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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637166/comparison-of-the-anaerobic-digestion-at-the-mesophilic-and-thermophilic-temperature-regime-of-organic-wastes-from-the-agribusiness
#1
Daniela Almeida Streitwieser
An overall kinetic power law model has been successfully applied to study the anaerobic digestion of agricultural wastes. In this comparative kinetic study feed composition, organic load rate, residence time and process temperature have been systematically varied in an automated semi-continuous fermentation system to obtain the dependency of the rate of degradation as biogas production on the organic load rate and temperature. The results show that the overall reaction order depend only on the Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) at values between 3...
June 17, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636956/elicitation-of-robust-tier-2-neutralizing-antibody-responses-in-nonhuman-primates-by-hiv-envelope-trimer-immunization-using-optimized-approaches
#2
Matthias Pauthner, Colin Havenar-Daughton, Devin Sok, Joseph P Nkolola, Raiza Bastidas, Archana V Boopathy, Diane G Carnathan, Abishek Chandrashekar, Kimberly M Cirelli, Christopher A Cottrell, Alexey M Eroshkin, Javier Guenaga, Kirti Kaushik, Daniel W Kulp, Jinyan Liu, Laura E McCoy, Aaron L Oom, Gabriel Ozorowski, Kai W Post, Shailendra K Sharma, Jon M Steichen, Steven W de Taeye, Talar Tokatlian, Alba Torrents de la Peña, Salvatore T Butera, Celia C LaBranche, David C Montefiori, Guido Silvestri, Ian A Wilson, Darrell J Irvine, Rogier W Sanders, William R Schief, Andrew B Ward, Richard T Wyatt, Dan H Barouch, Shane Crotty, Dennis R Burton
The development of stabilized recombinant HIV envelope trimers that mimic the virion surface molecule has increased enthusiasm for a neutralizing antibody (nAb)-based HIV vaccine. However, there is limited experience with recombinant trimers as immunogens in nonhuman primates, which are typically used as a model for humans. Here, we tested multiple immunogens and immunization strategies head-to-head to determine their impact on the quantity, quality, and kinetics of autologous tier 2 nAb development. A bilateral, adjuvanted, subcutaneous immunization protocol induced reproducible tier 2 nAb responses after only two immunizations 8 weeks apart, and these were further enhanced by a third immunization with BG505 SOSIP trimer...
June 20, 2017: Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636917/kinesin-processivity-is-determined-by-a-kinetic-race-from-a-vulnerable-one-head-bound-state
#3
Keith J Mickolajczyk, William O Hancock
Kinesin processivity, defined as the average number of steps that occur per interaction with a microtubule, is an important biophysical determinant of the motor's intracellular capabilities. Despite its fundamental importance to the diversity of tasks that kinesins carry out in cells, no existing quantitative model fully explains how structural differences between kinesins alter kinetic rates in the ATPase cycle to produce functional changes in processivity. Here we use high-resolution single-molecule microscopy to directly observe the stepping behavior of kinesin-1 and -2 family motors with different length neck-linker domains...
June 20, 2017: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636893/controlled-release-from-aspirin-based-linear-biodegradable-poly-anhydride-esters-for-anti-inflammatory-activity
#4
Queeny Dasgupta, Sahitya Movva, Kaushik Chatterjee, Giridhar Madras
This work reports the synthesis of a novel, aspirin-loaded, linear poly (anhydride ester) and provides mechanistic insights into the release of aspirin from this polymer for anti-inflammatory activity. As compared to conventional drug delivery systems that rely on diffusion based release, incorporation of bioactives in the polymer backbone is challenging and high loading is difficult to achieve. In the present study, we exploit the pentafunctional sugar alcohol (xylitol) to provide sites for drug (aspirin) attachment at its non-terminal OH groups...
