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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343271/protein-degradation-systems-in-the-skeletal-muscles-of-parr-and-smolt-atlantic-salmon-salmo-salar-l-and-brown-trout-salmo-trutta-l
#1
Nadezda P Kantserova, Liudmila A Lysenko, Alexey E Veselov, Nina N Nemova
Although protein degradation limits the rate of muscle growth in fish, the role of proteolytic systems responsible for degrading myofibrillar proteins in skeletal muscle is not well defined. The study herein aims to evaluate the role of calpains (calcium-activated proteases) and proteasomes (ATP-dependent proteases) in mediating muscle protein turnover at different life stages in wild salmonids. Protease activities were estimated in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) and brown trout (Salmo trutta L.) parr and smolts from the Indera River (Kola Peninsula, Russia)...
March 26, 2017: Fish Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342428/revealing-the-influence-of-glucocorticoid-treatment-on-the-excretion-of-anabolic-androgenic-steroids-in-horses-through-in-vitro-digestive-simulations-and-an-in-vivo-case-study
#2
Anneleen Decloedt, Sander Damen, Lynn Vanhaecke
Anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) are strictly forbidden in equine sports because of their stimulating effect on muscle growth and performance. Nevertheless, low levels of AAS have been found in some horses, untreated with AAS. Glucocorticoids (GC), used as an anti-inflammatory therapy and structurally related to AAS, might play a role in this phenomenon. In order to unravel this possible correlation the influence of glucocorticoid treatment on the excretion of AAS was studied both in vivo and in vitro. In vivo effects were investigated by analysing urine samples collected from a gelding treated with betamethasone...
February 24, 2017: Research in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342374/accumulation-of-%C3%AE-hexabromocyclododecane-%C3%AE-hbcdd-in-tissues-of-fast-and-slow-growing-broilers-gallus-domesticus
#3
Catherine Jondreville, Ronan Cariou, Bertrand Méda, Elena Dominguez-Romero, Elsa Omer, Gaud Dervilly-Pinel, Bruno Le Bizec, Angélique Travel, Elisabeth Baéza
The aim of the current study was to describe the fate of ingested α-hexabromocyclododecane (α-HBCDD) in fast-growing (FG) and slow-growing (SG) broilers, through an exposure to a dietary concentration of 50 ng α-HBCDD g(-1) feed during 42 and 84 days, respectively. Depuration parameters were assessed in SG broilers successively exposed during 42 days and depurated during 42 days. At market age, SG broilers had ingested 42% more feed than FG broilers, while their body weight gain per g of feed ingested was 34% lower...
March 22, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339929/dietary-resveratrol-supplementation-prevents-transport-stress-impaired-meat-quality-of-broilers-through-maintaining-muscle-energy-metabolism-and-antioxidant-status
#4
C Zhang, L Wang, X H Zhao, X Y Chen, L Yang, Z Y Geng
This experiment was to evaluate the effect of dietary resveratrol (Res) supplementation (0, 400 mg/kg) on growth performance, meat quality, and muscle anaerobic glycolysis and antioxidant capacity of transported broilers. A total of 360 21-day-old male Cobb broilers was randomly allotted to 2 dietary treatments (Res-free group and Res group) with 12 replicates of 15 birds each. On the morning of d 42, after a 9-hour fast, 24 birds (2 birds of each replicate) were selected from the Res-free group and then equally placed into 2 crates, and the other 12 birds (one bird of each replicate) were selected from the Res group and then placed into the other crate...
March 2, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339803/transcriptional-comparison-of-myogenesis-in-leghorn-and-low-score-normal-embryos
#5
J Griffin, N St-Pierre, M S Lilburn, M Wick
In a previous study, we reported on a quantitative transcriptomic method which confirmed the temporal transcription of developmental fast skeletal muscle myosin heavy chain (fsMyHC) embryonic isoforms in the embryonic Pectoralis major (PM) of the Single Comb White Leghorn (SCWL). The objective of the current study was to further investigate the transcriptional events underlying embryonic PM growth in the SCWL and a genotype exhibiting partial muscular dystrophy, the Low Score Normal (LSN). We hypothesized that within the SCWL and LSN embryos, there would be differences in the temporal transcription of the fsMyHC isoforms and other myogenic regulatory genes...
