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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648004/-effects-of-botulinum-toxin-type-a-injection-for-pathological-characteristic-of-calf-in-rats-with-spinal-cord-injure
#1
X M Wei, Z L Dou, Y W Zhang, M Dai, F Yu, Q Y Wang, L Jiang
Objective: To explore the effect of BoTN-A on pathological characteristics of calf (GM) and motor function of ankle dorsiflexors in SCI model rats. Methods: Thirty-six SD male rats (weight 260-280 g) were randomly allocated into normal control group and 12w-control group, NS-injection group and BT-injection group in this study.NS/BT-injection groups were divided into two subgroups separately (2w-NS, 2w-BT, 8w-NS, 8w-BT). No injection was applied in normal control group or 12w-control group.Saline/BoTN-A was injected in right GM in NS/BT-injection group at two different time points(2w, 8w)...
June 20, 2017: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646025/remodeling-of-repolarization-and-arrhythmia-susceptibility-in-a-myosin-binding-protein-c-knockout-mouse-model
#2
Amir Toib, Chen Zhang, Giulia Borghetti, Xiaoxiao Zhang, Markus Wallner, Yijun Yang, Constantine Troupes, Hajime Kubo, Thomas Sharp, Eric Feldsott, Remus M Berretta, Neil Zalavadia, Danielle Trappanese, Shavonn Harper, Polina Gross, Xiongwen Chen, Sadia Mohsin, Steven Houser
Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is one of the most common genetic cardiac diseases and amongst the leading causes of sudden cardiac death (SCD) in the young. The cellular mechanisms leading to SCD in HCM are not well known. Prolongation of the action potential duration (APD) is a common feature predisposing hypertrophied hearts to SCD. Previous studies have explored the roles of inward Na(+) and Ca(2+) in the development of HCM, but the role of repolarizing K(+) currents have not been defined. The objective of this study was to characterize the arrhythmogenic phenotype and cellular electrophysiological properties of mice with HCM, induced by Myosin Binding Protein C (MyBPC) Knockout (KO) and to test the hypothesis that remodeling of repolarizing K(+) currents cause APD prolongation in MyBPC KO myocytes...
June 23, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645928/molecular-mechanisms-in-cardiomyopathy
#3
REVIEW
Keith Dadson, Ludger Hauck, Filio Billia
Cardiomyopathies represent a heterogeneous group of diseases that negatively affect heart function. Primary cardiomyopathies specifically target the myocardium, and may arise from genetic [hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy/dysplasia (ARVC/D), mitochondrial cardiomyopathy] or genetic and acquired [dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM), restrictive cardiomyopathy (RCM)] etiology. Modern genomics has identified mutations that are common in these populations, while in vitro and in vivo experimentation with these mutations have provided invaluable insight into the molecular mechanisms native to these diseases...
July 1, 2017: Clinical Science (1979-)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644070/particulate-matter-disrupts-human-lung-endothelial-cell-barrier-integrity-via-rho-dependent-pathways
#4
Ting Wang, Yuka Shimizu, Xiaomin Wu, Gabriel T Kelly, Xiaoyan Xu, Lichun Wang, Zhongqing Qian, Yin Chen, Joe G N Garcia
Increased exposure to ambient particulate matter (PM) is associated with elevated morbidity and mortality in patients with cardiopulmonary diseases and cancer. We and others have shown that PM induces lung microvascular barrier dysfunction which potentially enhances the systemic toxicity of PM. However, the mechanisms by which PM disrupts vascular endothelial integrity remain incompletely explored. We hypothesize that PM induces endothelial cell (EC) cytoskeleton rearrangement via Rho GTPase-dependent pathways to facilitate vascular hyperpermeability...
June 23, 2017: Pulmonary Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643776/ezrin-enhances-line-tension-along-transcellular-tunnel-edges-via-nmiia-driven-actomyosin-cable-formation
#5
Caroline Stefani, David Gonzalez-Rodriguez, Yosuke Senju, Anne Doye, Nadia Efimova, Sébastien Janel, Justine Lipuma, Meng Chen Tsai, Daniel Hamaoui, Madhavi P Maddugoda, Olivier Cochet-Escartin, Coline Prévost, Frank Lafont, Tatyana Svitkina, Pekka Lappalainen, Patricia Bassereau, Emmanuel Lemichez
Transendothelial cell macroaperture (TEM) tunnels control endothelium barrier function and are triggered by several toxins from pathogenic bacteria that provoke vascular leakage. Cellular dewetting theory predicted that a line tension of uncharacterized origin works at TEM boundaries to limit their widening. Here, by conducting high-resolution microscopy approaches we unveil the presence of an actomyosin cable encircling TEMs. We develop a theoretical cellular dewetting framework to interpret TEM physical parameters that are quantitatively determined by laser ablation experiments...
