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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931025/the-clinical-and-microbiological-characteristics-of-enteric-fever-in-cambodia-2008-2015
#1
Laura M F Kuijpers, Thong Phe, Chhun H Veng, Kruy Lim, Sovann Ieng, Chun Kham, Nizar Fawal, Laetitia Fabre, Simon Le Hello, Erika Vlieghe, François-Xavier Weill, Jan Jacobs, Willy E Peetermans
BACKGROUND: Enteric fever remains a major public health problem in low resource settings and antibiotic resistance is increasing. In Asia, an increasing proportion of infections is caused by Salmonella enterica serovar Paratyphi A, which for a long time was assumed to cause a milder clinical syndrome compared to Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi. METHODOLOGY: A retrospective chart review study was conducted of 254 unique cases of blood culture confirmed enteric fever who presented at a referral adult hospital in Phnom Penh, Cambodia between 2008 and 2015...
September 20, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930996/assessment-of-the-anticoagulant-and-anti-inflammatory-properties-of-endothelial-cells-using-3d-cell-culture-and-non-anticoagulated-whole-blood
#2
Riccardo Sfriso, Anjan Bongoni, Yara Banz, Nikolai Klymiuk, Eckhard Wolf, Robert Rieben
In vivo, endothelial cells are crucial for the natural anticoagulation of circulating blood. Consequently, endothelial cell activation leads to blood coagulation. This phenomenon is observed in many clinical situations, like organ transplantation in the presence of pre-formed anti-donor antibodies, including xenotransplantation, as well as in ischemia/reperfusion injury. In order to reduce animal experimentation according to the 3R standards (reduction, replacement and refinement), in vitro models to study the effect of endothelial cell activation on blood coagulation would be highly desirable...
September 5, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930992/a-cell-culture-model-of-resistance-arteries
#3
Lauren A Biwer, Christophe Lechauve, Sheri Vanhoose, Mitchell J Weiss, Brant E Isakson
The myoendothelial junction (MEJ), a unique signaling microdomain in small diameter resistance arteries, exhibits localization of specific proteins and signaling processes that can control vascular tone and blood pressure. As it is a projection from either the endothelial or smooth muscle cell, and due to its small size (on average, an area of ~1 µm(2)), the MEJ is difficult to study in isolation. However, we have developed a cell culture model called the vascular cell co-culture (VCCC) that allows for in vitro MEJ formation, endothelial cell polarization, and dissection of signaling proteins and processes in the vascular wall of resistance arteries...
September 8, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930982/development-of-a-human-preclinical-model-of-osteoclastogenesis-from-peripheral-blood-monocytes-co-cultured-with-breast-cancer-cell-lines
#4
Laura Mercatali, Chiara Spadazzi, Giacomo Miserocchi, Chiara Liverani, Alessandro De Vita, Alberto Bongiovanni, Federica Recine, Dino Amadori, Toni Ibrahim
The crosstalk between tumor cells and bone cells in the bone microenvironment is crucial to understanding the mechanism of bone metastasis formation. We developed an in vitro fully human preclinical model of a co-culture of breast cancer cells and monocytes undergoing differentiation towards osteoclasts. We optimized a model of osteoclastogenesis starting from a sample of peripheral blood collected from healthy donors. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were first separated by density gradient centrifugation, seeded at a high density and induced to differentiate by adding two growth factors (GFs): receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL) and macrophage colony-stimulating factor (MCSF)...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930914/the-protective-effect-of-a-short-peptide-derived-from-cold-inducible-rna-binding-protein-in-renal-ischemia-reperfusion-injury
#5
Joseph McGinn, Fangming Zhang, Monowar Aziz, Weng-Lang Yang, Jeffrey Nicastro, Gene F Coppa, Ping Wang
Extracellular cold-inducible RNA-binding protein (CIRP) functions as damage-associated molecular pattern (DAMP) and has been demonstrated to be responsible in part for the damage occurring after renal ischemia-reperfusion (I/R). A short peptide derived from CIRP, named C23, binds to myeloid differentiation factor 2 (MD2), a Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) co-receptor. We hypothesize that C23 reduces renal ischemia-reperfusion (RIR) injury by blocking CIRP. We observed that pre-treatment with C23 significantly decreased the levels of recombinant mouse CIRP-induced TNF-α in a dose-dependent fashion in cultured macrophages...
