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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532087/the-repairing-of-full-thickness-skin-deficiency-and-its-biological-mechanism-using-decellularized-human-amniotic-membrane-as-the-wound-dressing
#1
Mengsheng Song, Weiqing Wang, Qihua Ye, Shizhong Bu, Zhisen Shen, Yabin Zhu
Human amniotic membrane (HAM) was a biocompatible scaffold with advantages of anti-inflammatory, low antigen, feasibility, tolerance and low cost. In our previous work, HAM was treated to be decellularized using surfactant, lipase and DNAase methods and the efficacy as an implantable biological mesh was verified after decellularization treatment. In this work, we used the previous protocol to decellularize the fresh HAM, and applied it to repair full-thickness skin defects with Sprague-Dawley rats as the test animals...
August 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531800/restoration-of-arpin-suppresses-aggressive-phenotype-of-breast-cancer-cells
#2
Yi Li, Jiliang Qiu, Ting Pang, Zhixing Guo, Yonghui Su, Qingan Zeng, Xuexia Zhang
Arpin, a negative regulator of the actin-related protein-2/3 (Arp2/3) complex, is downregulated and predicts poor prognosis in breast cancer patients. However, its biological relevance in breast cancer is still unclear. This study was conducted to investigate the roles of Arpin in breast cancer growth and invasion. We overexpressed Arpin expression in MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells and examined the effects of restoration of Arpin on cell proliferation, colony formation, cell cycle distribution, invasion in vitro and tumorigenesis in vivo...
May 19, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531647/multifunctional-plla-ceramic-fiber-membranes-for-bone-regeneration-applications
#3
Daniel Santos, Dina M Silva, Pedro S Gomes, Maria H Fernandes, José D Santos, Vitor Sencadas
A novel method to process electrospun poly(l-lactic acid) (PLLA) membranes incorporating glass reinforced hydroxyapatite granules (gHA) interspacially between the polymeric fibers is reported, thus increasing the surface area for cellular interactions. gHA granules (≤150μm) electrospun together with the polymer solution, lead to an average fiber diameter of 550±150nm for pristine PLLA and 440±170nm for the composite samples. An increase of the overall porosity was observed, from 79±3% for the PLLA up to 88±5% for the hybrid samples, keeping material's wettability and mechanical properties...
May 12, 2017: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531263/in-vivo-dynamics-of-the-cortical-actin-network-revealed-by-fast-scanning-atomic-force-microscopy
#4
Yanshu Zhang, Aiko Yoshida, Nobuaki Sakai, Yoshitsugu Uekusa, Masahiro Kumeta, Shige H Yoshimura
Together with lamellipodia and stress fibers, a dynamic network of actin filaments in the cell cortex plays a major role in the maintenance of cell morphology and motility. In contrast to lamellipodia, which have been well studied in various motile cells, the dynamics of actin filaments in the cell cortex have not yet been clarified due to a lack of proper imaging techniques. Here, we utilized high-speed atomic force microscopy for live-cell imaging and analyzed cortical actin dynamics in living cells. We successfully measured the polymerization rate and the frequency of filament synthesis in living COS-7 cells, and examined the associated effects of various inhibitors and actin-binding proteins...
May 20, 2017: Microscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531107/analysis-of-gene-expression-signatures-in-cancer-associated-stroma-from-canine-mammary-tumours-reveals-molecular-homology-to-human-breast-carcinomas
#5
Julia Ettlin, Elena Clementi, Parisa Amini, Alexandra Malbon, Enni Markkanen
Cancer-associated stroma (CAS) plays a key role in cancer initiation and progression. Spontaneously occurring canine mammary carcinomas are viewed as excellent models of human breast carcinomas. Considering the importance of CAS for human cancer, it likely plays a central role in canine tumours as well. So far, however, canine CAS lacks characterisation, and it remains unclear whether the biology between CAS from canine and human tumours is comparable. In this proof-of-principle study, using laser-capture microdissection, we isolated CAS and normal stroma from 13 formalin-fixed paraffin embedded canine simple mammary carcinomas and analysed the expression of seven known human CAS markers by RT-qPCR (Reverse Transcription quantitative PCR) and validated some targets by immunohistochemistry...
