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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329470/cutaneous-manifestations-of-disseminated-gonococcemia
#1
Surget V Beatrous, Stratton B Grisoli, Ryan R Riahi, Ryan J Matherne, Ryan J Matherne
BACKGROUND: Sexually transmitted infections, includingurogenital gonorrheal infection, are a growing healthconcern in the United States. Nearly 50% of cervicalinfections are asymptomatic. If left undiagnosedand untreated, there is a risk of disseminatedinfection. PURPOSE: To describe an 18-year-old womanpresenting with disseminated gonococcal infectionconfirmed by blood cultures, skin biopsy, and urinegonococcal probe. We also describe the presentation,diagnosis, and treatment of disseminated gonococcalinfection, including discussion of the variousmorphologies of cutaneous lesions that have beenreported in the literature...
January 15, 2017: Dermatology Online Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329181/treatment-response-in-enteric-fever-in-an-era-of-increasing-antimicrobial-resistance-an-individual-patient-data-analysis-of-2-092-participants-enrolled-into-four-randomised-controlled-trials-in-nepal
#2
Corinne N Thompsom, Abhilasha Karkey, Sabina Dongol, Amit Ariyal, Marcel Wolbers, Thomas Darton, Jeremey J Farrar, Guy E Thwaites, Christiane Dolecek, Buddha Basnyat, Stephen Baker
Background: Enteric fever, caused by Salmonella Typhi and Salmonella Paratyphi A, is the leading cause of bacterial febrile disease in South Asia. Methods: Individual patient data from 2,092 subjects with enteric fever randomised into four trials in Kathmandu, Nepal was pooled. All trials compared gatifloxacin with a comparator drug: cefixime, chloramphenicol, ofloxacin, or ceftriaxone. Treatment outcomes were evaluated according to antimicrobial if S. Typhi/Paratyphi were isolated from blood...
February 28, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328989/quorum-sensing-network-in-clinical-strains-of-a-baumannii-aida-is-a-new-quorum-quenching-enzyme
#3
María López, Celia Mayer, Laura Fernández-García, Lucía Blasco, Andrea Muras, Federico Martín Ruiz, German Bou, Ana Otero, María Tomás
Acinetobacter baumannii is an important pathogen that causes nosocomial infections generally associated with high mortality and morbidity in Intensive Care Units (ICUs). Currently, little is known about the Quorum Sensing (QS)/Quorum Quenching (QQ) systems of this pathogen. We analyzed these mechanisms in seven clinical isolates of A. baumannii. Microarray analysis of one of these clinical isolates, Ab1 (A. baumannii ST-2_clon_2010), previously cultured in the presence of 3-oxo-C12-HSL (a QS signalling molecule) revealed a putative QQ enzyme (α/ß hydrolase gene, AidA)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328934/proviruses-with-identical-sequences-comprise-a-large-fraction-of-the-replication-competent-hiv-reservoir
#4
John K Bui, Michele D Sobolewski, Brandon F Keele, Jonathan Spindler, Andrew Musick, Ann Wiegand, Brian T Luke, Wei Shao, Stephen H Hughes, John M Coffin, Mary F Kearney, John W Mellors
The major obstacle to curing HIV infection is the persistence of cells with intact proviruses that can produce replication-competent virus. This HIV reservoir is believed to exist primarily in CD4+ T-cells and is stable despite years of suppressive antiretroviral therapy. A potential mechanism for HIV persistence is clonal expansion of infected cells, but how often such clones carry replication-competent proviruses has been controversial. Here, we used single-genome sequencing to probe for identical HIV sequence matches among viruses recovered in different viral outgrowth cultures and between the sequences of outgrowth viruses and proviral or intracellular HIV RNA sequences in uncultured blood mononuclear cells from eight donors on suppressive ART with diverse proviral populations...
