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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545155/rapid-diagnostic-tests-for-typhoid-and-paratyphoid-enteric-fever
#1
REVIEW
Lalith Wijedoru, Sue Mallett, Christopher M Parry
BACKGROUND: Differentiating both typhoid (Salmonella Typhi) and paratyphoid (Salmonella Paratyphi A) infection from other causes of fever in endemic areas is a diagnostic challenge. Although commercial point-of-care rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) for enteric fever are available as alternatives to the current reference standard test of blood or bone marrow culture, or to the widely used Widal Test, their diagnostic accuracy is unclear. If accurate, they could potentially replace blood culture as the World Health Organization (WHO)-recommended main diagnostic test for enteric fever...
May 26, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545085/splicing-factor-sf3b1k700e-mutant-dysregulates-erythroid-differentiation-via-aberrant-alternative-splicing-of-transcription-factor-tal1
#2
Shuiling Jin, Hairui Su, Ngoc-Tung Tran, Jing Song, Sydney S Lu, Ying Li, Suming Huang, Omar Abdel-Wahab, Yanyan Liu, Xinyang Zhao
More than 60% of myeloid dysplasia syndrome (MDS) contains mutations in genes encoding for splicing factors such as SF3B1, U2AF, SRSF2 and ZRSR2. Mutations in SF3B1 are associated with 80% cases of refractory anemia with ring sideroblast (RARS), a subtype of MDS. SF3B1K700E is the most frequently mutated site among mutations on SF3B1. Yet the molecular mechanisms on how mutations of splicing factors lead to defective erythropoiesis are not clear. SF3B1K700E mutant binds to an RNA binding protein, RBM15, stronger than the wild type SF3B1 protein in co-immunoprecipitation assays...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544957/zebrafish-as-a-visual-and-dynamic-model-to-study-the-transport-of-nanosized-drug-delivery-systems-across-the-biological-barriers
#3
Ye Li, Xiaoqing Miao, Tongkai Chen, Xiang Yi, Ruibing Wang, Haitao Zhao, Simon Ming-Yuen Lee, Xueqing Wang, Ying Zheng
With the wide application of nanotechnology to drug delivery systems, a simple, dynamic and visual in vivo model for high-throughput screening of novel formulations with fluorescence markers across biological barriers is desperately needed. In vitro cell culture models have been widely used, although they are far from a complimentary in vivo system. Mammalian animal models are common predictive models to study transport, but they are costly and time consuming. Zebrafish (Danio rerio), a small vertebrate model, have the potential to be developed as an "intermediate" model for quick evaluations...
May 10, 2017: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544844/image-of-the-month-concomitant-tricuspid-and-mitral-native-valve-infective-endocarditis
#4
Su-Jin Jeong, Sang-Hoon Seol, Pil Sang Song
A 33-year-old immunocompetent man was admitted to the authors' hospital with a one-month duration of fevers, chills, and non-productive coughs, and suddenonset weakness and ischemic pain of both lower extremities. Physical examination revealed crepitating rales heard over bilateral lung fields. On auscultation, a grade 2~3/6 systolic murmur was heard over the leftlower sternal border and apical area. Transthoracic echocardiography revealed a mobile mass on the tricuspid valve compatible with vegetation, in addition to concomitant mitral valve vegetation (Video 1)...
January 2017: Journal of Heart Valve Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544640/an-in%C3%A2-vitro-model-demonstrates-the-potential-of-neoplastic-human-germ-cells-to-influence-the-tumour-microenvironment
#5
B Klein, H-C Schuppe, M Bergmann, M P Hedger, B E Loveland, K L Loveland
Testicular germ cell tumours (TGCT) typically contain high numbers of infiltrating immune cells, yet the functional nature and consequences of interactions between GCNIS (germ cell neoplasia in situ) or seminoma cells and immune cells remain unknown. A co-culture model using the seminoma-derived TCam-2 cell line and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC, n = 7 healthy donors) was established to investigate how tumour and immune cells each contribute to the cytokine microenvironment associated with TGCT...
