cost-effective solutions, but its performance is limited by drift problems. Regarding the heading drift, some heuristics make use of the building's dominant directions in order to reduce this problem. In this paper, we enhance the method known as improved heuristic drift elimination (iHDE) to be implemented in a Step-and-Heading (SHS) based PDR system, that allows to place the inertial sensors in almost any location of the user's body...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28269240/automated-abo-rh-d-blood-type-detection-using-smartphone-imaging-for-point-of-care-medical-diagnostics
#20
Neha Srivathsa, Dhananjaya Dendukuri
We present a novel methodology for automated ABO Rh-D blood typing using simple morphological image processing algorithms to be used in conjunction with a fabric strip based rapid diagnostic test. Images of the fabric strip post testing are acquired using low cost mobile phones and the proposed algorithm proceeds to automatically identify the blood type by processing the images using steps comprising of noise reduction, range filtering and empirically derived heuristics. The ultimate goal is to provide a simple mobile phone application to enable automated, rapid and accessible blood type detection at the point-of-care...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
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