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Daniel Navin Olschewski, Verena Hofschröer, Nikolaj Nielsen, Daniela G Seidler, Albrecht Schwab, Christian Stock
BACKGROUND/AIMS: The peptide hormone angiotensin II (ATII) plays a prominent role in regulating vasoconstriction and blood pressure. Its primary target is the angiotensin II receptor type 1 (AT1), the stimulation of which induces an increase in cytosolic [Ca2+] and calmodulin activation. Ca2+-bound (activated) calmodulin stimulates the activity of the Na+/ H+ exchanger isoform 1 (NHE1); and increased NHE1 activity is known to promote melanoma cell motility. The competitive AT1 receptor inhibitor losartan is often used to lower blood pressure in hypertensive patients...
March 16, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
Katarina Harasimov, Melina Schuh
Contractile actin networks take on various functions in cells. How disordered actin networks contract is still poorly understood. A recent study proposes a contractile mechanism that is driven by actin disassembly and required to prevent chromosome losses in starfish oocytes.
March 19, 2018: Current Biology: CB
Andrzej N Majda, Aleksandra Majdan, Paweł Piłat, Paweł Cisek
Gout tophi around auricular area are common in old men. The differential diagnosis of papules or nodules on the ear includes tophaceous gout, rheumatoid nodules, basal or squamous cell cancer, melanoma, verruca vulgaris or actinic keratosis. The presence of the skin cancer, most commonly located on the head and neck, is often related to the long exposure of the skin to sunlight. Elderly patients are the predominant group of patients with skin malignancies. The aim of this study is to emphasize the importance of early cancer detection in elderly people and use of appropriate therapeutic options that take into account the special requirements of geriatric patients...
2018: Wiadomości Lekarskie: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
Muriel W Lambert
Nonerythroid αII-spectrin is a structural protein whose roles in the nucleus have just begun to be explored. αII-spectrin is an important component of the nucleoskelelton and has both structural and non-structural functions. Its best known role is in repair of DNA ICLs both in genomic and telomeric DNA. αII-spectrin aids in the recruitment of repair proteins to sites of damage and a proposed mechanism of action is presented. It interacts with a number of different groups of proteins in the nucleus, indicating it has roles in additional cellular functions...
March 2018: Experimental Biology and Medicine
M Di Giulio, V Di Valerio, D Bosco, E Marsich, A Cataldi, L Cellini, S Sancilio
The molecular mechanisms leading to Streptococcus mitis capability of entering oral cells were investigated in a co-culture of S. mitis and Human Gingival Fibroblasts (HGFs) in the presence of saliva. An innovative colloidal solution based on silver nanoparticles (Chitlac-nAg), a promising device for daily oral care, was added to the experimental system in order to study the effects of silver on the bacterial overgrowth and ability to enter non-phagocytic eukaryotic cells. The entry of bacteria into the eukaryotic cells is mediated by a signalling pathway involving FAK, integrin β1, and the two cytoskeleton proteins vinculin and F-actin, and down-regulated by the presence of saliva both at 3 and 48 h of culture, whereas Chitlac-n Ag exposure seems to influence, by incrementing it, the number of bacteria entering the fibroblasts only at 48 h...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Materials Science. Materials in Medicine
Jingjiang Pi, Jie Liu, Tao Zhuang, Lin Zhang, Huimin Sun, Xiaoli Chen, Qian Zhao, Yashu Kuang, Sheng Peng, Xiaohui Zhou, Zuoren Yu, Ting Tao, Brian Tomlinson, Paul Chan, Ying Tian, Huimin Fan, Zhongmin Liu, Xiangjian Zheng, Edward Morrisey, Yuzhen Zhang
Rationale: Angiogenesis is critical for embryonic development and microRNAs fine-tune this process, but the underlying mechanisms remain incompletely understood. Methods: Endothelial cell (EC) specific miR302-367 line was used as gain-of-function and anti-miRs as loss-of-function models to investigate the effects of miR302-367 on developmental angiogenesis with embryonic hindbrain vasculature as an in vivo model and fibrin gel beads and tube formation assay as in vitro models. Cell migration was evaluated by Boyden chamber and scratch wound healing assay and cell proliferation by cell count, MTT assay, Ki67 immunostaining and PI cell cycle analysis...
