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major depression & vulnerability

Stefania Prendes-Alvarez, Charles B Nemeroff
Personalized or precision medicine is a medical discipline that proposes tailoring health care to each individual by integrating data from their genetic makeup, epigenetic modifications, other biomarkers, clinical symptoms and environmental exposures. Currently, patients typically present for treatment of mood disorders relatively late in the disease course and this is of great concern both because delay in attaining remission reduces the success of subsequent treatment and depressive episodes have negative cumulative effects on the brain and body...
October 13, 2016: Neuroscience Letters
Chandni Prakash, Susan Hatters-Friedman, Charmian Moller-Olsen, Abigail North
INTRODUCTION: Pregnancy is a vulnerable period for recurrence of bipolar disorder. Discontinuation of mood stabilisers during pregnancy and the postpartum period can significantly increase the risk of recurrence of bipolar disorder. Lamotrigine is an anti-epileptic drug that has been approved for the maintenance treatment of bipolar disorder. Epilepsy literature has indicated that lamotrigine has a reassuring safety profile in pregnancy but there is little information on its effectiveness and safety in pregnant women with mental disorders...
August 15, 2016: Psychopharmacology Bulletin
Joan Samuels-Dennis, Liudi Xia, Sandra Secord, Amelia Raiger
Poverty, along with other factors such as unemployment, work and life stressors, interpersonal violence, and lack of access to high quality health and/or social services all play a role in determining who develops a mental illness and for whom those symptoms persist or worsen. Senior nursing student preparing to enter the field and working in a service learning capacity may be able to influence early recovery and symptom abatement among those most vulnerable to mental illness. A consortium of community stakeholders and researchers collaboratively designed a 10-week mental health promotion project called the Health Advocacy Project (HAP)...
October 8, 2016: International Journal of Nursing Education Scholarship
Donald M Lyall, Hazel M Inskip, Daniel Mackay, Ian J Deary, Andrew M McIntosh, Matthew Hotopf, Tony Kendrick, Jill P Pell, Daniel J Smith
BACKGROUND: Low birth weight has been inconsistently associated with risk of developing affective disorders, including major depressive disorder (MDD). To date, studies investigating possible associations between birth weight and bipolar disorder (BD), or personality traits known to predispose to affective disorders such as neuroticism, have not been conducted in large cohorts. AIMS: To assess whether very low birth weight (<1500 g) and low birth weight (1500-2490 g) were associated with higher neuroticism scores assessed in middle age, and lifetime history of either MDD or BD...
January 2016: BJPsych Open
S Halder, A K Mahato
INTRODUCTION: Suicide has become an important public health concern with a high number of deaths and increasing number of attempted suicides every year. There are multiple factors that underlie a suicide attempt. Although mental illness and severe stress have long been known to be associated with suicide, socio-demographic and clinical characteristics of those attempting suicide can also provide indications of suicidal intent. The present study aimed to explore the socio-demographic and clinical characteristics of patients in Kolkata, India who attempted suicide...
September 2016: East Asian Archives of Psychiatry: Official Journal of the Hong Kong College of Psychiatrists
Maeson S Latsko, T Lee Gilman, Lindsey M Matt, K Maria Nylocks, Karin G Coifman, Aaron M Jasnow
Poor inhibitory processing of negative emotional content is central to many psychiatric disorders, including depression and anxiety. Moreover, increasing evidence suggests that core aspects of emotion-inhibitory processing are largely inherited and as such may represent a key intermediate or risk-related phenotype for common affective diseases (e.g., unipolar depressive, anxiety disorders). The current study employed a candidate-gene approach in order to most effectively examine this complex behavioral phenotype...
2016: PloS One
Maja Ivković, Maja Pantović-Stefanović, Nataša Petronijević, Bojana Dunjić-Kostić, Milica Velimirović, Tatjana Nikolić, Vladimir Jurišić, Maja Lačković, Sanja Totić-Poznanović, Aleksandar A Jovanović, Aleksandar Damjanović
BACKGROUND: Affective temperaments are intermediate phenotypes for major affective disorders and are reported to have a neuroimmune etiopathogenesis. Here we investigated the role of soluble intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1) and soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (sVCAM-1) in affective temperaments and mood symptoms in healthy adults. METHODS: Healthy adults (n=94) were screened for psychiatric disorders using the nonpatient version of the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV-I and II...
