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Igor S Pessi, Yannick Lara, Benoit Durieu, Pedro de C Maalouf, Elie Verleyen, Annick Wilmotte
The terrestrial Antarctic Realm has recently been divided into 16 Antarctic Conservation Biogeographic Regions (ACBRs) based on environmental properties and the distribution of biota. Despite their prominent role in the primary production and nutrient cycling in Antarctic lakes, cyanobacteria were only poorly represented in the biological dataset used to delineate these ACBRs. Here we provide a first high-throughput sequencing (HTS) insight into the spatial distribution of benthic cyanobacterial communities in Antarctic lakes located in four distinct, geographically distant ACBRs and covering a range of limnological conditions...
March 14, 2018: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
Shawn Dason, Alvin C Goh
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: More than a century of development has led to contemporary urinary diversion. It is paramount that robotic intracorporeal diversions uphold the principles defined by open surgery. RECENT FINDINGS: In this review, we discuss the fundamental open surgical principles that have led to contemporary techniques of urinary diversion. We then outline the technical aspects of several recently described robotic intracorporeal urinary diversions in the context of these surgical principles...
March 15, 2018: Current Urology Reports
T Brusa, D Abler, R Tutuian, C Gingert, J T Heverhagen, M Adamina, L E Brügger, P Büchler
BACKGROUND: A large proportion of age-related fecal incontinence is attributed to weakness or degeneration of the muscles composing the anal continence organ. However, the individual role of these muscles and their functional interplay remain poorly understood. METHODS: This study employs a novel technique based on the combination of MR imaging and FLIP measurements (MR-FLIP) to obtain anatomical and mechanical information simultaneously. Unlike previous methods used to assess the mechanics of the continence organ, MR-FLIP allows inter-individual comparisons and statistical analysis of the sphincter morpho-mechanical parameters...
March 15, 2018: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
Yue Zhang, Jian-Song Ren, Hui-Yao Huang, Ju-Fang Shi, Ni Li, Yawei Zhang, Min Dai
Lung cancer is the commonly diagnosed cancer and one of the most important avoidable causes of death around the world. We conducted the study to investigate the pattern of lung cancer incidence worldwide. Joinpoint analysis was used to extend international lung cancer incidence rates by the latest data from Cancer Incidence in Five Continents over the 35-year period 1973-2007 from 24 populations from Americas, Asia, Europe, and Oceania. Age-standardized incidence rates (ASRs) of lung cancer were from 33.3 to 66...
March 14, 2018: Cancer Medicine
Marc A Furrer, Antoni Vilaseca, Renato B Corradi, Silvan Boxler, George N Thalmann, Daniel P Nguyen
BACKGROUND: A growing number of men undergo repeat biopsies prior to radical prostatectomy for prostate cancer. However, the long-term impact of repeat biopsies on functional outcomes in this patient population remains unelucidated. Thus, we compared functional outcomes between patients who underwent single biopsy versus repeat biopsies before radical prostatectomy. METHODS: From 1996 to 2015, 1015 consecutive patients underwent radical prostatectomy, and subsequently had urinary continence and erectile function assessed for >2 years follow-up...
March 14, 2018: Prostate
Nauman Ahmed, Hammad Naeem Rana
Primary Small bowel adenocarcinoma, a rare entity and having varied clinical presentation, makes its clinical detection a diagnostic challenge. Moreover, its true prevalence in sub-continent population has not yet been established, which makes it more difficult for its detection. We present the case of a 60 year old male who came with abdominal pain and weight loss for two years as the only symptoms. A series of tests in the two year period remained inconclusive. Later Computed tomography showed a suspicious mass at the terminal ileum...
March 2018: JPMA. the Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association
Muhammad Shahid Shamim, Lubna Baig, Adrienne Torda, Chinthaka Balasooriya
The world is geographically divided into hemispheres, continents and countries, with varying cultures in different regions. Asia, the largest of continents, has a variety of philosophically distinctive cultures and lifestyles, informing the norms of societies that are much different from cultures in other continents. These complexities in the societal norms in Asian cultures have created unique issues in development of ethics education in the region. This paper looks in to the distinctions in what is generally referred to as the "non-western" Asian culture, the importance of cultural context and how it influences the ethics curriculum in the region...
