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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351412/expression-of-ctgf-ccn2-in-response-to-lpa-is-stimulated-by-fibrotic-extracellular-matrix-via-the-integrin-fak-axis
#1
Camilo Riquelme-Guzman, Osvaldo Contreras, Enrique Brandan
Fibrosis is a common feature of several chronic diseases, and is characterized by exacerbated accumulation of extracellular matrix (ECM). Understanding the cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in the development of this condition is crucial for designing efficient treatments for those pathologies. Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF/CCN2) is a pleiotropic protein with strong pro-fibrotic activity. In this report, we present experimental evidence showing that ECM stimulates the synthesis of CTGF in response to lysophosphatidic acid (LPA)...
December 27, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350750/the-hepatoprotective-effect-of-selenium-enriched-yeast-and-gum-arabic-combination-on-carbon-tetrachloride-induced-chronic-liver-injury-in-rats
#2
Mohammed Hamid, Yassin Abdulrahim, Dandan Liu, Gang Qian, Alamzeb Khan, Kehe Huang
The antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of selenium-enriched yeast (SY) and Gum Arabic (GA) have been reported. This study aimed to determine the hepatoprotective effect of SY and GA combination on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 )-induced chronic liver injury in rats and to explore their synergistic mechanisms of action. Forty adult male Wistar rats randomly allotted to 5 groups: (A) worked as control, (B) was administered CCl4 , (C-E) were fed daily by GA, SY, and GA+SY respectively after mixing with basal diet, following CCl4 -intoxication...
January 19, 2018: Journal of Food Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350420/over-expression-of-dec1-inhibits-myogenic-differentiation-by-modulating-myog-activity-in-bovine-satellite-cell
#3
Yongzhen Huang, Xinsheng Lai, Linyong Hu, Chuzhao Lei, Xianyong Lan, Chunlei Zhang, Yun Ma, Li Zheng, Yue-Yu Bai, Fengpeng Lin, Hong Chen
Differentiated embryo chondrocyte 1 (DEC1), a member of basic-helix-loop-helix transcription factor Bhlhe40, also called stimulated by retinoic acid 13, STRA13, plays an important role in the regulation of adipogenesis, tumorigenesis, peripheral circadian output, response to hypoxia and development of metabolic syndrome. Previous studies suggested that DEC1 was involved in skeletal muscle development; however, its precise role in myoblast differentiation has not been determined. In the present study, we showed that DEC1 expressed ubiquitously in different bovine tissues and was down-regulated in differentiated bovine satellite cells...
January 19, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350417/hepatitis-c-virus-core-protein-induces-dysfunction-of-liver-sinusoidal-endothelial-cell-by-down-regulation-of-silent-information-regulator-1
#4
Li-Jie Sun, Jian-Wu Yu, Yu-Guang Shi, Xiao-Yu Zhang, Meng-Ni Shu, Mo-Yang Chen
Objective Hepatic fibrosis is a frequent feature of chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. Some evidence has suggested the potential role of silent information regulator 1 (SIRT1) in organ fibrosis. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of HCV core protein on expression of SIRT1 of liver sinusoidal endothelial cell (LSEC) and function of LSEC. Methods LSECs were co-cultured with HepG2 cells or HepG2 cells expressing HCV core protein and LSECs cultured alone were used as controls. After co-culture, the activity and expression levels of mRNA and protein of SIRT1 in LSEC were detected by a SIRT1 fluorometric assay kit, real time-PCR (RT-PCR), Western blot, respectively...
January 19, 2018: Journal of Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350304/defective-mitochondrial-atpase-due-to-rare-mtdna-m-8969g-a-mutation-causing-lactic-acidosis-intellectual-disability-and-poor-growth
#5
Pirjo Isohanni, Christopher J Carroll, Christopher B Jackson, Max Pohjanpelto, Tuula Lönnqvist, Anu Suomalainen
Mutations in mitochondrial ATP synthase 6 (MT-ATP6) are a frequent cause of NARP (neurogenic muscle weakness, ataxia, and retinitis pigmentosa) or Leigh syndromes, especially a point mutation at nucleotide position 8993. M.8969G>A is a rare MT-ATP6 mutation, previously reported only in three individuals, causing multisystem disorders with mitochondrial myopathy, lactic acidosis, and sideroblastic anemia or IgA nephropathy. We present two siblings with the m.8969G>A mutation and a novel, substantially milder phenotype with lactic acidosis, poor growth, and intellectual disability...
