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Heike Ohlbrecht, Carsten Detka, Susanne Kuczyk, Bianca Lange
OBJECTIVE: The study focuses on the question of how the design of operational integration management (OIM) can be optimized, especially in small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs), and how previous experience with operational integration management can be used to develop preventive measures to ensure employability. METHODS: The study follows a multi-perspective qualitative research design. It focused on the survey of 40 retrospective interviews with employees who have undergone different variants of the OIM...
June 2018: Die Rehabilitation
Bill King, Enjelita Ndoen, Ron Borland
INTRODUCTION AND AIMS: To identify the range and coherence of smokers and recent ex-smokers' general beliefs about the harms associated with smoking and the implications of these beliefs for their assessments of the relative harms and addictiveness of various nicotine containing products. DESIGN AND METHODS: The study consisted of 18 single participant interviews with current smokers or vapers (13 M, 5 F) and three focus groups (15 M, 14 F) with current smokers/vapers and recent quitters...
June 19, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Review
Raj K Gopal, Sarah E Calvo, Angela R Shih, Frances L Chaves, Declan McGuone, Eran Mick, Kerry A Pierce, Yang Li, Andrea Garofalo, Eliezer M Van Allen, Clary B Clish, Esther Oliva, Vamsi K Mootha
Renal oncocytomas are benign tumors characterized by a marked accumulation of mitochondria. We report a combined exome, transcriptome, and metabolome analysis of these tumors. Joint analysis of the nuclear and mitochondrial (mtDNA) genomes reveals loss-of-function mtDNA mutations occurring at high variant allele fractions, consistent with positive selection, in genes encoding complex I as the most frequent genetic events. A subset of these tumors also exhibits chromosome 1 loss and/or cyclin D1 overexpression, suggesting they follow complex I loss...
June 18, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Martin H Fischer, Samuel Shaki
Numerical knowledge, including number concepts and arithmetic procedures, seems to be a clear-cut case for abstract symbol manipulation. Yet, evidence from perceptual and motor behaviour reveals that natural number knowledge and simple arithmetic also remain closely associated with modal experiences. Following a review of behavioural, animal and neuroscience studies of number processing, we propose a revised understanding of psychological number concepts as grounded in physical constraints, embodied in experience and situated through task-specific intentions...
August 5, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
Sudeep Bhatia, Neil Stewart
We study how people evaluate and aggregate the attributes of naturalistic choice objects, such as movies and food items. Our approach applies theories of object representation in semantic memory research to large-scale crowd-sourced data, to recover multiattribute representations for common choice objects. We then use standard choice experiments to test the predictive power of various decision rules for weighting and aggregating these multiattribute representations. Our experiments yield three novel conclusions: 1...
June 15, 2018: Cognition
Samantha Gualtieri, Stephanie Denison
In classic examinations of the representativeness heuristic, Kahneman and Tversky (1973) presented adult participants with a description of an individual who fit their stereotype of a typical engineer. Importantly, even when participants were told that the individual was drawn from a sample of 70 lawyers and 30 engineers, they estimated that the individual was an engineer at very high levels, showing that they relied almost exclusively on the personality description. Relying on the representativeness heuristic can lead to base-rate neglect and, thus, biased judgments...
June 15, 2018: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
Shenglong Yu, Hong Zhao
Cost-sensitive feature selection learning is an important preprocessing step in machine learning and data mining. Recently, most existing cost-sensitive feature selection algorithms are heuristic algorithms, which evaluate the importance of each feature individually and select features one by one. Obviously, these algorithms do not consider the relationship among features. In this paper, we propose a new algorithm for minimal cost feature selection called the rough sets and Laplacian score based cost-sensitive feature selection...
2018: PloS One
Dilip A Durai, Marcel H Schulz
Motivation: De Bruijn graphs are a common assembly data structure for sequencing datasets. But with the advances in sequencing technologies, assembling high coverage datasets has become a computational challenge. Read normalization, which removes redundancy in datasets, is widely applied to reduce resource requirements. Current normalization algorithms, though efficient, provide no guarantee to preserve important k-mers that form connections between regions in the graph. Results: Here, normalization is phrased as a set multi-cover problem on reads and a heuristic algorithm, ORNA, is proposed...
April 18, 2018: Bioinformatics
Adam L Putnam, Morgan Q Ross, Laura K Soter, Henry L Roediger
Collective narcissism-a phenomenon in which individuals show excessively high regard for their own group-is ubiquitous in studies of small groups. We examined how Americans from the 50 U.S. states ( N = 2,898) remembered U.S. history by asking them, "In terms of percentage, what do you think was your home state's contribution to the history of the United States?" The mean state estimates ranged from 9% (Iowa) to 41% (Virginia), with the total contribution for all states equaling 907%, indicating strong collective narcissism...
June 1, 2018: Psychological Science
Wolfram Barfuss, Jonathan F Donges, Steven J Lade, Jürgen Kurths
Optimizing economic welfare in environmental governance has been criticized for delivering short-term gains at the expense of long-term environmental degradation. Different from economic optimization, the concepts of sustainability and the more recent safe operating space have been used to derive policies in environmental governance. However, a formal comparison between these three policy paradigms is still missing, leaving policy makers uncertain which paradigm to apply. Here, we develop a better understanding of their interrelationships, using a stylized model of human-environment tipping elements...
June 15, 2018: Nature Communications
Manoj Kumar, Ravinder Kumar, Martin Weigel, Varsha Banerjee, Wolfhard Janke, Sanjay Puri
While the ground-state problem for the random-field Ising model is polynomial, and can be solved using a number of well-known algorithms for maximum flow or graph cut, the analog random-field Potts model corresponds to a multiterminal flow problem that is known to be NP-hard. Hence an efficient exact algorithm is very unlikely to exist. As we show here, it is nevertheless possible to use an embedding of binary degrees of freedom into the Potts spins in combination with graph-cut methods to solve the corresponding ground-state problem approximately in polynomial time...
