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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244821/genotyping-of-mycobacterium-leprae-for-better-understanding-of-leprosy-transmission-in-fortaleza-northeastern-brazil
#1
Amanda N B Fontes, Luana N G C Lima, Rosa M S Mota, Rosa L F Almeida, Maria A Pontes, Heitor de S Gonçalves, Cristiane C Frota, Varalakshmi D Vissa, Patrick J Brennan, Ricardo J P S Guimaraes, Carl Kendall, Ligia R F S Kerr, Philip N Suffys
Leprosy is endemic in large part of Brazil with 28,761 new patients in 2015, the second largest number worldwide and reaches 9/10.000 in highly endemic regions and 2.7/10.000 in the city of Fortaleza, Ceará, Northeast Brazil. For better understanding of risk factors for leprosy transmission, we conducted an epidemiologic study supplemented by 17 locus VNTR and SNP 1-4 typing of Mycobacterium leprae in skin biopsy samples from new multibacillary (MB) patients diagnosed at a reference center in 2009 and 2010...
December 15, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244754/evaluation-of-traffic-density-parameters-as-an-indicator-of-vehicle-emission-related-near-road-air-pollution-a-case-study-with-nexus-measurement-data-on-black-carbon
#2
Shi V Liu, Fu-Lin Chen, Jianping Xue
An important factor in evaluating health risk of near-road air pollution is to accurately estimate the traffic-related vehicle emission of air pollutants. Inclusion of traffic parameters such as road length/area, distance to roads, and traffic volume/intensity into models such as land use regression (LUR) models has improved exposure estimation. To better understand the relationship between vehicle emissions and near-road air pollution, we evaluated three traffic density-based indices: Major-Road Density (MRD), All-Traffic Density (ATD) and Heavy-Traffic Density (HTD) which represent the proportions of major roads, major road with annual average daily traffic (AADT), and major road with commercial annual average daily traffic (CAADT) in a buffered area, respectively...
December 15, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244508/diffusion-of-supercritical-fluids-through-single-layer-nanoporous-solids-theory-and-molecular-simulations
#3
Fouad Oulebsir, Romain Vermorel, Guillaume Galliero
With the advent of graphene material, membranes based on single-layer nanoporous solids appear as promising devices for fluid separation, be it liquid or gaseous mixtures. The design of such architectured porous materials would greatly benefit from accurate models that can predict their transport and separation properties. More specifically, there is no universal understanding of how parameters such as temperature, fluid loading conditions or the ratio of the pore size to the fluid molecular diameter influence the permeation process...
December 15, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244483/biomembrane-permeabilization-statistics-of-individual-leakage-events-harmonize-the-interpretation-of-vesicle-leakage
#4
Stefan Braun, Šárka Pokorná, Radek Šachl, Martin Hof, Heiko Heerklotz, Maria Hoernke
The mode of action of membrane-active molecules such as antimicrobial, anticancer, cell penetrating, and fusion peptides and their synthetic mimics, transfection agents and drug permeation enhancers, biological signaling molecules (e.g., quorum sensing), involves either the general or local destabilization of the target membrane or the formation of defined, rather stable pores. Some effects aim at killing the cell, others need to be limited in space and time to avoid serious damage. Biological tests reveal translocation of compounds and cell death but do not provide a detailed, mechanistic, and quantitative understanding of the modes of action and their molecular basis...
December 15, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243563/safety-culture-patient-safety-and-quality-of-care-outcomes-a-literature-review
#5
Seung Eun Lee, Linda D Scott, V Susan Dahinten, Catherine Vincent, Karen Dunn Lopez, Chang Gi Park
This integrative literature review was conducted to examine the relationships between safety culture and patient safety and quality of care outcomes in hospital settings and to identify directions for future research. Using a search of six electronic databases, 17 studies that met the study criteria were selected for review. This review revealed semantic inconsistencies, infrequent use of a theory or theoretical framework, limited discussions of validity of instruments used, and significant methodological variations...
December 1, 2017: Western Journal of Nursing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243512/the-relationship-between-hospital-construction-and-high-risk-infant-auditory-function-at-nicu-discharge-a-retrospective-descriptive-cohort-study
#6
Valerie Willis
PURPOSE: To describe the difference in auditory function at neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) discharge between high-risk infant cases exposed to hospital construction during NICU stay and those not exposed. BACKGROUND: Noise produced by routine NICU caregiving exceeds recommended intensity. As California hospitals undergo construction to meet seismic safety regulations, vulnerable neonates are potentially exposed to even higher levels of noise. Ramifications are unknown...
