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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820891/scene-text-detection-via-extremal-region-based-double-threshold-convolutional-network-classification
#1
Wei Zhu, Jing Lou, Longtao Chen, Qingyuan Xia, Mingwu Ren
In this paper, we present a robust text detection approach in natural images which is based on region proposal mechanism. A powerful low-level detector named saliency enhanced-MSER extended from the widely-used MSER is proposed by incorporating saliency detection methods, which ensures a high recall rate. Given a natural image, character candidates are extracted from three channels in a perception-based illumination invariant color space by saliency-enhanced MSER algorithm. A discriminative convolutional neural network (CNN) is jointly trained with multi-level information including pixel-level and character-level information as character candidate classifier...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816837/individualizing-thresholds-of-cerebral-perfusion-pressure-using-estimated-limits-of-autoregulation
#2
Joseph Donnelly, Marek Czosnyka, Hadie Adams, Chiara Robba, Luzius A Steiner, Danilo Cardim, Brenno Cabella, Xiuyun Liu, Ari Ercole, Peter John Hutchinson, David Krishna Menon, Marcel J H Aries, Peter Smielewski
OBJECTIVES: In severe traumatic brain injury, cerebral perfusion pressure management based on cerebrovascular pressure reactivity index has the potential to provide a personalized treatment target to improve patient outcomes. So far, the methods have focused on identifying "one" autoregulation-guided cerebral perfusion pressure target-called "cerebral perfusion pressure optimal". We investigated whether a cerebral perfusion pressure autoregulation range-which uses a continuous estimation of the "lower" and "upper" cerebral perfusion pressure limits of cerebrovascular pressure autoregulation (assessed with pressure reactivity index)-has prognostic value...
September 2017: Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813351/motor-heuristics-and-embodied-choices-how-to-choose-and-act
#3
REVIEW
Markus Raab
Human performance requires choosing what to do and how to do it. The goal of this theoretical contribution is to advance understanding of how the motor and cognitive components of choices are intertwined. From a holistic perspective I extend simple heuristics that have been tested in cognitive tasks to motor tasks, coining the term motor heuristics. Similarly I extend the concept of embodied cognition, that has been tested in simple sensorimotor processes changing decisions, to complex sport behavior coining the term embodied choices...
August 2017: Current Opinion in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812839/just-say-no-to-the-tpp-a-democratic-setback-for-american-and-asian-public-health-comment-on-the-trans-pacific-partnership-is-it-everything-we-feared-for-health
#4
Carles Muntaner, Deb Finn Mahabir
(TPP) policy and the severe threats to public health that it implies for 12 Pacific Rim populations from the Americas and Asia (Australia, Brunei, Canada, Chile, Japan, Malaysia, Mexico, New Zealand, Peru, Singapore, United States, and Vietnam). With careful and analytic precision the authors convincingly unearth many aspects of this piece of legislation that undermine the public health achievements of most countries involved in the TTP. Our comments complement their policy analysis with the aim of providing a positive heuristic tool to assist in the understanding of the TPP, and other upcoming treaties like the even more encompassing Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (TTIP), and in so doing motivate the public health community to oppose the implementation of the relevant provisions of the agreements...
November 6, 2016: International Journal of Health Policy and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811241/utility-of-prior-cultures-in-predicting-antibiotic-resistance-of-bloodstream-infections-due-to-gram-negative-pathogens-a-multicenter-observational-cohort-study
#5
Derek R MacFadden, Bryan Coburn, Nirav Shah, Ari Robicsek, Rachel Savage, Marion Elligsen, Nick Daneman
OBJECTIVES: Appropriate empiric antibiotic therapy in patients with bloodstream infections due to Gram-negative pathogens can improve outcomes. We evaluated the utility of prior microbiologic results for guiding empiric treatment in Gram-negative bloodstream infections. METHODS: We conducted a multi-center observational cohort study, in two large health systems in Canada and the United States, including 1,832 hospitalized patients with Gram-negative bloodstream infection (community, hospital, and ICU acquired) from April 2010 to March 2015...
August 12, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805127/the-role-of-heroic-doubling-in-ideologically-motivated-state-and-terrorist-violence
#6
Roger Griffin
The psychiatrist Robert Lifton developed his model of 'doubling' to account for the capacity of some human beings to commit atrocities in one compartment of their lives, while continuing to maintain normal social relations in their domestic sphere, a phenomenon which he encountered both in interviews with former Nazi doctors working in concentration camps, and with terrorists belonging to the Japanese Aum Shinrikyo cult. By supplementing this model with a theory of heroization based on existential anthropology and Jung's concept of the Shadow, a composite heuristic explanatory paradigm is formed, 'heroic doubling', which may contribute to the empathetic understanding of acts of extreme violence being carried out by individuals who do not present symptoms of psychiatric disorder and maintain normal existences, yet are prepared to kill and be killed for a cause that confers on their lives a sense of transcendent purpose and sacrality...
