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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732005/filamin-actin-binding-and-titin-binding-fulfill-distinct-functions-in-z-disc-cohesion
#1
Nicanor González-Morales, Tristan K Holenka, Frieder Schöck
Many proteins contribute to the contractile properties of muscles, most notably myosin thick filaments, which are anchored at the M-line, and actin thin filaments, which are anchored at the Z-discs that border each sarcomere. In humans, mutations in the actin-binding protein Filamin-C result in myopathies, but the underlying molecular function is not well understood. Here we show using Drosophila indirect flight muscle that the filamin ortholog Cheerio in conjunction with the giant elastic protein titin plays a crucial role in keeping thin filaments stably anchored at the Z-disc...
July 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731162/a-homozygous-myo7a-mutation-associated-to-usher-syndrome-and-unilateral-auditory-neuropathy-spectrum-disorder
#2
Hong Xia, Pengzhi Hu, Lamei Yuan, Wei Xiong, Hongbo Xu, Junhui Yi, Zhijian Yang, Xiong Deng, Yi Guo, Hao Deng
Usher syndrome (USH) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by sensorineural hearing loss, progressive visual loss and night blindness due to retinitis pigmentosa (RP), with or without vestibular dysfunction. The purpose of this study was to detect the causative gene in a consanguineous Chinese family with USH. A c.3696_3706del (p.R1232Sfs*72) variant in the myosin VIIa gene (MYO7A) was identified in the homozygous state by exome sequencing. The co‑segregation of the MYO7A c.3696_3706del variant with the phenotype of deafness and progressive visual loss in the USH family was confirmed by Sanger sequencing...
July 21, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730826/effect-of-carcinogen-1-2-dimethylhydrazine-treatment-on-fibre-types-in-skeletal-muscles-of-male-wistar-rats
#3
V Smerdu, M Perše
The cancerogen 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH), widely used in the experimental animal model of carcinogenesis, affects various organs, but its effect on muscle fibres is unknown. To evaluate the effect of 15-week DMH treatment on the fibre size and myosin heavy chain (MyHC) isoforms, which substantially determine fibre types and their contractile characteristics, pure and hybrid fibre types were immunohistochemically determined according to the MyHC isoform expression in soleus, extensor digitorum longus, gastrocnemius medialis and lateralis muscles of DMH-treated and control male Wistar rats...
July 18, 2017: Physiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730650/regulatory-roles-of-introns-in-fungicide-sensitivity-of-fusarium-graminearum
#4
Yanjun Li, Shunwen Luo, Xiaojing Jia, Yuanye Zhu, Dongming Chen, Yabing Duan, Yiping Hou, Mingguo Zhou
Although the roles of introns have been much debated in eukaryotic organisms, none of them have been functionally characterized in Fusarium graminearum. In this study, we characterized the roles of introns in regulation of fungicide-sensitivity of F. graminearum. β2 tub, cyp51A and myosin-5 are important target genes of benzimidazoles, triazoles and cyanoacrylates, respectively. To explore the sensitivity regulation functions of introns in target genes, several detailed deletion studies were completed on the intronic regions of β2 tub, cyp51A, myosin-5...
July 21, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730277/regulation-of-class-v-myosin
#5
REVIEW
Ning Zhang, Lin-Lin Yao, Xiang-Dong Li
Class V myosin (myosin-5) is a molecular motor that functions as an organelle transporter. The activation of myosin-5's motor function has long been known to be associated with a transition from the folded conformation in the off-state to the extended conformation in the on-state, but only recently have we begun to understand the underlying mechanism. The globular tail domain (GTD) of myosin-5 has been identified as the inhibitory domain and has recently been shown to function as a dimer in regulating the motor function...
July 20, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729432/tropomodulin1-controls-erythroblast-enucleation-via-regulation-of-f-actin-in-the-enucleosome
#6
Roberta B Nowak, Julien Papoin, David S Gokhin, Carla Casu, Stefano Rivella, Jeffrey M Lipton, Lionel Blanc, Velia M Fowler
Biogenesis of mammalian red blood cells requires nuclear expulsion by orthochromatic erythoblasts late in terminal differentiation (enucleation), but the mechanism is largely unexplained. Here, we employed high resolution confocal microscopy to analyze nuclear morphology and F-actin rearrangements during the initiation, progression and completion of mouse and human erythroblast enucleation in vivo Mouse erythroblast nuclei acquire a dumbbell-shaped morphology during enucleation, while human bone marrow erythroblast nuclei unexpectedly retain their spherical morphology...
