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Reverse transcriptase pcr

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332898/herpes-simplex-virus-1-and-cytomegalovirus-dnas-detection-in-the-inner-ear-of-implanted-patients-with-non-congenital-infection
#1
Walter Di Nardo, Roberta Anzivino, Paola Cattani, Rosaria Santangelo, Eugenio De Corso, Gaetano Paludetti
CONCLUSIONS: The detection of cytomegalovirus (CMV) and herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1) genome in perilymph of patients with negative serology or clinical history for congenital infections supports the hypothesis that Herpesviridae, even after acquired postnatal infections, could remain in latent phase in the spiral ganglion and damage the cochlea by a possible subsequent reactivation. Further studies are needed to identify the markers of such reactivation. OBJECTIVE: To identify the presence of certain viral species in the endolabyrinthic fluid of deaf patients with non-congenital infection...
March 23, 2017: Acta Oto-laryngologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332314/the-mitochondrial-hinge-protein-uqcrh-is-a-novel-prognostic-factor-for-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#2
Eun-Ran Park, Sang-Bum Kim, Jee-San Lee, Yang-Hyun Kim, Dong-Hyoung Lee, Eung-Ho Cho, Sun-Hoo Park, Chul Ju Han, Bu-Yeo Kim, Dong Wook Choi, Young Do Yoo, Ami Yu, Jae Won Lee, Ja June Jang, Young Nyun Park, Kyung-Suk Suh, Kee-Ho Lee
Alterations in mitochondrial respiration contribute to the development and progression of cancer via abnormal biogenesis, including generation of reactive oxygen species. Ubiquinol-cytochrome c reductase hinge protein (UQCRH) consists of the cytochrome bc1 complex serving respiration in mitochondria. In the present study, we analyzed UQCRH abnormalities in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and its association with clinical outcomes of patients. UQCRH expression in HCC was determined via semiquantitative and quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction of 96 surgically resected HCC tissues positive for hepatitis B virus surface antigen...
March 23, 2017: Cancer Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330477/inhibition-of-human-endogenous-retrovirus-k-by-antiretroviral-drugs
#3
Richa Tyagi, Wenxue Li, Danelvis Parades, Mario A Bianchet, Avindra Nath
BACKGROUND: Human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs) are genomic sequences of retroviral origin which were believed to be integrated into germline chromosomes millions of years ago and account for nearly 8% of the human genome. Although mostly defective and inactive, some of the HERVs may be activated under certain physiological and pathological conditions. While no drugs are designed specifically targeting HERVs, there are a panel of antiretroviral drugs designed against the human immunodeficiency virus and approved by the Federal Drug Administration (FDA)...
March 22, 2017: Retrovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330443/influenza-and-respiratory-syncytial-virus-in-infants-study-iris-of-hospitalized-and-non-ill-infants-aged-1-year-in-four-countries-study-design-and-methods
#4
Mark G Thompson, Danielle R Hunt, Ali K Arbaji, Artan Simaku, Veronica L Tallo, Holly M Biggs, Carolyn Kulb, Aubree Gordon, Ilham Abu Khader, Silvia Bino, Marilla G Lucero, Eduardo Azziz-Baumgartner, Pat Shifflett, Felix Sanchez, Basima I Marar, Ilirjana Bakalli, Eric A F Simões, Min Z Levine, Jennifer K Meece, Angel Balmaseda, Tareq M Al-Sanouri, Majlinda Dhimolea, Joanne N de Jesus, Natalie J Thornburg, Susan I Gerber, Lionel Gresh
BACKGROUND: This multi-country prospective study of infants aged <1 year aims to assess the frequency of influenza virus and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infections associated with hospitalizations, to describe clinical features and antibody response to infection, and to examine predictors of very severe disease requiring intensive care. METHODS/DESIGN: We are enrolling a hospital-based cohort and a sample of non-ill infants in four countries (Albania, Jordan, Nicaragua, and the Philippines) using a common protocol...
March 22, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327787/overexpression-of-mir-484-and-mir-744-in-vero-cells-alters-dengue-virus-replication
#5
Juan Camilo Castrillón-Betancur, Silvio Urcuqui-Inchima
BACKGROUND: Dengue is considered one of the world's most important mosquito-borne diseases. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding single-stranded RNAs that play an important role in the regulation of gene expression in eukaryotes. Although miRNAs possess antiviral activity against many mammalian-infecting viruses, their involvement in Dengue virus (DENV) replication remains poorly understood. OBJECTIVE: To determine the role of miR-484 and miR-744 in DENV infection and to examine whether DENV infection alters the expression of both miRNAs...