May 20, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530659/actin-cortex-architecture-regulates-cell-surface-tension
#6
Priyamvada Chugh, Andrew G Clark, Matthew B Smith, Davide A D Cassani, Kai Dierkes, Anan Ragab, Philippe P Roux, Guillaume Charras, Guillaume Salbreux, Ewa K Paluch
Animal cell shape is largely determined by the cortex, a thin actin network underlying the plasma membrane in which myosin-driven stresses generate contractile tension. Tension gradients result in local contractions and drive cell deformations. Previous cortical tension regulation studies have focused on myosin motors. Here, we show that cortical actin network architecture is equally important. First, we observe that actin cortex thickness and tension are inversely correlated during cell-cycle progression. We then show that the actin filament length regulators CFL1, CAPZB and DIAPH1 regulate mitotic cortex thickness and find that both increasing and decreasing thickness decreases tension in mitosis...
May 22, 2017: Nature Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530245/shifting-the-optimal-stiffness-for-cell-migration
#7
Benjamin L Bangasser, Ghaidan A Shamsan, Clarence E Chan, Kwaku N Opoku, Erkan Tüzel, Benjamin W Schlichtmann, Jesse A Kasim, Benjamin J Fuller, Brannon R McCullough, Steven S Rosenfeld, David J Odde
Cell migration, which is central to many biological processes including wound healing and cancer progression, is sensitive to environmental stiffness, and many cell types exhibit a stiffness optimum, at which migration is maximal. Here we present a cell migration simulator that predicts a stiffness optimum that can be shifted by altering the number of active molecular motors and clutches. This prediction is verified experimentally by comparing cell traction and F-actin retrograde flow for two cell types with differing amounts of active motors and clutches: embryonic chick forebrain neurons (ECFNs; optimum ∼1 kPa) and U251 glioma cells (optimum ∼100 kPa)...
May 22, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530130/injectable-graft-substitute-active-on-bone-tissue-regeneration
#8
Michela Bosetti, Alessia Borrone, Massimiliano Leigheb, Prasad Shastri, Mario Cannas
With the aim to obtain an injectable bioactive scaffold that can accelerate bone formation in sinus lift augmentation, in bony void and in fracture repair, we have developed a three-dimensional (3D) jelly collagen containing Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) and 1α,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25D3). Using an in vitro 3D culture model of bone fracture we show that the contraction of the collagen gel is mediated by Rho-kinase activation in osteoblasts. This contraction was cell concentration dependent and was increased by LPA which favored apposition and fastening of bone fragments approach...
May 20, 2017: Tissue Engineering. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530121/glucocorticoids-retain-bi-potent-fibroblast-progenitors-during-alveolar-septation-in-mice
#9
Stephen E McGowan, Diann M McCoy
Glucocorticoids have been widely used and exert pleiotropic effects on alveolar structure and function, but do not improve the long-term clinical outcomes for patients with bronchopulmonary dysplasia, emphysema, or interstitial lung diseases. Treatments which foster alveolar regeneration could substantially improve the long-term outcomes for such patients. One approach to alveolar regeneration is to stimulate and guide intrinsic alveolar progenitors along developmental pathways used during secondary septation...
May 21, 2017: American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530094/troponin-c-mutations-partially-stabilize-the-active-state-of-regulated-actin-and-fully-stabilize-the-active-state-when-paired-with-%C3%AE-14-tnt
#10
Tamatha Baxley, Dylan Johnson, Jose Renato Pinto, Joseph Michael Chalovich
Striated muscle contraction is regulated by the actin associated proteins tropomyosin and troponin. Activation of myosin ATPase activity is lowest in the absence of both Ca2+ and activating crossbridges (i.e. S1-ADP or rigor S1). Binding of activating species of myosin to actin at saturating Ca2+ stabilizes the most active state (M state) of actin-tropomyosin-troponin (regulated actin). Ca2+ binding alone produces partial stabilization of the active state. The extent of stabilization at saturating Ca2+ depends on the isoform of the troponin subunits, the phosphorylation state of troponin and, in the case of cardiac muscle, the presence of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy producing mutants of troponin T and troponin I...
