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hepatitis b treatment guidelines

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450123/epidemiology-and-treatment-of-hepatitis-b-in-prisoners
#1
Jacob M Smith, A Ziggy Uvin, Alexandria Macmadu, Josiah D Rich
Purpose of Review: The review details recent literature reports regarding Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) and, in particular, Hepatitis B prevalence/incidence in incarcerated populations around the world. Furthermore, the review will summarize the national/international guidelines regarding HBV and look at diagnosis, vaccination, treatment, and linkage to care after release. Recent Findings: HBV affects prisoners at a much higher rate than the general populations. Many who are at increased risk for HBV infection are also at increased risk for incarceration...
September 2017: Current Hepatology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427500/long-term-safety-and-efficacy-of-nucleo-t-side-analogue-therapy-in-hepatitis-b
#2
REVIEW
Maria Buti, Mar Riveiro-Barciela, Rafael Esteban
Long-term treatment of chronic hepatitis B (CHB) with nucleos(t)ide analogues is often necessary to achieve durable viral suppression. Therefore, current guidelines recommend the most potent drugs with optimal resistance profiles. Entecavir (ETV), tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) and tenofovir alafenamide (TAF) are the first-line monotherapies for CHB. All of these drugs are highly effective in suppressing viral replication but with slightly different safety profiles. This review provides an overview of the long-term efficacy and safety data that have become available over the 10 years since ETV and TDF were first approved for the treatment of chronic hepatitis, and recent data on TAF in patients with CHB...
February 2018: Liver International: Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427490/how-to-control-highly-endemic-hepatitis-b-in-asia
#3
REVIEW
Shan Shan, Fuqian Cui, Jidong Jia
Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is an enormous economic and social burden. Asian countries such as Vietnam, Mongolia, Laos, China, the Philippines, South Korea, Singapore and Cambodia have high or high-intermediate HBsAg prevalence. Most of the chronic HBV carriers in this region acquire their infection during early childhood or through mother-to-child transmission (MTCT). Asia has been highly successful in controlling HBV in the last 2 decades. For example, China has adopted a comprehensive strategy to control HBV and has offered universal HBV vaccination to infants since 1992...
February 2018: Liver International: Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427480/why-not-to-stop-antiviral-treatment-in-patients-with-chronic-hepatitis-b
#4
REVIEW
Sebastián Marciano, Adrián Gadano
Treatment of chronic hepatitis B with entecavir or tenofovir leads to viral suppression in almost all patients. However, prolonged or lifelong treatment is necessary. At present, there is no consensus among the three major guidelines for the treatment of chronic hepatitis B on whether or not to stop antiviral treatment. One of the main reasons for this controversy is that virological relapse has been well documented in patients with chronic hepatitis B who stop treatment. Relapse rate is particularly high in patients who are HBeAg-negative when treatment begins, with reported relapse rates of up to 70% 36 months after treatment discontinuation...
February 2018: Liver International: Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29396792/role-of-interventional-radiology-in-managing-pediatric-liver-tumors-part-2-percutaneous-interventions
#5
REVIEW
C Matthew Hawkins, Alexander J Towbin, Derek J Roebuck, Eric J Monroe, Anne E Gill, Avnesh S Thakor, Richard B Towbin, Anne Marie Cahill, Matthew P Lungren
Hepatoblastoma and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) are the most common pediatric liver malignancies, with hepatoblastoma occurring more commonly in younger children and HCC occurring more commonly in older children and adolescents. Although surgical resection (including transplant when necessary) and systemic chemotherapy have improved overall survival rate for hepatoblastoma to approximately 80% from 30%, a number of children with this tumor type are not eligible for operative treatment. In contradistinction, pediatric HCC continues to carry a dismal prognosis with an overall 5-year survival rate of 30%...