2018: Theranostics
Hui Cao, Senlin Li, Rui Xie, Na Xu, Ying Qian, Hongdan Chen, Qinyu Hu, Yihong Quan, Zhihong Yu, Junjun Liu, Ming Xiang
Dangguiliuhuang decoction (DGLHD) has been demonstrated to be effective in treating inflammatory, hepatic steatosis, and insulin resistance. In the study, we tried to elucidate the pharmacological efficacy and mechanism of DGLHD against liver fibrosis and predicate potential active ingredients and targets via network analysis and experimental validation. In the formula, we totally discovered 76 potential active ingredients like baicalein, berberine, and wogonin, and 286 corresponding targets including PTGS (prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase) 2, PPAR (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors) -γ, and NF-κB (nuclear factor-κB)...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Kirsten F Smit, Moritz Konkel, Raphaela Kerindongo, Maximilian A Landau, Coert J Zuurbier, Markus W Hollmann, Benedikt Preckel, Rienk Nieuwland, Martin Albrecht, Nina C Weber
Caveolins are involved in anaesthetic-induced cardioprotection. Actin filaments are located in close connection to Caveolins in the plasma membrane. We hypothesised that helium might affect the cytoskeleton and induce secretion of Caveolin. HCAEC, HUVEC and Cav-1 siRNA transfected HUVEC were exposed for 20 minutes to either helium (5% CO2 , 25% O2 , 70% He) or control gas (5% CO2 , 25% O2 , 70% N2 ). Cells and supernatants were collected for infrared Western blot analysis, immunofluorescence staining, nanoparticle tracking analysis and permeability measurements...
March 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
Kousuke Sasaki, Tamotsu Sugai, Kazuyuki Ishida, Mitsumasa Osakabe, Hiroo Amano, Hiroaki Kimura, Minoru Sakuraba, Katsuhiko Kashiwa, Seiichiro Kobayashi
Activated cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) and fibroblasts that have undergone the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in cancer stroma contribute to tumor progression and metastasis. However, no reports have investigated the CAF phenotype and its clinicopathological relevance in cutaneous malignant tumors, including basal cell carcinoma (BCC), squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and malignant melanoma (MM). Here, we investigated the CAF phenotype in cutaneous malignant tumors based on their histology and immunohistochemical expression of CAF-related markers, including adipocyte enhancer-binding protein 1 (AEBP1), podoplanin, platelet derived growth factor receptor α (PDGFRα), PDGFRβ, fibroblast activating protein (FAP), CD10, S100A4, α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), and EMT-related markers (Zeb1, Slug and Twist)...
March 16, 2018: Human Pathology
Xiaofei Zhang, Huaibin Mabel Ko, Joana Torres, Hinaben J Panchal, Zhenjian Cai, Mathilde Wagner, Bruce E Sands, Jean-Frederic Colombel, Judy Cho, Bachir Taouli, Noam Harpaz
Intestinal stricture, a major complication of Crohn's disease (CD), results from fibromuscular remodeling and expansion of the intestinal wall. The corresponding microanatomical alterations have not been fully described, hindering progress toward understanding their pathogenesis and devising appropriate treatments. We used tissue-specific staining and quantitative digital histomorphometry for this purpose. Serial histological sections from 37 surgically-resected ileal strictures and adjacent non-strictured controls from patients with CD were evaluated after staining for smooth muscle actin, collagen (Sirius red) and collagen types I, III and V...
March 16, 2018: Human Pathology
Yan Zhang, Hong Li, Yingqin Jia, Pengfei Yang, Feng Zhao, Wei Wang, Wenqing Liu, Guisheng Chen, Xiaoqing Zhuang, Juan Li
BACKGROUD: Vascular calcification is currently recognized as an important pathobiological process in atherosclerosis, but the mechanism remains elusive. Given the similarities in vascular calcification and bone formation,18 F-sodium fluoride (18 F-NaF) is now considered a novel marker of vascular calcification. This study aimed to correlate18 F-NaF accumulation with the histological characterization of vascular calcification in carotid plaques. METHODS: A total of 8 patients who were undergoing carotid endarterectomy (CEA) for carotid artery stenosis were recruited...
March 16, 2018: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
Tanja Jene, Nils C Gassen, Verena Opitz, Kristina Endres, Marianne B Müller, Michael A van der Kooij
Understanding the neurobiological mechanisms underlying the response to an acute stressor may provide novel insights into successful stress-coping strategies. Acute behavioral stress-effects may be restricted to a specific time window early after stress-induction. However, existing behavioral test batteries typically span multiple days or even weeks, limiting the feasibility for a broad behavioral analysis following acute stress. Here, we designed a novel comprehensive behavioral test battery in male mice that assesses multiple behavioral dimensions within a sufficiently brief time window to capture acute stress-effects and its temporal profile...
March 8, 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
Silvia P Sepúlveda-Ramírez, Leslie Toledo-Jacobo, John H Henson, Charles B Shuster
In the sea urchin embryo, gastrulation is characterized by the ingression and directed cell migration of primary mesenchyme cells (PMCs), as well as the primary invagination and convergent extension of the endomesoderm. Like all cell shape changes, individual and collective cell motility is orchestrated by Rho family GTPases and their modulation of the actomyosin cytoskeleton. And while endomesoderm specification has been intensively studied in echinoids, much less is known about the proximate regulators driving cell motility...