January 19, 2018: Neurogenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349669/positive-correlation-between-matrix-metalloproteinases-and-epithelial-to-mesenchymal-transition-and-its-association-with-clinical-outcome-in-bladder-cancer-patients
#6
R Singh, A Mandhani, V Agrawal, Minal Garg
Involvement of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) in the pathogenesis of urothelial carcinoma elects them to be sensitive marker for clinical and prognostic implications. MMPs regulate tumor growth and invasion by inducing epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) which is characterized by the complex reprogramming of epithelial cells and ultimately bring about major changes in the structural organization of bladder urothelium. The present study has been undertaken to evaluate the clinical relevance of MMPs in two distinct types of bladder cancer disease...
January 18, 2018: Cancer Microenvironment: Official Journal of the International Cancer Microenvironment Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349633/effects-of-tetradecylthioacetic-acid-tta-treatment-on-lipid-metabolism-in-salmon-hearts-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-studies
#7
Regin Arge, Jens-Erik Dessen, Tone-Kari Østbye, Bente Ruyter, Magny S Thomassen, Kjell-Arne Rørvik
In intensive farming of Atlantic salmon, a large proportion of observed mortality is related to cardiovascular diseases and circulatory failure, indicating insufficient robustness and inadequate cardiac performance. This paper reports on the use of tetradecylthioacetic acid (TTA) where the main objective was to enhance utilisation of fatty acids (FA), considered the main energy source of the heart. In this study, three experiments were conducted: (I) an in vivo study where salmon post-smolt were administrated dietary TTA in sea, (II) an in vitro study where isolated salmon heart cells were pre-stimulated with increasing doses of TTA and (III) an in vivo experiment where salmon post-smolt were subjected to injections with increasing doses of TTA...
January 19, 2018: Fish Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349300/tensile-forces-drive-a-reversible-fibroblast-to-myofibroblast-transition-during-tissue-growth-in-engineered-clefts
#8
Philip Kollmannsberger, Cécile M Bidan, John W C Dunlop, Peter Fratzl, Viola Vogel
Myofibroblasts orchestrate wound healing processes, and if they remain activated, they drive disease progression such as fibrosis and cancer. Besides growth factor signaling, the local extracellular matrix (ECM) and its mechanical properties are central regulators of these processes. It remains unknown whether transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) and tensile forces work synergistically in up-regulating the transition of fibroblasts into myofibroblasts and whether myofibroblasts undergo apoptosis or become deactivated by other means once tissue homeostasis is reached...
January 2018: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348825/a-novel-anti-cd146-antibody-specifically-targets-cancer-cells-by-internalizing-the-molecule
#9
Marie Nollet, Jimmy Stalin, Anaïs Moyon, Waël Traboulsi, Amel Essaadi, Stéphane Robert, Nausicaa Malissen, Richard Bachelier, Laurent Daniel, Alexandrine Foucault-Bertaud, Caroline Gaudy-Marqueste, Romaric Lacroix, Aurélie S Leroyer, Benjamin Guillet, Nathalie Bardin, Françoise Dignat-George, Marcel Blot-Chabaud
CD146 is an adhesion molecule present on many tumors (melanoma, kidney, pancreas, breast, ...). In addition, it has been shown to be expressed on vascular endothelial and smooth muscle cells. Generating an antibody able to specifically recognize CD146 in cancer cells (designated as tumor CD146), but not in normal cells, would thus be of major interest for targeting tumor CD146 without affecting the vascular system. We thus generated antibodies against the extracellular domain of the molecule produced in cancer cells and selected an antibody that specifically recognizes tumor CD146...
December 22, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348730/black-ginseng-activates-akt-signaling-thereby-enhancing-myoblast-differentiation-and-myotube-growth
#10
Soo-Yeon Lee, Ga-Yeon Go, Tuan Anh Vuong, Jee Won Kim, Sullim Lee, Ayoung Jo, Jun Min An, Su-Nam Kim, Dong-Wan Seo, Jin-Seok Kim, Yong Kee Kim, Jong-Sun Kang, Sang-Jin Lee, Gyu-Un Bae
Background: Black ginseng (BG) has greatly enhanced pharmacological activities relative to white or red ginseng. However, the effect and molecular mechanism of BG on muscle growth has not yet been examined. In this study, we investigated whether BG could regulate myoblast differentiation and myotube hypertrophy. Methods: BG-treated C2C12 myoblasts were differentiated, followed by immunoblotting for myogenic regulators, immunostaining for a muscle marker, myosin heavy chain or immunoprecipitation analysis for myogenic transcription factors...
