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major depression & vulnerability

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792907/electrocortical-reactivity-to-negative-and-positive-facial-expressions-in-individuals-with-a-family-history-of-major-depression
#1
Anna J Watters, Anthony W F Harris, Leanne M Williams
Facial expressions signaling threat and mood-congruent loss have been used to probe abnormal neural reactivity in major depressive disorder (MDD) and may be implicated in genetic vulnerability to MDD. This study investigated electro-cortical reactivity to facial expressions 101 unaffected, adult first degree relatives of probands with MDD and non-relative controls (n = 101). We investigated event-related potentials (ERPs) to five facial expressions of basic emotion: fear, anger, disgust, sadness and happiness under both subliminal (masked) and conscious (unmasked) presentation conditions, and the source localization of group differences...
May 21, 2018: Biological Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790990/women-s-mental-health-in-the-perinatal-period-according-to-migrant-status-the-french-representative-elfe-birth-cohort
#2
Fabienne El-Khoury, Anne-Laure Sutter-Dallay, Lidia Panico, Marie-Aline Charles, Elie Azria, Judith Van der Waerden, Maria Melchior
Background: Mental health problems in the perinatal period are common. We examined associations between different categories of migrant status and region of origin in relation to mental health during pregnancy and at 2 months post-partum. Methods: We analyzed data from the French nationally representative Etude Longitudinale Française depuis l'Enfance birth cohort (n = 17 988). Migrant status was divided into five categories: 'majority population', 'descendants with one migrant parent', 'descendants with two migrant parents', 'naturalized migrant' and 'non-naturalized migrant women'...
June 1, 2018: European Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775873/psychosocial-stress-and-inflammation-driving-tryptophan-breakdown-in-children-and-adolescents-a-cross-sectional-analysis-of-two-cohorts
#3
Nathalie Michels, Gerard Clarke, Loreto Olavarria-Ramirez, Sonia Gómez-Martínez, Ligia Esperanza Díaz, Ascensión Marcos, Kurt Widhalm, Livia A Carvalho
BACKGROUND: Tryptophan breakdown is an important mechanism in several diseases e.g. inflammation and stress-induced inflammation have been associated with the development of depression via enhanced tryptophan breakdown. Depression is a major public health problem which commonly starts during adolescence, thus identifying underlying mechanisms during early life is crucial in prevention. The aim of this work was to verify whether independent and interacting associations of psychosocial stress and inflammation on tryptophan breakdown already exist in children and adolescents as a vulnerable age group...
May 15, 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773951/the-role-of-neuroinflammation-and-neurovascular-dysfunction-in-major-depressive-disorder
#4
REVIEW
Sang Won Jeon, Yong-Ku Kim
Although depression has generally been explained with monoamine theory, it is far more multifactorial, and therapies that address the disease's pathway have not been developed. In this context, an understanding of neuroinflammation and neurovascular dysfunction would enable a more comprehensive approach to depression. Inflammation is in a sense a type of allostatic load involving the immune, endocrine, and nervous systems. Neuroinflammation is involved in the pathophysiology of depression by increasing proinflammatory cytokines, activating the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis, increasing glucocorticoid resistance, and affecting serotonin synthesis and metabolism, neuronal apoptosis and neurogenesis, and neuroplasticity...
2018: Journal of Inflammation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769065/prevalence-patterns-and-predictors-of-depression-treatment-among-community-dwelling-older-adults-with-stroke-in-the-united-states-a-cross-sectional-study
#5
Sandipan Bhattacharjee, Majed Al Yami, Sawsan Kurdi, David Rhys Axon
BACKGROUND: Depression is one of the most common psychiatric conditions among stroke survivors and is associated with several negative health outcomes. However, little is known about the depression treatment patterns among stroke survivors. The objective of this study was to examine national-level prevalence, patterns and predictors of depression treatment among community-dwelling stroke survivors. METHODS: This study adopted a retrospective, cross-sectional study design using multiple years of Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS) (2002-2012) data...