June 23, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643432/the-penetration-and-phenotype-modulation-of-smooth-muscle-cells-on-surface-heparin-modified-poly-%C3%AE%C2%B5-caprolactone-vascular-scaffold
#6
Jie Cao, Xue Geng, Juan Wen, Qingxuan Li, Lin Ye, Aiying Zhang, Zengguo Feng, Lianrui Guo, Yongquan Gu
The tubular porous poly(ε-caprolactone)(PCL) scaffold was fabricated by electrospinning. After then, the scaffold's surface was firstly eroded by hexyldiamine to endow amine group, and heparin was covalently grafted to the surface to get surface heparin modified scaffold(ShPCL scaffold). It was found that ShPCL scaffold can induce smooth muscle cells (SMCs) to penetrate the scaffold surface, while the SMCs can't penetrate the surface of PCL scaffold. Subsequently, the rabbit SMCs were seeded on the ShPCL scaffold and cultured for 14 days...
June 23, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642260/cigarette-smoke-disrupts-monolayer-integrity-by-altering-epithelial-cell-cell-adhesion-and-cortical-tension
#7
Kristine Nishida, Kieran A Brune, Nirupama Putcha, Pooja Mandke, Wanda K O'Neal, Danny Shade, Vasudha Srivastava, Menghen Wang, Hong Lam, Steven S An, M Bradley Drummond, Nadia N Hansel, Douglas N Robinson, Venkataramana K Sidhaye
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Cigarette smoke (CS) drives disease development and progression. The epithelial barrier is damaged by CS with increased monolayer permeability. However, the molecular changes that cause this barrier disruption and the interaction between adhesion proteins and the cytoskeleton are not well defined. We hypothesized that CS alters monolayer integrity by increasing cell contractility and decreasing cell adhesion in epithelia...
June 22, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642161/digenic-inheritance-of-mutations-in-the-cardiac-troponin-tnnt2-and-cardiac-beta-myosin-heavy-chain-myh7-as-the-cause-of-severe-dilated-cardiomyopathy
#8
Evmorfia Petropoulou, Mohammadhossein Soltani, Ali Dehghani Firoozabadi, Seyedeh Mahdieh Namayandeh, Jade Crockford, Reza Maroofian, Yalda Jamshidi
Familial dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) is characterized by ventricular dilation and depressed myocardial performance. It is a genetically heterogeneous disorder associated with mutations in over 60 genes. We carried out whole exome sequencing in combination with cardiomyopathy-related gene-filtering on two affected family members to identify the possible causative mutation in a consanguineous Iranian family with DCM. Two novel variants in cardiomyopathy-related genes were identified: c.247 A > C; p.N83H in the Troponin T Type 2 gene (TNNT2) and c...
June 19, 2017: European Journal of Medical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641980/cardiomyocyte-specific-overexpression-of-a-37-amino-acid-domain-of-regulator-of-g-protein-signalling-2-inhibits-cardiac-hypertrophy-and-improves-function-in-response-to-pressure-overload-in-mice
#9
Katherine N Lee, Xiangru Lu, Chau Nguyen, Qingping Feng, Peter Chidiac
Regulator of G protein signalling 2 (RGS2) is known to play a protective role in maladaptive cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure via its ability to inhibit Gq and Gs mediated GPCR signalling. We previously demonstrated that RGS2 can also inhibit protein translation and can thereby attenuate cell growth. This G protein-independent inhibitory effect has been mapped to a 37 amino acid domain (RGS2(eb)) within RGS2 that binds to eukaryotic initiation factor 2B (eIF2B). When expressed in neonatal rat cardiomyocytes, RGS2(eb) attenuates both protein synthesis and hypertrophy induced by Gq- and Gs- activating agents...
June 19, 2017: Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641567/biomarkers-in-acute-aortic-syndromes
#10
Mustafa Yildiz, Dogac Oksen, Michael Behnes, Ibrahim Akin
BACKGROUND: Acute aortic syndromes, being mostly underdiagnosed due to unspecific symptoms, are associated with high morbidity and mortality. Diagnosis carried out by transesophageal echocardiography, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. However, there are lots of biochemical assays being investigated, but none of them used reliably to identify acute aortic syndromes. Biomarkers could accelerate the diagnostic time with cost effective way and could get place in definitive diagnostic algorithm of acute aortic syndrome...
