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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918606/kinetic-coupling-of-phosphate-release-force-generation-and-rate-limiting-steps-in-the-cross-bridge-cycle
#1
Robert Stehle, Chiara Tesi
A basic goal in muscle research is to understand how the cyclic ATPase activity of cross-bridges is converted into mechanical force. A direct approach to study the chemo-mechanical coupling between Pi release and the force-generating step is provided by the kinetics of force response induced by a rapid change in [Pi]. Classical studies on fibres using caged-Pi discovered that rapid increases in [Pi] induce fast force decays dependent on final [Pi] whose kinetics were interpreted to probe a fast force-generating step prior to Pi release...
September 16, 2017: Journal of Muscle Research and Cell Motility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918582/removal-of-endrin-and-dieldrin-isomeric-pesticides-through-stereoselective-adsorption-behavior-on-the-graphene-oxide-magnetic-nanoparticles
#2
Kamlesh Shrivas, Archana Ghosale, Nidhi Nirmalkar, Arti Srivastava, Sunil Kumar Singh, Sandip S Shinde
A novel stereoselective removal behavior of isomeric endrin and dieldrin pesticides from sample solution is demonstrated using nanocomposite of graphene oxide (GO) and iron oxide (Fe3O4) magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs). The removal efficiency of endrin and dieldrin was found higher when GO-MNPs was used as a separating probe than the individual use of GO and MNPs. The removal efficiency of both the pesticides was found to be more favorable when the dosage amount of GO-MNPs was 30 mg for 30-min contact time with pH 4...
September 16, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918505/purification-and-characterization-of-skeletal-muscle-pyruvate-kinase-from-the-hibernating-ground-squirrel-urocitellus-richardsonii-potential-regulation-by-posttranslational-modification-during-torpor
#3
Ryan A V Bell, Kenneth B Storey
Ground squirrel torpor during winter hibernation is characterized by numerous physiological and biochemical changes, including alterations to fuel metabolism. During torpor, many tissues switch from carbohydrate to lipid catabolism, often by regulating key enzymes within glycolytic and lipolytic pathways. This study investigates the potential regulation of pyruvate kinase (PK), a key member of the glycolytic pathway, within the skeletal muscle of hibernating ground squirrels. PK was purified from the skeletal muscle of control and torpid Richardson's ground squirrels, and PK kinetics, structural stability, and posttranslational modifications were subsequently assessed...
September 16, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918470/assessment-of-glucose-regulation-in-pregnancy-after-gastric-bypass-surgery
#4
Christian S Göbl, Latife Bozkurt, Andrea Tura, Michael Leutner, Laura Andrei, Lukas Fahr, Peter Husslein, Wolfgang Eppel, Alexandra Kautzky-Willer
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery is characterised by glycaemic variability. Prospective studies of glucose metabolism in pregnancy after RYGB are not available, therefore this study aimed to evaluate physiological alterations in glucose metabolism in pregnancy following RYGB. METHODS: Sixty-three pregnant women (25 who underwent RYGB, 19 non-operated obese control women and 19 normal weight control women) were included. Frequently sampled 3 h OGTTs and 1 h IVGTTs were performed between 24 and 28 weeks of gestation and, in a subgroup, were repeated at 3-6 months after delivery...
September 16, 2017: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918378/enhanced-fluoride-removal-by-la-doped-li-al-layered-double-hydroxides
#5
Jianguo Cai, Xin Zhao, Yanyang Zhang, Quanxing Zhang, Bingcai Pan
In this study La intercalated Li/Al layered double hydroxide (LDH) was developed for efficient water defluoridation. The La-modified material, i.e., La doped Li/Al-LDH, exhibits more preferable fluoride adsorption than Li/Al-LDH in a broad pH range of 5-9, with the working capacity twice of the latter and seven times of magnitude higher than activated alumina. The fluoride removal kinetics is well fitted by pseudo-second order model, and the adsorption isotherm is well described by Freundlich model. Effect of pH and competing ions was examined during fluoride sequestration...
