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major depression & vulnerability

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086827/mothers-accounts-of-the-impact-on-emotional-wellbeing-of-organised-peer-support-in-pregnancy-and-early-parenthood-a-qualitative-study
#1
Jenny McLeish, Maggie Redshaw
BACKGROUND: The transition to parenthood is a potentially vulnerable time for mothers' mental health and approximately 9-21% of women experience depression and/or anxiety at this time. Many more experience sub-clinical symptoms of depression and anxiety, as well as stress, low self-esteem and a loss of confidence. Women's emotional wellbeing is more at risk if they have little social support, a low income, are single parents or have a poor relationship with their partner. Peer support can comprise emotional, affirmational, informational and practical support; evidence of its impact on emotional wellbeing during pregnancy and afterwards is mixed...
January 13, 2017: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074409/management-of-depression-in-patients-with-dementia-is-pharmacological-treatment-justified
#2
REVIEW
Andrew H Ford, Osvaldo P Almeida
Depression in the context of dementia is common and contributes to poorer outcomes in individuals and those who care for them. Non-pharmacological treatments are the preferred initial approach to managing these symptoms but data in support of these are scarce. There are a number of pharmacological treatment options available to clinicians but efficacy is uncertain and concern about potential side effects in an aging and vulnerable population needs to be taken into consideration. This review aims to provide a concise overview of pharmacological treatments for depression in dementia...
January 10, 2017: Drugs & Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070120/the-protocadherin-17-gene-affects-cognition-personality-amygdala-structure-and-function-synapse-development-and-risk-of-major-mood-disorders
#3
H Chang, N Hoshina, C Zhang, Y Ma, H Cao, Y Wang, D-D Wu, S E Bergen, M Landén, C M Hultman, M Preisig, Z Kutalik, E Castelao, M Grigoroiu-Serbanescu, A J Forstner, J Strohmaier, J Hecker, T G Schulze, B Müller-Myhsok, A Reif, P B Mitchell, N G Martin, P R Schofield, S Cichon, M M Nöthen, H Walter, S Erk, A Heinz, N Amin, C M van Duijn, A Meyer-Lindenberg, H Tost, X Xiao, T Yamamoto, M Rietschel, M Li
Major mood disorders, which primarily include bipolar disorder and major depressive disorder, are the leading cause of disability worldwide and pose a major challenge in identifying robust risk genes. Here, we present data from independent large-scale clinical data sets (including 29 557 cases and 32 056 controls) revealing brain expressed protocadherin 17 (PCDH17) as a susceptibility gene for major mood disorders. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) spanning the PCDH17 region are significantly associated with major mood disorders; subjects carrying the risk allele showed impaired cognitive abilities, increased vulnerable personality features, decreased amygdala volume and altered amygdala function as compared with non-carriers...
January 10, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28064281/childhood-abuse-history-in-depression-predicts-better-response-to-antidepressants-with-higher-serotonin-transporter-affinity-a-pilot-investigation
#4
Lena C Quilty, Victoria Marshe, Daniela S S Lobo, Kate L Harkness, Daniel J Müller, R Michael Bagby
OBJECTIVES: Childhood abuse is a powerful prognostic indicator in adults with major depressive disorder (MDD) and is associated with numerous biological risk factors for depression. The purpose of this investigation was to explore if antidepressant medication affinity for the serotonin transporter moderates the association between childhood abuse and treatment response. METHODS: Our sample included 52 outpatients with MDD who had received up to 26 weeks of pharmacotherapy, stratifying antidepressant medications with a high versus a low affinity for the serotonin transporter...
January 7, 2017: Neuropsychobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062252/using-neuroimaging-to-individualize-tms-treatment-for-depression-toward-a-new-paradigm-for-imaging-guided-intervention
#5
Bruce M Luber, Simon Davis, Elisabeth Bernhardt, Andrada Neacsiu, Lori Kwapil, Sarah H Lisanby, Timothy J Strauman
The standard clinical technique for using repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) for major depressive disorder (MDD) is associated with limited efficacy to date. Such limited efficacy may be due to reliance on scalp-based targeting rather than state-of-the-science methods which incorporate fMRI-guided neuronavigation based on a specific model of neurocircuit dysfunction. In this review, we examine such a specific model drawn from regulatory focus theory, which postulates two brain/behavior systems, the promotion and prevention systems, underlying goal pursuit...
