Read by QxMD icon Read

Understanding statistics

Emily Hepburn, Anne Northway, Dawit Bekele, Gang-Jun Liu, Matthew Currell
Determining sources of heavy metals in soils, sediments and groundwater is important for understanding their fate and transport and mitigating human and environmental exposures. Artificially imported fill, natural sediments and groundwater from 240 ha of reclaimed land at Fishermans Bend in Australia, were analysed for heavy metals and other parameters to determine the relative contributions from different possible sources. Fishermans Bend is Australia's largest urban re-development project, however, complicated land-use history, geology, and multiple contamination sources pose challenges to successful re-development...
June 11, 2018: Environmental Pollution
David M Fisher, Spencer A Wood, Eric M White, Dale J Blahna, Sarah Lange, Alex Weinberg, Michael Tomco, Emilia Lia
Outdoor recreation is one of many important benefits provided by public lands. Data on recreational use are critical for informing management of recreation resources, however, managers often lack actionable information on visitor use for large protected areas that lack controlled access points. The purpose of this study is to explore the potential for social media data (e.g., geotagged images shared on Flickr and trip reports shared on a hiking forum) to provide land managers with useful measures of recreational use to dispersed areas, and to provide lessons learned from comparing several more traditional counting methods...
June 13, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
Hacer Sahin Aydınyurt, Yusuf Ziya Yuncu, Yasin Tekin, Abdullah Seckin Ertugrul
OBJECTIVES: Sex steroid hormones are thought to affect periodontal tissues. A clear understanding of the effect of the menstrual cycle on oral tissues would be an important milestone in the timing of dental interventions in the future. The aim of this longitudinal, prospective study was to evaluate clinical periodontal parameters and levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) during the menstrual cycle. METHODS: Forty-five patients were included in this study...
June 16, 2018: Oral Diseases
Waleed Sohail, Fatimah Majeed, Amber Afroz
The prevalence of Diabetes Mellitus Type 2 (DM 2) is increasing every passing year due to some global changes in lifestyles of people. The exact underlying mechanisms of the progression of this disease are not yet known. However recent advances in the combined omics more particularly in proteomics and genomics have opened a gateway towards the understanding of predetermined genetic factors, progression, complications and treatment of this disease. Here we shall review the recent advances in proteomics that have led to an early and better diagnostic approaches in controlling DM 2 more importantly the comparison of structural and functional protein biomarkers that are modified in the diseased state...
June 11, 2018: Diabetes & Metabolic Syndrome
Amar Sarkar, Siobhán Harty, Soili M Lehto, Andrew H Moeller, Timothy G Dinan, Robin I M Dunbar, John F Cryan, Philip W J Burnet
Psychology and microbiology make unlikely friends, but the past decade has witnessed striking bidirectional associations between intrinsic gut microbes and the brain, relationships with largely untested psychological implications. Although microbe-brain relationships are receiving a great deal of attention in biomedicine and neuroscience, psychologists have yet to join this journey. Here, we illustrate microbial associations with emotion, cognition, and social behavior. However, despite considerable enthusiasm and potential, technical and conceptual limitations including low statistical power and lack of mechanistic descriptions prevent a nuanced understanding of microbiome-brain-behavior relationships...
June 8, 2018: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
Jun Lu, Zhonghong Wei, Hua Jiang, Lu Cheng, Qiuhua Chen, Mingqi Chen, Jing Yan, Zhiguang Sun
BACKGROUND: Sepsis is a major health care problem, which affects millions of people around the world. Glucose metabolic reprogramming of immune cells plays a crucial role during advancement of sepsis. However, the association between glucose metabolic reprogramming and mortality in patients with sepsis is unclear. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) catalyzes the last step of glycolysis. Investigating the relationship between LDH and mortality is important to understand the effect of metabolic reprogramming on prognosis of patients with sepsis...
August 2018: Journal of Surgical Research
Mangesh I Chaudhari, Susan B Rempe
Ion hydration structure and free energy establish criteria for understanding selective ion binding in potassium (K+ ) ion channels and may be significant to understanding blocking mechanisms as well. Recently, we investigated the hydration properties of Ba2+ , the most potent blocker of K+ channels among the simple metal ions. Here, we use a similar method of combining ab initio molecular dynamics simulations, statistical mechanical theory, and electronic structure calculations to probe the fundamental hydration properties of Sr2+ , which does not block bacterial K+ channels...