September 8, 2017: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918356/what-is-the-price-for-the-duchenne-gait-pattern-in-patients-with-cerebral-palsy
#6
Firooz Salami, Mirjam Niklasch, Britta K Krautwurst, Thomas Dreher, Sebastian I Wolf
Duchenne gait is characterized by trunk lean towards the affected stance limb with the pelvis stable or elevated on the swinging limb side during single limb stance phase. We assessed the relationship between hip abduction moments and trunk kinetics in patients with cerebral palsy showing excessive lateral trunk motion. Data of 18 subjects with bilateral spastic cerebral palsy (CP) and 20 aged matched typically developing subjects (TD) were collected retrospectively. Criteria for patient selection were barefoot walking without aid presenting with excessive lateral trunk motion...
September 7, 2017: Gait & Posture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918188/the-effect-of-thiolated-phospholipids-on-formation-of-supported-lipid-bilayers-on-gold-substrates-investigated-by-surface-sensitive-methods
#7
Abdulhalim Kılıç, M Fazeli Jadidi, Hakan Özgür Özer, Fatma Neşe Kök
Most of the model lipid membrane studies on gold involve the usage of various surface-modification strategies to rupture liposomes and induce lipid bilayer formation since liposomes with polar surfaces do not interact with bare, hydrophobic gold. In this study, a thiol-modified phospholipid, 1,2-Dipalmitoyl-sn-Glycero-3-Phosphothioethanol (DPPTE) was incorporated into phosphatidylcholine (PC) based liposomes to form supported lipid bilayer (SLB) on gold surfaces without further modification. The binding kinetics of liposomes with different DPPTE ratio (0...
September 8, 2017: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918097/synthesis-and-bioevaluation-of-1-phenyl-pyrazole-4-carboxylic-acid-derivatives-as-potent-xanthine-oxidoreductase-inhibitors
#8
Jing Li, Fangping Wu, Xingguo Liu, Yake Zou, Huixiong Chen, Zheng Li, Lei Zhang
A diverse library of 1-phenyl-pyrazole-4-carboxylic acid derivatives were synthesized and evaluated for their inhibitory potency against xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR) in vitro and vivo, and the structure-activity relationship (SAR) analyses were also presented. Approximately half of the target compounds exhibited the inhibitory potency for XOR at the nanomolar level. Compounds 16c, 16d, and 16f emerged as the most potent xanthine oxidoreductase inhibitors with IC50 values of 5.7, 5.7 and 4.2 nM, respectively, in comparison to febuxostat (IC50 of 5...
August 24, 2017: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918092/growth-rate-dependent-regulation-of-trna-level-and-charging-in-bacillus-licheniformis
#9
Iolanda Ferro, Klaus Liebeton, Zoya Ignatova
Cellular growth crucially depends on protein synthesis and the abundance of translational components. Among them, aminoacyl-tRNAs play a central role in biosynthesis and shape the kinetics of mRNA translation, thus influencing protein production. Here, we used microarray-based approaches to determine the charging levels and tRNA abundance of Bacillus licheniformis. We observed an interesting cross-talk among tRNA expression, charging pattern and growth rate. For a large subset of tRNAs, we found a co-regulated and augmented expression at high growth rate...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918080/the-tail-of-two-models-impact-of-circularity-and-biomass-non-homogeneity-on-uv-disinfection-of-wastewater-flocs
#10
Y Azimi, Y Liu, T C Tan, D G Allen, R R Farnood
The effects of floc structural characteristics, i.e. shape and dense biomass distribution, were evaluated on ultraviolet (UV) disinfection resistance, represented by the tailing level of the UV dose response curve (DRC). Ellipsoid-shaped flocs of similar volume and different projected circularities were constructed in-silico and a mathematical model was developed to compare their UV DRC tailing levels (indicative of UV-resistance). It was found that floc shape can significantly influence tailing level, and rounder flocs (i...