February 2, 2018: Pediatric Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29391775/tuberculosis-and-viral-hepatitis-infection-in-eastern-europe-asia-and-latin-america-impact-of-tumor-necrosis-factor-%C3%AE-inhibitors-in-clinical-practice
#6
REVIEW
Yi-Hsing Chen, Hellen Mds de Carvalho, Umut Kalyoncu, Lyndon John Q Llamado, Gaston Solano, Ron Pedersen, Galina Lukina, Juan J Lichauco, Radu S Vasilescu
Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) inhibitors are increasingly becoming the standard of care for treating a number of inflammatory diseases. However, treatment with TNF-α inhibitors carries an inherent risk of compromising the immune system, resulting in an increased susceptibility to infections and malignancies. This increased risk of infection is of particular concern in Asia, Eastern Europe, and Latin America where tuberculosis (TB) and viral hepatitis are endemic. In this brief review, we examine the literature and review the impact of TNF-α inhibitors on the incidence and the reactivation of latent disease with respect to TB, hepatitis C infection, and hepatitis B infection...
2018: Biologics: Targets & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29390512/venous-thromboembolism-related-to-cytomegalovirus-infection-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#7
Amar H Kelkar, Kavitha S Jacob, Eman B Yousif, John J Farrell
RATIONALE: Herein, we present a case of seemingly unprovoked portal vein thrombosis (PVT) occurring in the context of an acute cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection and prolonged debilitating fatigue. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 46-year-old male airline pilot presented with a 2 week history of abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, watery diarrhea, and daily recurrent fevers. This was in the context of progressive, debilitating fatigue for 3 months forcing the patient to leave his job...
December 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29380413/non-invasive-assessments-for-liver-fibrosis-the-crystal-ball-we-long-for
#8
REVIEW
Grace Lai-Hung Wong
Non-invasive assessment of liver fibrosis has been one of the most rapidly advancing fields in hepatology in the last decade. Progressive liver fibrosis results in cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and various liver-related complications in essentially all chronic liver diseases. Assessment of liver fibrosis allows clinicians to determine the prognosis, need of treatment, disease progression and response to treatment in patients with chronic liver disease. Liver biopsy has been the gold standard in last few decades and most adopted diagnostic tool in clinical trials...
January 30, 2018: Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29378859/high-prevalence-of-latent-tuberculosis-and-bloodborne-virus-infection-in-a-homeless-population
#9
Robert W Aldridge, Andrew C Hayward, Sara Hemming, Susan K Yates, Gloria Ferenando, Lucia Possas, Elizabeth Garber, John M Watson, Anna Maria Geretti, Timothy Daniel McHugh, Marc Lipman, Alistair Story
INTRODUCTION: Urban homeless populations in the UK have been shown to have high rates of active tuberculosis, but less is known about the prevalence of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI). This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of LTBI among individuals using homeless hostels in London. METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional survey with outcome follow-up in homeless hostels in London. Our primary outcome was prevalence of LTBI. Recruitment for the study took place between May 2011 and June 2013...
January 29, 2018: Thorax
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29378384/-diagnosis-and-therapy-of-hepatitis-b-virus-infection-czech-national-guidelines
#10
Petr Husa, Jan Šperl, Petr Urbánek, Soňa Fraňková, Stanislav Plíšek, Petr Kümpel, Luděk RoŽnovský
The new recommendations reflect the increase in knowledge that has been reported since the release of previous Czech guidelines in September 2014. The basis for these guidelines were the European Association for the Study of the Liver guidelines from April 2017. According to qualified estimates, there are 240 million people with chronic hepatitis B (HBV) infection worldwide. The Czech Republic is among the countries with a low prevalence of HBV infection. According to the latest seroprevalence study, 0.56 % of the Czech citizens were chronically infected with HBV in 2001...
December 2017: Klinická Mikrobiologie a Infekc̆ní Lékar̆ství
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29362063/management-of-coinfections-in-patients-with-human-immunodeficiency-virus
#11
REVIEW
Sabra S Custer
In addition to chronic use of antiretrovirals to maintain suppression of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), many persons living with HIV are coinfected with tuberculosis, hepatitis B, or hepatitis C. These coinfections can be successfully treated or managed alongside HIV infection. Clinicians should follow practice guidelines to appropriately screen patients with HIV for these coinfections and initiate treatment when necessary. The most significant concern when treating any of these coinfections is to avoid drug-drug interactions with the patient's antiretrovirals...
