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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809613/enrolling-hiv-positive-adolescents-in-mental-health-research-a-case-study-reflecting-on-legal-and-ethical-complexities
#1
Nataly Woollett, John Peter, Lucie Cluver, Heena Brahmbhatt
BACKGROUND: Adolescents living with HIV are an emerging group in the global HIV/AIDS epidemic. Mental health in this population affects HIV care, treatment, consequential morbidity and secondary transmission. There is a paucity of research regarding these youth in South Africa (SA), partly because section 71 of the National Health Act of 2003 (NHA) requires parental or guardian's consent. OBJECTIVE: To explore legal and ethical issues related to conducting adolescent mental health research in SA...
July 28, 2017: South African Medical Journal, Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806371/transgender-veterans-satisfaction-with-care-and-unmet-health-needs
#2
Keren Lehavot, Jodie G Katon, Tracy L Simpson, Jillian C Shipherd
BACKGROUND: Transgender individuals are overrepresented among Veterans. However, little is known regarding their satisfaction with Veterans Administration (VA) care and unmet health needs. OBJECTIVES: This study examined transgender Veterans' satisfaction with VA medical and mental health care, prevalence of delaying care, and correlates of these outcomes. RESEARCH DESIGN: We used data from transgender Veterans collected in 2014 through an online, national survey...
September 2017: Medical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800800/behavioral-emergencies-special-considerations-in-the-pregnant-patient
#3
REVIEW
Awais Aftab, Asim A Shah
This article describes psychiatric emergencies in pregnant women. The perinatal period is a time of psychiatric vulnerability. Up to 1 in 6 pregnant women experience major depressive disorder, and 1 in 4 pregnant women with bipolar disorder experience mood exacerbation. We discuss the management of severe mental illness in pregnancy, risk to mother and child of untreated psychiatric illness in pregnancy, risk of relapse of psychiatric disorders in pregnancy with medication discontinuation, psychopharmacologic considerations of teratogenicity and other fetal adverse effects, acute agitation in the pregnant patient, suicidality in pregnancy, and emergency considerations related to substance use disorders...
September 2017: Psychiatric Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800269/the-connections-among-suicidal-behavior-lipid-profile-and-low-grade-inflammation-in-patients-with-major-depressive-disorder-a-specific-relationship-with-the-neutrophil-to-lymphocyte-ratio
#4
Okan Ekinci, Asli Ekinci
OBJECTIVES: The role of inflammation and lipid metabolism in the pathophysiology of suicidal behavior has received particular attention in recent years. The neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) has been suggested as a new and more reliable indicator of low-grade inflammation. NLR has been found to be altered in major depressive disorder (MDD) and has been related to various factors, including chronic stress and impulsivity that were previously reported to be related to suicidal behavior...
August 11, 2017: Nordic Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783546/smoking-during-pregnancy-in-the-united-states-2005-2014-the-role-of-depression
#5
Renee D Goodwin, Keely Cheslack-Postava, Deborah B Nelson, Philip H Smith, Melanie M Wall, Deborah S Hasin, Yoko Nomura, Sandro Galea
BACKGROUND: Despite success of public health-oriented tobacco control programs in lowering the smoking prevalence over the past several decades, it is unclear whether similar reductions in smoking have been experienced among pregnant women, especially in vulnerable groups such as those with major depression and/or lower socioeconomic status. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between major depressive episode (MDE) and smoking among pregnant women overall, and by demographics and to estimate changes in the prevalence of cigarette smoking among pregnant women with and without MDE from 2005 to 2014...
July 18, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776844/adaptation-and-validation-of-the-life-events-and-difficulties-schedule-for-use-with-high-school-dropouts
#6
Véronique Dupéré, Eric Dion, Kate Harkness, Julie McCabe, Éliane Thouin, Sophie Parent
The Life Events and Difficulties Schedule (LEDS) is considered the standard for measuring psychosocial stressor exposure, but it has not been used with academically at-risk adolescents, including high school dropouts. The goal of this study was to (1) adapt the LEDS for use with this population, and (2) examine the reliability (interrater) and validity (concurrent and predictive) of this adaptation among a sample of vulnerable adolescents (N = 545). Good reliability coefficients (.79-.90) were obtained, and stressor exposure was associated with concurrent criteria indexing mental health outcomes (depression) and major risk factors for dropout (administratively recorded and self-reported)...
September 2017: Journal of Research on Adolescence: the Official Journal of the Society for Research on Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774788/does-psychological-resilience-buffer-against-the-link-between-the-5-httlpr-polymorphism-and-depression-following-stress
#7
Christopher F Sharpley, David R H Christie, Vicki Bitsika, Nicholas M Andronicos, Linda L Agnew, Mary E McMillan
The comparative strength of the 5-HTTLPR polymorphism as a 'predictor' of depression after major stress, versus the 'protective' effect of psychological resilience (PR) against depression after major stress, was tested in a homogeneous sample of older men who had all received a diagnosis and treatment for prostate cancer. Results supported the association between PR and lower depression after stress, but did not support the association between the 5-HTTLPR and elevated depression after stress. Examination of PR at scale, factor, and item level identified the specific PR-related behaviour that was the most powerful predictor of low depression...
