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major depression & vulnerability

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912070/cardiac-complications-associated-with-the-influenza-viruses-a-subtype-h7n9-or-pandemic-h1n1-in-critically-ill-patients-under-intensive-care
#1
Jiajia Wang, Hua Xu, Xinjing Yang, Daguo Zhao, Shenlang Liu, Xue Sun, Jian-An Huang, Qiang Guo
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The clinical presentations and disease courses of patients hospitalized with either influenza A virus subtype H7N9 (H7N9) or 2009 pandemic H1N1 influenza virus (pH1N1) were compared in a recent report, but associated cardiac complications remain unclear. The present retrospective study investigated whether cardiac complications in critically ill patients with H7N9 infections differed from those infected with the pH1N1 strain. METHODS: Suspect cases were confirmed by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction assays with specific confirmation of the pandemic H1N1 strain at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention...
November 29, 2016: Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905952/mental-health-and-urban-living-in-sub-saharan-africa-major-depressive-episodes-among-the-urban-poor-in-ouagadougou-burkina-faso
#2
Géraldine Duthé, Clémentine Rossier, Doris Bonnet, Abdramane Bassiahi Soura, Jamaica Corker
BACKGROUND: In sub-Saharan African cities, the epidemiological transition has shifted a greater proportion of the burden of non-communicable diseases, including mental and behavioral disorder, to the adult population. The burden of major depressive disorder and its social risk factors in the urban sub-Saharan African population are not well understood and estimates vary widely. We conducted a study in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso, in order to estimate the prevalence of major depressive episodes among adults in this urban setting...
May 5, 2016: Population Health Metrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900233/the-relationship-of-undergraduate-major-and-housing-with-depression-in-undergraduate-students
#3
Shaun Ajinkya, James F Schaus, Michael Deichen
INTRODUCTION: Past literature has shown that college undergraduates are particularly vulnerable to depression. The objective of this study is to find if certain majors and housing arrangements are associated with major depression as assessed by the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9), after adjustment for age, gender, and family history of depression. METHODS: Participants were undergraduates at a large public university that used the university health center from April 1 - November 4, 2013...
September 18, 2016: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889374/-consumption-of-cannabis-in-adolescents
#4
O Phan, I Obradovic, A Har
Over the past 10 years, the consumption of cannabis among adolescents has dramatically increased. Today, adolescent cannabis use is a major public health problem. Two forms of cannabis are commonly smoked: herb (marijuana) and resin. These forms have a high concentration of tetrahydrocannabinol, the active molecule of cannabis. Recent research has helped understand how the cannabinoid system works. This system combines specific receptors and specific molecules: the endocannabinoids. The effects of cannabis use are now well documented...
November 23, 2016: Archives de Pédiatrie: Organe Officiel de la Sociéte Française de Pédiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27880789/targeting-ruminative-thinking-in-adolescents-at-risk-for-depressive-relapse-rumination-focused-cognitive-behavior-therapy-in-a-pilot-randomized-controlled-trial-with-resting-state-fmri
#5
Rachel H Jacobs, Edward R Watkins, Amy T Peters, Claudia G Feldhaus, Alyssa Barba, Julie Carbray, Scott A Langenecker
: This pilot randomized control trial was designed to examine whether Rumination-Focused Cognitive Behavior Therapy (RFCBT) reduces rumination and residual depressive symptoms among adolescents with a history of Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) who are at risk for relapse. We also examined whether these changes in symptoms were associated with changes in functional connectivity of the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC), a key node in the default mode network (DMN). Thirty-three adolescents (ages 12-18) were randomized to eight weeks of RFCBT or an assessment only (AO) control...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871229/-the-cango-lyec-project-healing-the-elephant-hiv-related-vulnerabilities-of-post-conflict-affected-populations-aged-13-49-years-living-in-three-mid-northern-uganda-districts
#6
Samuel S Malamba, Herbert Muyinda, Patricia M Spittal, John P Ekwaru, Noah Kiwanuka, Martin D Ogwang, Patrick Odong, Paul K Kitandwe, Achilles Katamba, Kate Jongbloed, Nelson K Sewankambo, Eugene Kinyanda, Alden Blair, Martin T Schechter
BACKGROUND: The protracted war between the Government of Uganda and the Lord's Resistance Army in Northern Uganda (1996-2006) resulted in widespread atrocities, destruction of health infrastructure and services, weakening the social and economic fabric of the affected populations, internal displacement and death. Despite grave concerns that increased spread of HIV/AIDS may be devastating to post conflict Northern Uganda, empirical epidemiological data describing the legacy of the war on HIV infection are scarce...
November 21, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870416/sex-specific-mechanisms-for-responding-to-stress
#7
REVIEW
Debra A Bangasser, Brittany Wicks
Posttraumatic stress disorder and major depression share stress as an etiological contributor and are more common in women than in men. Traditionally, preclinical studies investigating the neurobiological underpinnings of stress vulnerability have used only male rodents; however, recent studies that include females are finding sex-specific mechanisms for responding to stress. This Mini-Review examines recent literature using a framework developed by McCarthy and colleagues (2012; J Neurosci 32:2241-2247) that highlights different types of sex differences...
