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Understanding statistics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046057/bile-duct-ligature-in-young-rats-a-revisited-animal-model-for-biliary-atresia
#1
Matias Garrido, Camila Escobar, Constanza Zamora, Carolina Rejas, Juan Varas, Mario Párraga, Sebastian San Martin, Sandra Montedónico
Biliary atresia leads to cirrhosis in the vast majority of patients and constitutes the first cause of paediatric liver transplantation. Animal models allow us to understand the molecular basis and natural history of diseases. The aim of this study is to describe a surgically created animal model of biliary atresia with emphasis in long-term liver function. Forty-two 3-week-old Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into two groups: bile duct ligature (BDL) and control. The animals were sacrificed on the 2nd, 4th, and 6th postoperative weeks...
September 13, 2017: European Journal of Histochemistry: EJH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046032/-the-research-protocol-vi-how-to-choose-the-appropriate-statistical-test-inferential-statistics
#2
Eric Flores-Ruiz, María Guadalupe Miranda-Novales, Miguel Ángel Villasís-Keever
The statistical analysis can be divided in two main components: descriptive analysis and inferential analysis. An inference is to elaborate conclusions from the tests performed with the data obtained from a sample of a population. Statistical tests are used in order to establish the probability that a conclusion obtained from a sample is applicable to the population from which it was obtained. However, choosing the appropriate statistical test in general poses a challenge for novice researchers. To choose the statistical test it is necessary to take into account three aspects: the research design, the number of measurements and the scale of measurement of the variables...
July 2017: Revista Alergia Mexico: Organo Oficial de la Sociedad Mexicana de Alergia e Inmunología, A.C
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045957/-clinical-characteristics-of-neonatal-fungal-sepsis-in-neonatal-intensive-care-unit
#3
X Zhang, X F Ru, Y Wang, X Li, T Sang, Q Feng
OBJECTIVE: To study the characteristics of neonatal fungal sepsis and the difference between bacterial sepsis and fungal sepsis. To improve the understanding of neonatal fungal sepsis. METHODS: Clinical data of neonatal fungal sepsis in neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) were collected from 2011 to 2016 in Peking University first Hospital. The clinical characteristics were analyzed retrospectively. The difference between neonatal fungal sepsis and bacterial sepsis was also analyzed...
October 18, 2017: Beijing da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Peking University. Health Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045954/-pulmonary-arterial-hypertension-as-leading-manifestation-of-methylmalonic-aciduria-clinical-characteristics-and-gene-testing-in-15-cases
#4
X Q Liu, H Yan, J X Qiu, C Y Zhang, J G Qi, X Zhang, H J Xiao, Y L Yang, Y H Chen, J B DU
OBJECTIVE: To deepen our understanding of Methylmalonic aciduria (MMA) associated pulmonary hypertension (PH) by analyzing the characteristics of clinical presentation, pulmonary high resolusion CT(HRCT), treatment response and gene mutation. METHODS: This study includes 15 cases of pediatric patients with MMA associated PH diagnosed and treated in Peking University First Hospital pediatric department between May 2012 and May 2016 with symptoms of PH as their leading presentation...
October 18, 2017: Beijing da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Peking University. Health Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045882/untangling-the-hairball-fitness-based-asymptotic-reduction-of-biological-networks
#5
Félix Proulx-Giraldeau, Thomas J Rademaker, Paul François
Complex mathematical models of interaction networks are routinely used for prediction in systems biology. However, it is difficult to reconcile network complexities with a formal understanding of their behavior. Here, we propose a simple procedure (called ϕ¯) to reduce biological models to functional submodules, using statistical mechanics of complex systems combined with a fitness-based approach inspired by in silico evolution. The ϕ¯ algorithm works by putting parameters or combination of parameters to some asymptotic limit, while keeping (or slightly improving) the model performance, and requires parameter symmetry breaking for more complex models...
October 17, 2017: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045866/how-many-protein-sequences-fold-to-a-given-structure-a-coevolutionary-analysis
#6
Pengfei Tian, Robert B Best
Quantifying the relationship between protein sequence and structure is key to understanding the protein universe. A fundamental measure of this relationship is the total number of amino acid sequences that can fold to a target protein structure, known as the "sequence capacity," which has been suggested as a proxy for how designable a given protein fold is. Although sequence capacity has been extensively studied using lattice models and theory, numerical estimates for real protein structures are currently lacking...
October 17, 2017: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045754/genomic-studies-of-local-adaptation-in-natural-plant-populations
#7
Victoria L Sork
Local adaptation arises as a result of selection by the local environment favoring phenotypes that enhance fitness. Geographic patterns of phenotypic variation are in part due to this selective process. Classically, the genetic basis of those phenotypes has been studied in plant populations using a quantitative genetic approach in which plants from different source populations are grown in common environments, in reciprocal transplant experiments, or in studies across a wide geographic and environmentally heterogeneous area...