September 19, 2017: Shock
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930228/interaction-of-plant-extracts-with-central-nervous-system-receptors
#6
REVIEW
Kenneth Lundstrom, Huyen Thanh Pham, Long Doan Dinh
Background: Plant extracts have been used in traditional medicine for the treatment of various maladies including neurological diseases. Several central nervous system receptors have been demonstrated to interact with plant extracts and components affecting the pharmacology and thereby potentially playing a role in human disease and treatment. For instance, extracts from Hypericum perforatum (St. John's wort) targeted several CNS receptors. Similarly, extracts from Piper nigrum, Stephania cambodica, and Styphnolobium japonicum exerted inhibition of agonist-induced activity of the human neurokinin-1 receptor...
February 23, 2017: Medicines (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929964/-investigation-of-bacterial-and-viral-etiology-in-community-acquired-central-nervous-system-infections-with-molecular-methods
#7
Hasip Kahraman, Alper Tünger, Şebnem Şenol, Hörü Gazi, Meltem Avcı, Bahar Örmen, Nesrin Türker, Sabri Atalay, Şükran Köse, Sercan Ulusoy, Meltem Işıkgöz Taşbakan, Oğuz Reşat Sipahi, Tansu Yamazhan, Zeynep Gülay, Sema Alp Çavuş, Hüsnü Pullukçu
In this multicenter prospective cohort study, it was aimed to evaluate the bacterial and viral etiology in community-acquired central nervous system infections by standart bacteriological culture and multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methods. Patients hospitalized with central nervous system infections between April 2012 and February 2014 were enrolled in the study. Demographic and clinical information of the patients were collected prospectively. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples of the patients were examined by standart bacteriological culture methods, bacterial multiplex PCR (Seeplex meningitis-B ACE Detection (Streptococcus pneumoniae, Neisseria meningitidis, Haemophilus influenzae, Listeria monocytogenes, Group B streptococci) and viral multiplex PCR (Seeplex meningitis-V1 ACE Detection kits herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV1), herpes simplex virus-2 (HSV2), varicella zoster virus (VZV), cytomegalovirus (CMV), Epstein Barr virus (EBV) and human herpes virus 6 (HHV6)) (Seeplex meningitis-V2 ACE Detection kit (enteroviruses))...
July 2017: Mikrobiyoloji Bülteni
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929962/-determination-of-in-vitro-susceptibilities-of-brucella-spp-strains-against-11-different-antibacterial-gents-isolated-from-blood-cultures
#8
Recep Keşli, Hüseyin Bilgin, Halim Yılmaz
Brucellosis is a worldwide zoonotic disease and still continuous to be a major public health problem. In this study, it was aimed to identify the Brucella strains to the species level isolated from blood cultures, and to determine the rate of antimicrobial susceptibility against eleven antibacterial agents. A total of 106 Brucella spp. strains were included in the study, which were isolated from blood cultures in University of Health Sciences, Konya Training and Research Hospital, Medical Microbiology Laboratory between January 2011 and June 2013...
July 2017: Mikrobiyoloji Bülteni
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929958/-screening-of-corynebacterium-diphtheriae-corynebacterium-ulcerans-and-corynebacterium-pseudotuberculosis-in-throat-swab-specimens-of-children-with-upper-respiratory-tract-infections
#9
Zeynep Gökçe Gayretli Aydın, Gönül Tanır, Selin Nar Ötgün, Meral Turan, Türkan Aydın Teke, Ayşe Kaman, Selçuk Kılıç
Although a significant decrease has been reported in the incidence of diphteria in many regions of the world following the routine diphtheria immunization programs, the emergence of new cases indicated that toxigenic strains are still circulating in the community. Diphtheria vaccine does not provide protection against asymptomatic carriage and colonization of non-toxigenic Corynebacterium diphtheriae. It is a known fact that invasive infections may arise from non-toxigenic C.diphtheriae strains that the non-toxigenic strains can become toxigenic strains leading to diphteria...
July 2017: Mikrobiyoloji Bülteni
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929742/beta-hemolytic-bacteria-selectively-trigger-liposome-lysis-enabling-rapid-and-accurate-pathogen-detection
#10
Rongji Sum, Muthukaruppan Swaminathan, Sahil Kumar Rastogi, Obdulio Piloto, Ian Cheong
For more than a century, blood agar plates have been the only test for beta-hemolysis. Although blood agar cultures are highly predictive for bacterial pathogens, they are too slow to yield actionable information. Here, we show that beta-hemolytic pathogens are able to lyse and release fluorophores encapsulated in sterically stabilized liposomes whereas alpha and gamma-hemolytic bacteria have no effect. By analyzing fluorescence kinetics, beta-hemolytic colonies cultured on agar could be distinguished in real time with 100% accuracy within 6 h...