May 16, 2018: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760952/downregulation-of-the-psychiatric-susceptibility-gene-cacna1c-promotes-mitochondrial-resilience-to-oxidative-stress-in-neuronal-cells
#6
Susanne Michels, Goutham K Ganjam, Helena Martins, Gerhard M Schratt, Markus Wöhr, Rainer K W Schwarting, Carsten Culmsee
Affective disorders such as major depression and bipolar disorder are among the most prevalent forms of mental illness and their etiologies involve complex interactions between genetic and environmental risk factors. Over the past ten years, several genome wide association studies (GWAS) have identified CACNA1C as one of the strongest genetic risk factors for the development of affective disorders. However, its role in disease pathogenesis is still largely unknown. Vulnerability to affective disorders also involves diverse environmental risk factors such as perinatal insults, childhood maltreatment, and other adverse pathophysiological or psychosocial life events...
2018: Cell Death Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751243/adult-attachment-representations-and-depressive-symptoms-a-meta-analysis
#7
REVIEW
Or Dagan, Christopher R Facompré, Kristin Bernard
BACKGROUND: Attachment theory has long argued that insecure and disorganized attachment representations are associated with vulnerability to psychopathology in general, and depressive symptoms in particular. However, studies assessing the link between insecure and disorganized attachment and depressive symptoms report inconsistent results. The primary aim of this meta-analysis was to examine the extent to which adult attachment representations are associated with depressive symptoms. METHODS: We conducted a literature search for published studies using PsycINFO, MEDLINE, and ProQuest in March 2017, identifying 55 samples (N = 4,386)...
April 25, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29721782/herpes-zoster-in-frail-elderly-patients-prevalence-impact-management-and-preventive-strategies
#8
REVIEW
Ermanno Zorzoli, Francesca Pica, Giulia Masetti, Elisabetta Franco, Antonio Volpi, Giovanni Gabutti
Population aging is a worldwide phenomenon with significant and manifold impacts on society. Advanced age correlates with the onset of frailty. In this vulnerable state, the immune response is weakened and a higher susceptibility to infectious diseases is observed. The present narrative review aims to cover the topic of herpes zoster (HZ) and its complications in frail populations. The lifetime risk of developing HZ is estimated at about 20-30%, and the risk increases with age. In older people, HZ can lead to the inability to recover the lifestyle, the interests, and the level of activity that existed before its development...
May 2, 2018: Aging Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29718455/cortisol-testosterone-and-prospective-risk-for-war-zone-stress-evoked-depression
#9
Adam R Cobb, Robert A Josephs, Cynthia L Lancaster, Han-Joo Lee, Michael J Telch
Introduction: The major challenges of efforts to reveal biological risk factors and biomarkers of depression include the complexity of underlying systems, interactions with other systems, and contextual factors governing their expression. Altered endocrine function is believed to be a central contributor to depressive illness, but across studies, evidence for a link between endocrine markers and depression has been mixed, inconclusive, or conditional in nature. In the present study, we evaluated basal testosterone (T), cortisol (C), and CO2 inhalation-stress-reactivity measures of these hormones (TR, CR) as pre-deployment moderators of the later impact of war-zone stressors on depression symptoms in-theater...
April 27, 2018: Military Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29708895/offspring-of-parents-with-mood-disorders-time-for-more-transgenerational-research-screening-and-preventive-intervention-for-this-high-risk-population
#10
Dominique Maciejewski, Manon Hillegers, Brenda Penninx
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Offspring of parents with mood disorders (major depressive and bipolar disorder) are at increased risk for developing mood disorders. In this review, an overview regarding the intergenerational transmission of mood disorders, screening, and preventive intervention is given for this vulnerable group. RECENT FINDINGS: Offspring of parents with depression have a 40% chance of developing a depression, whereas offspring of parents with bipolar disorder have a 10% chance of developing a bipolar disorder by adulthood...
