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major depression & vulnerability

Eric B Elbogen, H Ryan Wagner, Mira Brancu, Nathan A Kimbrel, Jennifer C Naylor, Cindy M Swinkels, John A Fairbank
Introduction: In response to a strong focus on suicide prevention for all veterans, the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) recently revised policy to provide emergency mental healthcare for veterans who received Other Than Honorable (OTH) discharges from the military. This current study takes a preliminary step toward identifying demographic, historic, military, clinical, and social characteristics of veterans with OTH discharges. Materials and Methods: N = 1,172 Iraq/Afghanistan-era veterans were evaluated between 2005 and 2016 in the multi-site VA Mid-Atlantic Mental Illness, Research, Education and Clinical Center (MIRECC) Study of Post-Deployment Mental Health (PDMH Study)...
March 14, 2018: Military Medicine
Niko Flink, Kirsi Honkalampi, Soili M Lehto, Virpi Leppänen, Heimo Viinamäki, Sari Lindeman
Borderline personality disorder (BPD) and chronic depression (CD) are common and challenging mental disorders. Maladaptive cognitive schemas have been proposed to increase vulnerability to both disorders. In order to elucidate the role of maladaptive cognitive schemas in BPD and CD, this study compared psychiatric outpatients with BPD (N = 30) and CD (N = 30) in terms of early maladaptive schemas (EMSs). The groups were compared using the Young Schema Questionnaire short form-extended (YSQ-S2-extended) and the 15D health status questionnaire...
March 14, 2018: Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy
E M Peter-Ross
The pathobiological causes, the shared cellular and molecular pathways in catatonia and in catatonic presentation in neuropsychiatric disorders are yet to be determined. The hypotheses in this paper have been deduced from the latest scientific research findings and clinical observations of patients with genetic disorders, behavioral phenotypes and other family members suffering mental disorders. The first hypothesis postulates that catatonia and the heterogeneity of catatonic signs and symptoms involve nucleolar dysfunction arising from abnormalities of the brain-specific, non-coding micro-RNA, SNORD115 genes (either duplications or deletions) which result in pathobiological dysfunction of various combinations in the downstream pathways (possibly along with other genes in these shared pathways)...
April 2018: Medical Hypotheses
Marie Suzan-Monti, Michel Celse, Antoine Vilotitch, Baptiste Demoulin, Rosemary Dray-Spira, Patrick Yéni, France Lert, Bruno Spire
Some of the 12 criminal trials and sentences in France for HIV transmission in 1998-2011 attracted substantial public attention, with a possible negative impact on people living with HIV (PLWH) through reinforced stigma and discrimination. This analysis aimed to characterize PLWH enrolled in the representative ANRS-VESPA2 survey, aware of and concerned about convictions for HIV transmission. Being a migrant from Sub-Saharan Africa, having difficult socio-economic conditions, having unprotected sex with one's main partner and concealing one's HIV status were all factors statistically associated with concern about the sentences...
March 6, 2018: AIDS and Behavior
Rainbo Hultman, Kyle Ulrich, Benjamin D Sachs, Cameron Blount, David E Carlson, Nkemdilim Ndubuizu, Rosemary C Bagot, Eric M Parise, Mai-Anh T Vu, Neil M Gallagher, Joyce Wang, Alcino J Silva, Karl Deisseroth, Stephen D Mague, Marc G Caron, Eric J Nestler, Lawrence Carin, Kafui Dzirasa
Brain-wide fluctuations in local field potential oscillations reflect emergent network-level signals that mediate behavior. Cracking the code whereby these oscillations coordinate in time and space (spatiotemporal dynamics) to represent complex behaviors would provide fundamental insights into how the brain signals emotional pathology. Using machine learning, we discover a spatiotemporal dynamic network that predicts the emergence of major depressive disorder (MDD)-related behavioral dysfunction in mice subjected to chronic social defeat stress...
March 1, 2018: Cell
Marboh Goretti Iaisuklang, Arif Ali
Context: Psychological distress is higher in women working in sex industry. The various psycho social issues are associated with female commercial sex workers (FCSWs). The host of psychosocial vulnerabilities including, childhood sexual abuse, exposure to childhood physical abuse, poverty, interpersonal violence in adulthood, sexually transmitted diseases, and substance use, forms a fertile ground for psychiatric morbidity. Aim: This study aims to assess the psychiatric morbidity among FCSWs in Shillong, India...