May 2018: Physical Review. E
Anja Franziska Ernst, Rink Hoekstra, Eric-Jan Wagenmakers, Andrew Gelman, Don van Ravenzwaaij
As a research field expands, scientists have to update their knowledge and integrate the outcomes of a sequence of studies. However, such integrative judgments are generally known to fall victim to a primacy bias where people anchor their judgments on the initial information. In this preregistered study we tested the hypothesis that people anchor on the outcome of a small initial study, reducing the impact of a larger subsequent study that contradicts the initial result. Contrary to our expectation, undergraduates and academics displayed a recency bias, anchoring their judgment on the research outcome presented last...
May 2018: Experimental Psychology
Christoph Schneider, Florian Hanakam, Thimo Wiewelhove, Alexander Döweling, Michael Kellmann, Tim Meyer, Mark Pfeiffer, Alexander Ferrauti
A comprehensive monitoring of fitness, fatigue, and performance is crucial for understanding an athlete's individual responses to training to optimize the scheduling of training and recovery strategies. Resting and exercise-related heart rate measures have received growing interest in recent decades and are considered potentially useful within multivariate response monitoring, as they provide non-invasive and time-efficient insights into the status of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) and aerobic fitness. In team sports, the practical implementation of athlete monitoring systems poses a particular challenge due to the complex and multidimensional structure of game demands and player and team performance, as well as logistic reasons, such as the typically large number of players and busy training and competition schedules...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Ozgur Afsar, Ugur Tirnakli, Norbert Marwan
In this letter, making use of real gait force profiles of healthy and patient groups with Parkinson disease which have different disease severity in terms of Hoehn-Yahr stage, we calculate various heuristic complexity measures of the recurrence quantification analysis (RQA). Using this technique, we are able to evince that entropy, determinism and average diagonal line length (divergence) measures decrease (increases) with increasing disease severity. We also explain these tendencies using a theoretical model (based on the sine-circle map), so that we clearly relate them to decreasing degree of irrationality of the system as a course of gait's nature...
June 14, 2018: Scientific Reports
Rui P Guerra, Alexandra M Carvalho, Paulo Mateus
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Pharmacokinetics comprises the study of drug absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion over time. Clinical pharmacokinetics, focusing on therapeutic management, offers important insights towards personalised medicine through the study of efficacy and toxicity of drug therapies. This study is hampered by subject's high variability in drug blood concentration, when starting a therapy with the same drug dosage. Clustering of pharmacokinetics responses has been addressed recently as a way to stratify subjects and provide different drug doses for each stratum...
August 2018: Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine
Sebastian Höfer, Jörg Raisch, Marc Toussaint, Oliver Brock
How to run most effectively to catch a projectile, such as a baseball, that is flying in the air for a long period of time? The question about the best solution to the ball catching problem has been subject to intense scientific debate for almost 50 years. It turns out that this scientific debate is not focused on the ball catching problem alone, but revolves around the research question what constitutes the ingredients of intelligent decision making. Over time, two opposing views have emerged: the generalist view regarding intelligence as the ability to solve any task without knowing goal and environment in advance, based on optimal decision making using predictive models; and the specialist view which argues that intelligent decision making does not have to be based on predictive models and not even optimal, advocating simple and efficient rules of thumb (heuristics) as superior to enable accurate decisions...
2018: PloS One
Denise R Black, Mary L Held, Tami H Wyatt
Integrated health care (IHC) is a proposed change to the U.S. health care system to address health care disparities for individuals with mental and physical health conditions. Computer applications may provide an effective strategy to prepare social workers for the transition to IHC. An Internet-based tool, Integrated Healthcare (Version 1.0) was developed and tested through rapid prototyping to access knowledge required for behavioral health providers to practice in IHC settings. Two focus groups (N = 5, N = 7) and individual interviews (N = 5) were conducted with social work professors and students...
June 13, 2018: Health & Social Work
Chen Li, Zhijie Zhu
As one of the most serious meteorological disasters in modern society, air pollution has received extensive attention from both citizens and decision-makers. With the complexity of pollution components and the uncertainty of prediction, it is both critical and challenging to construct an effective and practical early-warning system. In this paper, a novel hybrid air quality early-warning system for pollution contaminant monitoring and analysis was proposed. To improve the efficiency of the system, an advanced attribute selection method based on fuzzy evaluation and rough set theory was developed to select the main pollution contaminants for cities...
June 1, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Peter L Elkin, Daniel R Schlegel, Michael Anderson, Jordan Komm, Gregoire Ficheur, Leslie Bisson
Evoking strength is one of the important contributions of the field of Biomedical Informatics to the discipline of Artificial Intelligence. The University at Buffalo's Orthopedics Department wanted to create an expert system to assist patients with self-diagnosis of knee problems and to thereby facilitate referral to the right orthopedic subspecialist. They had two independent sports medicine physicians review 469 cases. A board-certified orthopedic sports medicine practitioner, L.B., reviewed any disagreements until a gold standard diagnosis was reached...
April 2018: Applied Clinical Informatics
Wyona M Freysteinson
The will is a word that nurses may use to describe their patients' actions or inactions. This concept has been extensively addressed by religions, psychologists, and philosophers. Ricoeur offered a phenomenology of the will in which three overarching key concepts were uncovered: decision, action, and consent. In this article, Ricoeur's elaborative and exhaustive description of these three concepts is summarized. Examples as to how a phenomenology of the will may guide nurses in their day-to-day clinical practice in caring are provided...
June 1, 2018: Journal of Holistic Nursing: Official Journal of the American Holistic Nurses' Association
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