May 22, 2017: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529955/identification-of-transcriptional-modules-and-key-genes-in-chickens-infected-with-salmonella-enterica-serovar-pullorum-using-integrated-coexpression-analyses
#11
Bao-Hong Liu, Jian-Ping Cai
Salmonella enterica Pullorum is one of the leading causes of mortality in poultry. Understanding the molecular response in chickens in response to the infection by S. enterica is important in revealing the mechanisms of pathogenesis and disease progress. There have been studies on identifying genes associated with Salmonella infection by differential expression analysis, but the relationships among regulated genes have not been investigated. In this study, we employed weighted gene coexpression network analysis (WGCNA) and differential coexpression analysis (DCEA) to identify coexpression modules by exploring microarray data derived from chicken splenic tissues in response to the S...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529732/microarray-analysis-of-differentially-expressed-genes-and-their-functions-in-omental-visceral-adipose-tissues-of-pregnant-women-with-vs-without-gestational-diabetes-mellitus
#12
Yuan Qian, Hao Sun, Hongli Xiao, Meirun Ma, Xue Xiao, Qinzai Qu
Increasing evidence has shown that insulin resistance in omental visceral adipose tissue (OVAT) is a characteristic of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). The present study aimed to identify differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and their associated functions and pathways involved in the pathogenesis of GDM by comparing the expression profiles of OVATs obtained from pregnant Chinese women with and without GDM during caesarian section. A total of 935 DEGs were identified, including 450 downregulated and 485 upregulated genes...
May 2017: Biomedical Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529460/wif1-prevents-wnt5a-mediated-limk-cfl-phosphorylation-and-adherens-junction-disruption-in-human-vascular-endothelial-cells
#13
Tom Skaria, Esther Bachli, Gabriele Schoedon
BACKGROUND: Wnt5A is released by activated macrophages and elevated levels have been detected in sepsis patients with severe systemic inflammation. However, the signalling and functional effects of Wnt5A in the vascular endothelial cells (VEC) remained unclear. Recently, we showed that Wnt5A affects barrier function in human VEC through Ryk interaction. Wnt5A/Ryk signalling activates LIMK to inactivate the actin depolymerisation factor CFL by phosphorylation, promotes actin polymerisation and disrupts endothelial adherens junctions...
2017: Journal of Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529274/pleomorphic-adenoma-of-the-labial-gland-characterized-by-reticular-pattern-of-myoepithelial-cells-in-a-dog
#14
Mizuki Kuramochi, Takeshi Izawa, Shin Nishimura, Terumasa Shimada, Mitsuru Kuwamura, Jyoji Yamate
An 11-year-old female golden retriever dog had a mass at the right corner of the upper lip, which gradually increased in size and protruded into the oral cavity. The mass was removed surgically. The cut surface of the mass was smooth, whitish and solid, and covered by the oral mucosal membrane. Histopathologically, the mass consisted mainly of reticular pattern of short spindle cells that stained positively for cytokeratin AE1/AE3, α-smooth muscle actin and p63, suggestive of a myoepithelial cell phenotype...
May 20, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528556/proventriculitis-associated-with-cryptosporidium-baileyi-in-a-snowy-owl-bubo-scandiacus-and-its-epidemiological-investigation
#15
Shotaro Nakagun, Noriyuki Horiuchi, Miki Sugimoto, Sohei Tomikawa, Kenichi Watanabe, Yoshiyasu Kobayashi
We describe an unusual case of proventriculitis associated with Cryptosporidium baileyi in a 7-wk-old snowy owl (Bubo scandiacus) chick kept at a zoo. Necropsy of this animal revealed diffuse mucosal thickening of the proventriculus. Subsequent histopathological examinations of the proventriculus showed marked ductal epithelial hyperplasia with intestinal metaplasia and severe inflammatory cell infiltration in the lamina propria and submucosa. These lesions were associated with numerous periodic-acid-Schiff-positive cryptosporidia-like protozoan parasites...