March 2018: Nursing Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29359487/review-article-long-term-safety-of-oral-anti-viral-treatment-for-chronic-hepatitis-b
#12
REVIEW
G L-H Wong, W-K Seto, V W-S Wong, M-F Yuen, H L-Y Chan
BACKGROUND: Safety profile of nucleos(t)ide analogues is an important issue in view of its widespread use for decades in patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB). AIM: To review and evaluate the latest evidence on the safety profiles of the six approved nucleoside analogues. METHODS: Relevant articles related to nucleoside analogue safety were selected for review following extensive language- and date-unrestricted, electronic searches of the literature...
January 22, 2018: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29359020/de-novo-hepatocellular-carcinoma-after-pediatric-living-donor-liver-transplantation
#13
Samuel Torres-Landa, Armando Salim Muñoz-Abraham, Brett E Fortune, Ananta Gurung, Jeffrey Pollak, Sukru H Emre, Manuel I Rodriguez-Davalos, Michael L Schilsky
De-novo malignancies carry an incidence ranging between 3%-26% after transplant and account for the second highest cause of post-transplant mortality behind cardiovascular disease. While the majority of de-novo malignancies after transplant usually consist of skin cancers, there has been an increasing rate of solid tumor cancers over the last 15 years. Although, recurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is well understood among patients transplanted for HCC, there are increasing reports of de-novo HCC in those transplanted for a non-HCC indication...
December 28, 2017: World Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353469/management-of-chronic-hepatitis-b-patients-in-immunetolerant-phase-what-latest-guidelines-recommend
#14
Grace Lai-Hung Wong
The natural history of chronic hepatitis B (CHB) is complex and may run through different immune phases that may overlap. In particulars, the immune-tolerant phase is the most interesting and not as well understood as we thought. The concept of true immune tolerance have been under challenged from immunology points of view. The major international guidelines have not yet reached a consensus on the definition of the immune-tolerant phase. While positive hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg), high serum hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA and normal serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels are the three key features of this phase, some guidelines also put age into consideration...
January 22, 2018: Clinical and Molecular Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339926/using-a-chronic-hepatitis-b-registry-to-support-population-level-liver-cancer-prevention-in-sydney-australia
#15
Monica C Robotin, Ximena Masgoret, Mamta Porwal, David Goldsbury, Chee Khoo, Jacob George
Background: Approximately 1% of Australians have chronic hepatitis B (CHB), which disproportionately affects people born in hepatitis B-endemic countries. Currently, approximately half of the people affected remain undiagnosed and antiviral treatment uptake is suboptimal (~5%). This increases the likelihood of developing end-stage disease complications, particularly hepatocellular cancer (HCC), and largely accounts for the significant increases in HCC incidence and mortality in Australia over the last decades...
2018: Clinical Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29312973/critical-appraisal-of-chinese-2017-guideline-on-the-management-of-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#16
REVIEW
Di-Yang Xie, Zheng-Gang Ren, Jian Zhou, Jia Fan, Qiang Gao
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the fourth most common and the third most lethal cancer in China. An updated version of consensus-based recommendations on the management of HCC has been recently published by a multidisciplinary group of Chinese experts including liver surgeons, hepatic oncologists, radiologists and pathologists. Major changes have been made to the diagnostic criteria. In addition to dynamic multi-detector computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI and contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) are added to the diagnostic imaging tests...