July 31, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770699/risk-and-protective-factors-for-mental-health-and-community-cohesion-after-the-2013-calgary-flood
#8
Erin Hetherington, Sheila McDonald, Muci Wu, Suzanne Tough
OBJECTIVE: To examine mental health and community cohesion in women living in Calgary after a natural disaster considering previously collected mental health data. METHODS: Data from an ongoing longitudinal cohort, the All Our Families study, were used to examine mental health and community cohesion 5 months after a major flood in Calgary, Canada. Participants who had completed a baseline questionnaire before the flood were eligible for inclusion in this study (N=923)...
August 3, 2017: Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732242/the-depression-and-marital-status-relationship-is-modified-by-both-age-and-gender
#9
Andrew G M Bulloch, Jeanne V A Williams, Dina H Lavorato, Scott B Patten
BACKGROUND: Marital status is associated with major depression prevalence, however, the strength of association may be modified by age and gender. METHODS: The data sources were a series of cross sectional national health surveys of the Canadian population carried out by Statistics Canada during 1996-2013. These were cross-sectional files from the National Population Health Survey of 1996, together with the Canadian Community Health Surveys from 2000 to 2013; the respondents were 18 years and older...
July 4, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728096/early-life-stress-explains-reduced-positive-memory-biases-in-remitted-depression
#10
J A Gethin, K E Lythe, C I Workman, A Mayes, J Moll, R Zahn
BACKGROUND: There is contradictory evidence regarding negative memory biases in major depressive disorder (MDD) and whether these persist into remission, which would suggest their role as vulnerability traits rather than correlates of mood state. Early life stress (ELS), common in patients with psychiatric disorders, has independently been associated with memory biases, and confounds MDD versus control group comparisons. Furthermore, in most studies negative biases could have resulted from executive impairments rather than memory difficulties per se...
July 10, 2017: European Psychiatry: the Journal of the Association of European Psychiatrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716128/tobacco-dependence-among-people-with-mental-illness-a-facility-based-cross-sectional-study-from-southwest-ethiopia
#11
Zemenay Molla, Lamesa Dube, Wolfgang Krahl, Matiwos Soboka
BACKGROUND: Tobacco smoking is a health care issue in developed as well as in developing countries. Tobacco smoking among people with mental illness is significantly higher than in the general population. Tobacco smoking has negative effects on physical, mental and financial well-being of people with mental illness but little is known about tobacco dependence among mental health service users in sub-Saharan African countries, including Ethiopia. Therefore, this study attempted to assess the prevalence of tobacco dependence and associated factors among mental health service users at Jimma University teaching hospital...
July 17, 2017: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712571/hierarchical-status-predicts-behavioral-vulnerability-and-nucleus-accumbens-metabolic-profile-following-chronic-social-defeat-stress
#12
Thomas Larrieu, Antoine Cherix, Aranzazu Duque, João Rodrigues, Hongxia Lei, Rolf Gruetter, Carmen Sandi
Extensive data highlight the existence of major differences in individuals' susceptibility to stress [1-4]. While genetic factors [5, 6] and exposure to early life stress [7, 8] are key components for such neurobehavioral diversity, intriguing observations revealed individual differences in response to stress in inbred mice [9-12]. This raised the possibility that other factors might be critical in stress vulnerability. A key challenge in the field is to identify non-invasively risk factors for vulnerability to stress...
July 24, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697889/somatostatin-positive-gamma-aminobutyric-acid-interneuron-deficits-in-depression-cortical-microcircuit-and-therapeutic-perspectives
#13
REVIEW
Corey Fee, Mounira Banasr, Etienne Sibille
The functional integration of external and internal signals forms the basis of information processing and is essential for higher cognitive functions. This occurs in finely tuned cortical microcircuits whose functions are balanced at the cellular level by excitatory glutamatergic pyramidal neurons and inhibitory gamma-aminobutyric acidergic (GABAergic) interneurons. The balance of excitation and inhibition, from cellular processes to neural network activity, is characteristically disrupted in multiple neuropsychiatric disorders, including major depressive disorder (MDD), bipolar disorder, anxiety disorders, and schizophrenia...
June 8, 2017: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696435/a-direct-test-of-the-diathesis-stress-model-for-depression
#14
L Colodro-Conde, B Couvy-Duchesne, G Zhu, W L Coventry, E M Byrne, S Gordon, M J Wright, G W Montgomery, P A F Madden, S Ripke, L J Eaves, A C Heath, N R Wray, S E Medland, N G Martin
The diathesis-stress theory for depression states that the effects of stress on the depression risk are dependent on the diathesis or vulnerability, implying multiplicative interactive effects on the liability scale. We used polygenic risk scores for major depressive disorder (MDD) calculated from the results of the most recent analysis from the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium as a direct measure of the vulnerability for depression in a sample of 5221 individuals from 3083 families. In the same we also had measures of stressful life events and social support and a depression symptom score, as well as DSM-IV MDD diagnoses for most individuals...