June 18, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636641/development-of-a-range-of-fluorescent-reagentless-biosensors-for-atp-based-on-malonyl-coenzyme-a-synthetase
#5
Renée Vancraenenbroeck, Simone Kunzelmann, Martin R Webb
The range of ATP concentrations that can be measured with a fluorescent reagentless biosensor for ATP has been increased by modulating its affinity for this analyte. The ATP biosensor is an adduct of two tetramethylrhodamines with MatB from Rhodopseudomonas palustris. Mutations were introduced into the binding site to modify ATP binding affinity, while aiming to maintain the concomitant fluorescence signal. Using this signal, the effect of mutations in different parts of the binding site was measured. This mutational analysis revealed three variants in particular, each with a single mutation in the phosphate-binding loop, which had potentially beneficial changes in ATP binding properties but preserving a fluorescence change of ~3-fold on ATP binding...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636629/minimal-oscillating-subnetwork-in-the-huang-ferrell-model-of-the-mapk-cascade
#6
Otto Hadač, František Muzika, Vladislav Nevoral, Michal Přibyl, Igor Schreiber
Prompted by the recent growing evidence of oscillatory behavior involving MAPK cascades we present a systematic approach of analyzing models and elucidating the nature of biochemical oscillations based on reaction network theory. In particular, we formulate a minimal biochemically consistent mass action subnetwork of the Huang-Ferrell model of the MAPK signalling that provides an oscillatory response when a parameter controlling the activation of the top-tier kinase is varied. Such dynamics are either intertwined with or separated from the earlier found bistable/hysteretic behavior in this model...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636613/in-vivo-immune-signatures-of-healthy-human-pregnancy-inherently-inflammatory-or-anti-inflammatory
#7
Caroline Graham, Rishma Chooniedass, William P Stefura, Allan B Becker, Malcolm R Sears, Stuart E Turvey, Piush J Mandhane, Padmaja Subbarao, Kent T HayGlass
Changes in maternal innate immunity during healthy human pregnancy are not well understood. Whether basal immune status in vivo is largely unaffected by pregnancy, is constitutively biased towards an inflammatory phenotype (transiently enhancing host defense) or exhibits anti-inflammatory bias (reducing potential responsiveness to the fetus) is unclear. Here, in a longitudinal study of healthy women who gave birth to healthy infants following uncomplicated pregnancies within the Canadian Healthy Infant Longitudinal Development (CHILD) cohort, we test the hypothesis that a progressively altered bias in resting innate immune status develops...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636483/lumping-kinetics-of-abe-fermentation-wastewater-treatment-by-oleaginous-yeast-trichosporon-cutaneum
#8
Can Wang, Chao Huang, Xue-Fang Chen, Hai-Rong Zhang, Lian Xiong, Xiao-Mei Li, Hai-Jun Guo, Gao-Xiang Qi, Xiao-Qing Lin, Xin-De Chen
Lumping kinetics models were built for the biological treatment of ABE (acetone-butanol-ethanol) fermentation wastewater by oleaginous yeast Trichosporon cutaneum with different fermentation temperatures. Compared with high temperature (33°C, 306 K) and low temperature (23°C, 296 K), medium temperature (28°C, 301 K) was beneficial for the cell growth and COD degradation during the early stage of fermentation but the final yeast biomass and COD removal were influenced little. By lumping method, the materials in the bioconversion network were divided into five lumps (COD, lipid, polysaccharide, other intracellular products, other extracellular products), and the nine rate constants (k1-k9) for the models can well explain the bioconversion laws...
June 21, 2017: Preparative Biochemistry & Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636393/lithium-ion-coupled-electron-transfer-rates-in-superconcentrated-electrolytes-exploring-the-bottlenecks-for-fast-charge-transfer-rates-with-limn2o4-cathode-materials
#9
Victoria A Nikitina, Maxim V Zakharkin, Sergey Yu Vassiliev, Lada V Yashina, Evgeny V Antipov, Keith J Stevenson
The charge transfer kinetics of lithium ion intercalation into LixMn2O4 cathode materials was examined in dilute and concentrated aqueous and carbonate LiTFSI solutions using electrochemical methods. Distinctive trends in ion intercalation rates were observed between water-based and ethylene carbonate/diethyl carbonate solutions. The influence of the solution concentration on the rate of lithium ion transfer in aqueous media can be tentatively attributed to the process associated with Mn dissolution, while in carbonate solutions the rate is influenced by the formation of a concentration-dependent solid electrolyte interface (SEI)...
June 21, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636384/role-of-crystal-structure-and-chalcogenide-redox-properties-on-the-oxidative-assembly-of-cadmium-chalcogenide-nanocrystals
#10
Jessica Davis, Aaron M Chalifoux, Stephanie L Brock
Oxidative assembly of metal chalcogenide nanocrystals (NCs) enables formation of 2-D (dense) and 3-D porous structures without the presence of intervening ligands between particles that can moderate transport properties. This route has been demonstrated successful for a range of single component structures including CdQ, PbQ and ZnQ (Q = S, Se, Te). En route to controllable assembly of multicomponent nanostructures, the roles of Q redox properties (2Q2-  Q22- + 2e), responsible for particle crosslinking, and the native structure (cubic zinc blende vs...
