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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743168/calorie-restriction-reverses-age-related-alteration-of-cavernous-neurovascular-structure-in-the-rat
#1
A Limanjaya, K-M Song, M-J Choi, K Ghatak, N N Minh, D H Kang, J Ock, G N Yin, H Y Chung, J-K Ryu, J-K Suh
Calorie restriction (CR) refers to a reduction of calorie intake without compromising essential nutrients to avoid malnutrition. CR has been established as a non-genetic method of altering longevity and attenuating biological changes associated with aging. Aging is also an important risk factor for erectile dysfunction. The aim of this study was to examine whether CR diet can reverse the age-related alterations of erectile tissue in the aged rat. Four groups of rats were used: young rats (7 months) + ad libitum, aged rats (22 months) + ad libitum, young rats + CR diet, and aged rats + CR diet...
July 25, 2017: Andrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742155/acceleration-of-the-sliding-movement-of-actin-filaments-with-the-use-of-a-non-motile-mutant-myosin-in-in-vitro-motility-assays-driven-by-skeletal-muscle-heavy-meromyosin
#2
Kohei Iwase, Masateru Tanaka, Keiko Hirose, Taro Q P Uyeda, Hajime Honda
We examined the movement of an actin filament sliding on a mixture of normal and genetically modified myosin molecules that were attached to a glass surface. For this purpose, we used a Dictyostelium G680V mutant myosin II whose release rates of Pi and ADP were highly suppressed relative to normal myosin, leading to a significantly extended life-time of the strongly bound state with actin and virtually no motility. When the mixing ratio of G680V mutant myosin II to skeletal muscle HMM (heavy myosin) was 0.01%, the actin filaments moved intermittently...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742127/tpc1-is-an-important-zn-ii-2cys6-transcriptional-regulator-required-for-polarized-growth-and-virulence-in-the-rice-blast-fungus
#3
Rita Galhano, Adriana Illana, Lauren S Ryder, Julio Rodríguez-Romero, Marie Demuez, Muhammad Badaruddin, Ana Lilia Martinez-Rocha, Darren M Soanes, David J Studholme, Nicholas J Talbot, Ane Sesma
The establishment of polarity is a critical process in pathogenic fungi, mediating infection-related morphogenesis and host tissue invasion. Here, we report the identification of TPC1 (Transcription factor for Polarity Control 1), which regulates invasive polarized growth in the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae. TPC1 encodes a putative transcription factor of the fungal Zn(II)2Cys6 family, exclusive to filamentous fungi. Tpc1-deficient mutants show severe defects in conidiogenesis, infection-associated autophagy, glycogen and lipid metabolism, and plant tissue colonisation...
July 24, 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741985/the-influence-of-fasudil-on-renal-proximal-tubular-cell-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition-induced-by-parathormone
#4
Ziqing Gao, Weiping Zhu, Hua Zhang, Zhonghe Li, Tongxia Cui
BACKGROUND: Renal fibrosis is a common pathway through which a variety of chronic kidney diseases progress to end-stage renal disease. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of renal proximal tubular cells is one of the most important factors in renal fibrosis. This study investigates if fasudil could influence EMT of renal proximal tubular cells. METHODS: HK-2 cells in passage 3-4 were used for all experiments. The cells were divided into five groups and treated with different concentrations of PTH and then observe cellular morphological changes at 0, 24 and 48 h using an inverted microscope and investigate the expression of the epithelial cell marker E-cadherin and the renal fibroblast marker α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA)...
November 2017: Renal Failure
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741790/diallyl-trisulfide-inhibits-cell-migration-and-invasion-of-human-melanoma-a375-cells-via-inhibiting-integrin-facal-adhesion-kinase-pathway
#5
Hsiao-Chi Wang, Yung-Lin Chu, Shu-Chen Hsieh, Lee-Yan Sheen
Melanoma is the leading cause of death from skin disease due to its propensity for metastasis. Studies have shown that integrin-mediated focal adhesion kinase (FAK) signal pathway is implicated in cell proliferation, survival and metastasis of tumor cells. Our previous results indicated that diallyl trisulfide (DATS) provided its antimelanoma activity via inducing cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. The aim of this study was to explore DATS mediated antimetastatic effect and the corresponding mechanism in human melanoma A375 cells...