April 2017: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326698/-construction-of-human-mucosa-oral-epithelial-cell-lines-overexpressing-telomerase-reverse-transcriptase-gene-mediated-by-lentivirus
#6
Zeng Sa, Qin Xiaodong, He Xiangyi, Che Chunxiao, Zhang Xiao, Xie Siyu, Sun Guijun, Wang Lihe
OBJECTIVE: To construct a cell line of oral mucosa epithelial cells that stably express human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) by lentiviral vectors, approaches for the establishment of stable and efficient immortalized oral mucosa epithelial cell lines were explored. METHODS: Whole RNA was extracted from 293T cells. The hTERT gene was amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and cloned into the lentiviral vector as pLVX-puro-hTERT. The lentivirus particles were successfully packaged and used to infect primary oral epithelial cells...
October 1, 2016: Hua Xi Kou Qiang Yi Xue za Zhi, Huaxi Kouqiang Yixue Zazhi, West China Journal of Stomatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326350/tumor-induced-osteomalacia-secondary-to-anaplastic-thyroid-carcinoma-a-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#7
Ejigayehu G Abate, Victor Bernet, Cherise Cortese, Hillary W Garner
CONTEXT: Tumor induced osteomalacia related to anaplastic thyroid cancer has never been reported. OBJECTIVE: We describe a case of tumor induced osteomalacia (TIO) in a patient with a fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF-23) secreting anaplastic thyroid carcinoma. The current imaging modalities are reviewed. DESIGN AND INTERVENTION: Clinical, biochemical, and radiological assessments were done, including computer tomography (CT) of the neck and skull to thigh positron emission tomography (PET)/CT...
December 2016: Bone Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325690/one-nuclear-calcium-transient-induced-by-a-single-burst-of-action-potentials-represents-the-minimum-signal-strength-in-activity-dependent-transcription-in-hippocampal-neurons
#8
Yan Yu, Kristin Oberlaender, C Peter Bengtson, Hilmar Bading
Neurons undergo dramatic changes in their gene expression profiles in response to synaptic stimulation. The coupling of neuronal excitation to gene transcription is well studied and is mediated by signaling pathways activated by cytoplasmic and nuclear calcium transients. Despite this, the minimum synaptic activity required to induce gene expression remains unknown. To address this, we used cultured hippocampal neurons and cellular compartment analysis of temporal activity by fluorescence in situ hybridization (catFISH) that allows detection of nascent transcripts in the cell nucleus...
March 6, 2017: Cell Calcium
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323899/lawsonia-intracellularis-exploits-%C3%AE-catenin-wnt-and-notch-signalling-pathways-during-infection-of-intestinal-crypt-to-alter-cell-homeostasis-and-promote-cell-proliferation
#9
Yang W Huan, Rebecca J Bengtsson, Neil MacIntyre, Jack Guthrie, Heather Finlayson, Sionagh H Smith, Alan L Archibald, Tahar Ait-Ali
Lawsonia intracellularis is an obligate intracellular bacterial pathogen that causes proliferative enteropathy (PE) in pigs. L. intracellularis infection causes extensive intestinal crypt cell proliferation and inhibits secretory and absorptive cell differentiation. However, the affected host upstream cellular pathways leading to PE are still unknown. β-catenin/Wnt signalling is essential in maintaining intestinal stem cell (ISC) proliferation and self-renewal capacity, while Notch signalling governs differentiation of secretory and absorptive lineage specification...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322993/intra-luminal-gene-therapy-in-the-porcine-artery-using-a-recombinant-adeno-associated-virus-9
#10
E S Rezaie, N J Visser, P F Friedrich, A Y Shin, A T Bishop
The ability to improve or restore blood flow and promote healing in ischemic tissue has many potential clinical applications. Augmentation by direct delivery of growth factors may further enhance results, but requires a method for sustained delivery. In this study, we have tested the ability of adeno-associated virus 9 (AAV9) delivered within the lumen of a porcine artery to transfect the vessel and produce a desired product. The marker chosen was green fluorescent protein (GFP) (Ke et al., 2011). In 4 farm pigs the cranial tibial artery was surgically exposed...