April 26, 2018: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29699557/emotional-violence-and-maternal-mental-health-a-qualitative-study-among-women-in-northern-vietnam
#11
Trần Thơ Nhị, Nguyễn Thị Thúy Hạnh, Tine M Gammeltoft
BACKGROUND: Worldwide, intimate partner violence (IPV) during pregnancy is a pressing and prevalent public health problem. Existing research has found close associations between IPV and perinatal mental health, yet little is known about women's own perceptions of these associations. This study aimed to explore Vietnamese women's experiences of emotional partner violence and their perceptions of the implications of such violence for their mental health. METHODS: The data were collected through in-depth interviews with 20 women living in Hanoi, Vietnam who had reported exposure to emotional partner violence and attained high depression scores in a prospective cohort study...
April 24, 2018: BMC Women's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29692278/the-role-of-self-esteem-in-depression-a-longitudinal-study
#12
Sven Hilbert, Stephan Goerigk, Frank Padberg, Annekatrin Nadjiri, Aline Übleis, Andrea Jobst, Julia Dewald-Kaufmann, Peter Falkai, Markus Bühner, Felix Naumann, Nina Sarubin
BACKGROUND: Based on the vulnerability model, several studies indicate that low self-esteem seems to contribute to depressive symptoms. AIMS: The aim of this study was to treat depressive symptoms in a cognitive behavioural group therapy, focusing on the enhancement of self-esteem, and to explore co-variation in depressive symptoms and the level of self-esteem. METHOD: The Multidimensional Self-esteem Scale (MSWS) and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) were administered to 147 psychiatric in-patients with current depressive symptoms due to an affective disorder (major depression, bipolar I, dysthymia)...
April 25, 2018: Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29681406/sex-influences-in-behavior-and-brain-inflammatory-and-oxidative-alterations-in-mice-submitted-to-lipopolysaccharide-induced-inflammatory-model-of-depression
#13
Bruna Stefânia Ferreira Mello, Adriano José Maia Chaves Filho, Charllyany Sabino Custódio, Rafaela Carneiro Cordeiro, Fabio Miyajima, Francisca Cléa Florenço de Sousa, Silvânia Maria Mendes Vasconcelos, David Freitas de Lucena, Danielle Macedo
Peripheral inflammation induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) causes a behavioral syndrome with translational relevance for depression. This mental disorder is twice more frequent among women. Despite this, the majority of experimental studies investigating the neurobiological effects of inflammatory models of depression have been performed in males. Here, we sought to determine sex influences in behavioral and oxidative changes in brain regions implicated in the pathophysiology of mood disorders (hypothalamus, hippocampus and prefrontal cortex - PFC) in adult mice 24 h post LPS challenge...
April 14, 2018: Journal of Neuroimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677115/subjective-socioeconomic-status-moderates-the-association-between-discrimination-and-depression-in-african-american-youth
#14
Shervin Assari, Brianna Preiser, Maryam Moghani Lankarani, Cleopatra H Caldwell
Background: Most of the literature on the association between socioeconomic status (SES) and health is focused on the protective effects of SES. However, a growing literature suggests that high SES may also operate as a vulnerability factor. Aims: Using a national sample of African American youth, this study compared the effects of perceived discrimination on major depressive disorder (MDD) based on SES. Methods: The current cross-sectional study included 810 African American youth who participated in the National Survey of American Life-Adolescent supplement...
April 20, 2018: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672837/as-temperature-increases-predator-attack-rate-is-more-important-to-survival-than-a-smaller-window-of-prey-vulnerability
#15
Adam Pepi, Patrick Grof-Tisza, Marcel Holyoak, Richard Karban
Climate change can have strong effects on species interactions and community structure. Temperature-dependent effects on predator-prey interactions are a major mechanism through which these effects occur. To understand the net effects of predator attack rates and dynamic windows of prey vulnerability, we examined the impacts of temperature on the interaction of a caterpillar (Arctia virginalis) and its ant predator (Formica lasioides). We conducted field experiments to examine attack rates on caterpillars relative to temperature, ant abundance, and body size, and laboratory experiments to determine the effects of temperature on caterpillar growth...