August 2017: International Review of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802837/development-of-simulation-optimization-methods-for-solving-patient-referral-problems-in-the-hospital-collaboration-environment
#7
Ping-Shun Chen, Ming-Han Lin
This research studied a patient referral problem among multiple cooperative hospitals for sharing imaging services' referrals. The proposed problem consisted of many types of patients and the uncertainty associated with the number of patients of each type, patients' arrival time, and patients' medical operation time, leading to a difficulty in finding solutions due to the uncertain environment. This research used system simulation to construct a model and develop a simulation optimization method, combining the heuristic algorithm (patient referral mechanism) with the particle swarm optimization (PSO) method, to determine a better way to refer patients from one hospital (referring hospital) to another (recipient hospital) to receive certain imaging services...
August 9, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802724/juvenile-body-mass-estimation-a-methodological-evaluation
#8
Libby Cowgill
Two attempts have been made to develop body mass prediction formulae specifically for immature remains: Ruff (Ruff, C.C., 2007, Body size prediction from juvenile skeletal remains. American Journal Physical Anthropology 133, 698-716) and Robbins et al. (Robbins, G., Sciulli, P.W., Blatt, S.H., 2010. Estimating body mass in subadult human skeletons. American Journal Physical Anthropology 143, 146-150). While both were developed from the same reference population, they differ in their independent variable selection: Ruff (2008) used measures of metaphyseal and articular surface size to predict body mass in immature remains, whereas Robbins et al...
August 9, 2017: Journal of Human Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794280/marine-reserves-solve-an-important-bycatch-problem-in-fisheries
#9
Alan Hastings, Steven D Gaines, Christopher Costello
Management of the diverse fisheries of the world has had mixed success. While managing single species in data-rich environments has been largely effective, perhaps the greatest challenge facing fishery managers is how to deal with mixed stocks of fish with a range of life histories that reside in the same location. Because many fishing gears are nonselective, and the costs of making gear selective can be high, a particular problem is bycatch of weak stocks. This problem is most severe when the weak stock is long-lived and has low fecundity and thus requires a very long recovery time once overfished...
August 9, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793222/thermodynamic-constraints-improve-metabolic-networks
#10
Elias W Krumholz, Igor G L Libourel
In pursuit of establishing a realistic metabolic phenotypic space, the reversibility of reactions is thermodynamically constrained in modern metabolic networks. The reversibility constraints follow from heuristic thermodynamic poise approximations that take anticipated cellular metabolite concentration ranges into account. Because constraints reduce the feasible space, draft metabolic network reconstructions may need more extensive reconciliation, and a larger number of genes may become essential. Notwithstanding ubiquitous application, the effect of reversibility constraints on the predictive capabilities of metabolic networks has not been investigated in detail...
August 8, 2017: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792909/set-based-discrete-particle-swarm-optimization-based-on-decomposition-for-permutation-based-multiobjective-combinatorial-optimization-problems
#11
Xue Yu, Wei-Neng Chen, Tianlong Gu, Huaxiang Zhang, Huaqiang Yuan, Sam Kwong, Jun Zhang
This paper studies a specific class of multiobjective combinatorial optimization problems (MOCOPs), namely the permutation-based MOCOPs. Many commonly seen MOCOPs, e.g., multiobjective traveling salesman problem (MOTSP), multiobjective project scheduling problem (MOPSP), belong to this problem class and they can be very different. However, as the permutation-based MOCOPs share the inherent similarity that the structure of their search space is usually in the shape of a permutation tree, this paper proposes a generic multiobjective set-based particle swarm optimization methodology based on decomposition, termed MS-PSO/D...
August 7, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Cybernetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783230/the-madoffization-of-irish-society-from-ponzi-finance-to-sociological-critique
#12
Lee F Monaghan, Micheal O'Flynn
Financialization and neoliberal policy created the Celtic Tiger. This economic 'miracle' furthered creditors' and property developers' speculative interests, leading to an unstable financial pyramid that eventually imploded in 2008 with catastrophic consequences for Irish society. Using the sociological imagination as social critique, this paper offers a lens on fictitious capital and Ponzi finance in the context of Ireland's boom and bust. Critique is advanced using the Madoffization of society thesis, a sociological heuristic that draws formal comparisons between Bernie Madoff's US$65 billion Ponzi scheme, which collapsed in 2008, and financialized capitalism...
August 7, 2017: British Journal of Sociology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28772204/automated-patterning-and-probing-with-multiple-nanoscale-tools-for-single-cell-analysis
#13
Jiayao Li, Yeonuk Kim, Boyin Liu, Ruwen Qin, Jian Li, Jing Fu
The nano-manipulation approach that combines Focused Ion Beam (FIB) milling and various imaging and probing techniques enables researchers to investigate the cellular structures in three dimensions. Such fusion approach, however, requires extensive effort on locating and examining randomly-distributed targets due to limited Field of View (FOV) when high magnification is desired. In the present study, we present the development that automates 'pattern and probe' particularly for single-cell analysis, achieved by computer aided tools including feature recognition and geometric planning algorithms...