May 23, 2017: Andrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544462/biomimetic-macroporous-pcl-scaffolds-for-ex-vivo-expansion-of-cord-blood-derived-cd34-cells-with-feeder-cells-support
#6
Xiuwei Pan, Qiong Sun, Yuanhao Zhang, Haibo Cai, Yun Gao, Yongjia Shen, Weian Zhang
Ex vivo expansion of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) with most current methods can hardly satisfy clinical application requirement. While in vivo, HSCs efficiently self-renew in niche where they interact with 3D extracellular matrix and stromal cells. Therefore, co-cultures of CD34(+) cells and mesenchyme stem cells derived from human amniotic membrane (hAMSCs) on the basis of biomimetic macroporous three-dimensional (3D) poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) scaffolds are developed, where scaffolds and hAMSCs are applied to mimic structural and cellular microenvironment of HSCs...
May 24, 2017: Macromolecular Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544067/vitamin-d3-alters-the-expression-of-toll-like-receptors-in-peripheral-blood-mononuclear-cells-of-patients-with-systemic-lupus-erythematosus
#7
Esmaeil Yazdanpanah, Mahmoud Mahmoudi, Maryam Sahebari, Zahra Rezaieyazdi, Seyed-Alireza Esmaeili, Nafiseh Tabasi, Soheila Jaberi, Amirhossein Sahebkar, Maryam Rastin
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune disease characterized by production of inflammatory cytokines and autoreactive antibodies due to the loss of immune tolerance. Recognition of self-nucleic acids by intracellular Toll-like receptors (TLRs) can overactivate immune responses and this abnormal activation of TLRs contributes to the pathogenesis of the disease. In recent years, anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects of 1, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (VitD3) on the immune system has received particular attention...
May 20, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543519/a-new-treatment-of-sepsis-caused-by-veillonella-parvula-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#8
J Li, P Chen, J Li, X Gao, X Chen, J Chen
WHAT IS KNOWN AND OBJECTIVES: Veillonella parvula is usually regarded as a contaminant bacteria associated with polymicrobial infection. Here we report a rare case of sepsis caused by V. parvula, which was successfully treated by chloramphenicol. In addition, the therapeutic strategy for V. parvula infection was reviewed. CASE SUMMARY: A 55-year-old woman underwent surgery for lumbar spinal stenosis and developed high fever (39.5°C) after surgery, accompanied by chills and fatigue...
May 23, 2017: Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542841/blood-donors-perceptions-motivators-and-deterrents-in-sub-saharan-africa-a-scoping-review-of-evidence
#9
REVIEW
Lucy Asamoah-Akuoko, Oliver W Hassall, Imelda Bates, Henrik Ullum
Achieving an adequate blood supply in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) through donor mobilization and retention is crucial. Factors that motivate or deter blood donors vary according to beliefs and social norms. Understanding the factors that influence blood donation behaviour in SSA is vital to developing effective strategies to address blood donor motivation and retention. This review of 35 studies from 16 SSA countries collates available evidence concerning the perceptions, motivators and deterrents that influence blood donors in SSA...
May 22, 2017: British Journal of Haematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542614/evaluation-of-the-sepsis-flow-chip-assay-for-the-diagnosis-of-blood-infections
#10
Antonio Galiana, Javier Coy, Adelina Gimeno, Noemi Marco Guzman, Francisco Rosales, Esperanza Merino, Gloria Royo, Juan Carlos Rodríguez
BACKGROUND: Blood infections are serious complex conditions that generally require rapid diagnosis and treatment. The big challenge is to reduce the time necessary to make a diagnosis with current clinical microbiological methods so as to improve the treatment given to patients. METHODS: In this study, we assess for the first time the Sepsis Flow Chip assay, which is a novel diagnostic assay for simultaneous rapid-detection of the vast majority of bloodstream pathogens, including Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and fungi, in the same assay, and for the detection of most common antibiotic resistance genes...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542587/seminal-plasma-induces-inflammation-and-enhances-hiv-1-replication-in-human-cervical-tissue-explants
#11
Andrea Introini, Stéphanie Boström, Frideborg Bradley, Anna Gibbs, Axel Glaessgen, Annelie Tjernlund, Kristina Broliden
The most immediate and evident effect of mucosal exposure to semen in vivo is a local release of proinflammatory mediators accompanied by an influx of leukocytes into the female genital mucosa (FGM). The implication of such response in HIV-1 transmission has never been addressed due to limitations of currently available experimental models. Using human tissue explants from the uterine cervix, we developed a system of mucosal exposure to seminal plasma (SP) that supports HIV-1 replication. Treatment of ectocervical explants with SP resulted in the upregulation of inflammatory and growth factors, including IL-6, TNF, CCL5, CCL20, CXCL1, and CXCL8, and IL1A, CSF2, IL7, PTGS2, as evaluated by measuring protein levels in explant conditioned medium (ECM) and gene expression in tissue...