June 14, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640849/motility-in-blastogregarines-apicomplexa-native-and-drug-induced-organisation-of-siedleckia-nematoides-cytoskeletal-elements
#11
Andrea Valigurová, Naděžda Vaškovicová, Andrei Diakin, Gita G Paskerova, Timur G Simdyanov, Magdaléna Kováčiková
Recent studies on motility of Apicomplexa concur with the so-called glideosome concept applied for apicomplexan zoites, describing a unique mechanism of substrate-dependent gliding motility facilitated by a conserved form of actomyosin motor and subpellicular microtubules. In contrast, the gregarines and blastogregarines exhibit different modes and mechanisms of motility, correlating with diverse modifications of their cortex. This study focuses on the motility and cytoskeleton of the blastogregarine Siedleckia nematoides Caullery et Mesnil, 1898 parasitising the polychaete Scoloplos cf...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640660/chromosome-territory-relocation-paradigm-during-dna-damage-response-some-insights-from-molecular-biology-to-physics
#12
Sarosh N Fatakia, Mugdha Kulashreshtha, Ishita S Mehta, Basuthkar J Rao
Among the many facets of DNA damage response (DDR), relocation of chromosome territories (CTs) is most intriguing. We have previously reported that cisplatin induced DDR in human dermal fibroblasts led to relocation of CTs 12, 15 from the nuclear periphery to its interior while CTs 19, 17 repositioned from the interior to its periphery. Studies of CT relocation remain nascent as we begin unraveling the role of key players in DDR to demonstrate its mechanistic basis. Consolidating our recent reports, we argue that γH2AX-signaling leads to enhanced recruitment of nuclear myosin 1 (NM1) to chromatin, which via its motor function, results in CT repositioning...
June 22, 2017: Nucleus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640448/overview-of-the-muscle-cytoskeleton
#13
Christine A Henderson, Christopher G Gomez, Stefanie M Novak, Lei Mi-Mi, Carol C Gregorio
Cardiac and skeletal striated muscles are intricately designed machines responsible for muscle contraction. Coordination of the basic contractile unit, the sarcomere, and the complex cytoskeletal networks are critical for contractile activity. The sarcomere is comprised of precisely organized individual filament systems that include thin (actin), thick (myosin), titin, and nebulin. Connecting the sarcomere to other organelles (e.g., mitochondria and nucleus) and serving as the scaffold to maintain cellular integrity are the intermediate filaments...
June 18, 2017: Comprehensive Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640320/molecular-signature-of-coronary-stent-thrombosis-oxidative-stress-and-innate-immunity-cells
#14
Judit Cubedo, Ana Blasco, Teresa Padro, Ilaria Ramaiola, Oriol Juan-Babot, Javier Goicolea, José Antonio Fernández-Díaz, Juan Francisco Oteo, Lina Badimon
The clinical impact of in-stent thrombosis is high because it is associated with high mortality and 20 % of the patients suffer a recurrent event within the two following years. The aim of this study was to characterise the morphologic and proteomic profile of in-stent thrombi (IST) in comparison to thrombi developed on native coronary arteries (CT) to identify a differential molecular signature. The study included 45 patients with ST-elevation-myocardial-infarction (STEMI) treated by primary-percutaneous-intervention and thrombus aspiration: 21 had IST and 24 had CT...
June 22, 2017: Thrombosis and Haemostasis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639134/kifc1-and-myosin-va-two-motors-for-acrosomal-biogenesis-and-nuclear-shaping-during-spermiogenesis-of-portunus-trituberculatus
#15
Dan-Dan Ma, Meng-Ying Pan, Cong-Cong Hou, Fu-Qing Tan, Wan-Xi Yang
To investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying the spermiogenesis of the swimming crab Portunus trituberculatus, full lengths of motor proteins KIFC1 and myosin Va were cloned by rapid-amplification of cDNA ends from P. trituberculatus testes cDNA, and their respective probes and specific antibodies were used to track their localization during sperm maturation. Antisense probes were designed from the gene sequences and used to detect the mRNA levels of each gene. According to the results of fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), the transcription of kifc1 and myosin Va began at the mid-stage of spermatids, with the kifc1 mRNA being most active at the location where the acrosome cap was formed and the myosin Va was more concentrated in the acrosome complex...