September 6, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918070/selective-solid-phase-extraction-based-on-molecularly-imprinted-technology-for-the-simultaneous-determination-of-20-triazole-pesticides-in-cucumber-samples-using-high-performance-liquid-chromatography-tandem-mass-spectrometry
#11
Fengnian Zhao, Yongxin She, Chao Zhang, Xiaolin Cao, Shanshan Wang, Lufei Zheng, Maojun Jin, Hua Shao, Fen Jin, Jing Wang
A selective analytical method for the simultaneous determination of 20 triazole fungicides and plant growth regulators in cucumber samples was developed using solid-phase extraction with specific molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) as adsorbents. The MIPs were successfully prepared by precipitation polymerization using triadimefon as the template molecule, methacrylic acid as the functional monomer, trimethylolpropane trimethacrylate as the crosslinker, and acetonitrile as the porogen. The performance and recognition mechanism for both the MIPs and non-molecularly imprinted polymers were evaluated using adsorption isotherms and adsorption kinetics...
August 22, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917987/development-and-characterisation-of-electrospun-timolol-maleate-loaded-polymeric-contact-lens-coatings-containing-various-permeation-enhancers
#12
Prina Mehta, Ali Al-Kinani, Muhammad Sohail Arshad, Ming-Wei Chang, Raid G Alany, Zeeshan Ahmad
Despite exponential growth in research relating to sustained and controlled ocular drug delivery; anatomical and chemical barriers of the eye still pose formulation challenges. Nanotechnology integration into the pharmaceutical industry has aided efforts in potential ocular drug device development. Here, the integration and in vitro effect of four different permeation enhancers (PEs) on the release of anti-glaucoma drug timolol maleate (TM) from polymeric nanofiber formulations is explored. Electrohydrodynamic (EHD) engineering, more specifically electrospinning, was used to engineer nanofibers (NFs) which coated the exterior of contact lenses...
September 13, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917971/how-fast-is-protein-ligand-association
#13
Stefano Gianni, Per Jemth
There is increasing interest in studying protein interactions and their role in cell biology using kinetics. However, there is confusion about the proper terminology in terms of the distinction between rates and rate constants. We recommend a more stringent use of the words speed, fast, slow, rate, and rate constant.
September 13, 2017: Trends in Biochemical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917923/effect-of-carboxymethylation-on-rheological-and-drug-release-characteristics-of-terminalia-catappa-gum
#14
Radhika Sharma, Vikas Rana
The carboxymethylation of galactomannans, arabinogalactans, arbinoxylan, etc is known to modify solubility, swelling index, rheological behaviour, powder characteristics, etc. Therefore, an attempt had been made to study the effect of carboxymethylation on Terminalia catappa (TC) gum. For this, modified Williamson synthesis reaction was utilized employing Quality by Design (QbD) approach. Grafting of carboxymethyl group on Terminalia catappa was confirmed by ATR-FTIR, H(1)NMR and DSC analyses. The rheological attributes revealed that the carboxymethylation of TC lowers the viscosity, enhance thermal stability (high activation energy), disentanglement was near to re-entanglement, and weak gelling characteristic...
November 1, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917895/ultrasound-assisted-adsorptive-removal-of-hazardous-dye-safranin-o-from-aqueous-solution-using-crosslinked-graphene-oxide-chitosan-goch-composite-and-optimization-by-response-surface-methodology-rsm-approach
#15
Sushanta Debnath, Kamya Parashar, Kriveshini Pillay
Chitosan (CH) was crosslinked with graphene oxide (GO) by combining solutions of CH and GO. Characterisations by ATR-FTIR, FE-SEM and XRD confirmed the formation of the GOCH composite. Removal of the dye Safranin Orange (SO) by ultrasonic adsorption from aqueous solution was tested by the composite. The removal of the cationic dye was more favourable at pH values greater than 5.2 and the optimum pH was found to be 6.5. The adsorption kinetics followed a pseudo-first order model and the rate-limiting step was identified as boundary layer diffusion from the Intraparticle diffusion model...
