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Shiyong Gao, Huixin Tan, Lang Lang, Jing Bai, Yubin Ji
α-solanine is one of the major components of Solanum nigrum Linn., the fruits of which are used in China for food. In the present study, α-solanine was selected to assess the inhibition of arylamine N-acetyltransferase (NAT) activity and mRNA expression of NAT and kinetics in HepG2 cells. NAT activity was examined by HPLC. The double-reciprocal plot was contrived to yield a regression equation to calculate Km and Vmax. NAT mRNA expression was determined by PCR. The results revealed that α-solanine could significantly decrease NAT activity in intact HepG2 cells or the cytoplasm...
May 2018: Oncology Reports
Neeladri Sekhar Roy, Subrata Debnath, Abhijit Chakraborty, Prasenjit Chakraborty, Indrani Bera, Raka Ghosh, Nanda Ghoshal, Saikat Chakrabarti, Siddhartha Roy
Localized separation of strands of duplex DNA is a necessary step in many DNA-dependent processes, including transcription and replication. Little is known about how these strand separations occur. The strand-separated E.coli RNA polymerase-promoter open-complex structure showed four bases of the non-template strand, the master base -11A, -7, -6 and +2, in a flipped state and inserted into protein pockets. To explore whether any property of these bases in the duplex state pre-disposes them to flipping, NMR studies were performed on a wild-type promoter in the duplex state...
March 22, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Jun Liu, Peng Liu, Jun Wang, Xiaodong Xu, Dongzhen Li, Jian Zhang, Xinming Nie
In this paper, we report the fabrication of high-quality 5 at. % Er3+ ions doped SrF₂ transparent ceramics, the potential candidate materials for a mid-infrared laser-gain medium by hot-pressing at 700 °C for 40 h using a chemically-derived powder. The phase structure, densification, and microstructure evolution of the Er:SrF₂ ceramics were systematically investigated. In addition, the grain growth kinetic mechanism of Er:SrF₂ was clarified. The results showed lattice diffusion to be the grain growth mechanism in the Er:SrF₂ transparent ceramic of which highest in-line transmittance reached 92% at 2000 nm, i...
March 22, 2018: Materials
Xinkuan Liu, Wenyi Shao, Mingyi Luo, Jiayin Bian, Deng-Guang Yu
Nanomaterials providing sustained release profiles are highly desired for efficacious drug delivery. Advanced nanotechnologies are useful tools for creating elaborate nanostructure-based nanomaterials to achieve the designed functional performances. In this research, a modified coaxial electrospinning was explored to fabricate a novel core-sheath nanostructure (nanofibers F2), in which a sheath drug-free gliadin layer was successfully coated on the core ketoprofen (KET)-gliadin nanocomposite. A monolithic nanocomposite (nanofibers F1) that was generated through traditional blending electrospinning of core fluid was utilized as a control...
March 22, 2018: Nanomaterials
Sudha Devi, Mayank Saraswat, Surbhi Grewal, Sugumar Venkataramani
The electronic and steric effects of aryl substituents, and the influence of hydrogen bonding in Z-isomer stability of phenylazopyrazole derivatives have been investigated. In this regard, 38 substituted phenylazopyrazole derivatives and six N-methyl phenylazopyrazole (with meta-substitutions) have been synthesized. Their photoswitching behavior, photostationary states (PSS) and kinetics of thermal reverse isomerization were evaluated experimentally using UV-Vis and NMR spectroscopic techniques. Furthermore, density functional theory (DFT) computations have been performed for more detailed insights...
March 22, 2018: Journal of Organic Chemistry
Claire M Ouimet, Mohamed Dawod, James Grinias, Victoria A Assimon, Jean Lodge, Anna K Mapp, Jason E Gestwicki, Robert T Kennedy
Tools for measuring affinities and stoichiometries of protein-protein complexes are valuable for elucidating the role of protein-protein interactions (PPIs) in governing cell functions and screening for PPI modulators. Such measurements can be challenging because PPIs can span a wide range of affinities and include stoichiometries from dimers to high order oligomers. Also, most techniques require large amounts of protein which can hamper research for difficult to obtain proteins. Protein cross-linking capillary electrophoresis (PXCE) has the potential to directly measure PPIs and even resolve multiple PPIs while consuming attomole quantities...
March 22, 2018: Analyst
Junjian Chen, Meng Gao, Lin Wang, Shiwu Li, Jingcai He, Anjun Qin, Li Ren, Yingjun Wang, Ben Zhong Tang
Multi-drug resistant bacterial infection has become one of the most serious threats to human health. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) have been identified as potential alternatives to antibiotics owing to their excellent bactericidal activity. However, the complicated bactericidal mechanism of AMPs is still poorly understood. Fluorescence imaging has many advantages in terms of dynamic monitoring, easy operation, and high sensitivity. In this study, we developed an aggregation-induced emission (AIE)-active probe AMP-2HBT by decorating of the antimicrobial peptide HHC36 (KRWWKWWRR) with an AIEgen of 2-(2-hydroxyphenyl)benzothiazole (HBT)...