June 21, 2017: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636748/e-cadherin-mediates-uvr-and-calcium-induced-melanin-transfer-in-human-skin-cells
#16
Suman K Singh, Richard Baker, Stephen K Sikkink, Carine Nizard, Sylvianne Schnebert, Robin Kurfurst, Desmond J Tobin
Skin pigmentation is directed by epidermal-melanin units, characterized by long-lived and dendritic epidermal melanocytes (MC) that interact with viable keratinocytes (KC) to contribute melanin to the epidermis. Previously we reported that MC:KC contact is required for melanosome transfer, that this can be enhanced by filopodial and by UVR/UVA irradiation, which can up-regulate melanosome transfer via Myosin X-mediated control of MC filopodia. Both MC and KC express Ca(2+) -dependent E-cadherins. These homophilic adhesion contacts induce transient increases in intra-KC Ca(2+) , while ultraviolet radiation (UVR) raises intra-MC Ca(2+) via calcium selective ORAI1 ion channels; both are associated with regulating melanogenesis...
June 21, 2017: Experimental Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635988/salivary-epithelial-myoepithelial-carcinoma-clinical-morphological-and-molecular-features
#17
R De Cecio, M Cantile, F Fulciniti, G Botti, M P Foschini, N S Losito
Epithelial-myoepithelial carcinoma (EMC) is a rare biphasic tumor accounting for less than 2% of all salivary gland malignancies. It presents as a slowly growing, asymptomatic small size mass, with ulceration of overlying mucosa in some cases. Microscopically, it is characterized by glands lined by the simultaneous presence of two different cell components, inner epithelial cells and outer myoepithelial cells. Immunohistochemical staining of myoepithelial cells is variably positive for vimentin, Smooth Muscle Actin (SMA), Muscle Specific Actin (MSA), S100, Smooth Muscle Myosin Heavy Chain I(SM-MHC), calponin and p63...
March 2017: Pathologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635959/optogenetic-activation-of-plexin-b1-reveals-contact-repulsion-between-osteoclasts-and-osteoblasts
#18
Abhijit Deb Roy, Taofei Yin, Shilpa Choudhary, Vladimir Rodionov, Carol C Pilbeam, Yi I Wu
During bone remodelling, osteoclasts induce chemotaxis of osteoblasts and yet maintain spatial segregation. We show that osteoclasts express the repulsive guidance factor Semaphorin 4D and induce contact inhibition of locomotion (CIL) in osteoblasts through its receptor Plexin-B1. To examine causality and elucidate how localized Plexin-B1 stimulation may spatiotemporally coordinate its downstream targets in guiding cell migration, we develop an optogenetic tool for Plexin-B1 designated optoPlexin. Precise optoPlexin activation at the leading edge of migrating osteoblasts readily induces local retraction and, unexpectedly, distal protrusions to steer cells away...
June 21, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633918/traction-force-and-its-regulation-during-cytokinesis-in-dictyostelium-cells
#19
Md Golam Sarowar Jahan, Shigehiko Yumura
Cytokinesis is the final stage of cell division. Dictyostelium cells have multiple modes of cytokinesis, including cytokinesis A, B and C. Cytokinesis A is a conventional mode, which depends on myosin II in the contractile ring. Myosin II null cells divide depending on substratum-attachment (cytokinesis B) or in a multi-polar fashion independent of the cell cycle (cytokinesis C). We investigated the traction stress exerted by dividing cells in the three different modes using traction force microscopy. In all cases, the traction forces were directed inward from both poles...
June 12, 2017: European Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633832/effects-of-ultrasound-on-the-beef-structure-and-water-distribution-during-curing-through-protein-degradation-and-modification
#20
Da-Cheng Kang, Xue-Qin Gao, Qing-Feng Ge, Guang-Hong Zhou, Wan-Gang Zhang
The objective of this study was to explore the mechanisms of power ultrasound (PUS, 150 and 300W) and treatment time (30 and 120min) on the water-holding capacity (WHC) and tenderness of beef during curing. Beef muscle at 48h post mortem was subjected to PUS treatment at a frequency of 20kHz. Analysis of compression loss and shear force showed that PUS-assisted curing significantly increased the WHC and the tenderness of beef compared to static brining (p<0.05). According to the analysis of LF-NMR, PUS treatment could increase the P21 values which indicated an improvement in water-binding ability of beef muscle...
September 2017: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry
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