July 20, 2017: Blood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729389/severe-energy-deficit-up-regulates-leptin-receptors-leptin-signaling-and-ptp1b-in-human-skeletal-muscle
#7
Ismael Perez-Suarez, Jesus Gustavo Ponce-Gonzalez, Jaime de La Calle-Herrero, Jose Losa-Reyna, Marcos Martin-Rincon, David Morales-Alamo, Alfredo Santana, Hans-Christer Holmberg, Jose A L Calbet
In obesity, leptin receptors (OBR) and leptin signaling in skeletal muscle are down-regulated. To determine whether OBR and leptin signaling are up-regulated with a severe energy deficit fifteen overweight men were assessed before (PRE), after 4 days of caloric restriction (3.2 Kcal/kg BW/day) in combination with prolonged exercise (CRE) (8h walking + 45min single-arm cranking/day) to induce an energy deficit of ~5500 Kcal/d, and following 3 days of control diet (isoenergetic) and reduced exercise (CD). During CRE, the diet consisted solely of whey protein (n=8) or sucrose (n=7) (0...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729039/congenital-myopathy-due-to-myosin-heavy-chain-2-mutation-presenting-as-chronic-aspiration-pneumonia-in-infancy
#8
R Tsabari, H Daum, E Kerem, Y Fellig, T Dor
A 7-week-old infant presented with persistent noisy breathing and aspirations during swallowing. Neurological examination and brain MRI were normal. His 12-year-old brother underwent pneumonectomy at the age of 10 years due to recurrent aspirations leading to severe lung damage. The older brother developed subsequently ophthalmoplegia and nystagmus along with mild weakness of the neck flexors and proximal muscles. Exome analysis revealed homozygosity for a novel truncating mutation p.G800fs27* in the Myosin Heavy Chain 2 (MYH2) gene in both brothers, while parents and an unaffected sibling were heterozygous...
June 27, 2017: Neuromuscular Disorders: NMD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728404/quality-of-steak-restructured-from-beef-trimmings-containing-microbial-transglutaminase-and-impacted-by-freezing-and-grading-by-fat-level
#9
Supaluk Sorapukdee, Pussadee Tangwatcharin
Objective: The objective of this research was to evaluate the physico-chemical, microbiological and sensorial qualities of restructured steaks processed from beef trimmings (grade I and II) and frozen beef (fresh beef as control and frozen beef). Method: Beef trimmings from commercial butcher were collected, designated into 4 treatments differed in beef trimmings grade and freezing, processed into restructured steaks with 1% microbial transglutaminase and then analyzed product quality...
July 17, 2017: Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728382/effects-of-a-traditional-chinese-medicine-formula-and-its-extraction-on-muscle-fiber-characteristics-in-finishing-pigs-porcine-cell-proliferation-and-isoforms-of-myosin-heavy-chain-gene-expression-in-myocytes
#10
Qin Ping Yu, Ding Yuan Feng, Xiao Jun He, Fan Wu, Min Hao Xia, Tao Dong, Yi Hua Liu, Hui Ze Tan, Shi Geng Zou, Tao Zheng, Xian Hua Ou, Jian Jun Zou
Objective: This study evaluated the effects of a traditional Chinese medicine formula (TCMF) on muscle fiber characteristics in finishing pigs and the effects of the formula's extract (distilled water, ethyl acetate and petroleum ether extraction) on porcine cell proliferation and isoforms of MyHC gene expression in myocytes. Methods: XThe psoas major muscle was obtained from pigs at the end of the experiment. Muscle fiber characteristics in the psoas major muscle were analyzed using myosin ATPase staining...