February 21, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339770/characterization-of-indigenous-aseel-chicken-breed-for-morphological-growth-production-and-meat-composition-traits-from-india
#6
U Rajkumar, S Haunshi, C Paswan, M V L N Raju, S V Rama Rao, R N Chatterjee
Aseel is an important native chicken breed of India, known for its martial qualities (aggressive fighting abilities), pugnacity, and majestic gait. The aim of the study is to conserve and characterize the Aseel germplasm, which is considered to be endangered. The birds were maintained on deep litter under a simulated backyard type of housing having night shelter and a free-range area. A total of 313 chicks produced in the second generation from the flock collected from native tract in Andhra Pradesh was characterized for morphological, growth, production, and meat quality parameters...
February 23, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339753/in-ovo-monochromatic-green-light-photostimulation-enhances-embryonic-somatotropic-axis-activity
#7
L Dishon, N Avital-Cohen, D Malamud, R Heiblum, S Druyan, T E Porter, M Gumulka, I Rozenboim
Previous studies demonstrated that in ovo photostimulation with monochromatic green light increases body weight and accelerates muscle development in broilers. The mechanism in which in ovo photostimulation accelerates growth and muscle development is not clearly understood. The objective of the current study was to define development of the somatotropic axis in the broiler embryo associated with in ovo green light photostimulation. Two-hundred-forty fertile broiler eggs were divided into 2 groups. The first group was incubated under intermittent monochromatic green light using light-emitting diode (LED) lamps with an intensity of 0...
February 23, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339556/influence-of-temperature-and-growth-selection-on-turkey-pectoralis-major-muscle-satellite-cell-adipogenic-gene-expression-and-lipid-accumulation
#8
D L Clark, G M Strasburg, K M Reed, S G Velleman
Immature poults have an inefficient thermoregulatory system, and therefore extreme ambient temperatures can impact their internal body temperature. Satellite cells, the only posthatch myonuclei source, are multipotential stem cells and sensitive to temperature. Selection for faster-growing, high-yielding birds has altered satellite-cell properties. The objective of the current study was to determine how temperature affects adipogenic properties of satellite cells isolated from the pectoralis major ( ) muscle of Randombred Control line ( ) and F line turkeys selected only for increased 16-wk body weight from the RBC2 line...
October 6, 2016: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339434/platelet-rich-plasma-in-musculoskeletal-pathology-a-necessary-rescue-or-a-lost-cause
#9
Annu Navani, Gang Li, Joshua Chrystal
BACKGROUND: Platelet rich plasma (PRP) has been used for decades to facilitate surgical tissue repair; therefore, the current trend of percutaneously injecting PRP to theoretically enhance tissue regeneration and repair is a logical progression. Applications include treatment of osteoarthritis, tendinopathy, chondropathy, acute and chronic soft tissue injuries, muscle or ligament tear, as well as enhancement of healing after bone or tissue reconstruction. However, there is limited evidence to support the use of PRP in the abovementioned conditions...
March 2017: Pain Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339089/hmgb1-induces-lung-fibroblast-to-myofibroblast-differentiation-through-nf%C3%A2-%C3%AE%C2%BAb%C3%A2-mediated-tgf%C3%A2-%C3%AE-1-release
#10
Qiong Wang, Jun Wang, Junfang Wang, Shanchao Hong, Feifei Han, Jingyu Chen, Guoqian Chen
The proinflammatory factor high‑mobility group box protein 1 (HMGB1) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of lung fibrosis; however, the role of HMGB1 in lung fibrosis remains unclear. It has previously been reported that nuclear factor (NF)‑κB and transforming growth factor (TGF)‑β1 may be involved in lung fibrosis. Therefore, the present study aimed to examine the potential molecular mechanisms that underlie HMGB1‑induced lung fibrosis via the regulation of NF‑κB and TGF‑β1. The results demonstrated that HMGB1 stimulation increased the activation of NF‑κB and the release of TGF‑β1, as well as the expression of α‑smooth muscle actin (α‑SMA) and collagen I in human lung fibroblasts in vitro...
March 23, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338786/recombination-mediated-host-adaptation-by-avian-staphylococcus-aureus
#11
Susan Murray, Ben Pascoe, Guillaume Méric, Leonardos Mageiros, Koji Yahara, Matthew D Hitchings, Yasmin Friedmann, Thomas S Wilkinson, Fraser J Gormley, Dietrich Mack, James E Bray, Sarah Lamble, Rory Bowden, Keith A Jolley, Martin C J Maiden, Sarah Wendlandt, Stefan Schwarz, Jukka Corander, J Ross Fitzgerald, Samuel K Sheppard
Staphylococcus aureus are globally disseminated among farmed chickens causing skeletal muscle infections, dermatitis and septicaemia. The emergence of poultry-associated lineages has involved zoonotic transmission from humans to chickens but questions remain about the specific adaptations that promote proliferation of chicken pathogens. We characterised genetic variation in a population of genome-sequenced S. aureus isolates of poultry and human origin. Genealogical analysis identified a dominant poultry-associated sequence cluster within the CC5 clonal complex...