March 22, 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328930/validation-of-qpcr-reference-genes-in-lymphocytes-from-patients-with-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis
#5
Ewa Usarek, Anna Barańczyk-Kuźma, Beata Kaźmierczak, Beata Gajewska, Magdalena Kuźma-Kozakiewicz
Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) is the most specific and reliable method for determination of mRNA gene expression. Crucial point for its accurate normalization is the choice of appropriate internal control genes (ICGs). In the present work we determined and compare the expression of eight commonly used ICGs in lymphocytes from 26 patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and 30 control subjects. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) before and after immortalization by EBV transfection (lymphoblast cell lines-LCLs) were used for qPCR analysis...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328926/frequency-and-role-of-nkp46-and-nkg2a-in-hepatitis-b-virus-infection
#6
Teppei Yoshioka, Tomohide Tatsumi, Takuya Miyagi, Kaori Mukai, Kumiko Nishio, Akira Nishio, Yoshinobu Yokoyama, Takahiro Suda, Tadashi Kegasawa, Minoru Shigekawa, Hayato Hikita, Ryotaro Sakamori, Tetsuo Takehara
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Natural Killer (NK) cells are involved in the control of viral infection. However, the role of NK cells in chronic hepatitis B (CHB) remains unclear. This study investigated the frequencies and roles of NK cells in CHB, with a focus on activating receptor NKp46 and inhibitory receptor NKG2A. PATIENTS/METHOD: Peripheral blood lymphocytes were obtained from 71 CHB patients and 37 healthy subjects (HS). The expressions of NKp46 and NKG2A were analyzed using flow cytometry...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328596/antibacterial-effect-of-bacteriocin-isolated-from-lactobacillus-plantarum-atcc-8014-on-postoperative-infection-of-mandibular-fracture-in-vivo
#7
Tao Fu, Yan-Ming Liu
OBJECTIVE: The primary objective of this study was to verify the effects of bacteriocin in treatment of postoperative infection of mandibular fracture in vivo. METHODS: Eighty-two mice were inoculated intravenously with staphylococcal suspensions. Bacterial cultures were obtained from implants. Blood samples were collected at 1, 2, 4, 6, and 8 hours after the injection of bacteriocins. RESULTS: Bacteriocins have significant inhibitory effects on Staphylococcus aureus (P < 0...
March 21, 2017: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328157/lack-of-small-colony-variants-of-staphylococcus-aureus-from-lower-respiratory-tract-specimens
#8
Rosemary Carzino, Emily Hart, Philip Sutton, Louise King, Sarath Ranganathan
BACKGROUND: Small-colony variants (SCVs) of Staphylococcus aureus are associated with worse lung disease in children with Cystic Fibrosis (CF), exhibit a higher resistance to antibiotics and co-colonize more commonly with Pseudomonas aeruginosa compared to the normal phenotype. The prevalence of SCVs in lower airway specimens from children with CF is largely unknown. METHODS: Each visible morphotype of S. aureus was subcultured onto horse blood agar (HBA) to enable identification of SCVs...
March 22, 2017: Pediatric Pulmonology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327177/intestinal-t-lymphocyte-homing-is-associated-with-gastric-emptying-and-epithelial-barrier-function-in-critically-ill-a-prospective-observational-study
#9
Christian Greis, Zohal Rasuly, Rolf A Janosi, Lambros Kordelas, Dietrich W Beelen, Tobias Liebregts
BACKGROUND: Impaired gastric emptying is common in critically ill patients. Intestinal dysmotility, a major cause of feed intolerance, may foster infectious complications due to mucosal barrier disruption. However, little is known about gut-directed immune activation, intestinal barrier function and its association with impaired gastric emptying in critically ill patients at ICU admission. METHODS: We conducted a prospective observational study at two tertiary care medical ICUs...
March 22, 2017: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326754/supporting-imaging-modalities-for-improving-diagnosis-of-prosthesis-endocarditis-preliminary-results-of-a-single-center-experience-with-fluorine-18-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron-emission-tomography-computed-tomography
#10
Anna Kokalova, Angelo M Dell'AQUILA, Nemanja Avramovic, Sven Martens, Christian Wenning, Jürgen R Sindermann
AIM: The aim of current study was to evaluate the role of PET-CT in the diagnosis of prosthetic valve endocarditis (PVE). METHODS: This is a single-center study including 13 PET/CT examinations performed between February 2009 and March 2016 in 13 patients (76.9% men, mean age 68.1 years, IQR 11.1) because of suspect of PVE. Median interval time between first operation and PET/CT examination was 19.02 months (lQR 85.5). Final diagnosis was made according to pathological criteria (histological and microbiological) of the Duke classification...