July 31, 2017: Micron: the International Research and Review Journal for Microscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771342/yeast-terminator-function-can-be-modulated-and-designed-on-the-basis-of-predictions-of-nucleosome-occupancy
#14
Nicholas J Morse, Madan R Gopal, James M Wagner, Hal S Alper
The design of improved synthetic parts is a major goal of synthetic biology. Mechanistically, nucleosome occupancy in the 3' terminator region of a gene has been found to correlate with transcriptional expression. Here, we seek to establish a predictive relationship between terminator function and predicted nucleosome positioning to design synthetic terminators in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In doing so, terminators improved net protein output from these expression cassettes nearly 4-fold over their original sequence with observed increases in termination efficiency to 96%...
August 17, 2017: ACS Synthetic Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28764447/a-comparison-of-acoustic-and-articulatory-methods-for-analyzing-vowel-differences-across-dialects-data-from-american-and-australian-english
#15
Arwen Blackwood Ximenes, Jason A Shaw, Christopher Carignan
In studies of dialect variation, the articulatory nature of vowels is sometimes inferred from formant values using the following heuristic: F1 is inversely correlated with tongue height and F2 is inversely correlated with tongue backness. This study compared vowel formants and corresponding lingual articulation in two dialects of English, standard North American English, and Australian English. Five speakers of North American English and four speakers of Australian English were recorded producing multiple repetitions of ten monophthongs embedded in the /sVd/ context...
July 2017: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28764396/atypical-transistor-based-chaotic-oscillators-design-realization-and-diversity
#16
Ludovico Minati, Mattia Frasca, Paweł Oświȩcimka, Luca Faes, Stanisław Drożdż
In this paper, we show that novel autonomous chaotic oscillators based on one or two bipolar junction transistors and a limited number of passive components can be obtained via random search with suitable heuristics. Chaos is a pervasive occurrence in these circuits, particularly after manual adjustment of a variable resistor placed in series with the supply voltage source. Following this approach, 49 unique circuits generating chaotic signals when physically realized were designed, representing the largest collection of circuits of this kind to date...
July 2017: Chaos
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28763439/rearrangement-moves-on-rooted-phylogenetic-networks
#17
Philippe Gambette, Leo van Iersel, Mark Jones, Manuel Lafond, Fabio Pardi, Celine Scornavacca
Phylogenetic tree reconstruction is usually done by local search heuristics that explore the space of the possible tree topologies via simple rearrangements of their structure. Tree rearrangement heuristics have been used in combination with practically all optimization criteria in use, from maximum likelihood and parsimony to distance-based principles, and in a Bayesian context. Their basic components are rearrangement moves that specify all possible ways of generating alternative phylogenies from a given one, and whose fundamental property is to be able to transform, by repeated application, any phylogeny into any other phylogeny...
August 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28762337/superiorized-algorithm-for-reconstruction-of-ct-images-from-sparse-view-and-limited-angle-polyenergetic-data
#18
T Humphries, J Winn, A Faridani
Recent work in CT image reconstruction has seen increasing interest in the use of total variation (TV) and related penalties to regularize problems involving reconstruction from undersampled or incomplete data. Superiorization is a recently proposed heuristic which provides an automatic procedure to 'superiorize' an iterative image reconstruction algorithm with respect to a chosen objective function, such as TV. Under certain conditions, the superiorized algorithm is guaranteed to find a solution that is as satisfactory as any found by the original algorithm with respect to satisfying the constraints of the problem; this solution is also expected to be superior with respect to the chosen objective...
August 1, 2017: Physics in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28758745/exploring-unorthodox-dimensions-for-two-electron-atoms
#19
Dudley R Herschbach, John G Loeser, Wilton L Virgo
Melding quantum and classical mechanics is an abiding quest of physical chemists who strive for heuristic insights and useful tools. We present a surprisingly simple and accurate treatment of ground-state two-electron atoms. It makes use of only the dimensional dependence of a hydrogen atom, together with the exactly known first-order perturbation value of the electron-electron interaction, both quintessentially quantum, and the D → ∞ limit, entirely classical. The result is an analytic formula for D-dimensional two-electron atoms with Z ≥ 2...
August 15, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28756494/usability-evaluation-of-a-private-social-network-on-mental-health-for-relatives
#20
José Miguel Toribio-Guzmán, Alicia García-Holgado, Felipe Soto Pérez, Francisco J García-Peñalvo, Manuel Franco Martín
Usability is one of the most prominent criteria that must be fulfilled by a software product. This study aims to evaluate the usability of SocialNet, a private social network for monitoring the daily progress of patients by their relatives, using a mixed usability approach: heuristic evaluation conducted by experts and user testing. A double heuristic evaluation with one expert evaluator identified the issues related to consistency, design, and privacy. User testing was conducted on 20 users and one evaluator using observation techniques and questionnaires...
September 2017: Journal of Medical Systems
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