January 2018: Journal of Ginseng Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348469/treprostinil-inhibits-proliferation-and-extracellular-matrix-deposition-by-fibroblasts-through-camp-activation
#11
Christopher Lambers, Michael Roth, Peter Jaksch, Gabriella Muraközy, Michael Tamm, Walter Klepetko, Bahil Ghanim, Feng Zhao
Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is characterized by peripheral lung fibrosis and increased interstitial extracellular matrix (ECM) deposition. In IPF, tumor growth factor (TGF)-β1 which is the major stimulus of ECM deposition, and platelet derived growth factor (PDGF)-BB is a potent stimulus of fibrosis. Thus, the effect of Treprostinil on TGF-ß1 and PDGF-induced fibroblast proliferation and ECM deposition was investigated. Human peripheral lung fibroblasts of seven IPF patients and five lung donors were stimulated by PDGF, or TGF-β1, or the combination...
January 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348267/toll-like-receptor-9-dependent-ampk%C3%AE-activation-occurs-via-tak1-and-contributes-to-rhoa-rock-signaling-and-actin-polymerization-in-vascular-smooth-muscle-cells
#12
Cameron G McCarthy, Camilla Ferreira Wenceslau, Safia Ogbi, Theodora Szasz, R Clinton Webb
Traditionally, Toll-like receptor (TLR)9 signals through a MyD88-dependent cascade that results in pro-inflammatory gene transcription. Recently it was reported that TLR9 also participates in a stress tolerance signaling cascade in non-immune cells. In this non-canonical pathway, TLR9 binds to and inhibits sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase 2 (SERCA2), modulating intracellular calcium handling, and subsequently resulting in the activation of 5'-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK)α. We have previously reported TLR9 causes increased contraction in isolated arteries; however, the mechanisms underlying this vascular dysfunction need to be further clarified...
January 18, 2018: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348202/molecular-characterization-of-latent-gdf8-reveals-mechanisms-of-activation
#13
Ryan G Walker, Jason C McCoy, Magdalena Czepnik, Melanie J Mills, Adam Hagg, Kelly L Walton, Thomas R Cotton, Marko Hyvönen, Richard T Lee, Paul Gregorevic, Craig A Harrison, Thomas B Thompson
Growth/differentiation factor 8 (GDF8), or myostatin, negatively regulates muscle mass. GDF8 is held in a latent state through interactions with its N-terminal prodomain, much like TGF-β. Using a combination of small-angle X-ray scattering and mutagenesis, we characterized the interactions of GDF8 with its prodomain. Our results show that the prodomain:GDF8 complex can exist in a fully latent state and an activated or "triggered" state where the prodomain remains in complex with the mature domain. However, these states are not reversible, indicating the latent GDF8 is "spring-loaded...
January 18, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346163/the-hippo-signaling-pathway-in-the-regulation-of-skeletal-muscle-mass-and-function
#14
Kevin I Watt, Craig A Goodman, Troy A Hornberger, Paul Gregorevic
The Hippo signaling pathway regulates the activity of the proteins Yes-associated protein (Yap) and transcriptional co-activator with PDZ-binding motif (Taz) to control tissue growth in many different cell types. Previously, we demonstrated Yap is a critical regulator of skeletal muscle mass. We hypothesize that alterations in Yap and Taz activity modulate the anabolic adaptations of skeletal muscle to resistance exercise.
January 15, 2018: Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344510/ablation-of-fgfr2-in-fibroblasts-ameliorates-kidney-fibrosis-after-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-in-mice
#15
Zhuo Xu, Chunsun Dai
Background: Fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) are heparin-binding proteins involved in a variety of biological processes. However, the role and mechanisms of FGF/FGFR2 signaling in fibroblast activation and kidney fibrosis need further investigation. Methods: In this study, a mouse model with fibroblast-specific FGFR2 gene disruption was generated. The knockouts were born normal and no kidney dysfunction or histological abnormality was found within 2 months after birth...