September 22, 2016: Journal of Affective Disorders
Olga Tymofiyeva, Colm G Connolly, Tiffany C Ho, Matthew D Sacchet, Eva Henje Blom, Kaja Z LeWinn, Duan Xu, Tony T Yang
BACKGROUND: Adolescence is a vulnerable period for the onset of major depressive disorder (MDD). While some studies have shown white matter alterations in adolescent MDD, there is still a gap in understanding how the brain is affected at a network level. METHODS: We compared diffusion tensor imaging (DTI)-based brain networks in a cohort of 57 adolescents with MDD and 41 well-matched healthy controls who completed self-reports of depression symptoms and stressful life events...
September 19, 2016: Journal of Affective Disorders
Pauline Manceaux, Nicolas Zdanowicz
BACKGROUND: On the one hand, this psycho-immunological theory makes it possible to forge links between immunity and depression. On the other hand, we know that coping strategies are an important variable in the model of vulnerability to depression. Our study weighs the influence of cellular immunity and coping strategies on the severity of depression. SUBJECTS AND METHOD: 498 inpatients with major depressive disorder were enrolled in an open-label trial. In addition to a socio-demographic questionnaire, they answered a Cousson's coping test and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI)...
September 2016: Psychiatria Danubina
Megan Fracol, Jashodeep Datta, Lea Lowenfeld, Shuwen Xu, Paul J Zhang, Carla S Fisher, Brian J Czerniecki
BACKGROUND: We previously demonstrated a progressive loss of the anti-human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) CD4+ T-helper type 1 (Th1) response during HER2(pos) breast tumorigenesis. This loss is associated with residual disease following neoadjuvant therapy and increased risk of recurrence. In this study, we assessed the fate of anti-HER3 Th1 immunity during breast tumorigenesis. METHODS: Peripheral blood from 131 subjects, including healthy donors (HDs), patients with benign breast disease (BD), ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) and invasive breast cancer (IBC), was collected...
September 23, 2016: Annals of Surgical Oncology
Nadine P G Paans, Mariska Bot, Deborah Gibson-Smith, Willem Van der Does, Philip Spinhoven, Ingeborg Brouwer, Marjolein Visser, Brenda W J H Penninx
OBJECTIVE: A range of biological, social and psychological factors, including depression and anxiety disorders, is thought to be associated with higher body mass index (BMI). Depression and anxiety disorders are associated with specific psychological vulnerabilities, like personality traits and cognitive reactivity, that may also be associated with BMI. The relationship between those psychological vulnerabilities and BMI is possibly different in people with and without depression and anxiety disorders...
October 2016: Journal of Psychosomatic Research
Rachel Puralewski, Georgia Vasilakis, Marianne L Seney
BACKGROUND: Women are twice as likely to be diagnosed with major depressive disorder (MDD) compared to men, but the molecular mechanisms underlying this sex difference are unclear. Previous studies in the human postmortem brain suggest dysfunction in basolateral amygdala (BLA) inhibitory gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) signaling and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) function, specifically in females with MDD. METHODS: We investigated the effects of sex chromosome complement, developmental gonadal sex, and circulating testosterone on expression of 3 GABA-related and 2 BDNF-related genes in the BLA using three cohorts of four core genotypes (FCG) mice...
2016: Biology of Sex Differences
Juan M Rodriguez, Matías Monsalves-Alvarez, Sandra Henriquez, Miguel N Llanos, Rodrigo Troncoso
Glucocorticoids are involved in several responses triggered by a variety of environmental and physiological stimuli. These hormones have a wide-range of regulatory effects in organisms. Synthetic glucocorticoids are extensively used to suppress allergic, inflammatory, and immune disorders. Although glucocorticoids are highly effective for therapeutic purposes, some patients chronically treated with glucocorticoids can develop reduced glucocorticoid sensitivity or even resistance, increasing patient vulnerability to exaggerated inflammatory responses...
November 2016: Steroids
Eunsoo Won, Yong-Ku Kim
The autonomic nervous system is one of the major neural pathways activated by stress. In situations that are often associated with chronic stress, such as major depressive disorder, the sympathetic nervous system can be continuously activated without the normal counteraction of the parasympathetic nervous system. As a result, the immune system can be activated with increased levels of proinflammatory cytokines. These inflammatory conditions have been repeatedly observed in depression. In the search for the mechanism by which the immune system might contribute to depression, the enhanced activity of indoleamine 2,3- dioxygenase by pro-inflammatory cytokines has been suggested to play an important role...
