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Lei Deng, Peng Jiao, Jing Pei, Zhenzhi Wu, Guoqi Li
Although deep neural networks (DNNs) are being a revolutionary power to open up the AI era, the notoriously huge hardware overhead has challenged their applications. Recently, several binary and ternary networks, in which the costly multiply-accumulate operations can be replaced by accumulations or even binary logic operations, make the on-chip training of DNNs quite promising. Therefore there is a pressing need to build an architecture that could subsume these networks under a unified framework that achieves both higher performance and less overhead...
February 2, 2018: Neural Networks: the Official Journal of the International Neural Network Society
Kendall K Sharpe, Christy Noble, Balaji Hiremagular, Laurie Grealish
BACKGROUND: Integrated pathways for care of the dying aim to promote the delivery of high-quality palliative care, regardless of access to specialist services. AIM: To produce a heuristic technique to assist with planning and evaluating the integration of the care of the dying pathway into everyday work. METHODS: Electronic databases were searched to identify research papers focused on the implementation of integrated pathways for care of the dying in acute hospital settings...
February 2, 2018: International Journal of Palliative Nursing
Dezhi Zhang, Xin Wang, Shuangyan Li, Nan Ni, Zhuo Zhang
Based on an analysis of the congestion effect and changes in the speed of vehicle flow during morning and evening peaks in a large- or medium-sized city, the piecewise function is used to capture the rules of the time-varying speed of vehicles, which are very important in modelling their fuel consumption and CO2 emission. A joint optimization model of the green vehicle scheduling and routing problem with time-varying speeds is presented in this study. Extra wages during nonworking periods and soft time-window constraints are considered...
2018: PloS One
Gang Yan, Li Zhou
This paper proposes an innovative method for identifying the locations of multiple simultaneous acoustic emission (AE) events in plate-like structures from the view of image processing. By using a linear lead zirconium titanate (PZT) sensor array to record the AE wave signals, a reverse-time frequency-wavenumber (f-k) migration is employed to produce images displaying the locations of AE sources by back-propagating the AE waves. Lamb wave theory is included in the f-k migration to consider the dispersive property of the AE waves...
February 21, 2018: Sensors
José Luis Soncco-Álvarez, Daniel M Muñoz, Mauricio Ayala-Rincón
Sorting unsigned permutations by reversals is a difficult problem, indeed it was proved to be NP-hard by Caprara. Because of its high complexity, many approximation algorithms to compute the minimal reversal distance were proposed until reaching the nowadays best known theoretical ratio of 1.375. In this paper two memetic algorithms to compute the reversal distance are proposed: the first one uses the technique of opposition-based learning leading to an opposition-based memetic algorithm; the second one improves the previous algorithm by applying the heuristic of two breakpoint elimination leading to a hybrid approach...
February 21, 2018: Evolutionary Computation
Vahid Rahmati, Knut Kirmse, Knut Holthoff, Stefan J Kiebel
Calcium imaging provides an indirect observation of the underlying neural dynamics and enables the functional analysis of neuronal populations. However, the recorded fluorescence traces are temporally smeared, thus making the reconstruction of exact spiking activity challenging. Most of the established methods to tackle this issue are limited in dealing with issues such as the variability in the kinetics of fluorescence transients, fast processing of long-term data, high firing rates, and measurement noise...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Neurophysiology
Christina Buse, Daryl Martin, Sarah Nettleton
'Materialities of care' is outlined as a heuristic device for making visible the mundane and often unnoticed aspects of material culture within health and social care contexts, and exploring interrelations between materials and care in practice. Three analytic strands inherent to the concept are delineated: spatialities of care, temporalities of care and practices of care. These interconnecting themes span the articles in this special issue. The articles explore material practice across a range of clinical and non-clinical spaces, including hospitals, hospices, care homes, museums, domestic spaces, and community spaces such as shops and tenement stairwells...
February 2018: Sociology of Health & Illness
Jun Hu, Zi Liu, Dong-Jun Yu, Yang Zhang
Motivation: Sequence-order independent structural comparison, also called structural alignment, of small ligand molecules is often needed for computer-aided virtual drug screening. Although many ligand structure alignment programs are proposed, most of them build the alignments based on rigid-body shape comparison which cannot provide atom-specific alignment information nor allow structural variation; both abilities are critical to efficient high-throughput virtual screening. Results: We propose a novel ligand comparison algorithm, LS-align, to generate fast and accurate atom-level structural alignments of ligand molecules, through an iterative heuristic search of the target function that combines inter-atom distance with mass and chemical bond comparisons...
February 15, 2018: Bioinformatics
Daniel G Campos
This article investigates the way in which Jacob Bernoulli proved the main mathematical theorem that undergirds his art of conjecturing-the theorem that founded, historically, the field of mathematical probability. It aims to contribute a perspective into the question of problem-solving methods in mathematics while also contributing to the comprehension of the historical development of mathematical probability. It argues that Bernoulli proved his theorem by a process of mathematical experimentation in which the central heuristic strategy was analogy...
February 2018: Studies in History and Philosophy of Science
Kei Long Cheung, Mickaël Hiligsmann, Maximilian Präger, Teresa Jones, Judit Józwiak-Hagymásy, Celia Muñoz, Adam Lester-George, Subhash Pokhrel, Ángel López-Nicolás, Marta Trapero-Bertran, Silvia M A A Evers, Hein de Vries
OBJECTIVES: Economic decision-support tools can provide valuable information for tobacco control stakeholders, but their usability may impact the adoption of such tools. This study aims to illustrate a mixed-method usability evaluation of an economic decision-support tool for tobacco control, using the EQUIPT ROI tool prototype as a case study. METHODS: A cross-sectional mixed methods design was used, including a heuristic evaluation, a thinking aloud approach, and a questionnaire testing and exploring the usability of the Return of Investment tool...