January 1, 2017: HERD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242990/the-influence-of-cochlear-morphology-on-the-final-electrode-array-position
#7
M C Ketterer, A Aschendorff, S Arndt, F Hassepass, T Wesarg, R Laszig, R Beck
OBJECTIVE: Preoperative information about cochlear morphology and size increasingly seems to be a defining factor of electrode choice in cochlear implant surgery. Different types of electrodes differ in length and diameter to accommodate individual cochlear anatomy. Smaller cochlear size results in increased insertion depth with a higher risk to dislocate and causes cochlear trauma with reduced postoperative outcome. The objective of the current study is to describe the three-dimensional size of the cochlea, to compare interindividual differences, to determine the relationship between cochlear size and insertion angle, and to define risk factors for dislocation during insertion...
December 14, 2017: European Archives of Oto-rhino-laryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242828/machine-learning-unifies-the-modeling-of-materials-and-molecules
#8
Albert P Bartók, Sandip De, Carl Poelking, Noam Bernstein, James R Kermode, Gábor Csányi, Michele Ceriotti
Determining the stability of molecules and condensed phases is the cornerstone of atomistic modeling, underpinning our understanding of chemical and materials properties and transformations. We show that a machine-learning model, based on a local description of chemical environments and Bayesian statistical learning, provides a unified framework to predict atomic-scale properties. It captures the quantum mechanical effects governing the complex surface reconstructions of silicon, predicts the stability of different classes of molecules with chemical accuracy, and distinguishes active and inactive protein ligands with more than 99% reliability...
December 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242180/development-and-usability-evaluation-of-an-art-and-narrative-based-knowledge-translation-tool-for-parents-with-a-child-with-pediatric-chronic-pain-multi-method-study
#9
Kathy Reid, Lisa Hartling, Samina Ali, Anne Le, Allison Norris, Shannon D Scott
BACKGROUND: Chronic pain in childhood is increasingly being recognized as a significant clinical problem for children and their families. Previous research has identified that families want information about the causes of their child's chronic pain, treatment options, and effective strategies to help their child cope with the pain. Unfortunately, parents have reported that finding this information can be challenging. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to actively work together with children attending a pediatric chronic pain clinic and their parents to develop, refine, and evaluate the usability of an art and narrative-based electronic book (e-book) for pediatric chronic pain...
December 14, 2017: Journal of Medical Internet Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241636/urban-rural-differences-in-mortality-for-atrial-fibrillation-hospitalizations-in-the-united-states
#10
Wesley T O'Neal, Pratik B Sandesara, Heval M Kelli, Sanjay Venkatesh, Elsayed Z Soliman
BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular outcomes vary between urban and rural hospitals, with worse outcomes in rural settings. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to examine whether in-hospital mortality for hospitalization for atrial fibrillation (AF) varied between urban and rural hospitals. METHODS: A cross-sectional examination of patients who were hospitalized for AF was performed in the National Inpatient Sample between 2012 and 2014 to compare in-hospital mortality in patients admitted to urban vs rural hospitals...
December 1, 2017: Heart Rhythm: the Official Journal of the Heart Rhythm Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241370/identification-of-structural-requirements-and-prediction-of-inhibitory-activity-of-natural-flavonoids-against-zika-virus-through-molecular-docking-and-monte-carlo-based-qsar-simulation
#11
Sonam Bhargava, Tarun Patel, Ruchi Gaikwad, Umesh Kumar Patil, Shovanlal Gayen
There has been growing interest in the research of flavonoids due to their potential antiviral activities. Recently, some natural flavonoids have shown potential inhibitory activity against zika virus NS3-NS2B protease. In order to accelerate the drug discovery efforts using flavonoids, a Monte Carlo simulation-based QSAR method has been applied to find out the structural requirements for the inhibitory activity. The best QSAR model was obtained using SMILES descriptors and HSG descriptors with 1EC connectivity with the following statistical parameters: R2 = 0...
December 15, 2017: Natural Product Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240899/patient-perceptions-of-receiving-test-results-via-online-portals-a-mixed-methods-study
#12
Traber D Giardina, Jessica Baldwin, Daniel T Nystrom, Dean F Sittig, Hardeep Singh
Objective: Online portals provide patients with access to their test results, but it is unknown how patients use these tools to manage results and what information is available to promote understanding. We conducted a mixed-methods study to explore patients' experiences and preferences when accessing their test results via portals. Materials and Methods: We conducted 95 interviews (13 semistructured and 82 structured) with adults who viewed a test result in their portal between April 2015 and September 2016 at 4 large outpatient clinics in Houston, Texas...
December 12, 2017: Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association: JAMIA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240607/the-clinical-impact-of-cardiology-consultation-prior-to-major-vascular-surgery
#13
Frank M Davis, Yeo June Park, Scott F Grey, Anna E Boniakowski, M Ashraf Mansour, Krishna M Jain, Timothy Nypaver, Michael Grossman, Hitinder Gurm, Peter K Henke
OBJECTIVE: To understand statewide variation in preoperative cardiology consultation prior to major vascular surgery and to determine whether consultation was associated with differences in perioperative myocardial infarction (poMI). SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Medical consultation prior to major vascular surgery is obtained to reduce perioperative risk. Despite perceived benefit of preoperative consultation, evidence is lacking specifically for major vascular surgery on the effect of preoperative cardiac consultation...