June 26, 2017: Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727228/actin-gamma-1-a-new-skin-cancer-pathogenic-gene-identified-by-the-biological-feature-based-classification
#11
Xinqian Dong, Yingsheng Han, Zhen Sun, Junlong Xu
Skin cancer is the most common form of cancer that accounting for at least 40% of cancer cases around the world. This study aimed to identify skin cancer-related biological features and predict skin cancer candidate genes by employing machine learning based on biological features of known skin cancer genes. The known skin cancer-related genes were fetched from database and encoded by the enrichment scores of gene ontology and pathways. The optimal features of the skin cancer related genes were selected with a series of feature selection methods, such as mRMR, IFS, and Random Forest algorithm...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726188/a-lncrna-promotes-myoblast-proliferation-by-up-regulating-gh1
#12
Yingwei Yue, Congfei Jin, Mingming Chen, Linlin Zhang, Xinfeng Liu, Wenzhi Ma, Hong Guo
Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are key regulatory factors for gene expression in a variety of biological processes; however, the role of lncRNAs in muscle formation and development is poorly understood, particularly in cattle. Here, we identified a highly expressed lncRNA in muscle, lncYYW, by high-throughput sequencing in bovine longissimus, scapular, intercostal, and gluteus muscles. The expression of lncYYW increased gradually during myoblast differentiation. Overexpression of lncYYW increased the number of cells in the DNA synthesis (S) stage of the cell cycle and upregulated the expression of two well-established myogenic markers, myogenin and myosin heavy chain...
July 19, 2017: In Vitro Cellular & Developmental Biology. Animal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721582/mir-130b-3p-301b-3p-negatively-regulated-rb1cc1-expression-on-myogenic-differentiation-of-chicken-primary-myoblasts
#13
Jian Xue, Jingwen Xue, Ji Zhang, Dan Li, Lei Jiang
OBJECTIVES: To explore the roles of miR-130b-3p and miR-301b-3p which may regulate Rb1-inducible coiled-coil 1 (Rb1cc1) expression during myogenic differentiation of chicken primary myoblasts. RESULTS: After 4 days of myogenic differentiation, myotubes appeared and after 6 days the cells fused to each other and expression of MyHC could be detected by immunofluorescence staining. TargetScan and RNAhybrid 2.2 showed miR-130b-3p and miR-301b-3p were well complementary with the target site of Rb1cc1 3'-untranslated region (3'-UTR)...
July 18, 2017: Biotechnology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721121/does-the-injection-of-platelet-rich-plasma-induce-changes-in-the-gene-expression-and-morphology-of-intact-thoroughbred-skeletal-muscle
#14
Kentaro Fukuda, Hirofumi Miyata, Atsutoshi Kuwano, Taisuke Kuroda, Norihisa Tamura, Yasumitsu Kotoyori, Yoshinori Kasashima
Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) therapy is promising for treating skeletal muscle injuries in human athletes by promoting muscle regeneration. It might also be useful for treating muscle injuries in equine athletes. In the present study, muscle regeneration induced by injection of PRP into intact muscle of Thoroughbred was investigated. Autologous PRP and saline were injected twice into intact left and right gluteus medius muscles of seven clinically healthy Thoroughbreds. Muscle samples were collected from the injection sites by needle biopsy at 2 and 7 days after PRP injection...
2017: Journal of Equine Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720890/iron-overload-exacerbates-age-associated-cardiac-hypertrophy-in-a-mouse-model-of-hemochromatosis
#15
Abitha Sukumaran, JuOae Chang, Murui Han, Shrutika Mintri, Ban-An Khaw, Jonghan Kim
Cardiac damage associated with iron overload is the most common cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with hereditary hemochromatosis, but the precise mechanisms leading to disease progression are largely unexplored. Here we investigated the effects of iron overload and age on cardiac hypertrophy using 1-, 5- and 12-month old Hfe-deficient mice, an animal model of hemochromatosis in humans. Cardiac iron levels increased progressively with age, which was exacerbated in Hfe-deficient mice. The heart/body weight ratios were greater in Hfe-deficient mice at 5- and 12-month old, compared with their age-matched wild-type controls...