March 21, 2017: Minerva Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326205/shigella-sonnei-bacteremia-presenting-with-profound-hepatic-dysfunction
#11
Oluwaseun Shogbesan, Andrew Rettew, Bilal Shaikh, Abdullateef Abdulkareem, Anthony Donato
Worldwide, Shigellosis is a significant public health issue, associated with nearly one million deaths annually. About half a million cases of Shigella infection are reported annually in the United States. Shigella bacteremia is uncommon and generally seen in children and immunocompromised adults. We present a case of a Shigella sonnei bacteremia with marked hepatic derangement in a 27-year-old previously healthy homosexual male with history of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass, who presented to the emergency room with a 4-day history of loose watery stool, abdominal cramps, nausea and vomiting, and yellow skin of 2-day duration...
2017: Case Reports in Gastrointestinal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325959/perinatal-mortality-associated-with-positive-postmortem-cultures-for-common-oral-flora
#12
Mai He, Alison R Migliori, Patricia Lauro, C James Sung, Halit Pinar
Introduction. To investigate whether maternal oral flora might be involved in intrauterine infection and subsequent stillbirth or neonatal death and could therefore be detected in fetal and neonatal postmortem bacterial cultures. Methods. This retrospective study of postmortem examinations from 1/1/2000 to 12/31/2010 was searched for bacterial cultures positive for common oral flora from heart blood or lung tissue. Maternal age, gestational age, age at neonatal death, and placental and fetal/neonatal histopathological findings were collected...
2017: Infectious Diseases in Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325945/surveillance-of-dialysis-events-one-year-experience-at-33-outpatient-hemodialysis-centers-in-china
#13
Hui Zhang, Liuyi Li, Huixue Jia, Yunxi Liu, Jianguo Wen, Anhua Wu, Qun Lu, Tieying Hou, Yun Yang, Huai Yang, Weiguang Li, Zhiyong Zong
A multicenter prospective surveillance on dialysis events was carried in 33 dialysis centers in China. Maintenance hemodialysis (HD) outpatients who were dialyzed on the first two days of each month during 2014 were monitored for dialysis events and other infections. During the one-year period, 52,680 patient-months were monitored. Fistula and tunneled or non-tunneled central line were used for 73.70%, 15.70% and 8.85% of vascular access, respectively. There were 773 dialysis events occurred in 671 patients including 589 IV antimicrobial starts, 74 positive blood cultures and 110 local access site infections (LASI)...
March 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325781/hete-signals-through-g-protein-coupled-receptor-gpr75-gq-to-affect-vascular-function-and-trigger-hypertension
#14
Victor Garcia, Ankit Gilani, Brian Shkolnik, Varunkumar Pandey, Frank F Zhang, Rambabu Dakarapu, Shyam K Gandham, N R Reddy, Joan P Graves, Artiom Gruzdev, Darryl C Zeldin, Jorge H Capdevila, John R Falck, Michal L Schwartzman
Rationale: 20-Hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (20-HETE), one of the principle cytochrome P450 (CYP) eicosanoids, is a potent vasoactive lipid whose vascular effects include stimulation of smooth muscle contractility, migration and proliferation, as well as endothelial cell dysfunction and inflammation. Increased levels of 20-HETE in experimental animals and in humans are associated with hypertension, stroke, myocardial infarction and vascular diseases. Objective: To date, a receptor/binding site for 20-HETE has been implicated based on the use of specific agonists and antagonists...
March 21, 2017: Circulation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325220/action-of-antibiotic-oxacillin-on-in%C3%A2-vitro-growth-of-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-mrsa-previously-treated-with-homeopathic-medicines
#15
Tânia Aguiar Passeti, Leandro Ribeiro Bissoli, Ana Paula Macedo, Registila Beltrame Libame, Susana Diniz, Silvia Waisse
BACKGROUND: Resistance to antibiotics is a major public health concern worldwide. New treatment options are needed and homeopathy is one such option. We sought to assess the effect of the homeopathic medicine Belladonna (Bell) and a nosode (biotherapy) prepared from a multi-drug resistant bacterial species, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), on the same bacterium. METHODS: Bell and MRSA nosode were prepared in 6cH and 30cH potencies in 30% alcohol and sterile water, according to the Brazilian Homeopathic Pharmacopeia and tested on MRSA National Collection of Type Cultures (NCTC) 10442...
