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Melissa DeJonckheere, Claire H Robinson, Lindsey Evans, Julie Lowery, Bradley Youles, Adam Tremblay, Caitlin Kelley, Jeremy B Sussman
BACKGROUND: Recent clinical practice guidelines from major national organizations, including a joint United States Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) and Department of Defense (DoD) committee, have substantially changed recommendations for the use of the cholesterol-lowering statin medications after years of relative stability. Because statin medications are among the most commonly prescribed treatments in the United States, any change in their use may have significant implications for patients and providers alike...
April 24, 2018: JMIR Human Factors
David G Rand
Does intuition favor prosociality, or does prosocial behavior require deliberative self-control? The Social Heuristics Hypothesis (SHH) stipulates that intuition favors typically advantageous behavior - but which behavior is typically advantageous depends on both the individual and the context. For example, non-zero-sum cooperation (e.g. in social dilemmas like the Prisoner's Dilemma) typically pays off because of the opportunity for reciprocity. Conversely, reciprocity does not promote zero-sum cash transfers (e...
November 2017: Journal of Experimental Social Psychology
L Gwilliams, A Marantz
The field of psycho- and neuro-linguistics has long-debated the decompositional model of visual word processing: Are written words processed via the visual forms of stem and affix morphemes, or as complex wholes? Although many have now settled upon a decompositional view, it is unclear what heuristic the brain uses to generate these visual morpheme-forms in the first place. Here we conduct a magneto-encephalography study to test two hypotheses for how this may be done: i) the brain encodes representations of the morphemes that follow the morpho-syntactic rules governing constituents: A stem morpheme will be represented if the word obeys the grammatical behaviour associated with its suffix; ii) the brain only encodes stem morphemes that occur with multiple suffixes or as words in isolation...
April 20, 2018: Neuropsychologia
Jose Manuel Monroy Kuhn, Mattias Jakobsson, Torsten Günther
Archaeogenomic research has proven to be a valuable tool to trace migrations of historic and prehistoric individuals and groups, whereas relationships within a group or burial site have not been investigated to a large extent. Knowing the genetic kinship of historic and prehistoric individuals would give important insights into social structures of ancient and historic cultures. Most archaeogenetic research concerning kinship has been restricted to uniparental markers, while studies using genome-wide information were mainly focused on comparisons between populations...
2018: PloS One
José Carlos Ortiz-Bayliss, Ivan Amaya, Santiago Enrique Conant-Pablos, Hugo Terashima-Marín
When solving constraint satisfaction problems (CSPs), it is a common practice to rely on heuristics to decide which variable should be instantiated at each stage of the search. But, this ordering influences the search cost. Even so, and to the best of our knowledge, no earlier work has dealt with how first variable orderings affect the overall cost. In this paper, we explore the cost of finding high-quality orderings of variables within constraint satisfaction problems. We also study differences among the orderings produced by some commonly used heuristics and the way bad first decisions affect the search cost...
2018: Computational Intelligence and Neuroscience
William R Armington, Roger B Chen
In this paper we develop a residential food waste collection analysis and modeling framework that captures transportation costs faced by service providers in their initial stages of service provision. With this framework and model, we gain insights into network transportation costs and investigate possible service expansion scenarios faced by these organizations. We solve a vehicle routing problem (VRP) formulated for the residential neighborhood context using a heuristic approach developed. The scenarios considered follow a narrative where service providers start with an initial neighborhood or community and expands to incorporate other communities and their households...
April 17, 2018: Waste Management
Sisse H Laursen, Amanda A Buus, Lisbet Brandi, Peter Vestergaard, Ole K Hejlesen
Hyperphosphatemia is known as one of the more challenging conditions in end-stage renal disease patients. This study set out to present and evaluate a healthcare-oriented decision support tool in the management of hyperphosphatemia within hemodialysis therapy. A prototype module was designed to fit into the interface of a modern dialysis machine (Fresenius 5008). The prototype included three main functions: 1) immediate bedside blood sample access, 2) a model based prognosis tool with estimates of P-phosphate and 3) an overview of the user's phosphate related activities during dialysis treatments...