March 22, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Dorien Borms, Ann Cools
This study aimed to provide an age, gender and sport-based normative database for three functional shoulder tests: Y Balance Test - Upper Quarter (YBT-UQ), Closed Kinetic Chain Upper Extremity Stability Test (CKCUEST), and Seated Medicine Ball Throw (SMBT). A second aim was to discuss gender, age and sports differences. Finally, correlation between tests was evaluated. Overhead athletes (106 male, 100 female) between 18 and 50 years old and from three different sports (volleyball, tennis, handball) performed all functional tests...
March 21, 2018: International Journal of Sports Medicine
M Fratzl, S Delshadi, T Devillers, F Bruckert, O Cugat, N M Dempsey, G Blaire
Micro-magnets producing magnetic field gradients as high as 106 T m-1 have been used to efficiently trap nanoparticles with a magnetic core of just 12 nm in diameter. Particle capture efficiency increases with increasing particle concentration. Comparison of measured capture kinetics with numerical modelling reveals that a threshold concentration exists below which capture is diffusion-driven and above which it is convectively-driven. This comparison also shows that two-way fluid-particle coupling is responsible for the formation of convective cells, the size of which is governed by the height of the droplet...
March 22, 2018: Soft Matter
Abdullah Akgun, Fehmi Yazici, Haci Ali Gulec
The combined effects of starter culture type (SCT) and incubation final pH (IFpH) on the physicochemical and organoleptic properties of buffalo milk yogurt containing 3 g·100 g-1 milk fat were investigated throughout 20 days of storage at 4°C. The postacidification kinetics fitted to zero-order reaction for all buffalo milk yogurt samples. The reaction rate constants of the buffalo milk yogurt samples containing YC-X11, ABY-2, and ABT-4 cultures were 0.010, 0.007, and 0.004 g·100 g-1 ·day-1 , respectively...
March 2018: Food Science & Nutrition
Marc W van der Kamp, Erica J Prentice, Kirsty L Kraakman, Michael Connolly, Adrian J Mulholland, Vickery L Arcus
Heat capacity changes are emerging as essential for explaining the temperature dependence of enzyme-catalysed reaction rates. This has important implications for enzyme kinetics, thermoadaptation and evolution, but the physical basis of these heat capacity changes is unknown. Here we show by a combination of experiment and simulation, for two quite distinct enzymes (dimeric ketosteroid isomerase and monomeric alpha-glucosidase), that the activation heat capacity change for the catalysed reaction can be predicted through atomistic molecular dynamics simulations...
March 21, 2018: Nature Communications
Daniel P Depledge, Werner J D Ouwendijk, Tomohiko Sadaoka, Shirley E Braspenning, Yasuko Mori, Randall J Cohrs, Georges M G M Verjans, Judith Breuer
Varicella-zoster virus (VZV), an alphaherpesvirus, establishes lifelong latent infection in the neurons of >90% humans worldwide, reactivating in one-third to cause shingles, debilitating pain and stroke. How VZV maintains latency remains unclear. Here, using ultra-deep virus-enriched RNA sequencing of latently infected human trigeminal ganglia (TG), we demonstrate the consistent expression of a spliced VZV mRNA, antisense to VZV open reading frame 61 (ORF61). The spliced VZV latency-associated transcript (VLT) is expressed in human TG neurons and encodes a protein with late kinetics in productively infected cells in vitro and in shingles skin lesions...
March 21, 2018: Nature Communications
Thomas R Aunins, Katherine A Marsh, Gitanjali Subramanya, Susan L Uprichard, Alan S Perelson, Anushree Chatterjee
Hepatitis C virus infection is a global health problem, with nearly 2 million new infections occurring every year and up to 85% of these becoming chronic infections that pose serious long-term health risks. To effectively reduce the prevalence of HCV infection and associated diseases, it is important to understand the intracellular dynamics of the viral lifecycle. Here, we present a detailed mathematical model that represents the full hepatitis C lifecycle. It is the first full HCV model to be fit to acute intracellular infection data and the first to explore the functions of distinct viral proteins, probing multiple hypotheses of cis - and trans -acting mechanisms to provide insights for drug targeting...