June 21, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636369/dynamics-of-charged-species-in-ionic-neutral-block-copolymer-and-surfactant-complexes
#11
Jose M Borreguero, Philip A Pincus, Bobby G Sumpter, Monojoy Goswami
Structure-property relationships of ionic block copolymer (BCP) surfactant complexes are critical towards the progress of favorable engineering design of efficient charge transport materials. In this article, molecular dynamics simulations are used to understand the dynamics of charge-neutral BCP and surfactant complexes. The dynamics are examined for two different systems, charged-neutral double hydrophilic and hydrophobic-hydrophilic block copolymers with oppositely charged surfactant moieties. The dynamics of the surfactant head, tails and charges are studied for five different BCP volume fractions...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636341/biochemical-characterization-of-wbkc-an-n-formyltransferase-from-brucella-melitensis
#12
Alexander S Riegert, Daniel P Chantigian, James B Thoden, Peter A Tipton, Hazel M Holden
It has become increasingly apparent within the last several years that unusual N-formylated sugars are often found on the O-antigens of such Gram negative pathogenic organisms as Francisella tularensis, Campylobacter jejuni, and Providencia alcalifaciens, amongst others. Indeed, in some species of Brucella, for example, the O-antigen contains 1,2-linked 4-formamido-4,6-dideoxy-alpha-D-mannosyl groups. These sugars, often referred to as N-formylperosamine, are synthesized in pathways initiating with GDP-mannose...
June 21, 2017: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636162/cobalt-catalyzed-ortho-c-h-functionalization-alkyne-annulation-of-benzylamine-derivatives-access-to-dihydroisoquinolines
#13
Angel Manu Martínez, Nuria Rodríguez, Ramon Gomez-Arrayas, Juan C Carretero
A practical picolinamide-directed C-H functionalization/alkyne annulation of benzylamine derivatives enabling the access to the previously elusive 1,4-dihydroisoquinoline skeleton was developed using molecular O2 as the sole oxidant and Co(OAc)2 as precatalyst. The method is compatible with both internal and terminal alkynes and shows high versatility and functional-group tolerance. Furthermore, full preservation of enantiopurity is observed when using non-racemic alpha-substituted benzylamine derivatives...
June 21, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636149/photocatalytic-interaction-of-aminophylline-riboflavin-leads-to-ros-mediated-dna-damage-and-cell-death-a-novel-phototherapeutic-mechanism-for-cancer
#14
Saniyya Khan, Imrana Naseem
The accompanied tissue devastation and systemic toxicity of chemotherapy has shifted the quest for having an effective and palliative cancer therapy towards photodynamic therapy (PDT). Riboflavin (Rf), an essential micronutrient is emerging as a potent tool of PDT, due to its excellent photosensitizing properties. It can be used as an efficient adjuvant for various anticancer drugs. The hemolytic and proteolytic effect of photoilluminated aminophylline (Am), a xanthine derivative, and Rf is well documented in literature...
June 21, 2017: IUBMB Life
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636113/linking-re-i-and-pt-ii-chromophores-with-aminopyridines-a-simple-route-to-achieve-a-complicated-photophysical-behavior
#15
Igor O Koshevoy, Kristina S Kisel, Alexei S Melnikov, Elena V Grachova, Pipsa Hirva, Sergey P Tunik
The bifunctional aminopyridine ligands H2N-(CH2)n-4-C5H4N (n = 0, L1; 1, L2; 2, L3) have been utilized for the preparation of rhenium complexes [Re(phen)(CO)3(L1-L3)]+ (1-3). 2 and 3 with NH2-coordinated L2/L3 were coupled with cycloplatinated motifs {Pt(ppy)Cl} and {Pt(dpyb)}+ to give the bimetallic species [Re(phen)(CO)3(μ-L2/L3)Pt(ppy)Cl]+ (4, 6) and [Re(phen)(CO)3(μ-L2/L3)Pt(dpyb)]2+ (5, 7). In solution, complexes 4 and 6 show 3MLCT {Re}-based emission at 298 K, which changes the parentage to 3IL(ppy) state at 77 K...
