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Emphysema, Chronic Bronchitis, COPD

Christel E van Dijk, Jan-Paul Zock, Christos Baliatsas, Lidwien A M Smit, Floor Borlée, Peter Spreeuwenberg, Dick Heederik, C Joris Yzermans
Previous studies investigating health conditions of individuals living near livestock farms generally assessed short time windows. We aimed to take time-specific differences into account and to compare the prevalence of various health conditions over seven consecutive years. The sample consisted of 156,690 individuals registered in 33 general practices in a (rural) area with a high livestock density and 101,015 patients from 23 practices in other (control) areas in the Netherlands. Prevalence of health conditions were assessed using 2007-2013 electronic health record (EHR) data...
December 30, 2016: Environmental Pollution
(no author information available yet)
Approximately 15.7 million U.S. adults have received a diagnosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), which includes chronic bronchitis and emphysema (1). However, many more adults with symptoms of COPD, including frequent coughing, shortness of breath, excess phlegm or sputum production, wheezing, or difficulty taking a deep breath, might not be aware that they have COPD, or they may not be receiving treatment for COPD because they have never received a diagnosis. Geographic variations in the availability of primary care physicians and COPD specialists for the U...
November 18, 2016: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
Min-Jong Kang, Gerald S Shadel
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) encompasses several clinical syndromes, most notably emphysema and chronic bronchitis. Most of the current treatments fail to attenuate severity and progression of the disease, thereby requiring better mechanistic understandings of pathogenesis to develop disease-modifying therapeutics. A number of theories on COPD pathogenesis have been promulgated wherein an increase in protease burden from chronic inflammation, exaggerated production of reactive oxygen species and the resulting oxidant injury, or superfluous cell death responses caused by enhanced cellular injury/damage were proposed as the culprit...
October 2016: Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
S Vamsee Raju, Hyunki Kim, Stephen A Byzek, Li Ping Tang, John E Trombley, Patricia Jackson, Lawrence Rasmussen, J Michael Wells, Emily Falk Libby, Erik Dohm, Lindy Winter, Sharon L Samuel, Kurt R Zinn, J Edwin Blalock, Trenton R Schoeb, Mark T Dransfield, Steven M Rowe
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is the third leading cause of death in the US. The majority of COPD patients have symptoms of chronic bronchitis, which lacks specific therapies. A major impediment to therapeutic development has been the absence of animal models that recapitulate key clinical and pathologic features of human disease. Ferrets are well suited for the investigation of the significance of respiratory diseases, given prior data indicating similarities to human airway physiology and submucosal gland distribution...
September 22, 2016: JCI Insight
Borja G Cosio, Joan B Soriano, Jose Luis López-Campos, Myriam Calle, Juan José Soler, Juan Pablo de-Torres, Jose Maria Marín, Cristina Martínez, Pilar de Lucas, Isabel Mir, Germán Peces-Barba, Nuria Feu-Collado, Ingrid Solanes, Inmaculada Alfageme
RATIONALE: The Spanish guideline for COPD (GesEPOC) recommends COPD treatment according to four clinical phenotypes: non-exacerbator phenotype with either chronic bronchitis or emphysema (NE), asthma-COPD overlap syndrome (ACOS), frequent exacerbator phenotype with emphysema (FEE) or frequent exacerbator phenotype with chronic bronchitis (FECB). However, little is known on the distribution and outcomes of the four suggested phenotypes. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to determine the distribution of these COPD phenotypes, and their relation with one-year clinical outcomes...
2016: PloS One
Feisal A Al-Kassimi, Esam H Alhamad, Mohammed S Al-Hajjaj, Emad Raddaoui, Abdulaziz H Alzeer, Ahmad A Alboukai, Ali M Somily, Joseph G Cal, Abdalla F Ibrahim, Shaffi A Shaik
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Post-mortem and computed tomography (CT) studies indicated that emphysema is a feature of COPD even in the 'blue bloater/chronic bronchitis' type. We aim to test the hypothesis that the non-emphysematous patients are distinct from the main body of COPD and are more akin to asthmatic patients. METHODS: We studied 54 patients with COPD. Emphysema was measured by Goddard's visual scoring of CT scan and the carbon monoxide transfer coefficient (KCO)...
February 2017: Respirology: Official Journal of the Asian Pacific Society of Respirology
Sevket Ozkaya, Adem Dirican, Tibel Tuna
Airway obstruction is variable in asthma, while it is progressive and persistent in chronic bronchitis and emphysema. However, some of the patients presenting with symptoms of chronic airway diseases have clinical features of both asthma and COPD. The group with "Asthma-COPD Overlap Syndrome" (ACOS) phenotype was characterized by definitely irreversible airway obstruction accompanied by symptoms and signs of reversibility. In this study, we aimed to classify obstructive airway diseases by clinical, radiological, and pulmonary function tests...