2018: Studies in Health Technology and Informatics
Félix Musil, Sandip De, Jack Yang, Joshua E Campbell, Graeme M Day, Michele Ceriotti
Molecular crystals play an important role in several fields of science and technology. They frequently crystallize in different polymorphs with substantially different physical properties. To help guide the synthesis of candidate materials, atomic-scale modelling can be used to enumerate the stable polymorphs and to predict their properties, as well as to propose heuristic rules to rationalize the correlations between crystal structure and materials properties. Here we show how a recently-developed machine-learning (ML) framework can be used to achieve inexpensive and accurate predictions of the stability and properties of polymorphs, and a data-driven classification that is less biased and more flexible than typical heuristic rules...
February 7, 2018: Chemical Science
Yeonjoon Kim, Jin Woo Kim, Zeehyo Kim, Woo Youn Kim
Despite remarkable advances in computational chemistry, prediction of reaction mechanisms is still challenging, because investigating all possible reaction pathways is computationally prohibitive due to the high complexity of chemical space. A feasible strategy for efficient prediction is to utilize chemical heuristics. Here, we propose a novel approach to rapidly search reaction paths in a fully automated fashion by combining chemical theory and heuristics. A key idea of our method is to extract a minimal reaction network composed of only favorable reaction pathways from the complex chemical space through molecular graph and reaction network analysis...
January 28, 2018: Chemical Science
Malamati Bitzidou, Michael R Bale, Miguel Maravall
To compare information and reach decisions effectively, our brain uses multiple heuristics, which can, however, induce biases in behavior. An elegant study by Akrami et al. (2018) finds evidence for one such heuristic in a sensory-based comparison task and identifies its location to the posterior parietal cortex.
April 18, 2018: Neuron
Timothy P Moneypenny, Anna Yang, Nathan P Walter, Toby J Woods, Danielle L Gray, Yang Zhang, Jeffrey S Moore
In the dynamic synthesis of covalent organic frameworks and molecular cages, the typical synthetic approach involves heuristic methods of discovery. While this approach has yielded many remarkable products, the ability to predict the structural outcome of subjecting a multitopic precursor to dynamic covalent chemistry (DCC) remains a challenge in the field. The synthesis of covalent organic cages is a prime example of this phenomenon, where precursors designed with the intention of affording a specific product may deviate dramatically when the DCC synthesis is attempted...
April 19, 2018: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Luxme Hariharan, Clare E Gilbert, Graham E Quinn, Frances K Barg, Celia Lomuto, Ana Quiroga, Joan McLeod-Omawale, Andrea Zin, Zulma Ortiz, Ernesto Alda, Liliana Bouzas, Marina Brussa, Adriana Cattaino, Alejandro Dinerstein, Norma Erpen, Adriana Fandiño, Lidia Galina, Julio Manzitti, Silvia Marinaro, Teresa Sepúlveda, Patricia Visintín, Juan Carlos Silva, Cynthia Magluta, Alicia Benitez
Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) is a largely avoidable cause of blindness in children worldwide, requiring high-quality neonatal care, early detection and treatment. In middle-income countries throughout Latin America, Eastern Europe and South Asia, there has been a rise in ROP blindness due to a combination of increased survival of preterm infants, resource-scarce medical environments and lack of policies, training and human resources. However, Argentina is an example of country where rates of ROP blindness have declined and ROP programmes have been successfully and effectively embedded within the health and legal system...
April 16, 2018: Health Policy and Planning
Eileen Sutton, Georgia Herbert, Sorrel Burden, Stephen Lewis, Steve Thomas, Andy Ness, Charlotte Atkinson
INTRODUCTION: The Enhanced Recovery After Surgery programme (ERAS) is an approach to the perioperative care of patients encompassing multiple interventions and involving a wide range of different actors. It can thus be defined as a complex intervention. Despite the strength of the evidence-base in its support, the implementation of ERAS has been slow. This paper specifically explores the utility of Normalization Process Theory (NPT) as a methodological framework to aid exploration of ERAS implementation, with a focus on the core NPT construct coherence...