September 20, 2017: ACS Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928797/role-of-mir-128-in-hypertension-induced-myocardial-injury
#11
Jie Yin, Hongyan Liu, Lei Huan, Suping Song, Liying Han, Faxin Ren, Zengtang Zhang, Zhiqiang Zang, Junye Zhang, Shu Wang
The present study aimed to investigate the role and mechanism of micro RNA (miR)-128 in hypertension-induced myocardial injury. The peripheral blood of patients with hypertension was collected and the expression of miR-128 was detected using fluorescence reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). Primary myocardial cells isolated from rat in vitro were cultured under conditions of hypoxia and glucose deprivation, and miR-128 expression was measured by RT-qPCR. The expression of c-Met protein was measured using western blot analysis and the apoptosis of transfected cells was measured by flow cytometry in rat myocardial cells following transfection with miR-128 mimics or c-Met siRNA...
October 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928173/cohort-profile-of-a-study-on-outcomes-related-to-tuberculosis-and-antiretroviral-drug-concentrations-in-uganda-design-methods-and-patient-characteristics-of-the-south-study
#12
Christine Sekaggya-Wiltshire, Barbara Castelnuovo, Amrei von Braun, Joseph Musaazi, Daniel Muller, Allan Buzibye, Ursula Gutteck, Lars Henning, Bruno Ledergerber, Natascia Corti, Mohammed Lamorde, Jan Fehr, Andrew Kambugu
PURPOSE: Tuberculosis (TB) is a leading cause of death among people living with HIV in sub-Saharan Africa. Several factors influence the efficacy of TB treatment by leading to suboptimal drug concentrations and subsequently affecting treatment outcome. The aim of this cohort is to determine the association between anti-TB drug concentrations and TB treatment outcomes. PARTICIPANTS: Patients diagnosed with new pulmonary TB at the integrated TB-HIV outpatient clinic in Kampala, Uganda, were enrolled into the study and started on first-line anti-TB treatment...
September 18, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927755/protein-kinase-ck2-inhibition-suppresses-neointima-formation-via-a-proline-rich-homeodomain-dependent-mechanism
#13
K S Wadey, B A Brown, G B Sala-Newby, P-S Jayaraman, K Gaston, S J George
Neointimal hyperplasia is a product of VSMC replication and consequent accumulation within the blood vessel wall. In this study, we determined whether inhibition of protein kinase CK2 and the resultant stabilisation of proline-rich homeodomain (PRH) could suppress VSMC proliferation. Both silencing and pharmacological inhibition of CK2 with K66 antagonised replication of isolated VSMCs. SiRNA-induced knockdown as well as ectopic overexpression of proline-rich homeodomain indicated that PRH disrupts cell cycle progression...
September 16, 2017: Vascular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927454/extended-spectrum-beta-lactamase-and-metallo-beta-lactamase-production-among-escherichia-coli-and-klebsiella-pneumoniae-isolated-from-different-clinical-samples-in-a-tertiary-care-hospital-in-kathmandu-nepal
#14
Krishus Nepal, Narayan Dutt Pant, Bibhusan Neupane, Ankit Belbase, Rikesh Baidhya, Ram Krishna Shrestha, Binod Lekhak, Dwij Raj Bhatta, Bharat Jha
BACKGROUND: Extended spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) and metallo beta-lactamase (MBL) production in Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli are the commonest modes of drug resistance among these commonly isolated bacteria from clinical specimens. So the main purpose of our study was to determine the burden of ESBL and MBL production in E. coli and K. pneumoniae isolated from clinical samples. Further, the antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of E. coli and K. pneumoniae were also determined...
September 19, 2017: Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926831/multiparameter-investigation-of-a-46-xx-46-xy-tetragametic-chimeric-phenotypical-male-patient-with-bilateral-scrotal-ovotestes-and-ovulatory-activity
#15
Yolande van Bever, Katja P Wolffenbuttel, Hennie T Brüggenwirth, Eric Blom, Annelies de Klein, Bert H J Eussen, Florijn van der Windt, Sabine E Hannema, Arianne B Dessens, Lambert C J Dorssers, Katharina Biermann, Remko Hersmus, Yolanda B de Rijke, Leendert H J Looijenga
We report on an adult male initially presenting with gynecomastia and a painless scrotal mass without additional genital anomalies. Hyperpigmentation of the skin following the Blaschko's lines was identified. He underwent gonadectomy because of suspected cancer. Histological analyses revealed an ovotestis with ovulatory activity confirmed by immunohistochemistry with multiple markers. Karyotyping of cultured peripheral blood lymphocytes and a buccal smear revealed a 46,XX/46,XY chimeric constitution with different percentages...