June 21, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636005/mass-mobility-and-ms-n-measurements-of-single-ions-using-charge-detection-mass-spectrometry
#16
Andrew G Elliott, Conner C Harper, Haw-Wei Lin, Evan R Williams
Charge detection mass spectrometry is used to measure the mass, charge, MS(n) and mobility of an individual ion produced by electrospray ionization of a 8 MDa polyethylene glycol sample. The charge detection mass spectrometer is an electrostatic ion trap that uses cone electrodes and a single tube detector and can detect ions for up to the full trapping time of 4.0 s. The time-domain signal induced on the detector tube by a single multiply charged ion can be complex owing to sequential fragmentation of the original precursor ion as well as increasing oscillation frequencies of the single ion owing to collisions with background gas that reduce the kinetic energy of the ion inside the trap...
June 21, 2017: Analyst
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635947/in-situ-dynamic-observations-of-perovskite-crystallisation-and-microstructure-evolution-intermediated-from-pbi6-4-cage-nanoparticles
#17
Qin Hu, Lichen Zhao, Jiang Wu, Ke Gao, Deying Luo, Yufeng Jiang, Ziyi Zhang, Chenhui Zhu, Eric Schaible, Alexander Hexemer, Cheng Wang, Yi Liu, Wei Zhang, Michael Grätzel, Feng Liu, Thomas P Russell, Rui Zhu, Qihuang Gong
Hybrid lead halide perovskites have emerged as high-performance photovoltaic materials with their extraordinary optoelectronic properties. In particular, the remarkable device efficiency is strongly influenced by the perovskite crystallinity and the film morphology. Here, we investigate the perovskites crystallisation kinetics and growth mechanism in real time from liquid precursor continually to the final uniform film. We utilize some advanced in situ characterisation techniques including synchrotron-based grazing incident X-ray diffraction to observe crystal structure and chemical transition of perovskites...
June 21, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635667/a-review-of-flaviviruses-that-have-no-known-arthropod-vector
#18
REVIEW
Bradley J Blitvich, Andrew E Firth
Most viruses in the genus Flavivirus are horizontally transmitted between hematophagous arthropods and vertebrate hosts, but some are maintained in arthropod- or vertebrate-restricted transmission cycles. Flaviviruses maintained by vertebrate-only transmission are commonly referred to as no known vector (NKV) flaviviruses. Fourteen species and two subtypes of NKV flaviviruses are recognized by the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV), and Tamana bat virus potentially belongs to this group. NKV flaviviruses have been isolated in nature almost exclusively from bats and rodents; exceptions are the two isolates of Dakar bat virus recovered from febrile humans and the recent isolations of Sokoluk virus from field-collected ticks, which raises questions as to whether it should remain classified as an NKV flavivirus...
June 21, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635569/stratification-model-based-on-early-postprostatectomy-prostate-specific-antigen-kinetics-may-help-to-reduce-the-risk-of-overtreatment-in-candidates-for-adjuvant-radiotherapy
#19
Stepan Vesely, Ladislav Jarolim, Marek Schmidt, Joana Do Carmo Silva, Katerina Duskova, Marko Babjuk
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to construct a stratification model based on early postoperative kinetics of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) to select the most suitable high-risk patients for early intervention after radical prostatectomy (RP). MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study evaluated 205 men who had undergone RP without any adjuvant treatment. All of the patients had positive surgical margins, extracapsular extension and/or seminal vesicle invasion. The patients underwent multiple ultrasensitive PSA measurements on days 14, 30, 60 and 90 after RP, and subsequently at 3 month intervals...
February 24, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635284/competing-stereocomplexation-and-homocrystallization-of-poly-l-lactic-acid-poly-d-lactic-acid-racemic-mixture-effects-of-miscible-blending-with-other-polymer
#20
Jianna Bao, Xiaojia Xue, Kai Li, Xiaohua Chang, Qing Xie, Chengtao Yu, Pengju Pan
Promoting the stereocomplexation ability of high-molecular-weight poly(L-lactic acid) (PLLA) and poly(D-lactic acid) (PDLA) is an efficient way to improve the thermal resistance of resulted materials. Herein, we studied the competing crystallization kinetics, polymorphic crystalline structure, and lamellae structure of PLLA/PDLA component in its miscible blends with poly(vinyl acetate) (PVAc) and proposed a method to improve the stereocomplexation ability of PLLA and PDLA through miscible blending with the other polymer...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
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