February 19, 2018: International Journal of Technology Assessment in Health Care
Gustav Lindmark, Claudio Altafini
The aim of this paper is to shed light on the problem of controlling a complex network with minimal control energy. We show first that the control energy depends on the time constant of the modes of the network, and that the closer the eigenvalues are to the imaginary axis of the complex plane, the less energy is required for complete controllability. In the limit case of networks having all purely imaginary eigenvalues (e.g. networks of coupled harmonic oscillators), several constructive algorithms for minimum control energy driver node selection are developed...
February 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
N Read
We consider the one-dimensional model of a spin glass with independent Gaussian-distributed random interactions, which have mean zero and variance 1/|i-j|^{2σ}, between the spins at sites i and j for all i≠j. It is known that, for σ>1, there is no phase transition at any nonzero temperature in this model. We prove rigorously that, for σ>3/2, any translation-covariant Newman-Stein metastate for the ground states (i.e., the frequencies with which distinct ground states are observed in finite-size samples in the limit of infinite size, for given disorder) is trivial and unique...
January 2018: Physical Review. E
Cinthya Guzman, Daniel Silver
Using theory syllabi and departmental data collected for three academic years, this paper investigates the institutional practice of theory in sociology departments across Canada. In particular, it examines the position of theory within the sociological curriculum, and how this varies among universities. Taken together, our analyses indicate that theory remains deeply institutionalized at the core of sociological education and Canadian sociologists' self-understanding; that theorists as a whole show some coherence in how they define themselves, but differ in various ways, especially along lines of region, intellectual background, and gender; that despite these differences, the classical versus contemporary heuristic largely cuts across these divides, as does the strongly ingrained position of a small group of European authors as classics of the discipline as a whole...
February 2018: Canadian Review of Sociology, Revue Canadienne de Sociologie
Aybike Ulusan, Ozlem Ergun
Due to the ubiquitous nature of disruptive extreme events, functionality of the critical infrastructure systems (CIS) is constantly at risk. In case of a disruption, in order to minimize the negative impact to the society, service networks operating on the CIS should be restored as quickly as possible. In this paper, we introduce a novel network science inspired measure to quantify the criticality of components within a disrupted service network and develop a restoration heuristic (Cent-Restore) that prioritizes restoration efforts based on this measure...
2018: PloS One
Dominik Tomaszuk, Karol Pąk
Graph databases are constantly growing, and, at the same time, some of their data is the same or similar. Our experience with the management of the existing databases, especially the bigger ones, shows that certain vertices are particularly replicated there numerous times. Eliminating repetitive or even very similar data speeds up the access to database resources. We present a modification of this approach, where similarly we group together vertices of identical properties, but then additionally we join together groups of data that are located in distant parts of a graph...
2018: PloS One
Qing Song, Meng Li, Xiaolei Li
Accurate and fast path computation is essential for applications such as onboard navigation systems and traffic network routing. While a number of heuristic algorithms have been developed in the past few years for faster path queries, the accuracy of them are always far below satisfying. In this paper, we first develop an agglomerative graph partitioning method for generating high balanced traverse distance partitions, and we constitute a three-level graph model based on the graph partition scheme for structuring the urban road network...
2018: PloS One
Ruisong Han, Wei Yang, Li Zhang
Barrier coverage has been widely used to detect intrusions in wireless sensor networks (WSNs). It can fulfill the monitoring task while extending the lifetime of the network. Though barrier coverage in WSNs has been intensively studied in recent years, previous research failed to consider the problem of intrusion in transversal directions. If an intruder knows the deployment configuration of sensor nodes, then there is a high probability that it may traverse the whole target region from particular directions, without being detected...
February 10, 2018: Sensors
Yi Zhao, Ronghui Liu, Xi Zhang, Anthony Whiteing
We consider a container routing problem with stochastic time variables in a sea-rail intermodal transportation system. The problem is formulated as a binary integer chance-constrained programming model including stochastic travel times and stochastic transfer time, with the objective of minimising the expected total cost. Two chance constraints are proposed to ensure that the container service satisfies ship fulfilment and cargo on-time delivery with pre-specified probabilities. A hybrid heuristic algorithm is employed to solve the binary integer chance-constrained programming model...
2018: PloS One
Edward Ray
Head and neck reconstruction following surgical extirpative management of head and neck cancer requires critical assessment and meticulous correction of both aesthetic and functional deficits to optimize the physical and psychological well-being of the patient. Unique to head and neck cancers is the potential alteration of one's senses, breathing, speech, and swallowing functions, as well as overall head and neck aesthetics. When possible, tissue defects are replaced with similar tissues, though donor sites may be anatomically local, regional, or distant...
2018: Cancer Treatment and Research
Armin Rund, Christoph Stefan Aigner, Karl Kunisch, Rudolf Stollberger
PURPOSE: Joint design of minimum duration RF pulses and slice-selective gradient shapes for MRI via time optimal control with strict physical constraints, and its application to simultaneous multislice imaging. THEORY AND METHODS: The minimization of the pulse duration is cast as a time optimal control problem with inequality constraints describing the refocusing quality and physical constraints. It is solved with a bilevel method, where the pulse length is minimized in the upper level, and the constraints are satisfied in the lower level...
February 9, 2018: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
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