September 20, 2017: Sexual Development: Genetics, Molecular Biology, Evolution, Endocrinology, Embryology, and Pathology of Sex Determination and Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926522/bos-is-associated-with-increased-cytotoxic-proinflammatory-cd8-t-nkt-like-and-nk-cells-in-the-small-airways
#16
Greg Hodge, Sandra Hodge, Aeneas Yeo, Phan Nguyen, Emily Hopkins, Chien-Li Holmes-Liew, Paul N Reynolds, Mark Holmes
BACKGROUND: Immunosuppression therapy after lung transplantation fails to prevent bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS) in many patients, primarily a disease of the small airways. We have reported that BOS is associated with a lack of suppression of cytotoxic mediators, and proinflammatory cytokines, in peripheral blood T, NKT-like (particularly CD8+) and NK cells. We also showed a loss of glucocorticoid receptor (GCR) in proinflammatory lymphocytes after transplant. It is unknown whether these proinflammatory lymphocytes target the small and/or large airways in BOS...
October 2017: Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926402/reversing-hiv-latency-via-sphingosine-1-phosphate-receptor-1-signaling
#17
Charline Duquenne, Sandrine Gimenez, Adeline Guigues, Benjamin Viala, Caroline Boulouis, Clément Mettling, Damien Maurel, Noëlie Campos, Etienne Doumazane, Laetitia Comps-Agrar, Jamal Tazi, Laurent Prézeau, Pierre Corbeau, Vincent François
OBJECTIVE: In this study, we looked for a new family of latency reversing agents. DESIGN: We searched for G protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) coexpressed with CCR5 in primary CD4+ T cells that activate infected cells and boost HIV production. METHODS: GPCR coexpression was unveiled by RT-PCR. We used FRET to analyze the dimerization with CCR5 of the expressed GPCR. Viral entry was measured by flow cytometry, reverse transcription by quantitative PCR, NFkB translocation by immunofluorescence, LTR activation using a gene reporter assay, and viral production by p24 quantification...
September 18, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925977/equine-pbmc-cytokines-profile-after-in-vitro-%C3%AE-and-%C3%AE-ehv-infection-efficacy-of-a-parapoxvirus-ovis-based-immunomodulator-treatment
#18
Erika S Hue, Eric A Richard, Christine I Fortier, Guillaume D Fortier, Romain Paillot, Rudiger Raue, Stéphane L Pronost
Equine herpesviruses (EHV) infect horses early during life and the persistence of these viruses through establishment of latency represents a real risk. A better understanding of the immune response to EHV infection is necessary to improve our methods of prevention and decrease the risk of transmission. The objectives of this study were to characterise the cytokine gene expression profile of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) after in vitro EHV-1, EHV-4, and EHV-2 infection and to determine the efficacy of inactivated Parapoxvirus ovis (iPPVO) against these 3 viruses...
September 19, 2017: Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925912/epidemiologic-features-of-invasive-group-a-streptococcus-infection-in-a-rural-hospital-6-year-retrospective-report-and-literature-review
#19
Kassandra Loewen, Natalie Bocking, Cai-Lei Matsumoto, Mike Kirlew, Len Kelly
INTRODUCTION: High rates of invasive group A Streptococcus disease were suspected by clinicians in northwestern Ontario. Patients with sepsis were being encountered with bacteremia positive for group A Streptococcus. This study was designed to assess the incidence of invasive group A Streptococcus infection in the region and provide best-practice treatment information. METHODS: We performed a retrospective chart review at the Sioux Lookout Meno Ya Win Health Centre (SLMHC) from 2009 to 2014 to examine rates of infection due to invasive group A Streptococcus and outcomes...
2017: Canadian Journal of Rural Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925469/1-25-dihydroxyvitamin-d3-regulates-t-lymphocyte-proliferation-through-activation-of-p53-and-inhibition-of-erk1-2-signaling-pathway-in-children-with-kawasaki-disease
#20
X-L Qi, L-L Chen, X-G Sun, X-M Li, L-H Zhao, D-J Kong
OBJECTIVE: To study the effect of 1,25(OH)2D3 on T lymphocytes in Kawasaki disease and to further investigate its molecular mechanism. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 30 child patients was diagnosed as Kawasaki disease, 60 child patients were diagnosed as infectious fever, and 60 normal children, were selected. 4 mL peripheral blood was collected before treatment. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were isolated and separated using the Facollin method and cultured...
August 2017: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
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