March 16, 2018: Developmental Biology
Caitlin R Rausch, Dimitrios P Kontoyiannis
Voriconazole is a triazole antifungal with activity against a number of yeast and mold species including Candida, Aspergillosis, Fusarium, and Coccidioides. Invasive fungal infections are associated with high morbidity and mortality, prolonged treatment courses, and occasionally lifelong suppressive therapy. Voriconazole therapy can result in a number of acute toxicities that clinicians are frequently aware of including hepatotoxicity, visual disturbances, and hallucinations; however, there is limited experience with extended durations of voriconazole therapy...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Oncology Pharmacy Practice
Ulrike Binsker, Raghavendra Palankar, Jan Wesche, Thomas P Kohler, Josephine Prucha, Gerhard Burchhardt, Manfred Rohde, Frank Schmidt, Barbara M Bröker, Uwe Mamat, Jan Pané-Farré, Anica Graf, Patrick Ebner, Andreas Greinacher, Sven Hammerschmidt
Staphylococcus aureus can cause bloodstream infections associated with infective endocarditis (IE) and disseminated intravascular coagulopathy (DIC). Both complications involve platelets. In view of an increasing number of antibiotic-resistant strains, new approaches to control systemic S. aureus infection are gaining importance. Using a repertoire of 52 recombinant S. aureus proteins in flow cytometry-based platelet activation and aggregation assays, we identified, in addition to the extracellular adherence protein Eap, three secreted staphylococcal proteins as novel platelet activating proteins...
March 19, 2018: Thrombosis and Haemostasis
Govindaraj Anumanthan, Suneel Gupta, Michael K Fink, Nathan P Hesemann, Douglas K Bowles, Lindsey M McDaniel, Maaz Muhammad, Rajiv R Mohan
Vision impairment from corneal fibrosis is a common consequence of irregular corneal wound healing after injury. Intermediate-conductance calmodulin/calcium-activated K+ channels 3.1 (KCa3.1) play an important role in cell cycle progression and cellular proliferation. Proliferation and differentiation of corneal fibroblasts to myofibroblasts can lead to corneal fibrosis after injury. KCa3.1 has been shown in many non-ocular tissues to promote fibrosis, but its role in corneal fibrosis is still unknown. In this study, we characterized the expression KCa3...
2018: PloS One
Richard R Kew, Tahmineh Tabrizian, James A Vosswinkel, James E Davis, Randeep S Jawa
BACKGROUND: Severe acute muscle injury results in massive cell damage, causing the release of actin into extracellular fluids where it complexes with the vitamin D binding protein (DBP). We hypothesized that a systemic Vitamin D deficiency would result in a less pro-inflammatory phenotype. METHODS: C57BL/6 wild-type and DBP deficient (DBP-/-) mice received intramuscular injections of either 50% glycerol or phosphate-buffered saline into thigh muscles. Muscle injury was assessed by histology...
March 16, 2018: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
Michelle E Maxson, Xenia Naj, Teresa R O'Meara, Jonathan D Plumb, Leah E Cowen, Sergio Grinstein
Candida albicans hyphae can reach enormous lengths, precluding their internalization by phagocytes. Nevertheless, macrophages engulf a portion of the hypha, generating incompletely sealed tubular phagosomes. These frustrated phagosomes are stabilized by a thick cuff of F-actin that polymerizes in response to non-canonical activation of integrins by fungal glycan. Despite their continuity, the surface and invaginating phagosomal membranes retain a strikingly distinct lipid composition. PtdIns(4,5)P2 is present at the plasmalemma but is not detectable in the phagosomal membrane, while PtdIns(3)P and PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 co-exist in the phagosomes yet are absent from the surface membrane...
March 19, 2018: ELife
Christopher J Schwartz, Cynthia A Schandl, Jennifer Morse, Jonathan Ralston, Amy Rapkiewicz, Farbod Darvishian
Myxoid lesions of the breast can be diagnostically challenging entities. We report 4 cases of CD34+ fibromyxoid lesion that have been previously diagnosed as "benign myxoid lesion," "nodular mucinosis," or "mammary myofibroblastoma, myxoid type" on the basis of CD34-positivity. The lesions were microscopically well circumscribed and composed of a paucicellular spindle cell proliferation in a background of myxoid stroma. No epithelial component was identified. The spindle cells showed immunohistochemical reactivity for CD34 and smooth muscle actin...
March 1, 2018: International Journal of Surgical Pathology
Hitoshi Kameyama, Tatsuo Kanda, Yosuke Tajima, Yoshifumi Shimada, Hiroshi Ichikawa, Takaaki Hanyu, Takashi Ishikawa, Toshifumi Wakai
Gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) is the most common mesenchymal neoplasm of the gastrointestinal tract. However, rectal GIST is rare, the incident rate of it is approximately 5% of all GISTs. Rectal GIST symptoms generally include bleeding and/or pain and occasionally, urinary symptoms. Immunohistochemical evaluation finds that most rectal GIST tumors are CD117 (KIT) positive, and are sometimes CD34, platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha (PDGFRA), smooth muscle actin, S-100, or vimentin positive...
2018: Translational Gastroenterology and Hepatology
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