March 21, 2018: Journal of Virology
Chi-Lun Chang, Yu-Ju Chen, Carlo Giovanni Quintanilla, Ting-Sung Hsieh, Jen Liou
The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) Ca2+ sensor STIM1 forms oligomers and translocates to ER-plasma membrane (PM) junctions to activate store-operated Ca2+ entry (SOCE) after ER Ca2+ depletion. STIM1 also interacts with EB1 and dynamically tracks microtubule (MT) plus ends. Nevertheless, the role of STIM1-EB1 interaction in regulating SOCE remains unresolved. Using live-cell imaging combined with a synthetic construct approach, we found that EB1 binding constitutes a trapping mechanism restricting STIM1 targeting to ER-PM junctions...
March 21, 2018: Journal of Cell Biology
Kristine Hardy, Corey Smith, Wen Juan Tu, Robert McCuaig, Archana Panikkar, Vijayendra Dasari, Fan Wu, Siok-Keen Tey, Geoffrey R Hill, Rajiv Khanna, Sudha Rao
Immune reconstitution following hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is critical in preventing harmful sequelae in recipients with cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection. To understand the molecular mechanisms underlying immune reconstitution kinetics, we profiled the transcriptome-chromatin accessibility landscape of CMV-specific CD8+ T cells from HCST recipients with different immune reconstitution efficiencies. CMV-specific T cells from HSCT recipients with stable antiviral immunity expressed higher levels of interferon/defense response and cell cycle genes in an interconnected network involving PI3KCG , STAT5B , NFAT , RBPJ , and lower HDAC6 , increasing chromatin accessibility at the enhancer regions of immune and T-cell receptor signaling pathway genes...
March 27, 2018: Blood Advances
Alek Z Diffendaffer, Glenn S Fleisig, Brett Ivey, Kyle T Aune
While 10% of the general population is left-handed, 27% of professional baseball pitchers are left-handed. Biomechanical differences between left- and right-handed college pitchers have been previously reported, but these differences have yet to be examined at the professional level. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to compare pitching biomechanics between left- and right-handed professional pitchers. It was hypothesised that there would be significant kinematic and kinetic differences between these two groups...
March 21, 2018: Sports Biomechanics
Ying Peng, Xueyuan Zhang, Yinci Zhu, Hui Wu, Shiyin Gu, Qingqing Chang, Yi Zhou, Guangji Wang, Jianguo Sun
Ib is a new nonpeptide AT1 receptor antagonist, which plays an active role in cardiovascular protection. Ib monoglucuronide has been identified as its main metabolite. A detailed study of Ib glucuronidation is important for predicting potential DDI. Besides, the elucidation of the "BSA effect" in Ib glucuronidation would make obtained kinetic parameters more predictive in IVIVE. "BSA effect" means that there is a significant change in in vitro kinetic parameters when generated from incubations performed in the presence of bovine serum albumin (BSA)...
March 19, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Ji-Ho Park, Yong-Il Shin, Joshua Sung H You, Min Su Park
BACKGROUND: Robotic-assisted gait training (RAGT) has been proposed as a novel, promising intervention paradigm to improve gait function in subacute or chronic stroke neurorehabilitation. However, the benefits of RAGT combined with conventional physical therapy for gait recovery in patients with subacute and chronic hemiparetic stroke remain unclear. OBJECTIVES: The aim of the present study was to compare the effect of RAGT combine with conventional physical therapy on hip joint kinetics, kinematics, and clinical function characteristics between subacute and chronic hemiparetic stroke...
2018: NeuroRehabilitation
Motomu Endo, Masayasu Yoshida, Youhei Sasaki, Katsuya Negishi, Kobo Horikawa, Yasufumi Daimon, Ken-Ichi Kurotani, Michitaka Notaguchi, Mitsutomo Abe, Takashi Araki
In many plants, timing of flowering is regulated by day length. In Arabidopsis, florigen, FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) protein, is synthesized in leaf phloem companion cells in response to long days and is transported to the shoot apical meristem (SAM) through the phloem. The temporal aspects of florigen transportation have been studied in various plants by physiological experiments. Nevertheless, little is known how FT protein transportation is regulated in Arabidopsis. In this study, we performed heat-shock based transient FT induction in a single leaf blade and detected the FT protein in shoot apex by two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2D-PAGE)...
March 19, 2018: Plant & Cell Physiology
Sherry Masoud, Stephen P McAdoo, Rachna Bedi, Thomas D Cairns, Liz Lightstone
Objective: B cell depletion, most commonly with rituximab, is an evolving therapeutic approach in SLE. Infusion reactions after rituximab are common, and may prevent re-treatment in patients who previously demonstrated beneficial response. We have used ofatumumab, a fully humanized anti-CD20 mAb, as an alternative B cell-depleting agent in patients with SLE who are rituximab-intolerant due to severe infusion reactions. Methods: A single-centre retrospective case series of 16 patients were treated with ofatumumab for SLE between 2012 and 2015...
March 19, 2018: Rheumatology
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