October 2017: Indian Journal of Psychiatry
Henrik Nordahl, Hans M Nordahl, Patrick A Vogel, Adrian Wells
Social anxiety disorder (SAD) is a major risk factor for developing symptoms of depression. Severity of social anxiety has previously been identified as a risk factor, and cognitive models emphasize dysfunctional schemas and self-processing as the key vulnerability factors underlying general distress in SAD. However, in the metacognitive model, depressive and other symptoms are related to metacognitive beliefs. The aim of this study was therefore to test the relative contribution of metacognitions when controlling for SAD severity and factors postulated in cognitive models...
February 28, 2018: Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy
Fabian Rottstädt, Pengfei Han, Kerstin Weidner, Julia Schellong, Sylvia Wolff-Stephan, Timmy Strauß, Hagen Kitzler, Thomas Hummel, Ilona Croy
BACKGROUND: Removal of the olfactory bulb (OB) leads to depression like behavior in rodents. A link between depression and olfactory function is also established in humans. We hypothesized that the human OB volume relates to depressive state and tested whether such a potential coherence is moderated by structural alterations in other brain regions. METHODS: Eighty-three participants (32 patients with major depression and 51 matched healthy controls) underwent structural MR scanning...
February 28, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
Rabaa Zaibi Jomli, Uta Ouali, Yosra Zgueb, Malek Smida, Olfa Zouari, Fethi Nacef
INTRODUCTION: Depression is considered a global public health problem especially in the developed countries, where depression is the leading cause of morbidity. OBJECTIVES: To determine the point prevalence and the severity of depression in primary health care, to define the profile of patients suffering from depression and consulting in primary health care. To identify risk factors for depression, in particular chronic co-morbid conditions. METHODS: Our study was a descriptive and analytical cross-sectional study of 1000 patients aged over 18 years consulting in ten primary care structures...
April 2017: La Tunisie Médicale
Saori Nishikawa, Takashi X Fujisawa, Masahiko Kojima, Akemi Tomoda
Previous studies have demonstrated an association between negative life events (NLEs) in childhood and resilience/posttraumatic growth (PTG) with regard to the pathogenesis of major depressive disorder. We hypothesized that the type and timing of NLEs interact to influence mental health in the general youth population. Therefore, the present study aimed to examine the effects of NLE timing and intensity on current depressive symptoms, and to determine the direct and indirect effects of NLEs/resilience on PTG and depression among non-clinical adolescents...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Caroline A Figueroa, Roel J T Mocking, Gelera A Mahmoud, Maarten W Koeter, Claudi L Bockting, Willem van der Does, Eric H G Ruhe, Aart H Schene
OBJECTIVES: Cognitive reactivity (CR) to sad mood is a risk factor for major depressive disorder (MDD). CR is usually measured by assessing change on the Dysfunctional Attitudes Scale (DAS-change) after sad mood-induction. It has, however, been suggested that the versions of the DAS (A/B) are not interchangeable, impacting the reliability and validity of the change score. The Leiden Index of Depression Sensitivity-Revised (LEIDS-R) is an alternative self-report measure of CR. Studies examining the relationship between LEIDS-R and DAS-change have shown mixed results...
February 27, 2018: British Journal of Clinical Psychology
Lars Farde, Pontus Plavén-Sigray, Jacqueline Borg, Simon Cervenka
Positron emission tomography has, for 30 years, been used in numerous case-control studies searching for hypothesized differences in the density of neuroreceptor or transporter proteins in psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia and depression. In most cases, the results have not been conclusive. One reason could be the sizeable interindividual variability in biochemical markers, which in twin studies have shown to emanate from both environmental and genetic factors, leading to low statistical power for the detection of group effects...
April 19, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
Song Zhang, Hongxing Zhang, Stacy M Ku, Barbara Juarez, Carole Morel, Nikos Tzavaras, Sarah Montgomery, Georgia E Hodes, Anna Brancato, Scott J Russo, Jun-Li Cao, Ming-Hu Han
Women are twice as likely to be diagnosed with major depressive disorder. However, fewer studies in rodent models of depression have used female animals, leading to a relative lack of understanding of the female brain's response to stress, especially at a neural circuit level. In this study, we utilized a 6-day subchronic variable stress (SCVS) mouse model and measured novelty suppressed feeding as behavioral criteria to evaluate susceptibility to SCVS in male and female mice. First, we showed that SCVS induced a decrease in latency to eat (susceptible phenotype) in female mice, but not in males (resilient phenotype)...