January 3, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050179/psychopathology-of-the-general-population-referred-by-primary-care-physicians-for-urgent-assessment-in-psychiatric-hospitals
#6
Judith McLenan, Carlo Lazzari, Gail McMillan, Robert Mackie
Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the type, severity and progression of psychiatric pathologies in a sample of 372 outpatients (age range 18-65 years) referred by their primary general practitioners (GPs) to an Urgent Referral Team (URT) based in a psychiatric hospital in Aberdeen, Scotland. This team offers immediate appointments (1- to 7-day delays) for rapid assessments and early interventions to the outpatients referred by their primary family doctors. Method: One-sample t-test and z statistic were used for data analysis...
October 2016: Iranian Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032323/comorbidity-of-migraine-major-depressive-disorder-and-generalized-anxiety-disorder-in-adolescents-and-young-adults
#7
Lilian N Dindo, Ana Recober, Rita Haddad, Chadi A Calarge
PURPOSE: Depression and anxiety are highly comorbid psychiatric conditions and both are common in adult patients with migraine. This study aims to examine the unique associations between major depressive disorder (MDD) and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) in a well-characterized group of older adolescents and college-age individuals with migraine. METHOD: Participants (N =  227), between 15 and 20 years old, who were unmedicated or within 1 month of beginning antidepressant treatment underwent a comprehensive psychiatric assessment to establish the presence of MDD and GAD, according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual, Fourth Edition, Text Revision, and to rate their symptom severity using the Longitudinal Interval Follow-up Evaluation for Adolescents (A-LIFE)...
December 28, 2016: International Journal of Behavioral Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28031038/using-a-smartphone-app-to-reduce-cognitive-vulnerability-and-mild-depressive-symptoms-study-protocol-of-an-exploratory-randomized-controlled-trial
#8
Cezar Giosan, Cristina Mogoaşe, Oana Cobeanu, Aurora Szentágotai Tătar, Vlad Mureşan, Rareș Boian
BACKGROUND: Depression is a major challenge worldwide, with significant increasing personal, economic, and societal costs. Although empirically supported treatments have been developed, they are not always available for patients in routine clinical care. Therefore, we need effective and widely accessible strategies to prevent the onset of the very first depressive symptoms. Mental health apps could prove a valuable solution for this desideratum. Although preliminary research has indicated that such apps can be useful in treating depression, no study has attempted to test their utility in preventing depressive symptoms...
December 28, 2016: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025131/glutamatergic-stimulation-of-the-left-dentate-gyrus-abolishes-depressive-like-behaviors-in-a-rat-learned-helplessness-paradigm
#9
Jeho Seo, Hojin Cho, Gun Tae Kim, Chul Hoon Kim, Dong Goo Kim
BACKGROUND: Episodic experiences of stress have been identified as the leading cause of major depressive disorder (MDD). The occurrence of MDD is profoundly influenced by the individual's coping strategy, rather than the severity of the stress itself. Resting brain activity has been shown to alter in several mental disorders. However, the functional relationship between resting brain activity and coping strategies has not yet been studied. In the present study, we observed different patterns of resting brain activity in rats that had determined either positive (resilient to stress) or negative (vulnerable to stress) coping strategies, and examined whether modulation of the preset resting brain activity could influence the behavioral phenotype associated with negative coping strategy (i...
December 23, 2016: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28024274/heterogeneity-in-hpa-axis-dysregulation-and-serotonergic-vulnerability-to-depression
#10
Marie-Laure Ancelin, Jacqueline Scali, Joanna Norton, Karen Ritchie, Anne-Marie Dupuy, Isabelle Chaudieu, Joanne Ryan
Variability in the serotonin transporter (5-HTTLPR) gene can influence the risk of depression associated with adversity, as well as cortisol stress reactivity, although not consistently. No study has examined the impact of both a stressful environment and corticotropic-axis dysfunction on depression, as a function of 5-HTTLPR. This population-based study included 334 subjects aged 65 and older. Depression was measured at both diagnostic (major depression according to DSM-IV) and symptomatic (subthreshold depression) levels of caseness, in addition to 5-HTTLPR and rs25531 genotyping and diurnal cortisol measures...