2018: PloS One
Oshin Vartanian, Erin L Beatty, Ingrid Smith, Kristen Blackler, Quan Lam, Sarah Forbes, Wim De Neys
Performance on heuristics and biases tasks has been shown to be susceptible to bias. In turn, susceptibility to bias varies as a function of individual differences in cognitive abilities (e.g., intelligence) and thinking styles (e.g., propensity for reflection). Using a classic task (i.e., lawyer-engineer problem), we conducted two experiments to examine the differential contributions of cognitive abilities versus thinking styles to performance. The results of Experiment 1 demonstrated that the Cognitive Reflection Test (CRT)-a well-established measure of reflective thinking-predicted performance on conflict problems (where base rates and intuition point in opposite directions), whereas STM predicted performance on nonconflict problems...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
Mathew Mercuri
Clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) and clinical pathways have become important tools for improving the uptake of evidence-based care. Where CPGs are good, adherence to the recommendations within is thought to result in improved patient outcomes. However, the usefulness of such tools for improving patient important outcomes depends both on adherence to the guideline and whether or not the CPG in question is good. This begs the question of what it is that makes a CPG good? In this issue of the Journal, Djulbegovic and colleagues offer a theory to help guide the development of CPGs...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice
Daniele Tammaro, Rossana Pasquino, M M Villone, Gaetano D'Avino, Vincenzo Ferraro, Ernesto Di Maio, Antonio Langella, Nino Grizzuti, Pier Luca Maffettone
When a Newtonian bubble ruptures, the film retraction dynamics is controlled by the interplay of surface, inertial and viscous forces. In case a viscoelastic liquid is considered, the scenario is enriched by the appearance of a new significant contribution, namely, the elastic force. In this paper, we investigate experimentally the retraction of viscoelastic bubbles inflated at different blowing rates, showing that the amount of elastic energy stored by the liquid film enclosing the bubble depends on the inflation history and, in turn, affects the velocity of film retraction when the bubble is punctured...
April 17, 2018: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Marion Souchal, Ludimila Labanca, Sirley Alves da Silva Carvalho, Luciana Macedo de Resende, Christelle Blavignac, Paul Avan, Fabrice Giraudet
Damage to cochlear outer hair cells (OHCs) usually affects frequency selectivity in proportion to hearing threshold increase. However, the current clinical heuristics that attributes poor hearing performance despite near-normal auditory sensitivity to auditory neuropathy or "hidden" synaptopathy overlooks possible underlying OHC impairment. Here, we document the part played by OHCs in influencing suprathreshold auditory performance in the presence of noise in a mouse model of progressive hair cell degeneration, the CD1 strain, at postnatal day 18-30 stages when high-frequency auditory thresholds remained near-normal...
2018: BioMed Research International
Andrea Polonioli
One of the most fascinating topics of current investigation in the literature on judgment and decision-making concerns the exploration of foreign language effects (henceforth, FLE). Specifically, recent research suggests that presenting information in a foreign language helps reasoners make better choices. However, this piece aims at making scholars aware of a blind spot in this stream of research. In particular, research on FLE has imported only one view of judgment and decision-making, in which the heuristics that people use are seen as conducive to biases and, in turn, to costly mistakes...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Matthew D King, Thomas Long, Daniel L Pfalmer, Timothy L Andersen, Owen M McDougal
BACKGROUND: Conventional de novo drug design is costly and time consuming, making it accessible to only the best resourced research organizations. An emergent approach to new drug development is drug repurposing, in which compounds that have already gone through some level of clinical testing are examined for efficacy against diseases divergent than their original application. Repurposing of existing drugs circumvents the time and considerable cost of early stages of drug development, and can be accelerated by using software to screen existing chemical databases to identify suitable drug candidates...
April 16, 2018: BMC Bioinformatics
Elnaz Pashaei, Elham Pashaei, Nizamettin Aydin
In cancer classification, gene selection is an important data preprocessing technique, but it is a difficult task due to the large search space. Accordingly, the objective of this study is to develop a hybrid meta-heuristic Binary Black Hole Algorithm (BBHA) and Binary Particle Swarm Optimization (BPSO) (4-2) model that emphasizes gene selection. In this model, the BBHA is embedded in the BPSO (4-2) algorithm to make the BPSO (4-2) more effective and to facilitate the exploration and exploitation of the BPSO (4-2) algorithm to further improve the performance...
April 13, 2018: Genomics
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