June 14, 2018: Journal of Chemical Physics
Satoshi Iso, Shotaro Shiba, Sumito Yokoo
Theoretical understanding of how a deep neural network (DNN) extracts features from input images is still unclear, but it is widely believed that the extraction is performed hierarchically through a process of coarse graining. It reminds us of the basic renormalization group (RG) concept in statistical physics. In order to explore possible relations between DNN and RG, we use the restricted Boltzmann machine (RBM) applied to an Ising model and construct a flow of model parameters (in particular, temperature) generated by the RBM...
May 2018: Physical Review. E
Simeone Zomer, Jun Zhang, Sameer Talwar, Sayantan Chattoraj, Christopher Hewitt
The pharmaceutical industry is undergoing a significant change in product development and manufacturing strategies with the progressive shift from batch to continuous processes. These typically feature vast volumes of data generated by the numerous sensors connected to several unit operations running over the period of several hours or even days and that demand the application of increasingly efficient tools for process understanding, monitoring and control. This paper describes the use of multivariate statistical process modeling by means of chemometric methods to monitor the continuous wet granulation tableting process for a drug product currently under development...
June 12, 2018: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
Felipe Borges Almeida, Alan Rios Fonseca, Núbia Heidrich, Maurício Schüler Nin, Helena Maria Tannhauser Barros
Depression is a highly incapacitating disorder known to have a multifactorial etiology, including a hereditary genetic background. The neurosteroid allopregnanolone (ALLO) is a positive allosteric modulator of the GABAA receptor and has been shown to have an antidepressant-like effect in animals. This study aimed to assess the behavioral effect of ALLO in animals with different backgrounds of depressive-like activity. An initial population (F0) of male and female Wistar rats was screened for immobility behavior utilizing the Forced Swim Test (FST)...
June 12, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
Anna Vildhede, Emi Kimoto, A David Rodrigues, Manthena V S Varma
Organic anion transporter (OAT) 2 and OAT7 were recently shown to be involved in the hepatic uptake of drugs; however, there is limited understanding of the population variability in the expression of these transporters in liver. There is also a need to derive relative expression-based scaling factors (REFs) that can be used to bridge in vitro functional data to the in vivo drug disposition. To this end, we quantified OAT2 and OAT7 surrogate peptide abundance in a large number of human liver tissue samples (n=52), as well as several single-donor cryopreserved human hepatocyte lots (n=30) by a novel, validated liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method...
June 15, 2018: Molecular Pharmaceutics
Jaeho Shin, Kyungyeol Gu, Seunghoon Yang, Chul-Ho Lee, Takhee Lee, Yun Hee Jang, Gunuk Wang
Molecular conformation, intermolecular interaction, and electrode-molecule contacts greatly affect charge transport in molecular junctions and interfacial properties of organic devices by controlling the molecular orbital alignment. Here, we statistically investigated the charge transport in molecular junctions containing self-assembled oligophenylene molecules sandwiched between an Au probe tip and graphene according to various tip-loading forces (FL) that can control the molecular-tilt configuration and the vdW interactions...
June 15, 2018: Nano Letters
Mark J Gordon, Joseph G Christenbury, Christine L Bokman, Daniel B Rootman, Robert A Goldberg
PURPOSE: This study aims to understand the degree to which ptosis is recognizable to a layperson. METHODS: Fifteen color drawings of a gender-neutral human face were created. Six faces exhibited right-sided ptosis (decreased margin reflex distance 1 and lengthened tarsal platform show) of 0.5 mm, 1 mm, 1.5 mm, 2 mm, 2.5 mm, and 3 mm, respectively. Six more faces exhibited left-sided ptosis of the same amounts. The 12 ptotic faces and 3 symmetrical faces were randomly placed on three 11-inch by 14-inch sheets of paper with 5 faces on each page...