December 5, 2016: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28008302/benefits-of-hormone-therapy-estrogens-depend-on-estrogen-type-17%C3%AE-estradiol-and-conjugated-equine-estrogens-have-differential-effects-on-cognitive-anxiety-like-and-depressive-like-behaviors-and-increase-tryptophan-hydroxylase-2-mrna-levels-in-dorsal-raphe-nucleus
#11
Ryoko Hiroi, Giulia Weyrich, Stephanie V Koebele, Sarah E Mennenga, Joshua S Talboom, Lauren T Hewitt, Courtney N Lavery, Perla Mendoza, Ambra Jordan, Heather A Bimonte-Nelson
Decreased serotonin (5-HT) function is associated with numerous cognitive and affective disorders. Women are more vulnerable to these disorders and have a lower rate of 5-HT synthesis than men. Serotonergic neurons in the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) are a major source of 5-HT in the forebrain and play a critical role in regulation of stress-related disorders. In particular, polymorphisms of tryptophan hydroxylase-2 (TpH2, the brain-specific, rate-limiting enzyme for 5-HT biosynthesis) are implicated in cognitive and affective disorders...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28007649/nicotinic-receptors-modulate-the-onset-of-reactive-oxygen-species-production-and-mitochondrial-dysfunction-evoked-by-glutamate-uptake-block-in-the-rat-hypoglossal-nucleus
#12
Maria Tortora, Silvia Corsini, Andrea Nistri
In several neurodegenerative diseases, glutamate-mediated excitotoxicity is considered to be a major process to initiate cell degeneration. Indeed, subsequent to excessive glutamate receptor stimulation, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and mitochondrial dysfunction are regarded as two major gateways leading to neuron death. These processes are mimicked in an in vitro model of rat brainstem slice when excitotoxicity is induced by DL-threo-β-benzyloxyaspartate (TBOA), a specific glutamate-uptake blocker that increases extracellular glutamate...
December 19, 2016: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28007644/association-between-htr1b-alleles-and-suicidal-ideation-in-individuals-with-major-depressive-disorder
#13
Wei-Tsung Kao, Ming-Chang Yang, For-Wey Lung
Serotonin receptors, also known as 5-hydroxytryptamine receptors (HTRs), play a role in individuals' vulnerability to major depressive disorders (MDDs) and/or suicide attempts. In the first part of the study, we recruited 789 Taiwanese participants, which included 285 MDD patients, 191 MDD patients with a history of suicide attempts (MS), and 313 controls. The three groups were genotyped to identify HTR single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and we analyzed the correlations among the three groups. In the second part of the study, which involved a functional test of HTR1B allelic and haplotype variants, another 113 MDD patients were recruited...
December 19, 2016: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28000636/a-review-of-the-health-problems-of-the-internally-displaced-persons-in-africa
#14
REVIEW
Eme T Owoaje, Obioma C Uchendu, Tumininu O Ajayi, Eniola O Cadmus
Globally, over 40 million people were displaced as a result of wars and violence due to religious and ethnic conflicts in 2015 while 19.2 million were displaced by natural disasters such as famine and floods. In Africa, 12 million people were displaced by armed conflict and violence and there were hundreds of thousands of people displaced by natural disasters. Despite these large numbers of internally displaced persons (IDPs) in Sub-Saharan African countries and the potentially negative impact of displacement on the health of these populations, there is limited information on the health problems of IDPs in the region...
October 2016: Nigerian Postgraduate Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27990420/prevalence-and-factors-associated-with-undernutrition-among-adults-with-major-depressive-disorder-in-northwest-ethiopia
#15
Edmialem Gezahegn, Melkie Edris, Berihun Assefa Dachew
Background. Undernutrition and major depressive disorder are frequently co-occurring. Patients with impaired mental health are strongly vulnerable to the risks of having involuntary weight loss or deficiency of essential nutrients. However, there is no study which assesses undernutrition among major depressive patients in Ethiopia. Method. A total of 422 clients were included in the study. Structured questionnaires and anthropometric measurements were used for collecting the data. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression model was fitted to identify factors associated with undernutrition...