July 25, 2017: Environmental Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741418/focal-adhesion-kinase-activation-is-necessary-for-stretch-induced-alignment-and-enhanced-differentiation-of-myogenic-precursor-cells
#6
Jens Isak Andersen, Cristian Pablo Pennisi, Trine Fink, Vladimir Zachar
Myogenic precursors sense and dynamically respond to mechanical stimulation through complex integrin-mediated mechanotransduction, in which focal adhesion kinase (FAK) is a fundamental intracellular signaling mediator. When skeletal myoblasts are exposed to uniaxial cyclic tensile strain (UCTS) they display uniform alignment and an enhanced rate of differentiation. In this work, we explored the role of FAK activation using C2C12 myoblasts that were grown on flexible culture plates and exposed to UCTS during the early differentiation phase...
July 25, 2017: Tissue Engineering. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741129/overexpression-of-ghpfn2-enhances-protection-against-verticillium-dahliae-invasion-in-cotton
#7
Wenyan Wang, Yongduo Sun, Libo Han, Lei Su, Guixian Xia, Haiyun Wang
Growing evidence indicates that actin cytoskeleton is involved in plant innate immune responses, but the functional mechanism remains largely unknown. Here, we investigated the behavior of a cotton profilin gene (GhPFN2) in response to Verticillium dahliae invasion, and evaluated its contribution to plant defense against this soil-borne fungal pathogen. GhPFN2 expression was up-regulated when cotton root was inoculated with V. dahliae, and the actin architecture was reorganized in the infected root cells, with a clear increase in the density of filamentous actin and the extent of actin bundling...
July 21, 2017: Science China. Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739799/lgr5-receptor-promotes-cell-cell-adhesion-in-stem-cells-and-colon-cancer-cells-via-the-iqgap1-rac1-pathway
#8
Kendra S Carmon, Xing Gong, Jing Yi, Ling Wu, Anthony Thomas, Catherine M Moore, Ikuo Masuho, David J Timson, Kirill A Martemyanov, Qingyun J Liu
Leucine rich repeat containing G protein coupled receptor 5 (LGR5) is a bona fide marker of adult stem cells in several epithelial tissues, most notably in the intestinal crypts and is highly upregulated in many colorectal, hepatocellular, and ovarian cancers. LGR5 activation by R-spondin (RSPO) ligands potentiates Wnt/β-catenin signaling in vitro, yet deletion of LGR5 in stem cells has little or no effect on Wnt/β-catenin signaling or cell proliferation in vivo. Remarkably, modulation of LGR5 expression has a major impact on the actin cytoskeletal structure and cell adhesion in the absence of RSPO stimulation, but the molecular mechanism is unclear...
July 24, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739650/lysophosphatidic-acid-receptor-antagonism-protects-against-diabetic-nephropathy-in-a-type-2-diabetic-model
#9
Ming-Zhi Zhang, Xin Wang, Haichun Yang, Agnes B Fogo, Brian J Murphy, Robert Kaltenbach, Peter Cheng, Bradley Zinker, Raymond C Harris
Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) functions through activation of LPA receptors (LPARs). LPA-LPAR signaling has been implicated in development of fibrosis. However, the role of LPA-LPAR signaling in development of diabetic nephropathy (DN) has not been studied. We examined whether BMS002, a novel dual LPAR1 and LPAR3 antagonist, affects development of DN in endothelial nitric oxide synthase-knockout db/db mice. Treatment of these mice with BMS002 from 8 to 20 weeks of age led to a significant reduction in albuminuria, similar to that observed with renin-angiotensin system inhibition (losartan plus enalapril)...
July 24, 2017: Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: JASN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739641/matrine-prevents-bone-loss-in-ovariectomized-mice-by-inhibiting-rankl-induced-osteoclastogenesis
#10
Xiao Chen, Xin Zhi, Panpan Pan, Jin Cui, Liehu Cao, Weizong Weng, Qirong Zhou, Lin Wang, Xiao Zhai, Qingiie Zhao, Honggang Hu, Biaotong Huang, Jiacan Su
Osteoporosis is a metabolic bone disease characterized by decreased bone density and strength due to excessive loss of bone protein and mineral content. The imbalance between osteogenesis by osteoblasts and osteoclastogenesis by osteoclasts contributes to the pathogenesis of postmenopausal osteoporosis. Estrogen withdrawal leads to increased levels of proinflammatory cytokines. Overactivated osteoclasts by inflammation play a vital role in the imbalance. Matrine is an alkaloid found in plants from the Sophora genus with various pharmacological effects, including anti-inflammatory activity...