December 2017: Kidney Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344235/metronomic-chemotherapy-remodel-cancer-associated-fibroblasts-to-decrease-chemoresistance-of-gastric-cancer-in-nude-mice
#16
Chao Wang, Wenqi Xi, Jinling Jiang, Jun Ji, Yingyan Yu, Zhenggang Zhu, Jun Zhang
The present study aimed to evaluate whether capecitabine or 5-fluorouracil (5-Fu) chemotherapy with the metronomic pattern may cause significant chemoresistance compared with the traditional pattern, and whether CAFs are involved in drug resistance. SGC-7901 cells were subcutaneously injected into the nude mice, and the mice were divided into five groups: The control group, intraperitoneally injected with normal saline; the 5-Fu conventional dose group [5-Fu maximum tolerated dose (MTD) group], intraperitoneally injected with 50 mg/kg, twice per week for 2 weeks, with an 1-week discontinuation for 6 weeks; the capecitabine conventional dose group (capecitabine MTD group), intragastric 500 mg/kg, twice per week for 2 weeks, with a 1-week discontinuation for 6 weeks; the 5-Fu metronomic group [5-Fu low-dose metronomic (LDM) group], intraperitoneally injected with 15 mg/kg, twice a week for 6 weeks; and the capecitabine metronomic group (capecitabine LDM group), intragastric administration at 200 mg/kg, twice a week for 6 weeks...
December 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344025/insulin-resistance-in-kidney-disease-is-there-a-distinct-role-separate-from-that-of-diabetes-or-obesity
#17
REVIEW
Adam Whaley-Connell, James R Sowers
Insulin resistance is a central component of the metabolic dysregulation observed in obesity, which puts one at risk for the development of type 2 diabetes and complications related to diabetes such as chronic kidney disease. Insulin resistance and compensatory hyperinsulinemia place one at risk for other risk factors such as dyslipidemia, hypertension, and proteinuria, e.g., development of kidney disease. Our traditional view of insulin actions focuses on insulin-sensitive tissues such as skeletal muscle, liver, adipose tissue, and the pancreas...
December 2017: Cardiorenal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343633/hydrogel-biomaterials-and-their-therapeutic-potential-for-muscle-injuries-and-muscular-dystrophies
#18
REVIEW
Rachel Lev, Dror Seliktar
Muscular diseases such as muscular dystrophies and muscle injuries constitute a large group of ailments that manifest as muscle weakness, atrophy or fibrosis. Although cell therapy is a promising treatment option, the delivery and retention of cells in the muscle is difficult and prevents sustained regeneration needed for adequate functional improvements. Various types of biomaterials with different physical and chemical properties have been developed to improve the delivery of cells and/or growth factors for treating muscle injuries...
January 2018: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343545/tolloid-cleavage-activates-latent-gdf8-by-priming-the-pro-complex-for-dissociation
#19
Viet Q Le, Roxana E Iacob, Yuan Tian, William McConaughy, Justin Jackson, Yang Su, Bo Zhao, John R Engen, Michelle Pirruccello-Straub, Timothy A Springer
Growth differentiation factor 8 (GDF8)/myostatin is a latent TGF-β family member that potently inhibits skeletal muscle growth. Here, we compared the conformation and dynamics of precursor, latent, and Tolloid-cleaved GDF8 pro-complexes to understand structural mechanisms underlying latency and activation of GDF8. Negative stain electron microscopy (EM) of precursor and latent pro-complexes reveals a V-shaped conformation that is unaltered by furin cleavage and sharply contrasts with the ring-like, cross-armed conformation of latent TGF-β1...
January 17, 2018: EMBO Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343476/role-of-macrophage-socs3-in-the-pathogenesis-of-aortic-dissection
#20
Satoko Ohno-Urabe, Hiroki Aoki, Michihide Nishihara, Aya Furusho, Saki Hirakata, Norifumi Nishida, Sohei Ito, Makiko Hayashi, Hideo Yasukawa, Tsutomu Imaizumi, Hidetoshi Akashi, Hiroyuki Tanaka, Yoshihiro Fukumoto
BACKGROUND: Aortic dissection (AD) is a life-threatening medical emergency caused by the abrupt destruction of the intimomedial layer of the aortic walls. Given that previous studies have reported the involvement of proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-6 in AD pathogenesis, we investigated the role of signal transduction and activator of transcription 3 signaling, a downstream pathway of interleukin-6 in macrophages in pathogenesis of AD. METHODS AND RESULTS: We characterized the pathological and molecular events triggered by aortic stress, which can lead to AD...
January 17, 2018: Journal of the American Heart Association
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