April 19, 2018: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660636/regional-homogeneity-and-functional-connectivity-patterns-in-major-depressive-disorder-cognitive-vulnerability-to-depression-and-healthy-subjects
#16
Hui Sun, Lizhu Luo, Xinru Yuan, Lu Zhang, Yini He, Shuqiao Yao, Jiaojian Wang, Jing Xiao
BACKGROUND: Cognitive vulnerability to depression (CVD) is a high risk for depressive disorder. Recent studies focus on individuals with CVD to determine the neural basis of major depressive disorder (MDD) neuropathology. However, whether CVD showed specific or similar brain functional activity and connectivity patterns, compared to MDD, remain largely unknown. METHODS: Here, using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging in subjects with CVD, healthy controls (HC) and MDD, regional homogeneity (ReHo) and resting-state functional connectivity (R-FC) analyses were conducted to assess local synchronization and changes in functional connectivity patterns...
April 7, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651597/a-two-dimensional-model-of-disrupted-body-integrity-initial-evaluation-in-head-and-neck-cancer
#17
Kenneth Mah, Sophie Lebel, Jonathan Irish, Andrea Bezjak, Ada Y M Payne, Gerald M Devins
PURPOSE: This cross-sectional study presents an initial psychometric evaluation of a two-dimensional (perceptual and evaluative) conceptualization and measure of disrupted body integrity (DBI)-illness-related disruption of the sense of the body as an integrated, smoothly functioning whole. METHODS: Male and female head and neck cancer (HNC) outpatients (N = 98) completed a questionnaire package prior to outpatient visits. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The Disrupted Body Integrity Scale (DBIS) was developed to measure the perceptual and evaluative facets of DBI...
April 13, 2018: Supportive Care in Cancer: Official Journal of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29650294/increased-methylation-at-an-unexplored-glucocorticoid-responsive-element-within-exon-1-d-of-nr3c1-gene-is-related-to-anxious-depressive-disorders-and-decreased-hippocampal-connectivity
#18
Helena Palma-Gudiel, Aldo Córdova-Palomera, Cristian Tornador, Carles Falcón, Núria Bargalló, Gustavo Deco, Lourdes Fañanás
Among the major psychiatric disorders, anxious-depressive disorders stand out as one of the more prevalent and more frequently associated with hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis abnormalities. Methylation at the exon 1F of the glucocorticoid receptor gene NR3C1 has been associated with both early stress exposure and risk for developing a psychiatric disorder; however, other NR3C1 promoter regions have been underexplored. Exon 1D emerges as a suggestive new target in stress-related disorders epigenetically sensitive to early adversity...
April 9, 2018: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628067/orbital-and-medial-prefrontal-cortex-functional-connectivity-of-major-depression-vulnerability-and-disease
#19
Zoe Samara, Elisabeth A T Evers, Frenk Peeters, Harry B M Uylings, Grazyna Rajkowska, Johannes G Ramaekers, Peter Stiers
BACKGROUND: Pathophysiology models of major depression (MD) center on the dysfunction of various cortical areas within the orbital and medial prefrontal cortex. While independent structural and functional abnormalities in these areas are consistent findings in MD, the complex interactions among them and the rest of the cortex remain largely unexplored. METHODS: We used resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging connectivity to systematically map alterations in the communication between orbital and medial prefrontal cortex fields and the rest of the brain in MD...
April 2018: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628062/identifying-prefrontal-networks-for-disease-vulnerability-versus-acute-illness-in-major-depression
#20
Peter W Fettes, Jonathan Downar
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2018: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
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