July 24, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739398/transcriptome-analysis-of-ifm-specific-actin-and-myosin-nulls-in-drosophila-melanogaster-unravels-lesion-specific-expression-blueprints-across-muscle-mutations
#11
Aditi Madan, Divesh Thimmaiya, Ari Franco-Cea, Mohammed Aiyaz, Prabodh Kumar, John C Sparrow, Upendra Nongthomba
Muscle contraction is a highly fine-tuned process that requires the precise and timely construction of large protein sub-assemblies to form sarcomeres. Mutations in many genes encoding constituent proteins of this macromolecular machine result in defective functioning of the muscle tissue. However, the pathways underlying muscle degeneration, and manifestation of myopathy phenotypes are not well understood. In this study, we explored transcriptional alterations that ensue from the absence of the two major muscle proteins - myosin and actin - using the Drosophila indirect flight muscles...
July 21, 2017: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739140/the-il-4-receptor-%C3%AE-has-a-critical-role-in-bone-marrow-derived-fibroblast-activation-and-renal-fibrosis
#12
Hua Liang, Zhengmao Zhang, Jingyin Yan, Yuguo Wang, Zhaoyong Hu, William E Mitch, Yanlin Wang
Renal fibrosis is a common pathway leading to the progression of chronic kidney disease, and bone marrow-derived fibroblasts contribute significantly to the development of renal fibrosis. However, the signaling mechanisms underlying the activation of these fibroblasts are not completely understood. Here, we examined the role of IL-4 receptor α (IL-4Rα) in the activation of myeloid fibroblasts in two experimental models of renal fibrosis. Compared with wild-type mice, IL-4Rα knockout mice accumulated fewer bone marrow-derived fibroblasts and myofibroblasts in their kidneys...
July 21, 2017: Kidney International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739045/filamin-b-the-next-hotspot-in-skeletal-research
#13
REVIEW
Qiming Xu, Nan Wu, Lijia Cui, Zhihong Wu, Guixing Qiu
Filamin B (FLNB) is a large dimeric actin-binding protein which crosslinks actin cytoskeleton filaments into a dynamic structure. Up to present, pathogenic mutations in FLNB are solely found to cause skeletal deformities, indicating the important role of FLNB in skeletal development. FLNB-related disorders are classified as spondylocarpotarsal synostosis (SCT), Larsen syndrome (LS), atelosteogenesis (AO), boomerang dysplasia (BD), and isolated congenital talipes equinovarus, presenting with scoliosis, short-limbed dwarfism, clubfoot, joint dislocation and other unique skeletal abnormalities...
July 6, 2017: Journal of Genetics and Genomics, Yi Chuan Xue Bao
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738606/a-label-free-fluorometric-assay-for-actin-detection-based-on-enzyme-responsive-dna-templated-copper-nanoparticles
#14
Quanwei Song, Lixia Yang, Hongkun Chen, Rong Zhang, Na Na, Jin Ouyang
Herein, we develop a fluorescent strategy for label-free detection of actin by the in situ formation of double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) templated copper nanoparticles (CuNPs) and the digestion capability of deoxyribonuclease I (DNase I). In this design, the introduction of actin can effectively hinder the enzymic digestion owing to the exceptional target-mediated conformational structure between actin and DNase I. Consequently, the remaining adenine-thymine-rich dsDNA can act as an efficient template for fluorescent CuNPs (λex = 340nm, λem = 585nm) with a Mega-Stokes shifting (245nm)...
November 1, 2017: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737752/mechanical-strain-sensing-implicated-in-cell-shape-recovery-in-escherichia-coli
#15
Felix Wong, Lars D Renner, Gizem Özbaykal, Jayson Paulose, Douglas B Weibel, Sven van Teeffelen, Ariel Amir
The shapes of most bacteria are imparted by the structures of their peptidoglycan cell walls, which are determined by many dynamic processes that can be described on various length scales ranging from short-range glycan insertions to cellular-scale elasticity(1-11). Understanding the mechanisms that maintain stable, rod-like morphologies in certain bacteria has proved to be challenging due to an incomplete understanding of the feedback between growth and the elastic and geometric properties of the cell wall(3,4,12-14)...