2016: Current Neuropharmacology
Sophia Frangou, Danai Dima, Jigar Jogia
Improved clinical care for Bipolar Disorder (BD) relies on the identification of diagnostic markers that can reliably detect disease-related signals in clinically heterogeneous populations. At the very least, diagnostic markers should be able to differentiate patients with BD from healthy individuals and from individuals at familial risk for BD who either remain well or develop other psychopathology, most commonly Major Depressive Disorder (MDD). These issues are particularly pertinent to the development of translational applications of neuroimaging as they represent challenges for which clinical observation alone is insufficient...
September 10, 2016: NeuroImage
J Macoveanu, M Vinberg, K Madsen, L V Kessing, H R Siebner, W Baaré
OBJECTIVE: The neurobiological mechanisms mediating an increased risk to develop affective disorders remain poorly understood. In a group of individuals with a family history of major depressive (MDD) or bipolar disorder (BD), we investigated the microstructural properties of white matter fiber tracts, that is, cingulum bundle, uncinate fasciculus, anterior limb of the internal capsule, and corpus callosum, that facilitate the communication between brain regions implicated in affective disorders...
November 2016: Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica
Pippa A Thomson, Barbara Duff, Douglas H R Blackwood, Liana Romaniuk, Andrew Watson, Heather C Whalley, Xiang Li, Maria R Dauvermann, T William J Moorhead, Catherine Bois, Niamh M Ryan, Holly Redpath, Lynsey Hall, Stewart W Morris, Edwin J R van Beek, Neil Roberts, David J Porteous, David St Clair, Brandon Whitcher, John Dunlop, Nicholas J Brandon, Zoë A Hughes, Jeremy Hall, Andrew McIntosh, Stephen M Lawrie
Rare genetic variants of large effect can help elucidate the pathophysiology of brain disorders. Here we expand the clinical and genetic analyses of a family with a (1;11)(q42;q14.3) translocation multiply affected by major psychiatric illness and test the effect of the translocation on the structure and function of prefrontal, and temporal brain regions. The translocation showed significant linkage (LOD score 6.1) with a clinical phenotype that included schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, bipolar disorder, and recurrent major depressive disorder...
2016: NPJ Schizophrenia
Hanna Leinola, Kirsi Honkalampi, Tuomo Hänninen, Heli Koivumaa-Honkanen, Soili M Lehto, Anu Ruusunen, Heimo Viinamäki, Minna Valkonen-Korhonen
OBJECTIVE: A proportion of patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) show cognitive impairment that is associated with treatment nonresponse and poorer functional recovery. A broader range of cognitive dysfunction has been found to be associated with treatment-resistant depression (TRD) and with the presence of psychotic symptoms. Thus far, the effects of psychotic symptoms on the neuropsychological profile of patients with treatment-resistant MDD have not been investigated. METHOD: In the present study, 44 treatment-resistant MDD patients with (n = 12) or without (n = 32) psychotic symptoms-based on the Structured Clinical Interview (SCID I)-were compared with regard to their clinical status and performance in a neuropsychological test battery...
September 6, 2016: Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology: the Official Journal of the National Academy of Neuropsychologists
Trevor Thompson, Christoph U Correll, Katy Gallop, Davy Vancampfort, Brendon Stubbs
: Although clinical studies suggest depressed patients may be more vulnerable to pain, experimental research is equivocal. This meta-analysis aimed to clarify whether depression is associated with altered pain perception in response to noxious stimulation and to identify factors that might influence this association. A search of major electronic databases was conducted to identify experimental studies investigating pain response in depressed participants versus healthy control participants using established pain outcome measures...
August 31, 2016: Journal of Pain: Official Journal of the American Pain Society
Katherine E Watkins, Susan M Paddock, Teresa J Hudson, Songthip Ounpraseuth, Amy M Schrader, Kimberly A Hepner, Greer Sullivan
IMPORTANCE: Individuals with co-occurring mental and substance use disorders have increased rates of mortality relative to the general population. The relationship between measures of treatment quality and mortality for these individuals is unknown. OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between 5 quality measures and 12- and 24-month mortality. DESIGN, SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: Retrospective cohort study of patients with co-occurring mental illness (schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder and major depression) and substance use disorders who received care for these disorders paid for by the Veterans Administration between October 2006 and September 2007...
October 2016: Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment
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