March 2018: JPMA. the Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association
Agustin Resendiz Sharpe, Katrien Lagrou, Jacques F Meis, Anuradha Chowdhary, Shawn R Lockhart, Paul E Verweij
Triazole resistance is an increasing concern in the opportunistic mold Aspergillus fumigatus. Resistance can develop through exposure to azole compounds during azole therapy or in the environment. Resistance mutations are commonly found in the Cyp51A-gene, although other known and unknown resistance mechanisms may be present. Surveillance studies show triazole resistance in six continents, although the presence of resistance remains unknown in many countries. In most countries, resistance mutations associated with the environment dominate, but it remains unclear if these resistance traits predominately migrate or arise locally...
April 1, 2018: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
Scott Schlossberg, Michael J Chase, Curtice R Griffin
With populations of African savannah elephants (Loxodonta africana) declining across the continent, assessing the status of individual elephant populations is important for conservation. Angola's elephant population represents a key linkage between the larger populations of Namibia and Botswana. Elephants in Angola were decimated during the 1975-2002 Angolan civil war, but a 2005 survey showed that populations were recolonizing former habitats. Between 2005 and 2015, no research was permitted on elephants in Angola, but elsewhere in Africa many elephant populations experienced a poaching crisis...
2018: PloS One
S Napp, N Majó, R Sánchez-Gónzalez, J Vergara-Alert
Circulation of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses poses a continuous threat to animal and public health. After the 2005-2006 H5N1 and the 2014-2015 H5N8 epidemics, another H5N8 is currently affecting Europe. Up to August 2017, 1,112 outbreaks in domestic and 955 in wild birds in 30 European countries have been reported, the largest epidemic by a HPAI virus in the continent. Here, the main epidemiological findings are described. While some similarities with previous HPAI virus epidemics were observed, for example in the pattern of emergence, significant differences were also patent, in particular the size and extent of the epidemic...
March 14, 2018: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
Judah Cohen, Karl Pfeiffer, Jennifer A Francis
Recent boreal winters have exhibited a large-scale seesaw temperature pattern characterized by an unusually warm Arctic and cold continents. Whether there is any physical link between Arctic variability and Northern Hemisphere (NH) extreme weather is an active area of research. Using a recently developed index of severe winter weather, we show that the occurrence of severe winter weather in the United States is significantly related to anomalies in pan-Arctic geopotential heights and temperatures. As the Arctic transitions from a relatively cold state to a warmer one, the frequency of severe winter weather in mid-latitudes increases through the transition...
March 13, 2018: Nature Communications
Martina Tetti, Silvia Monticone, Jacopo Burrello, Patrizia Matarazzo, Franco Veglio, Barbara Pasini, Xavier Jeunemaitre, Paolo Mulatero
Liddle syndrome is an inherited form of low-renin hypertension, transmitted with an autosomal dominant pattern. The molecular basis of Liddle syndrome resides in germline mutations of the SCNN1A , SCNN1B and SCNN1G genes, encoding the α, β, and γ-subunits of the epithelial Na⁺ channel (ENaC), respectively. To date, 31 different causative mutations have been reported in 72 families from four continents. The majority of the substitutions cause an increased expression of the channel at the distal nephron apical membrane, with subsequent enhanced renal sodium reabsorption...
March 11, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Andreas Stang, Jürgen C Becker, Paul Nghiem, Jacques Ferlay
AIM: The aim of this article was to provide worldwide, population-based incidence rates for Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC). METHODS: We included 11,576 cases from 20 countries for time trend analyses (1990-2007) and 11,028 cases (2.5 billion person-years) from 21 countries for the period 2003-2007 extracted from Cancer Incidence in Five Continents. We computed age-standardised incidence rates (World Standard population) per million person years and sex ratios of these rates...
March 10, 2018: European Journal of Cancer
Natalie A Prow, Marcus G Mah, Joshua M Deerain, David Warrilow, Agathe M G Colmant, Caitlin A O'Brien, Jessica J Harrison, Breeanna J McLean, Elise K Hewlett, Thisun B H Piyasena, Sonja Hall-Mendelin, Andrew F van den Hurk, Daniel Watterson, Bixing Huang, Benjamin L Schulz, Cameron E Webb, Cheryl A Johansen, Weng K Chow, Jody Hobson-Peters, Chris Cazier, Lark L Coffey, Helen M Faddy, Andreas Suhrbier, Helle Bielefeldt-Ohmann, Roy A Hall
Liao ning virus (LNV) was first isolated in 1996 from mosquitoes in China, and has been shown to replicate in selected mammalian cell lines and to cause lethal haemorrhagic disease in experimentally infected mice. The first detection of LNV in Australia was by deep sequencing of mosquito homogenates. We subsequently isolated LNV from mosquitoes of four genera (Culex, Anopheles, Mansonia and Aedes) in New South Wales, Northern Territory, Queensland and Western Australia; the earliest of these Australian isolates were obtained from mosquitoes collected in 1988, predating the first Chinese isolates...