2016: International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
Wei Sun, Katerina Kechris, Sean Jacobson, M Bradley Drummond, Gregory A Hawkins, Jenny Yang, Ting-Huei Chen, Pedro Miguel Quibrera, Wayne Anderson, R Graham Barr, Patricia V Basta, Eugene R Bleecker, Terri Beaty, Richard Casaburi, Peter Castaldi, Michael H Cho, Alejandro Comellas, James D Crapo, Gerard Criner, Dawn Demeo, Stephanie A Christenson, David J Couper, Jeffrey L Curtis, Claire M Doerschuk, Christine M Freeman, Natalia A Gouskova, MeiLan K Han, Nicola A Hanania, Nadia N Hansel, Craig P Hersh, Eric A Hoffman, Robert J Kaner, Richard E Kanner, Eric C Kleerup, Sharon Lutz, Fernando J Martinez, Deborah A Meyers, Stephen P Peters, Elizabeth A Regan, Stephen I Rennard, Mary Beth Scholand, Edwin K Silverman, Prescott G Woodruff, Wanda K O'Neal, Russell P Bowler
Implementing precision medicine for complex diseases such as chronic obstructive lung disease (COPD) will require extensive use of biomarkers and an in-depth understanding of how genetic, epigenetic, and environmental variations contribute to phenotypic diversity and disease progression. A meta-analysis from two large cohorts of current and former smokers with and without COPD [SPIROMICS (N = 750); COPDGene (N = 590)] was used to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with measurement of 88 blood proteins (protein quantitative trait loci; pQTLs)...
August 2016: PLoS Genetics
N Roche, R Ajjouri, A Compagnon, T Van Der Molen, H Mullerova
INTRODUCTION: This article describes the French data which contributed to the international "Continuing to Confront COPD" (C2C) survey conducted in 2013 across 12 countries. Its objective was to describe the characteristics, symptoms and impact of COPD on health status, daily activities and working life in adults identified with the study definition as COPD; i.e., reporting a diagnosis of COPD, emphysema, chronic bronchitis (CB) or symptoms of CB either currently present or for which they had been treated in the past...
July 13, 2016: Revue des Maladies Respiratoires
Raymond Farah, Rola Khamisy-Farah, Nicola Makhoul
BACKGROUND: Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD), a common disease worldwide, refers to two frequently coexisting lung diseases, chronic bronchitis and emphysema. Physiologically, COPD represents a disruption in ventilation and in the exchange of gases in the lungs. A sharp worsening obstructive pulmonary disease with respiratory acidosis leads to repeated hospitalizations and high mortality rates. OBJECTIVE: This study examined patients with COPD during hospitalization...
April 2016: Harefuah
Hwa Young Lee, Jin Woo Kim, Sang Haak Lee, Hyoung Kyu Yoon, Jae Jeong Shim, Jeong-Woong Park, Jae-Hyung Lee, Kwang Ha Yoo, Ki-Suck Jung, Chin Kook Rhee
BACKGROUND: This study was designed to evaluate the effect of chronic bronchitis (CB) symptoms and degree of emphysema in a multicenter Korean cohort. METHODS: From April 2012 to May 2015, patients diagnosed with chronic obstructive lung disease (COPD) who were aged above 40 years at 46 hospitals throughout Korea were enrolled. All of the patients were classified according to CB symptoms and the diffusing capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide (DLCO); demographic data, symptom scores, and the result of lung function tests and exacerbations were then analyzed...
June 2016: Journal of Thoracic Disease
Masamichi Mineshita, Takeo Inoue, Teruomi Miyazawa
Several non-surgical and minimally invasive bronchoscopic interventions, such as bronchoscopic lung volume reduction (BLVR) techniques, have been developed to treat patients with severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). BLVR has been studied for treatment in severe COPD patients with emphysema. BLVR with one-way endobronchial valves is reported to be effective for patients with a heterogeneous emphysema distribution and without inter-lobar collateral ventilation. For the patients with collateral ventilation, and for the patients with homogeneous emphysema, BLVR with lung volume reduction coil has shown promising results...