March 17, 2017: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315328/tead4-yap-interaction-regulates-tumoral-growth-by-controlling-cell-cycle-arrest-at-the-g1-phase
#11
Shin Takeuchi, Atsushi Kasamatsu, Masanobu Yamatoji, Dai Nakashima, Yosuke Endo-Sakamoto, Nao Koide, Toshikazu Takahara, Toshihiro Shimizu, Manabu Iyoda, Katsunori Ogawara, Masashi Shiiba, Hideki Tanzawa, Katsuhiro Uzawa
TEA domain transcription factor 4 (TEAD4), which has critical functions in the process of embryonic development, is expressed in various cancers. However, the important role of TEAD4 in human oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCCs) remain unclear. Here we investigated the TEAD4 expression level and the functional mechanism in OSCC using quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, Western blot analysis, and immunohistochemistry. Furthermore, TEAD4 knockdown model was used to evaluate cellular proliferation, cell-cycle analysis, and the interaction between TEAD4 and Yes-associated protein (YAP) which was reported to be a transcription coactivator of cellular proliferation...
March 14, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303602/agreement-between-an-in-house-replication-competent-and-a-reference-replication-defective-recombinant-virus-assay-for-measuring-phenotypic-resistance-to-hiv-1-protease-reverse-transcriptase-and-integrase-inhibitors
#12
Francesco Saladini, Alessia Giannini, Adele Boccuto, Ilaria Vicenti, Maurizio Zazzi
BACKGROUND: Although clinical management of drug resistance is routinely based on genotypic methods, phenotypic assays remain necessary for the characterization of novel HIV-1 inhibitors, particularly against common drug-resistant variants. We describe the development and assessment of the performance of a recombinant virus assay for measuring HIV-1 susceptibility to protease (PR), reverse transcriptase (RT), and integrase (IN) inhibitors. METHODS: The system is based on the creation of replication-competent chimeric viruses through homologous recombination between patient or laboratory virus-derived PCR fragments and the corresponding NL4-3 vector where the whole Gag-PR, RT-RNaseH or IN coding regions has been deleted through inverse PCR...
March 17, 2017: Journal of Clinical Laboratory Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301241/pathology-and-tissue-distribution-of-an-lpai-h5n8-of-north-american-lineage-isolated-from-an-outbreak-in-commercial-japanese-quail-coturnix-c-japonica-in-the-central-valley-of-california
#13
S Carnaccini, S T Stoute, A A Bickford, H L Shivaprasad
This report describes the pathology and tissue distribution of avian influenza (AI) antigens by immunohistochemistry (IHC) in the tissues of commercial layer quail from a natural outbreak of low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) H5N8. LPAI virus H5N8 of North American lineage was diagnosed in commercial Japanese quail hens ( Coturnix coturnix japonica) in California based on serology, reverse-transcriptase real-time polymerase chain reaction, virus isolation, and sequencing. The sudden increase in mortality in a flock of laying quail hens had prompted the submission of 15 live and 5 dead, 10- to 15-wk-old quail to the California Animal Health and Food Safety Laboratory System, Turlock branch in the beginning of April 2014...
March 2017: Avian Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301240/necroptosis-of-splenic-macrophages-induced-by-streptococcus-gallolyticus-subsp-pasteurianus
#14
Meixia Li, Bo Liu, Changqin Gu, Wanpo Zhang, Jun Yang, Guofu Cheng, Cuiping Liu, Xueying Hu
A previous study demonstrated that a highly virulent strain of Streptococcus gallolyticus subsp. pasteurianus, designated as the AL101002 strain, induced high mortality in ducklings with splenic lesions. In this study, 42 ducklings were subcutaneously inoculated with the AL101002 strain to study changes in splenic lesions over time. The spleens from these ducklings were significantly enlarged by congestion and edema, and/or showed multiple marbled areas 14 days postinoculation (dpi). The AL101002 strain was reisolated from the spleens and blood and confirmed by immunohistochemistry (IHC) with the use of anti-AL101002 antibody...
March 2017: Avian Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301234/minimum-infectious-dose-determination-of-the-arkansas-delmarva-poultry-industry-infectious-bronchitis-virus-vaccine-delivered-by-hatchery-spray-cabinet
#15
Christina M Leyson, Deborah A Hilt, Brian J Jordan, Mark W Jackwood
The Arkansas Delmarva Poultry Industry (ArkDPI) infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) vaccine is effective when administered by eye drop, where the vaccine virus is able to infect and replicate well in birds and is able to induce protection against homologous challenge. However, accumulating evidence indicates that the ArkDPI vaccine is ineffective when applied by hatchery spray cabinet using the same manufacturer-recommended dose per bird. For this study, we aimed to determine the minimum infectious dose for the spray-administered ArkDPI vaccine, which we designate as the dose that achieves the same level of infection and replication as the eye drop-administered ArkDPI vaccine...