November 1, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917890/ultrasound-assisted-enzymatic-hydrolysis-of-starch-catalyzed-by-glucoamylase-investigation-on-starch-properties-and-degradation-kinetics
#16
Danli Wang, Xiaobin Ma, Lufeng Yan, Thunthacha Chantapakul, Wenjun Wang, Tian Ding, Xingqan Ye, Donghong Liu
The present work investigates the synergistic impact of glucoamylase and ultrasound on starch hydrolysis. The extent of starch hydrolysis at different reaction parameters (ultrasonic intensity, temperature, reaction time) was analyzed. The hydrolysis extent increased with the reaction time and reached a maximum value under ultrasonic intensity of 7.20W/mL at 10min. Ultrasound did not alter the optimum enzymatic temperature but speeded up the thermal inactivation of glucoamylase. The evaluation of enzymatic kinetics and starch degradation kinetics indicated a promotion of the reaction rate and enzyme-substrate affinity...
November 1, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917889/fabrication-of-cellulose-nanocrystal-from-carex-meyeriana-kunth-and-its-application-in-the-adsorption-of-methylene-blue
#17
Xue Yang, Hui Liu, Fuyi Han, Shuai Jiang, Lifang Liu, Zhaopeng Xia
Cellulose nanocrystal (CNC) was extracted from Carex meyeriana Kunth (CMK) by a combination of TEMPO oxidation and mechanical homogenization method, and used to remove methylene blue (MB) from aqueous solution. After alkali-oxygen treatment, the aqueous biphasic system (polyethylene glycol/inorganic salt) was applied to further remove lignin from CMK. The characteriazation of CNC, and the effects of H2O2 dosage, CNC dosage, adsorption time, and initial MB concentration on the MB removal capacity of CNC were investigated...
November 1, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917878/cellulose-nanocrystals-from-passion-fruit-peels-waste-as-antibiotic-drug-carrier
#18
Christian J Wijaya, Stephanie N Saputra, Felycia E Soetaredjo, Jindrayani N Putro, Chun X Lin, Alfin Kurniawan, Yi-Hsu Ju, Suryadi Ismadji
Due to its excellent chemical and physical properties, cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) possess many potential advanced functional applications. In this study, CNC was extracted from natural product by hydrolyzing cellulose segment of passionfruit peels using sulphuric acid solution. The capability of CNC as drug carrier was tested toward tetracycline antibiotic. The drug loading processes were carried out at various pH (3-7) with the optimum uptake of tetracycline achieved at pH 3. The in vitro release of tetracycline drug was carried out in phosphoric buffer medium with two different pH conditions at 37°C...
November 1, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917871/inhibition-of-gelatinized-rice-starch-retrogradation-by-rice-bran-protein-hydrolysates
#19
Liya Niu, Leiyan Wu, Jianhui Xiao
The retrogradation of gelatinized rice starch (GRS) during the shelf life of a product is the biggest barrier related to starch-containing foods. The objective of this study was to produce rice bran protein hydrolysate (RBPH) using proteolytic enzymes (alcalase, flavourzyme, protamex, neutrase, bromelain, papain and trypsin) to suppress the retrogradation of GRS and understand the physical phenomena underlying the reduced retrogradation of GRS by RBPH during short- and long-term storage. Mixtures of GRS incorporated with Protamex-hydrolyzed rice bran protein at 1h (PRBPH-1) at a degree of hydrolysis of 15...
November 1, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917847/release-of-polyphenols-from-starch-chitosan-based-films-containing-thyme-extract
#20
Emma Talón, Kata T Trifkovic, María Vargas, Amparo Chiralt, Chelo González-Martínez
The release kinetics of thyme extract polyphenols (TE) from chitosan (CH), pea starch (S) and CH:S blend films in different solvents was evaluated, as well as their antioxidant activity in each release media. Pure starch films showed the fastest delivery rate and the highest delivery ratio of polyphenols, although the corresponding release media exhibited the lowest antioxidant capacity. TE provided CH based films with remarkable antioxidant activity, despite the lower polyphenol release obtained in all solvents, due to the strong polyphenols-chitosan interactions...
November 1, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
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