May 2016: Nihon Rinsho. Japanese Journal of Clinical Medicine
Jessica Gonzalez, Marta Marín, Pablo Sánchez-Salcedo, Javier J Zulueta
Lung cancer and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are two intimately related diseases, with great impact on public health. Annual screening using low-dose computed tomography (LDCT) of the chest significantly reduces mortality due to lung cancer, and several scientific societies now recommend this technique. COPD, defined by the presence of airflow obstruction [forced expiratory volume and forced vital capacity (FVC) ratio less than 0.70], and their clinical phenotypes, namely emphysema and chronic bronchitis, have been associated with increased lung cancer risk...
April 2016: Annals of Translational Medicine
Asger Dirksen, Mathilde M W Wille
Computed tomography (CT) is an obvious modality for subclassification of COPD. Traditionally, the pulmonary involvement of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in smokers is understood as a combination of deleterious effects of smoking on small airways (chronic bronchitis and small airways disease) and distal to the airways with destruction and loss of lung parenchyma (emphysema). However, segmentation of airways is still experimental; with contemporary high-resolution CT (HRCT) we can just see the "entrance" of small airways, and until now changes in airway morphology that have been observed in COPD are subtle...
April 2016: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
María Montes de Oca, María Victorina Lopez Varela, Jose Jardim, Roberto Stirvulov, Filip Surmont
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Bronchodilators (BDs) are the cornerstone of COPD treatment. However, their underuse has been reported in real-life studies. PUMA is a primary-care study from Argentina, Colombia, Venezuela and Uruguay that could help understand the BD use in terms of frequency for long-acting (LA-BD) and short-acting (SA-BD) BDs alone or associated with corticosteroids (CS), and the use as-needed or on regular basis. METHODS: This is a multicentre, multinational, cross-sectional, non-interventional study including no randomised primary-care centres from each country (total 57 centres) without connection with respiratory specialists...
April 22, 2016: Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Pablo Sanchez-Salcedo, Javier J Zulueta
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: An important association has been described between chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and lung cancer, where different mechanisms have been proposed. There is no unique cause for this association, as COPD is by itself a heterogeneous disease, in which their classical phenotypes (i.e., emphysema and chronic bronchitis) each play an important role in lung cancer development. We will discuss recent evidence that links these two diseases and specific characteristics found in lung cancers from patients with COPD...
July 2016: Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine
Alejandro Casas Herrera, Maria Montes de Oca, Maria Victorina López Varela, Carlos Aguirre, Eduardo Schiavi, José R Jardim
BACKGROUND: Acknowledgement of COPD underdiagnosis and misdiagnosis in primary care can contribute to improved disease diagnosis. PUMA is an international primary care study in Argentina, Colombia, Venezuela and Uruguay. OBJECTIVES: To assess COPD underdiagnosis and misdiagnosis in primary care and identify factors associated with COPD underdiagnosis in this setting. METHODS: COPD was defined as post-bronchodilator (post-BD) forced expiratory volume in 1 second/forced vital capacity (FEV1/FVC) <0...
2016: PloS One
Maria Gabriella Matera, Alessandro Sanduzzi, Roberto Alfano, Mario Cazzola
Aclidinium is a twice-daily long-acting muscarinic receptor antagonist (LAMA) with an interesting pharmacological profile. Recent evidence indicates that this LAMA, in addition to causing a significant improvement in lung function and other important supportive outcomes, such as health related quality of life, dyspnea and nighttime/early morning symptoms in patients suffering from COPD, is also able to significantly reduce the rate of exacerbations of any severity, is extremely effective in controlling the COPD symptoms, is able to reduce lung hyperinflation, and has an excellent cardiovascular safety profile...
June 2016: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology
Tracie O Afifi, Harriet L MacMillan, Michael Boyle, Kristene Cheung, Tamara Taillieu, Sarah Turner, Jitender Sareen
BACKGROUND: A large literature exists on the association between child abuse and mental health, but less is known about associations with physical health. The study objective was to determine if several types of child abuse were related to an increased likelihood of negative physical health outcomes in a nationally representative sample of Canadian adults. DATA AND METHODS: Data are from the 2012 Canadian Community Health Survey-Mental Health (n = 23,395). The study sample was representative of the Canadian population aged 18 or older...
March 16, 2016: Health Reports
Colleen Doyle, David Dunt, David Ames, Marcia Fearn, Emily Chuanmei You, Sunil Bhar
BACKGROUND: COPD is an umbrella term to describe chronic lung diseases that cause limitations in lung airflow, including emphysema and chronic bronchitis. The prevalence of depression and anxiety in people with COPD is high, although these comorbidities are often undiagnosed, untreated, or undertreated. There is a need to identify efficacious treatments for depression and anxiety in people with COPD. Cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) for the treatment of anxiety and depression has a strong evidence base...
2016: International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
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