October 14, 2017: Journal of Heredity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044768/prevalence-of-osteoporosis-and-low-bone-mass-among-puerto-rican-older-adults
#8
Sabrina E Noel, Kelsey M Mangano, John L Griffith, Nicole C Wright, Bess Dawson-Hughes, Katherine L Tucker
Historically, osteoporosis has not been considered a public health priority for the Hispanic population. However, recent data indicate that Mexican Americans are at increased risk for this chronic condition. Although it is well established that there is heterogeneity in social, lifestyle, and health-related factors among Hispanic subgroups, there are currently few studies on bone health among Hispanic subgroups other than Mexican Americans. The current study aimed to determine the prevalence of osteoporosis and low bone mass (LBM) among 953 Puerto Rican adults, aged 47 to 79 yr and living on the U...
October 17, 2017: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043082/effect-of-sex-and-age-on-traumatic-brain-injury-a-geographical-comparative-study
#9
Raaj Kishore Biswas, Enamul Kabir, Rachel King
BACKGROUND: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a much researched topic in medical health, which requires additional studies to understand various effects of demographic and geographic factors that can assist in developing the most effective treatments. Thousands of people of different ages are suffering from lifelong disabilities, either mild or severe, from TBI and the number is increasing. This study aims to increase our understanding of the effect of sex and age by applying five different statistical methods to evaluate the effect of these covariates on two independent TBI data sets representing patients from different geographical cohorts...
2017: Archives of Public Health, Archives Belges de Santé Publique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042387/nature-based-care-opportunities-and-barriers-in-oncology-contexts-a-modified-international-e-delphi-survey
#10
Sarah Blaschke, Clare C O'Callaghan, Penelope Schofield
OBJECTIVE: To develop recommendations regarding opportunities and barriers for nature-based care in oncology contexts using a structured knowledge generation process involving relevant healthcare and design experts. DESIGN: Four-round modified electronic Delphi study. Oncology patients' nature-based recommendations, uncovered in preceding qualitative investigation, were included in the first round for the expert participants' consideration. Key items (opportunities and barriers) were developed using data aggregation and synthesis, followed by item prioritisation and 10-point Likert scale ranking (1=not important, 10=very important)...
October 16, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042254/cardiac-sodium-channel-antagonism-translation-of-preclinical-in-vitro-assays-to-clinical-qrs-prolongation
#11
Stephen Jenkinson, Asser Bassyouni, Jason Cordes, Bernard Fermini, Donglin Guo, David M Potter, David S Ramirez, Jill Steidl-Nichols, Sunny Sun, Todd Wisialowski
INTRODUCTION: Cardiac sodium channel antagonists have historically been used to treat cardiac arrhythmias by preventing the reentry of the electrical impulse that could occur following myocardial damage. However, clinical studies have highlighted a significant increase in mortality associated with such treatment. Cardiac sodium channel antagonist activity is now seen as an off-target pharmacology that should be mitigated during the drug development process. The aim of this study was to examine the correlation between in vitro/ex vivo assays that are routinely used to measure Nav1...
October 14, 2017: Journal of Pharmacological and Toxicological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042216/mapping-human-brain-lesions-and-their-functional-consequences
#12
REVIEW
Hans-Otto Karnath, Christoph Sperber, Christopher Rorden
Neuroscience has a long history of inferring brain function by examining the relationship between brain injury and subsequent behavioral impairments. The primary advantage of this method over correlative methods is that it can tell us if a certain brain region is necessary for a given cognitive function. In addition, lesion-based analyses provide unique insights into clinical deficits. In the last decade, statistical voxel-based lesion behavior mapping (VLBM) emerged as a powerful method for understanding the architecture of the human brain...
October 14, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29041901/prevalence-of-drug-resistant-pulmonary-tuberculosis-in-india-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#13
Vishal Goyal, Vijay Kadam, Prashant Narang, Vikram Singh
BACKGROUND: Drug-resistant pulmonary tuberculosis (DR-TB) is a significant public health issue that considerably deters the ongoing TB control efforts in India. The purpose of this review was to investigate the prevalence of DR-TB and understand the regional variation in resistance pattern across India from 1995 to 2015, based on a large body of published epidemiological studies. METHODS: A systematic review of published studies reporting prevalence of DR-TB from biomedical databases (PubMed and IndMed) was conducted...
October 17, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29041819/subjective-health-complaints-and-illness-perception-amongst-adults-with-joint-hypermobility-syndrome-ehlers-danlos-syndrome-hypermobilitytype-a-cross-sectional-study
#14
Lena Hope, Birgit Juul-Kristensen, Helene Løvaas, Camilla Løvvik, Silje Maeland
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the prevalence and severity of subjective health complaints and describe illness perception in a population of Joint Hypermobility Syndrome or Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome-Hypermobile Type. METHOD: This study was a postal survey with a questionnaire battery on demographic data, subjective health complaints inventory, and illness perception. A total of 110 individuals diagnosed with Joint Hypermobility Syndrome or Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome-Hypermobile Type from two specialized hospitals in Norway were offered participation...