July 11, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696432/cross-disorder-risk-gene-cacna1c-differentially-modulates-susceptibility-to-psychiatric-disorders-during-development-and-adulthood
#15
N Dedic, M L Pöhlmann, J S Richter, D Mehta, D Czamara, M W Metzger, J Dine, B T Bedenk, J Hartmann, K V Wagner, A Jurik, L M Almli, A Lori, S Moosmang, F Hofmann, C T Wotjak, G Rammes, M Eder, A Chen, K J Ressler, W Wurst, M V Schmidt, E B Binder, J M Deussing
Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in CACNA1C, the α1C subunit of the voltage-gated L-type calcium channel Cav1.2, rank among the most consistent and replicable genetics findings in psychiatry and have been associated with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and major depression. However, genetic variants of complex diseases often only confer a marginal increase in disease risk, which is additionally influenced by the environment. Here we show that embryonic deletion of Cacna1c in forebrain glutamatergic neurons promotes the manifestation of endophenotypes related to psychiatric disorders including cognitive decline, impaired synaptic plasticity, reduced sociability, hyperactivity and increased anxiety...
July 11, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28695538/fgf9-y162c-mutation-alters-information-processing-and-social-memory-in-mice
#16
Lillian Garrett, Lore Becker, Jan Rozman, Oliver Puk, Tobias Stoeger, Ali Önder Yildirim, Alexander Bohla, Oliver Eickelberg, Wolfgang Hans, Cornelia Prehn, Jerzy Adamski, Thomas Klopstock, Ildikó Rácz, Andreas Zimmer, Martin Klingenspor, Helmut Fuchs, Valerie Gailus-Durner, Wolfgang Wurst, Martin Hrabě de Angelis, Jochen Graw, Sabine M Hölter
In neuropsychiatric diseases, such as major depression and anxiety, pathogenic vulnerability is partially dictated by a genetic predisposition. The search continues to define this genetic susceptibility and establish new genetic elements as potential therapeutic targets. The fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) could be interesting in this regard. This family of signaling molecules plays important roles in development while also functioning within the adult. This includes effects on aspects of brain function such as neurogenesis and synapse formation...
July 10, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686561/-the-concept-of-temperament-and-its-contribution-to-the-understanding-of-the-bipolar-spectrum
#17
I Koufaki, V Polizoidou, K N Fountoulakis
The present article attempts first to provide a historical overview of the concept of temperament,The present article attempts first to provide a historical overview of the concept of temperament,since its foundation by Polybos (4th century B.C.) and the school of Cos, its predominant role in theshaping of the anthropological and humanitarian sciences, until the modern theoretical formulations,such as those proposed by Robert Cloninger and Hagop Akiskal. Secondly, recent literature ispresented, which suggests a strong link of different temperament structures to mental health andpsychopathology...
April 2017: Psychiatrikē, Psychiatriki
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28661022/transdiagnostic-emotional-vulnerabilities-linking-obsessive-compulsive-and-depressive-symptoms-in-a-community-based-sample-of-adolescents
#18
Gregory S Chasson, Mariel S Bello, Alexandria M Luxon, Trevor A A Graham, Adam M Leventhal
BACKGROUND: Transdiagnostic emotional vulnerabilities are suspected to underlie psychopathologic comorbidity but have received little attention in adolescent emotional pathology literature. We examined distress tolerance, anxiety sensitivity, and anhedonia as concomitant transdiagnostic mechanisms that account for (i.e., statistically mediate) the covariance between adolescent obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and major depressive disorder (MDD) symptoms. METHOD: Data on MDD, OCD, and the three aforementioned transdiagnostic vulnerabilities were collected from a community-based sample of 3,094 ninth graders in a large metropolitan area and analyzed using mixed effects modeling to evaluate mediation effects...
August 2017: Depression and Anxiety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28660181/psychosocial-challenges-associated-with-caregiving-in-the-context-of-pediatric-hiv-in-rural-eastern-cape
#19
Antonio G Lentoor
BACKGROUND: While survival among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected children has increased due to combination antiretroviral therapy, many children remain vulnerable to the adverse effects of poverty and family disruptions as a result of the loss of one or both biological parents to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. The aim of this qualitative study was to develop an understanding of the psychosocial challenges experienced by caregivers caring for a child with perinatally acquired HIV...
2017: Frontiers in Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645775/altered-populations-of-natural-killer-cells-cytotoxic-t-lymphocytes-and-regulatory-t-cells-in-major-depressive-disorder-association-with-sleep-disturbance
#20
Hideo Suzuki, Jonathan Savitz, T Kent Teague, Siva K Gandhapudi, Chibing Tan, Masaya Misaki, Brett A McKinney, Michael R Irwin, Wayne C Drevets, Jerzy Bodurka
A subset of individuals with major depressive disorder (MDD) have impaired adaptive immunity characterized by a greater vulnerability to viral infection and a deficient response to vaccination along with a decrease in the number and/or activity of T cells and natural killer cells (NKC). Nevertheless, it remains unclear which specific subsets of lymphocytes are altered in MDD, a shortcoming we address here by utilizing an advanced fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) method that allows for the differentiation of important functionally-distinct lymphocyte sub-populations...
June 20, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
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