May 19, 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542561/impaired-functional-capacity-of-fetal-endothelial-cells-in-preeclampsia
#12
Lars Brodowski, Jennifer Burlakov, Sarah Hass, Constantin von Kaisenberg, Frauke von Versen-Höynck
OBJECTIVES: Preeclampsia is one of the main contributers to maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality during pregnancy. A history of preeclampsia puts mother and offspring at an increased cardiovascular risk in later life. We hypothesized that at the time of birth functional impairments of fetal endothelial cells can be detected in pregnancies complicated by preeclampsia and that a therapeutic intervention using 1,25 (OH)2 vitamin D3 can reverse the adverse effects of preeclampsia on cell function...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542534/the-carriage-of-interleukin-1b-31-c-allele-plus-staphylococcus-aureus-and-haemophilus-influenzae-increases-the-risk-of-recurrent-tonsillitis-in-a-mexican-population
#13
Baltazar González-Andrade, Ramiro Santos-Lartigue, Samantha Flores-Treviño, Natalie Sonia Ramirez-Ochoa, Paola Bocanegra-Ibarias, Francisco J Huerta-Torres, Soraya Mendoza-Olazarán, Licet Villarreal-Treviño, Adrián Camacho-Ortiz, Hipólito Villarreal-Vázquez, Elvira Garza-González
The aim of the present study was to estimate the relative contribution of immunogenetic and microbiological factors in the development of recurrent tonsillitis in a Mexican population. Patients (n = 138) with recurrent tonsillitis and an indication of tonsillectomy (mean age: 6.05 years ± 3.00; median age: 5 years, female: 58; age range: 1-15 years) and 195 non-related controls older than 18 years and a medical history free of recurrent tonsillitis were included. To evaluate the microbial contribution, tonsil swab samples from both groups and extracted tonsil samples from cases were cultured...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542440/plasma-kallistatin-in-critically-ill-patients-with-severe-sepsis-and-septic-shock
#14
Wei-Chieh Lin, Chang-Wen Chen, Lee Chao, Julie Chao, Yee-Shin Lin
Kallistatin, an endogenous serine proteinase inhibitor, is protective against sepsis in animal models. The aim of this study was to determine the plasma concentration of kallistatin in intensive care unit (ICU) patients with severe sepsis and septic shock and to determine their potential correlation with disease severity and outcomes. We enrolled 86 ICU patients with severe sepsis and septic shock. Their plasma concentrations of kallistatin, kallikrein, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, and IL-8 were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542412/low-rates-of-antibiotic-resistance-and-infectious-mortality-in-a-cohort-of-high-risk-hematology-patients-a-single-center-retrospective-analysis-of-blood-stream-infection
#15
Jason R Conn, Elizabeth M Catchpoole, Naomi Runnegar, Sally J Mapp, Kate A Markey
Febrile neutropenia (FN) is a medical emergency and can represent a life-threatening complication for hematology patients treated with intensive chemotherapy regimens. In clinical practice, the diagnostic yield of blood cultures and other investigations which aim to identify a causative organism or site of infection is low. We have retrospectively examined all blood cultures collected in a "real world" cohort of patients receiving chemotherapy for acute leukemia and patients with aggressive lymphoma treated with Hyper-CVAD/MTX-cytarabine, at a single tertiary center over a five-year period...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542235/environmental-persistence-of-porcine-coronaviruses-in-feed-and-feed-ingredients
#16
Michaela P Trudeau, Harsha Verma, Fernando Sampedro, Pedro E Urriola, Gerald C Shurson, Sagar M Goyal
Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus (PEDV), Porcine Delta Corona Virus (PDCoV), and Transmissible Gastroenteritis Virus (TGEV) are major threats to swine health and contaminated feed plays a role in virus transmission. The objective of our study was to characterize inactivation of PEDV, PDCoV, and TGEV in various feed ingredient matrices. Samples of complete feed, spray dried porcine plasma, meat meal, meat and bone meal, blood meal, corn, soybean meal, and corn dried distillers grains with solubles were weighed (5 g/sample) into scintillation vials and inoculated with 1 mL of PEDV, PDCoV, or TGEV...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542131/aroclor1254-disrupts-the-blood-testis-barrier-by-promoting-endocytosis-and-degradation-of-junction-proteins-via-p38-mapk-pathway