October 17, 2017: Disability and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29041818/a-content-analysis-of-peripheral-arterial-disease-patient-reported-outcome-measures-using-the-international-classification-of-functioning-disability-and-health
#15
Candice Lee Osborne, David Seth Kauvar
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to link, classify and describe the content of peripheral arterial disease (PAD)-specific patient-reported outcome measures using the International Classification of Functioning. The results were then analyzed to determine if these assessments provide clinicians and researchers with a comprehensive understanding of the lived experience of patients with PAD. METHODS: Each meaningful concept in identified PAD assessments was linked to the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health to determine included and excluded content areas...
October 17, 2017: Disability and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040925/the-natural-number-bias-and-its-role-in-rational-number-understanding-in-children-with-dyscalculia-delay-or-deficit
#16
Jo Van Hoof, Lieven Verschaffel, Pol Ghesquière, Wim Van Dooren
BACKGROUND: Previous research indicated that in several cases learners' errors on rational number tasks can be attributed to learners' tendency to (wrongly) apply natural number properties. There exists a large body of literature both on learners' struggle with understanding the rational number system and on the role of the natural number bias in this struggle. However, little is known about this phenomenon in learners with dyscalculia. AIMS: We investigated the rational number understanding of learners with dyscalculia and compared it with the rational number understanding of learners without dyscalculia...
October 14, 2017: Research in Developmental Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040520/clinical-implications-of-mitochondrial-dna-quantification-on-pregnancy-outcomes-a-blinded-prospective-non-selection-study
#17
Elpida Fragouli, Caroline McCaffrey, Krithika Ravichandran, Katharina Spath, James A Grifo, Santiago Munné, Dagan Wells
STUDY QUESTION: Can quantification of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) in trophectoderm (TE) biopsy samples provide information concerning the viability of a blastocyst, potentially enhancing embryo selection and improving IVF treatment outcomes? SUMMARY ANSWER: This study demonstrated that euploid blastocysts of good morphology, but with high mtDNA levels had a greatly reduced implantation potential. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Better methods of embryo selection leading to IVF outcome improvement are necessary, as the transfer of chromosomally normal embryos of high morphological grade cannot guarantee the establishment of an ongoing pregnancy...
September 23, 2017: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040513/targeted-metabolomics-reveals-reduced-levels-of-polyunsaturated-choline-plasmalogens-and-a-smaller-dimethylarginine-arginine-ratio-in-the-follicular-fluid-of-patients-with-a-diminished-ovarian-reserve
#18
J M Chao de la Barca, T Boueilh, G Simard, L Boucret, V Ferré-L'Hotellier, L Tessier, C Gadras, P E Bouet, P Descamps, V Procaccio, P Reynier, P May-Panloup
STUDY QUESTION: Does the metabolomic profile of the follicular fluid (FF) of patients with a diminished ovarian reserve (DOR) differ from that of patients with a normal ovarian reserve (NOR)? SUMMARY ANSWER: The metabolomic signature of the FF reveals a significant decrease in polyunsaturated choline plasmalogens and methyl arginine transferase activity in DOR patients compared to NOR patients. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: The composition of the FF reflects the exchanges between the oocyte and its microenvironment during its acquisition of gametic competence...
October 13, 2017: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040427/what-is-the-end-of-life-period-trajectories-and-characterization-based-on-primary-caregiver-reports
#19
Jiska Cohen-Mansfield, Rinat Cohen, Michal Skornick-Bouchbinder, Shai Brill
BACKGROUND: As the population lives longer, end of life (EOL) is emerging as a distinct life phase, about which there is still limited understanding. Characterizing this important period is vital for clarifying issues regarding trajectory and decline at EOL and for health service planning on an institutional, communal, and societal level. In this paper we aim to characterize the EOL period, examining the duration and number of EOL stages, as well as the functional, attitudinal and emotional trajectories...
October 12, 2017: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040379/contrasting-evolutionary-processes-during-quaternary-climatic-changes-and-historical-orogenies-a-case-study-of-the-japanese-endemic-primroses-primula-sect-reinii
#20
Masaya Yamamoto, Masato Ohtani, Kaoruko Kurata, Hiroaki Setoguchi
Background and Aims: Recent biogeographic studies have illustrated that Quaternary climatic changes and historical orogenies have driven the development of high levels of biodiversity. In this context, phylogenetic niche conservatism may play a role as a major precursor of allopatric speciation. However, the effects of niche evolution on the diversification patterns of plant species under rapid habitat changes are still unknown. Here, Primula section Reinii, one of the few primroses endemic to the Japanese Archipelago, was investigated...
October 13, 2017: Annals of Botany
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