February 22, 2018: Neuroscience
I Landes, S Bakos, G Kohls, J Bartling, G Schulte-Körne, E Greimel
BACKGROUND: Altered reward and punishment function has been suggested as an important vulnerability factor for the development of Major Depressive Disorder (MDD). Prior ERP studies found evidence for neurophysiological dysfunctions in reinforcement processes in adults with MDD. To date, only few ERP studies have examined the neural underpinnings of reinforcement processing in adolescents diagnosed with MDD. The present event-related potential (ERP) study aimed to investigate neurophysiological mechanisms of anticipation and consumption of reward and punishment in adolescents with MDD in one comprehensive paradigm...
January 31, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
N M Morshed, F Rahman, M S Qusar, S B Shahid, S M Arafat
Inmates of Juvenile Developmental Centers are the special group of youth population who are in conflict with law and are vulnerable to psychiatric disorders. It was aimed to see the variation of prevalence and type of psychiatric disorders in institutionalized male juvenile offenders and non-offenders of same age, sex and socioeconomic group in the community. The association of mental disorders was examined in 138 male inmates of Juvenile Development Centers and 138 randomly selected comparison subjects in community...
January 2018: Mymensingh Medical Journal: MMJ
Giulia A Aldi, Giuly Bertoli, Francesca Ferraro, Aldo Pezzuto, Fiammetta Cosci
BACKGROUND: Smokers with major depressive disorder (MDD) or depressive symptoms (DS) represent a subgroup in need of attention since they have specific clinical features and prognosis. METHODS: A systematic review of the literature (Cochrane, MEDLINE, ScienceDirect, Web Of Science databases from inception to June 2017) of randomized clinical trials assessing the effectiveness of pharmacological, psychological or combined interventions for smoking cessation in subjects with current or past MDD/DS without medical or comorbid psychiatric disorder(s) was run following the PRISMA guidelines...
February 13, 2018: Substance Abuse
Chandni Sheth, Hendrik Ombach, Paul Olson, Perry F Renshaw, Shami Kanekar
Sheth, Chandni, Hendrik Ombach, Paul Olson, Perry F. Renshaw, and Shami Kanekar. Increased anxiety and anhedonia in female rats following exposure to altitude. High Alt Med Biol. 00:000-000, 2018.-Anxiety disorders are chronic, highly prevalent conditions, often comorbid with depression. Both anxiety and depression form major risk factors for suicide. Living at altitude is associated with higher rates of depression and suicide, leading us to address whether anxiety disorders may also be amplified at altitude...
February 12, 2018: High Altitude Medicine & Biology
Liv Vadskjær Hjordt, Vibeke H Dam, Brice Ozenne, Ida Hageman, Brenda Mc Mahon, Erik Lykke Mortensen, Gitte M Knudsen, Dea Siggaard Stenbæk
The personality traits Neuroticism and Extraversion may be involved in the development of seasonal affective disorder (SAD). However, the impact of personality traits on SAD severity and whether such self-reported traits fluctuate with season is unknown. We investigated the association between Neuroticism, as acquired in a symptom-free phase and depression severity in individuals with SAD and seasonal changes in personality traits in individuals with SAD compared to healthy controls. Twenty-nine individuals diagnosed with SAD and thirty demographically matched controls completed the NEO Personality Inventory-Revised and the Major Depression Inventory twice: in summer when individuals with SAD were symptom-free, and in winter when they experienced SAD symptoms...
February 6, 2018: Psychiatry Research
Anneke de Boer, Karlijn Vermeulen, Jos I M Egger, Joost G E Janzing, Nicole de Leeuw, Hermine E Veenstra-Knol, Nicolette S den Hollander, Hans van Bokhoven, Wouter Staal, Tjitske Kleefstra
Background: Genetic mosaicism is only detected occasionally when there are no obvious health or developmental issues. Most cases concern healthy parents in whom mosaicism is identified upon targeted testing of a genetic defect that was initially detected in their children. A germline genetic defect affecting the euchromatin histone methyltransferase 1 (EHMT1) gene causes Kleefstra syndrome, which is associated with the typical triad of distinct facial appearance, (childhood) hypotonia, and intellectual disability...
2018: Molecular Autism
Xueru Guo, Rui Zuo, Li Meng, Jinsheng Wang, Yanguo Teng, Xin Liu, Minhua Chen
Globally, groundwater resources are being deteriorated by rapid social development. Thus, there is an urgent need to assess the combined impacts of natural and enhanced anthropogenic sources on groundwater chemistry. The aim of this study was to identify seasonal characteristics and spatial variations in anthropogenic and natural effects, to improve the understanding of major hydrogeochemical processes based on source apportionment. 34 groundwater points located in a riverside groundwater resource area in northeast China were sampled during the wet and dry seasons in 2015...
February 6, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
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