December 2017: Hepatobiliary Surgery and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310928/sofosbuvir-and-velpatasvir-for-hepatitis-c-virus-infection-in-people-with-recent-injection-drug-use-simplify-an-open-label-single-arm-phase-4-multicentre-trial
#17
Jason Grebely, Olav Dalgard, Brian Conway, Evan B Cunningham, Philip Bruggmann, Behzad Hajarizadeh, Janaki Amin, Julie Bruneau, Margaret Hellard, Alain H Litwin, Philippa Marks, Sophie Quiene, Sharmila Siriragavan, Tanya L Applegate, Tracy Swan, Jude Byrne, Melanie Lacalamita, Adrian Dunlop, Gail V Matthews, Jeff Powis, David Shaw, Maria Christine Thurnheer, Martin Weltman, Ian Kronborg, Curtis Cooper, Jordan J Feld, Chris Fraser, John F Dillon, Phillip Read, Ed Gane, Gregory J Dore
BACKGROUND: Despite revised guidelines that no longer exclude people who inject drugs (PWID) from treatment for hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, many clinicians are reluctant to treat recent PWID. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of sofosbuvir and velpatasvir therapy in people with chronic HCV infection and recent injection drug use. METHODS: In this open-label, single-arm phase 4 trial (SIMPLIFY), we recruited participants with recent injection drug use (past 6 months) and chronic HCV genotype 1-6 infection from seven countries (19 sites)...
January 5, 2018: Lancet. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29303103/diagnosis-management-and-treatment-of-hepatitis-b-virus-infection-turkey-2017-clinical-practice-guidelines
#18
Fehmi Tabak, Cihan Yurdaydın, Sabahattin Kaymakoğlu, Mesut Akarsu, Esra G Akıncı, Hikmet Akkız, Canan Alkım, Ayhan H Çekin, Nefise Ö Çuvalcı, Kadir Demir, Bülent Değertekin, İlyas Dökmetaş, Galip Ersöz, Kenan Hizel, Fatma Ö Kandemir, Yusuf Önlen, Abdullah Sonsuz, Ebubekir Şenateş, Selma Tosun, Nurdan Tözün, Ramazan Idilman, Viral Hepatitis Guidelines Study Group
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2017: Turkish Journal of Gastroenterology: the Official Journal of Turkish Society of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29301497/evaluating-screening-approaches-for-hepatocellular-carcinoma-in-a-cohort-of-hcv-related-cirrhosis-patients-from-the-veteran-s-affairs-health-care-system
#19
Nabihah Tayob, Peter Richardson, Donna L White, Xiaoying Yu, Jessica A Davila, Fasiha Kanwal, Ziding Feng, Hashem B El-Serag
BACKGROUND: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has limited treatment options in patients with advanced stage disease and early detection of HCC through surveillance programs is a key component towards reducing mortality. The current practice guidelines recommend that high-risk cirrhosis patients are screened every six months with ultrasonography but these are done in local hospitals with variable quality leading to disagreement about the benefit of HCC surveillance. The well-established diagnostic biomarker α-Fetoprotein (AFP) is used widely in screening but the reported performance varies widely across studies...
January 4, 2018: BMC Medical Research Methodology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29299370/safety-of-selective-internal-radiation-therapy-sirt-with-yttrium-90-microspheres-combined-with-systemic-anticancer-agents-expert-consensus
#20
REVIEW
Andrew Kennedy, Daniel B Brown, Jonas Feilchenfeldt, John Marshall, Harpreet Wasan, Marwan Fakih, Peter Gibbs, Alexander Knuth, Bruno Sangro, Michael C Soulen, Gianfranco Pittari, Ricky A Sharma
Selective internal radiation therapy (SIRT) with microspheres labelled with the β-emitter yttrium-90 (Y-90) enables targeted delivery of radiation to hepatic tumors. SIRT is primarily used to treat inoperable primary or metastatic liver tumors. Eligible patients have usually been exposed to a variety of systemic anticancer therapies, including cytotoxic agents, targeted biologics, immunotherapy and peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT). All these treatments have potential interactions with SIRT; however, robust evidence on the safety of these potential combinations is lacking...
December 2017: Journal of Gastrointestinal Oncology
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