#17
Xiaoyu Jia, Ying Xu, Weixing Wu, Yunxia Fan, Guoli Wang, Tianbiao Zhang, Wenhui Su
The blood-testis barrier (BTB) constituted by coexisting junction apparatus between Sertoli cells (SCs) plays an important role in spermatogenesis, which is a known target of various environmental toxicants. The commercial polychlorinated biphenyls mixture, Aroclor1254, has been shown to impair male reproduction by decreasing sperm count and affecting SC metabolism. This study was designed to investigate the effects of Aroclor1254 on the BTB integrity and elucidate the underlying mechanisms. We found that Aroclor1254 treatment in rats (1 or 3 mg/kg per day for 21 consecutive days) and in primary cultured SCs (5 or 10 μg/ml for 48 h) could induce BTB disruption via p38 MAPK pathway, concurrently with increments in junction proteins (JAM-A, N-cadherin, and β-catenin) endocytosis, and occludin ubiquitination...
May 25, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541761/hydrophilically-modified-self-assembling-%C3%AE-tocopherol-derivative-as-niosomal-nanocarrier-for-improving-clarithromycin-oral-bioavailability
#18
Shafi Ullah, Muhammad Raza Shah, Mohammad Shoaib, Muhammad Imran, Syed Wadood Ali Shah, Farid Ahmed, Qamar Gul, Ismail Shah
Synthesis of biocompatible and cost-effective novel nonionic surfactants from renewable resources has been the subject of greater scientific interest for enhancing the bioavailability of less water-soluble drugs. The present study focuses on the synthesis of α-tocopherol-based novel biocompatible nonionic surfactant and its evaluation for forming clarithromycin-loaded niosomal drug delivery system. α-tocopherol was hydrophilically modified through multistep reactions and characterized using mass and (1)H NMR spectroscopic techniques...
May 25, 2017: Artificial Cells, Nanomedicine, and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541365/responses-of-human-adipose-derived-stem-cells-to-interstitial-level-of-extremely-low-shear-flows-regarding-differentiation-morphology-and-proliferation
#19
Sung-Hwan Kim, Kihoon Ahn, Joong Yull Park
Human cells encounter a range of shear stress levels in situ and this natural variability in shear stress implies that realistic investigations of cell type characteristics may depend on nontrivial shear stress models. Human adipose-derived stem cells (hASCs) differentiate near the blood capillary vessels where interstitial flows predominate. However, the effects of interstitial levels of shear on hASCs are not fully understood. In this study, we propose a microfluidic shear generation system, in which a gradient distribution of the interstitial level of shear flow is created to investigate the effects of interstitial-level shear flow on hASCs...
May 25, 2017: Lab on a Chip
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541275/engineering-the-haemogenic-niche-mitigates-endogenous-inhibitory-signals-and-controls-pluripotent-stem-cell-derived-blood-emergence
#20
Nafees Rahman, Patrick M Brauer, Lilian Ho, Tatiana Usenko, Mukul Tewary, Juan Carlos Zúñiga-Pflücker, Peter W Zandstra
Efforts to recapitulate haematopoiesis, a process guided by spatial and temporal inductive signals, to generate haematopoietic progenitors from human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) have focused primarily on exogenous signalling pathway activation or inhibition. Here we show haemogenic niches can be engineered using microfabrication strategies by micropatterning hPSC-derived haemogenic endothelial (HE) cells into spatially-organized, size-controlled colonies. CD34+VECAD+ HE cells were generated with multi-lineage potential in serum-free conditions and cultured as size-specific haemogenic niches that displayed enhanced blood cell induction over non-micropatterned cultures...
May 25, 2017: Nature Communications
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