March 13, 2018: Journal of General Virology
Maria K van de Waarsenburg, Nienke E van Hoogenhuijze, Anique T M Grob, Karlijn J Schweitzer, Mariëlla I J Withagen, Carl H van der Vaart
INTRODUCTION AND HYPOTHESIS: Internal closure of the urethral sphincter is one of the mechanisms in maintaining continence. Little is known about changes in the urethral sphincter during pregnancy. We designed this study to develop a reliable method to measure the area and mean echogenicity of the midurethra during and after pregnancy and to assess changes over time. METHODS: Two observers independently segmented the urethra as follows: in the sagittal plane, the urethra was positioned vertically, the marker was placed in the middle section of the lumen of the urethra, and eight tomographic US images of 2...
March 12, 2018: International Urogynecology Journal
Kelly Louise Bennett, Martha Kaddumukasa, Fortunate Shija, Rousseau Djouaka, Gerald Misinzo, Julius Lutwama, Yvonne Marie Linton, Catherine Walton
The study of demographic processes involved in species diversification and evolution ultimately provides explanations for the complex distribution of biodiversity on earth, indicates regions important for the maintenance and generation of biodiversity, and identifies biological units important for conservation or medical consequence. African and forest biota have both received relatively little attention with regard to understanding their diversification, although one possible mechanism is that this has been driven by historical climate change...
March 2018: Ecology and Evolution
Remco R Bouckaert, Claire Bowern, Quentin D Atkinson
It remains a mystery how Pama-Nyungan, the world's largest hunter-gatherer language family, came to dominate the Australian continent. Some argue that social or technological advantages allowed rapid language replacement from the Gulf Plains region during the mid-Holocene. Others have proposed expansions from refugia linked to climatic changes after the last ice age or, more controversially, during the initial colonization of Australia. Here, we combine basic vocabulary data from 306 Pama-Nyungan languages with Bayesian phylogeographic methods to explicitly model the expansion of the family across Australia and test between these origin scenarios...
March 12, 2018: Nature Ecology & Evolution
Cristina Valdiosera, Torsten Günther, Juan Carlos Vera-Rodríguez, Irene Ureña, Eneko Iriarte, Ricardo Rodríguez-Varela, Luciana G Simões, Rafael M Martínez-Sánchez, Emma M Svensson, Helena Malmström, Laura Rodríguez, José-María Bermúdez de Castro, Eudald Carbonell, Alfonso Alday, José Antonio Hernández Vera, Anders Götherström, José-Miguel Carretero, Juan Luis Arsuaga, Colin I Smith, Mattias Jakobsson
Population genomic studies of ancient human remains have shown how modern-day European population structure has been shaped by a number of prehistoric migrations. The Neolithization of Europe has been associated with large-scale migrations from Anatolia, which was followed by migrations of herders from the Pontic steppe at the onset of the Bronze Age. Southwestern Europe was one of the last parts of the continent reached by these migrations, and modern-day populations from this region show intriguing similarities to the initial Neolithic migrants...
March 12, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Krishna R Veeramah, Andreas Rott, Melanie Groß, Lucy van Dorp, Saioa López, Karola Kirsanow, Christian Sell, Jens Blöcher, Daniel Wegmann, Vivian Link, Zuzana Hofmanová, Joris Peters, Bernd Trautmann, Anja Gairhos, Jochen Haberstroh, Bernd Päffgen, Garrett Hellenthal, Brigitte Haas-Gebhard, Michaela Harbeck, Joachim Burger
Modern European genetic structure demonstrates strong correlations with geography, while genetic analysis of prehistoric humans has indicated at least two major waves of immigration from outside the continent during periods of cultural change. However, population-level genome data that could shed light on the demographic processes occurring during the intervening periods have been absent. Therefore, we generated genomic data from 41 individuals dating mostly to the late 5th/early 6th century AD from present-day Bavaria in southern Germany, including 11 whole genomes (mean depth 5...
March 12, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Mustafa Cem Terzi, Cihan Agalar, Sari Habip, Aras Emre Canda, Naciye Cigdem Arslan, Funda Obuz
BACKGROUND: Primary closure of the fistula tract using energy emitted by a radial fiber connected to a diode laser is a novel procedure for treating perianal fistulas. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine the long-term effectiveness of this new technique. DESIGN: The surgical objective was to seal the fistula tract using laser energy. SETTINGS: The study was conducted at a single day-case surgery center...
March 8, 2018: Diseases of the Colon and Rectum
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