February 2017: Homeopathy: the Journal of the Faculty of Homeopathy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325151/adipose-tissue-derived-pericytes-for-cartilage-tissue-engineering
#16
Jin Xin Zhang, Chun Yan Du, Wei Min Guo, Pan Li, Shu Yun Liu, Zhi Guo Yuan, Jian Hua Yang, Xun Sun, He Yong Yin, Quan Yi Guo, Chen Fu Zhou
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) represent a promising alternative source for cartilage tissue engineering. However, MSC culture is labor-intensive, so these cells cannot be applied immediately to regenerate cartilage for clinical purposes. Risks during the ex vivo expansion of MSCs, such as infection and immunogenicity, can be a bottleneck in their use in clinical tissue engineering. As a novel stem cell source, pericytes are generally considered to be the origin of MSCs. Pericytes do not have to undergo time-consuming ex vivo expansion because they are uncultured cells...
March 21, 2017: Current Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324043/reduced-transforming-growth-factor-beta-activity-in-the-endometrium-of-women-with-heavy-menstrual-bleeding
#17
J A Maybin, L Boswell, V J Young, W C Duncan, Hod Critchley
Context: Heavy menstrual bleeding (HMB) is common and incapacitating. Aberrant menstrual endometrial repair may result in HMB. The TGFβ superfamily contributes to tissue repair, but its role in HMB is unknown. Objective: We hypothesised that TGFβ1 is important for endometrial repair and women with HMB have aberrant TGFβ1 activity at menses. Participants/Setting: Endometrial biopsies were collected from women and menstrual blood loss objectively measured (HMB >80ml/cycle, normal menstrual bleeding, NMB <80ml)...
January 3, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323988/basement-membrane-laminin-%C3%AE-2-regulates-btb-dynamics-via-its-effects-on-f-actin-and-microtubule-mt-cytoskeletons-via-mtorc1-signaling
#18
Ying Gao, Haiqi Chen, Wing-Yee Lui, Will M Lee, C Yan Cheng
A local axis connects the apical ectoplasmic specialization (apical ES) at the Sertoli-spermatid interface, the basal ES at the blood-testis barrier (BTB), and the basement membrane across the seminiferous epithelium functionally in rat testes. As such, cellular events that take place across the epithelium such as spermiation and BTB remodeling that occur at the apical ES and the basal ES, respectively, at stage VIII of the cycle are coordinated. Herein, laminin α2, a structural component of the basement membrane, was found to regulate BTB dynamics...
January 16, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323919/steroids-regulate-cxcl4-in-the-human-endometrium-during-menstruation-to-enable-efficient-endometrial-repair
#19
J A Maybin, U Thiruchelvam, M Madhra, Ptk Saunders, Hod Critchley
Context: Repair of the endometrial surface at menstruation must be efficient to minimize blood loss and optimize reproductive function. The mechanism and regulation of endometrial repair remain undefined. Objective: To determine the presence/regulation of CXCL4 in the human endometrium, as a putative repair factor at menses. Patients/Setting: Endometrium was collected throughout the menstrual cycle from healthy women attending the gynecology department...
February 27, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323879/mir-181b-regulates-vascular-stiffness-age-dependently-in-part-by-regulating-tgf-%C3%AE-signaling
#20
Daijiro Hori, Brittany Dunkerly-Eyring, Yohei Nomura, Debjit Biswas, Jochen Steppan, Jorge Henao-Mejia, Hideo Adachi, Lakshmi Santhanam, Dan E Berkowitz, Charles Steenbergen, Richard A Flavell, Samarjit Das
BACKGROUND: Endothelial dysfunction and arterial stiffening play major roles in cardiovascular diseases. The critical role for the miR-181 family in vascular inflammation has been documented. Here we tested whether the miR-181 family can influence the pathogenesis of hypertension and vascular stiffening. METHODS AND RESULTS: qPCR data showed a significant decrease in miR-181b expression in the aorta of the older mice. Eight miR-181a1/b1-/- mice and wild types (C57BL6J:WT) were followed weekly for pulse wave velocity (PWV) and blood pressure measurements...
2017: PloS One
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