2016: Psychiatry Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27965352/burden-of-common-mental-disorders-in-a-community-health-centre-sample
#16
Farah Ahmad, Yogendra Shakya, Liane Ginsburg, Wendy Lou, Peggy T Ng, Meb Rashid, Manuela Ferrari, Cliff Ledwos, Kwame McKenzie
OBJECTIVE: To examine the rates of common mental disorders (CMDs) such as depression, anxiety, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and alcohol use in an urban community health care centre (CHC) serving vulnerable immigrant and ethnoracial communities in order to improve knowledge on the rates of CMDs specific to these groups accessing primary care settings. DESIGN: English or Spanish, self-administered, tablet-based survey known as the Interactive Computer-Assisted Client Assessment Survey (iCCAS)...
December 2016: Canadian Family Physician Médecin de Famille Canadien
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27941728/prevalence-of-psychiatric-disorders-among-female-juvenile-offenders
#17
N M Morshed, F Rahman, S F Shahid, M S Qusar, S Algin, M A Shah, M M Maruf, M H Chowdhury
Inmates of Juvenile Developmental Centers are the special group of youth population who are in conflict with law. They are vulnerable to psychiatric illness. The objective of this study was to see the prevalence and type of psychiatric disorders in institutionalized female juvenile offenders and non-offenders of same age, sex and socioeconomic group in the community. The association of mental disorders was examined in 43 female inmates of Juvenile Development Centers and 43 randomly selected comparison subjects in community...
October 2016: Mymensingh Medical Journal: MMJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930698/major-depression-as-a-complex-dynamic-system
#18
Angélique O J Cramer, Claudia D van Borkulo, Erik J Giltay, Han L J van der Maas, Kenneth S Kendler, Marten Scheffer, Denny Borsboom
In this paper, we characterize major depression (MD) as a complex dynamic system in which symptoms (e.g., insomnia and fatigue) are directly connected to one another in a network structure. We hypothesize that individuals can be characterized by their own network with unique architecture and resulting dynamics. With respect to architecture, we show that individuals vulnerable to developing MD are those with strong connections between symptoms: e.g., only one night of poor sleep suffices to make a particular person feel tired...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924229/men-work-and-mental-health-a-systematic-review-of-depression-in-male-dominated-industries-and-occupations
#19
REVIEW
Ann M Roche, Ken Pidd, Jane A Fischer, Nicole Lee, Anje Scarfe, Victoria Kostadinov
Among men, depression is often unrecognised and untreated. Men employed in male-dominated industries and occupations may be particularly vulnerable. However, efforts to develop tailored workplace interventions are hampered by lack of prevalence data. A systematic review of studies reporting prevalence rates for depression in male dominated workforce groups was undertaken. Studies were included if they were published between 1990 - June 2012 in English, examined adult workers in male-dominated industries or occupations (> 70% male workforce), and used clinically relevant indicators of depression...
December 2016: Safety and Health At Work
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912070/cardiac-complications-associated-with-the-influenza-viruses-a-subtype-h7n9-or-pandemic-h1n1-in-critically-ill-patients-under-intensive-care
#20
Jiajia Wang, Hua Xu, Xinjing Yang, Daguo Zhao, Shenglan Liu, Xue Sun, Jian-An Huang, Qiang Guo
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The clinical presentations and disease courses of patients hospitalized with either influenza A virus subtype H7N9 (H7N9) or 2009 pandemic H1N1 influenza virus were compared in a recent report, but associated cardiac complications remain unclear. The present retrospective study investigated whether cardiac complications in critically ill patients with H7N9 infections differed from those infected with the pandemic H1N1 influenza virus strain. METHODS: Suspect cases were confirmed by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction assays with specific confirmation of the pandemic H1N1 strain at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention...
November 29, 2016: Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases
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