January 2, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865040/psychological-outcomes-of-living-liver-donors-from-a-multi-center-prospective-study-results-from-the-adult-to-adult-living-donor-liver-transplantation-cohort-study-a2all
#8
Z Butt, M A Dew, Q Liu, M A Simpson, A R Smith, J Zee, B W Gillespie, S E Abbey, D P Ladner, R Weinrieb, R A Fisher, S Hafliger, N Terrault, J Burton, A H Sherker, A Di Martini
While single-center and cross-sectional studies have suggested modest impact of liver donation on donor psychological well-being, few studies have assessed these outcomes prospectively among a large cohort. We conducted one of the largest, prospective, multi-center studies of psychological outcomes in living liver donors within the Adult-to-Adult Living Donor Liver Transplantation Cohort Study (A2ALL-2) Consortium. 271 (91%) of 297 eligible donors were interviewed at least once at pre-donation, 3-, 6-, 12- and 24-months post-donation using validated measures...
November 19, 2016: American Journal of Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27845778/identification-of-sex-specific-urinary-biomarkers-for-major-depressive-disorder-by-combined-application-of-nmr-and-gc-ms-based-metabonomics
#9
P Zheng, J-J Chen, C-J Zhou, L Zeng, K-W Li, L Sun, M-L Liu, D Zhu, Z-H Liang, P Xie
Women are more vulnerable to major depressive disorder (MDD) than men. However, molecular biomarkers of sex differences are limited. Here we combined gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS)- and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based metabonomics to investigate sex differences of urinary metabolite markers in MDD, and further explore their potential of diagnosing MDD. Consequently, the metabolite signatures of women and men MDD subjects were significantly different from of that in their respective healthy controls (HCs)...
November 15, 2016: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833064/negativity-bias-for-sad-faces-in-depression-an-event-related-potential-study
#10
Qin Dai, Juanjuan Wei, Xiaorui Shu, Zhengzhi Feng
OBJECTIVE: Negativity bias in depression has been previously confirmed. However, mainly during a valence category task, it remains unclear how happy or unhappy individuals perceive emotional materials. Moreover, cerebral alteration measurements during a valence judgment task is lacking. The present study aimed to explore a valence judgment of a valence rating task, combined with event-related potential (ERP) recording. METHODS: Healthy controls, individuals with sub-clinical depression, and patients diagnosed with major depressive disorder (MDD) were recruited...
December 2016: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27828586/quality-of-life-and-associated-factors-in-elderly-people-at-a-reference-center
#11
Lívia Carvalho Viana Miranda, Sônia Maria Soares, Patrícia Aparecida Barbosa Silva
Studies have evaluated the quality of life (QOL) of many groups; however, such studies in relation to Reference Centers for the Elderly are scarce. This research identified factors associated with a good QOL of people using a Reference Center in the city of Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil. Transversal study of 257 elderly people who used a Reference Center for the Elderly. The short version of the World Health Organization Quality of Life Assessment (WHOQOL-BREF) was used to evaluate the QOL of the elderly people...
November 2016: Ciência & Saúde Coletiva
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27825555/neuroticism-traits-selectively-impact-long-term-illness-course-and-cognitive-decline-in-late-life-depression
#12
Kevin J Manning, Grace Chan, David C Steffens
OBJECTIVES: Neuroticism is a broad construct that conveys a predisposition to experience psychological distress and negative mood states. Vulnerability to stress (VS) is one neuroticism trait that has been linked to worse mood and cognitive outcomes in older adults. We hypothesized that elevated VS would be associated with worse illness course and cognitive decline in older adults with late-life major depression (LLD). DESIGN: Participants were enrolled in the Neurocognitive Outcomes of Depression in the Elderly (NCODE), a longitudinal investigation of the predictors of poor illness course and cognitive decline in LLD...
October 13, 2016: American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27821359/pupillary-response-abnormalities-in-depressive-disorders
#13
Scott A Laurenzo, Randy Kardon, Johannes Ledolter, Pieter Poolman, Ashley M Schumacher, James B Potash, Jan M Full, Olivia Rice, Anna Ketcham, Cole Starkey, Jess G Fiedorowicz
Depressive disorders lack objective physiological measurements to characterize the affected population and facilitate study of relevant mechanisms. The melanopsin-mediated light signaling pathway may contribute to seasonal variation and can be measured non-invasively by pupillometry. We prospectively studied changes in melanopsin-mediated pupillary constriction in 19 participants with major depressive disorder (MDD) and 10 control across the summer and winter solstices. The melanopsin-mediated response, as measured by the pupil's sustained constriction six s after a high intensity blue light stimulus, was marginally attenuated in those with MDD relative to controls (p=0...
October 21, 2016: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27819484/dampening-positive-affect-and-neural-reward-responding-in-healthy-children-implications-for-affective-inflexibility
#14
Kirsten Elizabeth Gilbert, Katherine Rose Luking, David Pagliaccio, Joan L Luby, Deanna M Barch
Blunted reward processing is evident in and may contribute to the onset of major depressive disorder. However, it is unclear what mechanisms contribute to the development of blunted reward-response prior to depression onset. The current study examined how individual differences in the tendency to dampen positive affect, an affect regulation strategy that decreases positive affect, are associated with reward responding and related brain activation in 39 healthy children (ages 7-10; 51% female; 79% White). To do this, we examined neural responses to winning a reward (candy) within the context of a previous loss, win, or neutral outcome...