March 2017: Avian Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301229/low-pathogenic-avian-influenza-viruses-in-wild-migratory-waterfowl-in-a-region-of-high-poultry-production-delmarva-maryland
#16
Diann J Prosser, Christine L Densmore, Larry J Hindman, Deborah D Iwanowicz, Chris A Ottinger, Luke R Iwanowicz, Cindy P Driscoll, Jessica L Nagel
Migratory waterfowl are natural reservoirs for low pathogenic avian influenza viruses (AIVs) and may contribute to the long-distance dispersal of these pathogens as well as spillover into domestic bird populations. Surveillance for AIVs is critical to assessing risks for potential spread of these viruses among wild and domestic bird populations. The Delmarva Peninsula on the east coast of the United States is both a key convergence point for migratory Atlantic waterfowl populations and a region with high poultry production (>4,700 poultry meat facilities)...
March 2017: Avian Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300824/association-between-the-telomerase-rs2736098_tt-genotype-and-a-lower-risk-of-chronic-hepatitis-b-and-cirrhosis-in-chinese-males
#17
Guanghui Cheng, Xiaotian Yuan, Fang Wang, Qing Sun, Qian Xin, Kailin Li, Chao Sun, Zhaomin Lin, Yun Luan, Yiteng Xu, Ping Li, Feng Kong, Dawei Xu
OBJECTIVES: Chronic hepatitis B (CHB) is caused by infection of hepatitis B virus (HBV) and liver cirrhosis (LC) is its most common complication. The accumulated evidence indicates a genetic context of HBV infection phenotypes. Here we determine a potential association of CHB/LC with the genetic variant of telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT), a key player in aging including immune-senescence. METHODS: The study included 227 Chinese CHB patients and 315 sex/age-matched healthy controls...
March 16, 2017: Clinical and Translational Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298542/lipid-emulsion-added-to-a-liquid-high-carbohydrate-diet-and-voluntary-running-exercise-reduce-lipogenesis-and-ameliorate-early-stage-hepatic-steatosis-in-mice
#18
Kuan-Hsun Huang, Lei Hao, Philip B Smith, Connie J Rogers, Andrew D Patterson, A Catharine Ross
Background: The use of parenteral nutrition formulas is often associated with the development of hepatic steatosis. We have shown previously that the addition of a lipid emulsion (LE) rich in n-6 (ω-6) fatty acids (FAs) ameliorated triglyceride (TG) accumulation in the livers of nonobese mice fed a high-carbohydrate diet (HCD) for 5 wk. However, it remains unclear how rapidly this condition develops and whether it can be prevented by LE with or without a running wheel for voluntary exercise (Exe).Objective: We investigated in an 8-d study whether mice develop steatosis and whether the administration of LE with or without Exe reduces the concentration of total FAs and prevents an increase in the expression of genes in the liver associated with lipogenesis...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296972/the-transmissibility-of-noroviruses-statistical-modeling-of-outbreak-events-with-known-route-of-transmission-in-japan
#19
Ryota Matsuyama, Fuminari Miura, Hiroshi Nishiura
In Japan, the fraction of norovirus outbreaks attributable to human-to-human transmission has increased with time, and the timing of the increased fraction has coincided with the increase in the observed fraction of genogroup II genotype 4 (GII.4). The present study aimed to estimate the time-dependent changes in the transmissibility of noroviruses. The effective reproduction number (Ry), for year y, was estimated by analyzing the time series surveillance data for outbreak events from 2000 to 2016. Ry was estimated by using the fraction of outbreak events that were attributable to human-to-human transmission and by employing three different statistical models that are considered to mechanistically capture the possible data-generating process in different ways...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293398/nicotine-induced-damages-in-testicular-tissue-of-rats-evidences-for-bcl-2-p53-and-caspase-3-expression
#20
Maryam Mosadegh, Shapour Hasanzadeh, Mazdak Razi
OBJECTIVES: Present study was performed in order to uncover new aspects for nicotine-induced damages on spermatogenesis cell lineage. MATERIALS AND METHODS: For this purpose, 36 mature male Wistar rats were divided into three groups as; control-sham (0.2 ml, saline normal, IP), low dose (0.2 mg/kg BW(-1), IP) nicotine-received and high dose (0.4 mg/kg BW(-1), IP) nicotine-received groups. Following 7 weeks, the expression of bcl-2, p53 and caspase-3 at mRNA and protein levels were investigated by using reverse-transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) and immunohistochemical (IHC) analyses, respectively...
February 2017: Iranian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences
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