June 13, 2018: Annals of Plastic Surgery
Margaret OʼDonnell, Kathleen Shurpin, Brenda Janotha
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Despite demonstrated efficacy, the utilization of herpes zoster vaccine (HZV), recommended by the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) for all immunocompetent adults aged above 60 years, is low (31%). The aim of this study was to identify nurse practitioner (NP) barriers to HZV administration and then to use these results to develop and evaluate the outcomes of an educational program. METHODS: This study used a two-phase design. In Phase I, barriers that obstruct the provision of HZV were identified and NPs were surveyed to determine current HZV practice...
June 4, 2018: Journal of the American Association of Nurse Practitioners
Scott L Parker, Ahilan Sivaganesan, Silky Chotai, Matthew J McGirt, Anthony L Asher, Clinton J Devin
OBJECTIVE Hospital readmissions lead to a significant increase in the total cost of care in patients undergoing elective spine surgery. Understanding factors associated with an increased risk of postoperative readmission could facilitate a reduction in such occurrences. The aims of this study were to develop and validate a predictive model for 90-day hospital readmission following elective spine surgery. METHODS All patients undergoing elective spine surgery for degenerative disease were enrolled in a prospective longitudinal registry...
June 15, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgery. Spine
Karol Polom, Daniele Marrelli, Giandomenico Roviello, Valeria Pascale, Costantino Voglino, Carla Vindigni, Daniele Generali, Franco Roviello
BACKGROUND: A better understanding of molecular gastric cancer (GC) entities may help in tailored treatments of that neoplasm. The PIK3CA mutation is one of the most important in many cancers. Objectives. We performed a comparison of clinical and pathological data of the PIK3CA mutation in GC patients. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The analysis was done on 472 patients operated on in one center. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used for the screening of PIK3CA (exon 9 and 20)...
June 15, 2018: Advances in Clinical and Experimental Medicine: Official Organ Wroclaw Medical University
Holger Husi, Alisdair MacDonald, Richard J E Skipworth, Janice Miller, Andrew Cronshaw, Carolyn Greig, Kenneth C H Fearon, James A Ross
Dynapenia is defined as the age-related loss of muscle strength, and plays a significant role in the loss of physical function and increased risk of disability among older individuals. The need for an early diagnosis supports the search for a biomarker that reflects muscle 'weakening'. This has previously proven difficult due to patient heterogeneity at presentation and lack of understanding of the underlying molecular mechanisms. The aim of the present study was to identify potential urinary biomarkers of dynapenia in patients undergoing potentially curative surgery for upper gastrointestinal cancer...
June 2018: Biomedical Reports
Beverly L Smith-Keiling, Lidia K Swanson, Joanne M Dehnbostel
In seeking to support diversity, one challenge lies in adequately supporting and assessing science cognitions in a writing-intensive Biochemistry laboratory course when highly engaged Asian English language learners (Asian ELLs) struggle to communicate and make novice errors in English. Because they may understand advanced science concepts, but are not being adequately assessed for their deeper scientific understanding, we sought and examined interventions. We hypothesized that inquiry strategies, scaffolded learning through peer evaluation, and individualized tools that build writing communication skills would increase confidence...
2018: Journal of Microbiology & Biology Education: JMBE
Peggy Krief, Alessia Zellweger, Maria-Pia Politis Mercier, Brigitta Danuser, Pascal Wild, Michela Zenoni, Isabelle Probst
INTRODUCTION: Like most industrialised countries, Switzerland has introduced legislation to protect the health of pregnant workers and their unborn children from workplace exposure. This legislation provides for a risk assessment, adaptations to workplaces and, if the danger is not eliminated, preventive leave (prescribed by a gynaecologist). This study's first objective is to analyse the degree to which companies, gynaecologists and midwives implement the law. Its second objective is to understand the obstacles and resources of this implementation, with a focus on how relevant stakeholders perceive protective measures and their involvement with them...
June 14, 2018: BMJ Open
L González-Álvarez, M J García-Pola, J M Garcia-Martin
INTRODUCTION: Geographic tongue (GT) is a lesion of unknown origin associated with systemic diseases and therefore involves multidisciplinary care. METHODS: We performed a literature search of the PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science and Cochrane databases. The selection criteria were consistent with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews protocol. We considered as inclusion criteria journal articles designed on cases of cohorts, cross-sectional studies, cases and controls and randomised clinical trials in the pathogenic, clinical and therapeutic context...
June 11, 2018: Revista Clínica Española
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"