February 28, 2017: Genome Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338402/testosterone-plus-finasteride-prevents-bone-loss-without-prostate-growth-in-a-rodent-spinal-cord-injury-model
#12
Joshua F Yarrow, Ean G Phillips, Christine F Conover, Taylor E Bassett, Cong Chen, Tyler Teurlings, Andrea Vasconez, Jonathan Alerte, Hannah M Prock, Jessica M Jiron, Micah Flores, J Ignacio Aguirre, Stephen E Borst, Fan Ye
We have reported that testosterone-enanthate (TE) prevents the musculoskeletal decline occurring acutely after spinal cord injury (SCI), but results in a near doubling of prostate mass. Our purpose was to test the hypothesis that administration of TE plus finasteride (FIN, type II 5α-reductase inhibitor) would prevent the chronic musculoskeletal deficits in our rodent severe contusion SCI model, without inducing prostate enlargement. Forty-three 16-week old male Sprague-Dawley rats received: (1) SHAM surgery (T9 laminectomy), (2) severe (250 kdyne) contusion SCI, (3) SCI+TE (7...
March 24, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337713/the-potential-role-of-fibroblast-growth-factor-21-in-lipid-metabolism-and-hypertension
#13
REVIEW
Zhe Huang, Aimin Xu, Bernard M Y Cheung
Fibroblast growth factor (FGF) 21 belongs to the FGF superfamily that is involved in cell proliferation and differentiation, neural development, angiogenesis, and metabolism. FGF21 requires β-Klotho as a co-receptor. Tissues involved in metabolism such as the liver, adipose tissues, skeletal muscle, and pancreas express FGF21. Starvation increases hepatic expression of FGF21, which then acts centrally to increase hepatic gluconeogenesis. FGF21 also increases fatty acid oxidation. This may be relevant in cold exposure, when expression of FGF21 is induced...
April 2017: Current Hypertension Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336541/unilateral-nasal-obstruction-affects-motor-representation-development-within-the-face-primary-motor-cortex-in-growing-rats
#14
Yasunori Abe, Chiho Kato, Karin Harumi Uchima Koecklin, Hidemasa Okihara, Takayoshi Ishida, Koichi Fujita, Tadachika Yabushita, Satoshi Kokai, Takashi Ono
Postnatal growth is influenced by genetic and environmental factors. Nasal obstruction during growth alters the electromyographic activity of orofacial muscles. The facial primary motor area represents muscles of the tongue and jaw, which are essential in regulating orofacial motor functions, including chewing and jaw opening. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of chronic unilateral nasal obstruction during growth on the motor representations within the face primary motor cortex (M1). Seventy-two 6-day-old male Wistar rats were randomly divided into control (n = 36) and experimental (n = 36) groups...
March 23, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335793/thrombus-leukocytes-exhibit-more-endothelial-cell-specific-angiogenic-markers-than-peripheral-blood-leukocytes-do-in-acute-coronary-syndrome-patients-suggesting-a-possibility-of-trans-differentiation-a-comprehensive-database-mining-study
#15
Hangfei Fu, Nish Vadalia, Eric R Xue, Candice Johnson, Luqiao Wang, William Y Yang, Claudette Sanchez, Jun Nelson, Qian Chen, Eric T Choi, Jian-Xing Ma, Jun Yu, Hong Wang, Xiaofeng Yang
BACKGROUND: Current angiogenic therapies for cancers and cardiovascular diseases have not yet achieved expected benefits, which reflects the need for improved understanding of angiogenesis. In this study, we focused on solving the problem of whether tissues have different angiogenic potentials (APs) in physiological conditions and how angiogenesis is regulated in various disease conditions. METHODS: In healthy and diseased human and mouse tissues, we profiled the expression of 163 angiogenic genes, including transcription regulators (TRs), growth factors and receptors (GF/Rs), cytokines and chemokines (C/Cs), and proteases and inhibitors (P/Is)...