May 20, 2017: Journal of Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527995/effect-of-aconitum-coreanum-polysaccharide-and-its-sulphated-derivative-on-the-migration-of-human-breast-cancer-mda-mb-435s-cell
#16
Yandong Zhang, Wei Wu, Lihua Kang, Dehai Yu, Chunshui Liu
Polysaccharides extracted from medicinal plants possess multiple functions. However, the inhibitory capacity of polysaccharides on the metastasis of breast cancer remains unclear. In the present study, we investigated the inhibitory activity of Aconitum coreanum polysaccharide (ACP1) and its sulphated derivative ACP1-s on migratory behaviour of human breast cancer cells MDA-MB-435s and evaluated the underlying molecular mechanism. The data from Transwell assay indicated that ACP1 and ACP1-s caused a significant inhibition of MDA-MB-435s cell migration in vitro...
May 17, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527846/characterization-of-dental-pulp-myofibroblasts-in-rat-molars-after-pulpotomy
#17
Naoki Edanami, Nagako Yoshiba, Naoto Ohkura, Ryosuke Takeuchi, Aiko Tohma, Yuichiro Noiri, Kunihiko Yoshiba
INTRODUCTION: Myofibroblasts express alpha smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and play a critical role in wound healing. Myofibroblast differentiation is controlled by the joint actions of transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1) and the extradomain A fibronectin splice variant (EDA-FN). Currently, the contribution of myofibroblasts to dental pulp healing is unknown. Therefore, we analyzed expressional characteristics of α-SMA-positive cells and investigated TGF-β1, EDA-FN, and α-SMA expression levels after pulpotomy to better understand dental pulp healing...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Endodontics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527708/cortical-cytoskeleton-dynamics-regulates-plasma-membrane-calcium-atpase-isoform-2-pmca2-activity
#18
Marianela G Dalghi, Mariela Ferreira-Gomes, Nicolás Montalbetti, Alexandre Simonin, Emanuel E Strehler, Matthias A Hediger, Juan Pablo Rossi
We have previously shown that purified actin can directly bind to human plasma membrane Ca(2+) ATPase 4b (hPMCA4b) and exert a dual modulation on its Ca(2+)-ATPase activity: F-actin inhibits PMCA while short actin oligomers may contribute to PMCA activation. These studies had to be performed with purified proteins given the nature of the biophysical and biochemical approaches used. To assess whether a functional interaction between the PMCAs and the cortical cytoskeleton is of physiological relevance, we characterized this phenomenon in the context of a living cell by monitoring in real-time the changes in the cytosolic calcium levels ([Ca(2+)]CYT)...
May 17, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527703/sperm-oocyte-contact-induces-outside-in-signaling-via-pyk2-activation
#19
Huizhen Wang, Jinping Luo, Carol Carlton, Lynda K McGinnis, William H Kinsey
Fertilization is a multi-step process that begins with plasma membrane interactions that enable sperm - oocyte binding followed by fusion of the sperm and oocyte plasma membranes. Once membrane fusion has occurred, sperm incorporation involves actin remodeling events within the oocyte cortex that allow the sperm head to penetrate the cortical actin layer and gain access to the ooplasm. Despite the significance for reproduction, the control mechanisms involved in gamete binding, fusion, and sperm incorporation are poorly understood...
May 17, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527698/non-diaphanous-formin-delphilin-acts-as-a-barbed-end-capping-protein
#20
Priyanka Dutta, Swagata Das, Sankar Maiti
Formins are multi domain protein present ubiquitously in all eukaryotes from lower fungi to higher vertebrates. Formins are characterized by the presence of formin homology domain-2 (FH2) and formin homology domain-1 (FH1). There are fifteen different formins present in mouse and human. Among these metazoan formins Delphilin is a unique formin having two PDZ domains at the N-terminal and FH1, FH2 domain at the C-terminus respectively. In this study we observed that Delphilin binds to actin filaments, and Delphilin inhibits actin filament elongation like barbed end capping protein CapZ...
May 17, 2017: Experimental Cell Research
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