July 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719832/expression-of-myhc-isoforms-mrna-transcripts-in-different-regions-of-the-masseter-and-medial-pterygoid-muscles-in-chimpanzees
#16
Neus Ciurana, Rosa Artells, Carmen Muñoz, Júlia Arias-Martorell, Gaëlle Bello-Hellegouarch, Alejandro Pérez-Pérez, Juan Francisco Pastor, Josep Maria Potau
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to examine the expression pattern of the different myosin heavy chain (MyHC) isoforms in the masseter and medial pterygoid muscles by real time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) to obtain information at molecular level which can be related to the functional characteristics of these two muscles. DESIGN: The masseter, deep and superficial portion, and medial pterygoid muscles of five adult Pan troglodytes were dissected in order to obtain samples of the anterior and posterior regions of each portion of the masseter and of the medial pterygoid...
July 9, 2017: Archives of Oral Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719725/effects-of-eupatilin-on-the-contractility-of-corpus-cavernosal-smooth-muscle-through-nitric-oxide-independent-pathways
#17
S H Choo, S W Lee, M R Chae, S J Kang, H H Sung, D H Han, J N Chun, J K Park, C Y Kim, H K Kim, I So
Eupatilin (5,7-dihydroxy-3,4,6-trimethoxyflavone) is one of the main compounds present in Artemisia species. Eupatilin has both antioxidative and anti-inflammatory properties and a relaxation effect on vascular contraction regardless of endothelial function. We evaluated the relaxant effects of eupatilin on the corpus cavernosum (CC) of rabbits and the underlying mechanisms of its activity in human corpus cavernosum smooth muscle (CCSM) cells. Isolated rabbit CC strips were mounted in an organ bath system. A conventional whole-cell patch clamp technique was used to measure activation of calcium-sensitive K(+) -channel currents in human CCSM cells...
July 18, 2017: Andrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717991/prolonged-bed-rest-impairs-rapid-cpi-17-phosphorylation-and-contraction-in-rat-mesenteric-resistance-arteries-to-cause-orthostatic-hypotension
#18
Toshio Kitazawa, Kazuyo Kitazawa
Prolonged bed rest (PBR) causes orthostatic hypotension (OH). Rapid constriction of splanchnic resistance arteries in response to a sudden increase in sympathetic tone contributes to the recovery of orthostatic arterial pressure upon standing. However, the molecular mechanism of PBR-induced dysfunction in arterial constriction is not fully understood. Previously, we showed that CPI-17, a regulatory protein for myosin phosphatase, mediates α1A-adrenergic receptor-induced rapid contraction of small mesenteric arteries...
July 17, 2017: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717924/hypertrophic-cardiomyopathy-and-the-myosin-mesa-viewing-an-old-disease-in-a-new-light
#19
REVIEW
Darshan V Trivedi, Arjun S Adhikari, Saswata S Sarkar, Kathleen M Ruppel, James A Spudich
The sarcomere is an exquisitely designed apparatus that is capable of generating force, which in the case of the heart results in the pumping of blood throughout the body. At the molecular level, an ATP-dependent interaction of myosin with actin drives the contraction and force generation of the sarcomere. Over the past six decades, work on muscle has yielded tremendous insights into the workings of the sarcomeric system. We now stand on the cusp where the acquired knowledge of how the sarcomere contracts and how that contraction is regulated can be extended to an understanding of the molecular mechanisms of sarcomeric diseases, such as hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM)...
July 17, 2017: Biophysical Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717253/prostacyclin-reverses-platelet-stress-fibre-formation-causing-platelet-aggregate-instability
#20
M Z Yusuf, Z Raslan, L Atkinson, A Aburima, S G Thomas, K M Naseem, S D J Calaminus
Prostacyclin (PGI2) modulates platelet activation to regulate haemostasis. Evidence has emerged to suggest that thrombi are dynamic structures with distinct areas of differing platelet activation. It was hypothesised that PGI2 could reverse platelet spreading by actin cytoskeletal modulation, leading to reduced capability of platelet aggregates to withstand a high shear environment. Our data demonstrates that post-flow of PGI2 over activated and spread platelets on fibrinogen, identified a significant reduction in platelet surface area under high shear...
July 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
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