November 7, 2016: Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27816074/role-of-reward-sensitivity-and-processing-in-major-depressive-and-bipolar-spectrum-disorders
#15
Lauren B Alloy, Thomas Olino, Rachel D Freed, Robin Nusslock
Since Costello's (1972) seminal Behavior Therapy article on loss of reinforcers or reinforcer effectiveness in depression, the role of reward sensitivity and processing in both depression and bipolar disorder has become a central area of investigation. In this article, we review the evidence for a model of reward sensitivity in mood disorders, with unipolar depression characterized by reward hyposensitivity and bipolar disorders by reward hypersensitivity. We address whether aberrant reward sensitivity and processing are correlates of, mood-independent traits of, vulnerabilities for, and/or predictors of the course of depression and bipolar spectrum disorders, covering evidence from self-report, behavioral, neurophysiological, and neural levels of analysis...
September 2016: Behavior Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27814961/experiential-avoidance-in-the-vulnerability-to-depression-among-adolescent-females
#16
William Mellick, Salome Vanwoerden, Carla Sharp
BACKGROUND: Although various mechanisms in the maternal transmission of Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) have been investigated, it is unknown whether experiential avoidance (EA) is a vulnerability factor in the development of depression or a consequence of the illness. The present study utilized a high-risk design to determine if EA indeed poses vulnerability to adolescent MDD. Secondly, we examined the means by which adolescent EA may come to pose vulnerability, namely that it explains the relation between maternal EA and adolescent depressive symptoms...
October 27, 2016: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27791098/aberrant-h3-3-dynamics-in-nac-promote-vulnerability-to-depressive-like-behavior
#17
Ashley E Lepack, Rosemary C Bagot, Catherine J Peña, Yong-Hwee E Loh, Lorna A Farrelly, Yang Lu, Samuel K Powell, Zachary S Lorsch, Orna Issler, Hannah M Cates, Carol A Tamminga, Henrik Molina, Li Shen, Eric J Nestler, C David Allis, Ian Maze
Human major depressive disorder (MDD), along with related mood disorders, is among the world's greatest public health concerns; however, its pathophysiology remains poorly understood. Persistent changes in gene expression are known to promote physiological aberrations implicated in MDD. More recently, histone mechanisms affecting cell type- and regional-specific chromatin structures have also been shown to contribute to transcriptional programs related to depressive behaviors, as well as responses to antidepressants...
November 1, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27773352/dcc-confers-susceptibility-to-depression-like-behaviors-in-humans-and-mice-and-is-regulated-by-mir-218
#18
Angélica Torres-Berrío, Juan Pablo Lopez, Rosemary C Bagot, Dominique Nouel, Gregory Dal Bo, Santiago Cuesta, Lei Zhu, Colleen Manitt, Conrad Eng, Helen M Cooper, Kai-Florian Storch, Gustavo Turecki, Eric J Nestler, Cecilia Flores
BACKGROUD: Variations in the expression of the Netrin-1 guidance cue receptor DCC (deleted in colorectal cancer) appear to confer resilience or susceptibility to psychopathologies involving prefrontal cortex (PFC) dysfunction. METHODS: With the use of postmortem brain tissue, mouse models of defeat stress, and in vitro analysis, we assessed microRNA (miRNA) regulation of DCC and whether changes in DCC levels in the PFC lead to vulnerability to depression-like behaviors...
August 18, 2016: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27746310/personalized-medicine-prediction-of-disease-vulnerability-in-mood-disorders
#19
Stefania Prendes-Alvarez, Charles B Nemeroff
Personalized or precision medicine is a medical discipline that proposes tailoring health care to each individual by integrating data from their genetic makeup, epigenetic modifications, other biomarkers, clinical symptoms and environmental exposures. Currently, patients typically present for treatment of mood disorders relatively late in the disease course and this is of great concern both because delay in attaining remission reduces the success of subsequent treatment and depressive episodes have negative cumulative effects on the brain and body...
October 13, 2016: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27738382/maternal-and-fetal-outcomes-after-lamotrigine-use-in-pregnancy-a-retrospective-analysis-from-an-urban-maternal-mental-health-centre-in-new-zealand
#20
Chandni Prakash, Susan Hatters-Friedman, Charmian Moller-Olsen, Abigail North
INTRODUCTION: Pregnancy is a vulnerable period for recurrence of bipolar disorder. Discontinuation of mood stabilisers during pregnancy and the postpartum period can significantly increase the risk of recurrence of bipolar disorder. Lamotrigine is an anti-epileptic drug that has been approved for the maintenance treatment of bipolar disorder. Epilepsy literature has indicated that lamotrigine has a reassuring safety profile in pregnancy but there is little information on its effectiveness and safety in pregnant women with mental disorders...
August 15, 2016: Psychopharmacology Bulletin
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