July 24, 2017: Nature Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737169/actomyosin-drives-cancer-cell-nuclear-dysmorphia-and-threatens-genome-stability
#16
Tohru Takaki, Marco Montagner, Murielle P Serres, Maël Le Berre, Matt Russell, Lucy Collinson, Karoly Szuhai, Michael Howell, Simon J Boulton, Erik Sahai, Mark Petronczki
Altered nuclear shape is a defining feature of cancer cells. The mechanisms underlying nuclear dysmorphia in cancer remain poorly understood. Here we identify PPP1R12A and PPP1CB, two subunits of the myosin phosphatase complex that antagonizes actomyosin contractility, as proteins safeguarding nuclear integrity. Loss of PPP1R12A or PPP1CB causes nuclear fragmentation, nuclear envelope rupture, nuclear compartment breakdown and genome instability. Pharmacological or genetic inhibition of actomyosin contractility restores nuclear architecture and genome integrity in cells lacking PPP1R12A or PPP1CB...
July 24, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736941/in-vivo-neutralization-of-%C3%AE-4-and-%C3%AE-7-integrins-inhibits-eosinophil-trafficking-and-prevents-lung-injury-during-tropical-pulmonary-eosinophilia-in-mice
#17
Pankaj Sharma, Aditi Sharma, Mrigank Srivastava
Integrins regulate leukocyte trafficking during homeostasis and inflammatory conditions. However, the role of α4 and β7 integrins in guiding eosinophil transmigration into the lungs during filarial manifestation of Tropical Pulmonary Eosinophilia (TPE) has not been explored. In this study, mice exhibiting TPE manifestations were administered with in vivo neutralizing antibodies against integrins α4 and β7 or their combination and immuno-pathological parameters were evaluated. Results show an intact lung barrier, significantly lower lung inflammation and reduced eosinophil counts in the Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and lungs of mice receiving anti-α4(+) β7 treatment...
July 24, 2017: European Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736935/3d-orientational-control-in-self-assembled-thin-films-with-sub-5-nm-features-by-light
#18
Koen Nickmans, Gerardus M Bögels, Carlos Sánchez-Somolinos, Jeffrey N Murphy, Philippe Leclère, Ilja K Voets, Albertus P H J Schenning
While self-assembled molecular building blocks could lead to many next-generation functional organic nanomaterials, control over the thin-film morphologies to yield monolithic sub-5 nm patterns with 3D orientational control at macroscopic length scales remains a grand challenge. A series of photoresponsive hybrid oligo(dimethylsiloxane) liquid crystals that form periodic cylindrical nanostructures with periodicities between 3.8 and 5.1 nm is studied. The liquid crystals can be aligned in-plane by exposure to actinic linearly polarized light and out-of-plane by exposure to actinic unpolarized light...
July 24, 2017: Small
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736799/rankl-induced-osteoclastogenesis-is-suppressed-by-4-o-methylhonokiol-in-bone-marrow-derived-macrophages
#19
Kyung-Ran Park, Ji-Youn Kim, Eun-Cheol Kim, Hyung-Mun Yun, Jin Tae Hong
Magnolol, honokiol, and obovatol are well known bioactive constituents of the bark of Magnolia officinalis and have been reported to have beneficial effects in various diseases. We recently isolated a novel active compound, 4-O-methylhonokiol (4-O-MH) from the ethanol extract of M. officinalis, which was previously reported to have pharmacological effects including anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidative, and anti-aging activities. Here, we examined the pharmacological properties of 4-O-MH on osteoblast (bone-forming cells) and osteoclast (bone-resorbing cells) differentiation, and its underlying signaling pathways in primary cultured pre-osteoblasts and bone marrow macrophages...
July 24, 2017: Archives of Pharmacal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736185/effect-of-coa-cl-on-transforming-growth-factor-%C3%AE-1-induced-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition-in-rle-abca3-cells
#20
Masashi Kawami, Junya Deguchi, Ryoko Yumoto, Norikazu Sakakibara, Ikuko Tsukamoto, Ryoji Konishi, Mikihisa Takano
Transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 has received much attention as a major inducer of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in pathological conditions such as cancer and organ fibrosis. In this study, we examined the effect of a novel nucleic acid analog, COA-Cl, on TGF-β1-induced EMT using RLE/Abca3, a cell line having alveolar type II cell-like phenotype. Changes in the cell morphology consistent with EMT were induced by TGF-β1, whereas, this response was suppressed by co-treatment of the cells with COA-Cl...
May 17, 2017: Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics
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