January 2018: Annals of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240525/building-u-s-capacity-to-review-and-prevent-maternal-deaths
#14
Julie Zaharatos, Amy St Pierre, Andria Cornell, Emilia Pasalic, David Goodman
In the United States, the risk of death during and up to a year after pregnancy from pregnancy-related causes increased from ∼10 deaths per 100,000 live births in the early 1990s to 17 deaths per 100,000 live births in 2013. While vital statistics-based surveillance systems are useful for monitoring trends and disparities, state and local maternal mortality review committees (MMRCs) are best positioned to both comprehensively assess deaths to women during pregnancy and the year after the end of pregnancy, and identify opportunities for prevention...
December 14, 2017: Journal of Women's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240522/stakeholder-views-addressing-the-development-and-uptake-of-powered-wheelchair-assistive-technology
#15
Michael Gillham, Matthew Pepper, Steve Kelly, Gareth Howells
PURPOSE: The objective of this research is to identify stakeholder views with regard to the development of effective powered wheelchair assistive technologies more suited to the user and carer needs, whilst also meeting the requirements for other stakeholders, such that developers can be better guided towards producing solutions which have a better chance of getting to the market place and hence to the end user. METHOD: A questionnaire was designed to collect the views of all stakeholders and circulated to a statistically representative number of them...
December 14, 2017: Disability and Rehabilitation. Assistive Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240492/interprofessional-bedside-teaching-setting-up-a-novel-teaching-programme
#16
Kathryn Watson, Cathryn Mainwaring, Amy Moran, Fahmeda B Jangi, Nira Raguseelan, Thomas Simpson, Tunjil Lasoye, Omar G Mustafa
BACKGROUND: An ageing population and health-care advances mean that patients have increasingly complex medical health and social needs, requiring a multidisciplinary team. However, despite working as an interprofessional team, team members still largely train in professional silos. Furthermore health-care professionals report a poor understanding of the skills of colleagues from different professions. This article describes the set up and outcomes of a novel interprofessional bedside teaching programme...
December 2, 2017: British Journal of Hospital Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240341/finland-establishing-the-internet-of-genomics-and-health-data
#17
Aarno Palotie, Samuli Ripatti
Genomic data, i.e. measurement of variation in the complete genome has revolutionized genetic research and changed our understanding of the pathogenetic mechanisms of diseases. Genomic data in combination with Finnish special strengths - population history, the nation's comprehensive health records and a strong research tradition in genetic epidemiology - has made Finland a testing laboratory for diseases of public health importance. At the same time, genomic research has changed into statistical evaluation of large masses of data - big data...
2017: Duodecim; Lääketieteellinen Aikakauskirja
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240301/the-terracol-and-ardouin-developmental-model-of-frontal-sinus-drainage-pathway-and-surrounding-spaces-a-radiologic-validation
#18
Marco Ferrari, Alberto Schreiber, Davide Mattavelli, Vittorio Rampinelli, Barbara Buffoli, Marco Ravanelli, Matteo Bettinsoli, Luigi F Rodella, Piero Nicolai
BACKGROUND: The complexity of the frontal sinus drainage pathway (FSDP) can be challenging even for expert surgeons. Several classifications have been proposed to simplify the understanding of FSDP, whose anatomical variability can be simplified based on the knowledge of its developmental mechanisms. METHODS: Cone-beam computed tomography studies performed at the Unit of Radiology of the University of Brescia between March and November 2012 were retrospectively analyzed...
December 14, 2017: International Forum of Allergy & Rhinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239842/relative-rates-not-relative-risks-addressing-a-widespread-misinterpretation-of-hazard-ratios
#19
Rinku Sutradhar, Peter C Austin
The use of the Cox proportional hazards model is ubiquitous in modern medical research. Despite the widespread implementation of this model, the terminology and interpretation that is used to describe the estimate hazard ratio (HR) has become loose and, unfortunately, often incorrect. Although some journals offer guidelines that advise against reporting HRs as relative risks, these guidelines are frequently overlooked. Perhaps due to a lack of understanding, authors continue to interpret the resultant HR as a relative risk-such an interpretation is inappropriate and can be misleading...
November 7, 2017: Annals of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239132/translational-systems-pharmacology-studies-in-pregnant-women
#20
REVIEW
Sara K Quinney, Rakesh Gullapelli, David M Haas
Pregnancy involves rapid physiological adaptation and complex interplay between mother and fetus. New analytic technologies provide large amounts of genomic, proteomic, and metabolomics data. The integration of these data through bioinformatics, statistical, and systems pharmacology techniques can improve our understanding of the mechanisms of normal maternal physiologic changes and fetal development. New insights into the mechanisms of pregnancy-related disorders, such as preterm birth (PTB), may lead to the development of new therapeutic interventions and novel biomarkers...
December 14, 2017: CPT: Pharmacometrics & Systems Pharmacology
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