March 23, 2017: Journal of Hematology & Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335095/genetic-correlation-between-live-body-measurements-and-beef-cutability-traits-in-hanwoo-steers
#16
Yun Ho Choy, Jae Goo Lee, Alam Mahboob, Tae Jeong Choi, Seung Hee Rho
The growth, carcass and retail cut yield records on 1,428 Hanwoo steers obtained through progeny testing were analyzed in this study, and their heritability and genetic relationships among the traits were estimated using animal models. Two different models were compared in this study. Each model was fitted for different fixed class effects, date of slaughter for carcass traits and batch of progeny test live measurement traits, and a choice of covariates (carcass weight in Model 1 or backfat thickness in Model 2) for carcass traits...
March 21, 2017: Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335087/ursolic-acid-and-mechanisms-of-actions-on-adipose-and-muscle-tissue-a-systematic-review
#17
REVIEW
Carlos K Katashima, Vagner R Silva, Tatyanne L Gomes, Claude Pichard, Gustavo D Pimentel
This systematic review aimed at addressing the ursolic acid actions as an adjunctive treatment of the obesity-mediated metabolic abnormalities. To explore our aims, we used the literature search including clinical and animal studies using the Medline and Google Scholar (up to December 2015). Out of 63 screened studies, 17 presented eligibility criteria, such as the use of ursolic acid on adiposity, energy expenditure and skeletal muscle mass in mice and humans. In the literature, we found that several physiological and molecular mechanisms are implicated in the effects of ursolic acid on obesity, energy expenditure, hepatic steatosis, skeletal muscle mass loss and physical fitness, such as (1) increase of thermogenesis by modulation adipocyte transcription factors, activation of 5' adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase and overexpression of the uncoupling protein 1 thermogenic marker; (2) enhancement of skeletal muscle mass by activation in bloodstream growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor-1 concentrations secretion, as well as in the activation of mammalian target of rapamycin and inhibition of ring-finger protein-1; and (3) improvement of physical fitness by skeletal muscle proliferator-activated receptor gamma co-activator alpha and sirtuin 1 expression...
March 23, 2017: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334989/impaired-fetal-muscle-development-and-jak-stat-activation-mark-disease-onset-and-progression-in-a-mouse-model-for-merosin-deficient-congenital-muscular-dystrophy
#18
Andreia M Nunes, Ryan D Wuebbles, Apurva Sarathy, Tatiana M Fontelonga, Marianne Deries, Dean J Burkin, Sólveig Thorsteinsdóttir
Merosin-deficient congenital muscular dystrophy type 1A (MDC1A) is a dramatic neuromuscular disease in which crippling muscle weakness is evident from birth. Here we use the dyW mouse model for human MDC1A to trace the onset of the disease during development in utero. We find that myotomal and primary myogenesis proceed normally in homozygous dyW-/-embryos. Fetal dyW-/-muscles display the same number of myofibers as wildtype muscles, but by E18.5 dyW-/-muscles are significantly smaller and muscle size is not recovered post-natally...
March 7, 2017: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334037/ang1-treatment-reduces-muscle-pathology-and-prevents-a-decline-in-perfusion-in-dmd-mice
#19
Kelly M Gutpell, Nikola Tasevski, Boaz Wong, William Thomas Hrinivich, Feng Su, Jennifer Hadway, Lise Desjardins, Ting-Yim Lee, Lisa Marie Hoffman
Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and other pro-angiogenic growth factors have been investigated to enhance muscle tissue perfusion and repair in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). Current understanding is limited by a lack of functional data following in vivo delivery of these growth factors. We previously used dynamic contrast-enhanced computed tomography to monitor disease progression in murine models of DMD, but no study to date has utilized this imaging technique to assess vascular therapy in a preclinical model of DMD...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333953/involvement-of-%C3%AE-and-%C3%AE-actin-isoforms-in-actin-cytoskeleton-organization-and-migration-abilities-of-bleb-forming-human-colon-cancer-cells
#20
Aleksandra Simiczyjew, Antonina Joanna Mazur, Ewelina Dratkiewicz, Dorota Nowak
Amoeboid movement is characteristic for rounded cells, which do not form strong adhesion contacts with the ECM and use blebs as migratory protrusions. It is well known that actin is the main component of mature forms of these structures, but the exact role fulfilled by non-muscle actin isoforms β- and γ- in bleb formation and migration of these cells is still not fully understood. The aim of this study was to establish the role of β- and γ-actin in migration of bleb-forming cancer cells using isoform-specific antibodies and expression of fluorescently tagged actin isoforms...
2017: PloS One
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