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Jayeeta Dhar, Sailen Barik
Pneumonia Virus of Mice (PVM) is the only virus that shares the Pneumovirus genus of the Paramyxoviridae family with Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV). A deadly mouse pathogen, PVM has the potential to serve as a robust animal model of RSV infection, since human RSV does not fully replicate the human pathology in mice. Like RSV, PVM also encodes two nonstructural proteins that have been implicated to suppress the IFN pathway, but surprisingly, they exhibit no sequence similarity with their RSV equivalents. The molecular mechanism of PVM NS function, therefore, remains unknown...
December 1, 2016: Scientific Reports
Ruyan Fan, Chuping Fan, Jian Zhang, Bo Wen, Yefei Lei, Chan Liu, Lijuan Chen, Wenpei Liu, Chuan Wang, Xiaowang Qu
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection is the leading cause of acute respiratory tract disease in children less than 5 years old. The aim of this study was to further elucidate the molecular properties and clinical characteristics of RSV infection. The study sample included 238 patients <5 years old who were hospitalized with clinical symptoms of upper or lower respiratory tract infection (URTI or LRTI) in the Pediatric Department at the First People's Hospital of Chenzhou, South China in 2014. We subjected nasopharyngeal aspirate (NPA) or nasal swab (NS) samples from the patients to indirect fluorescence assay screens...
February 2017: Journal of Medical Virology
P Walsh, F R Carvallo Chaigneau, M Anderson, N Behrens, H McEligot, B Gunnarson, L J Gershwin
Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are recommended for various conditions in cattle. Ibuprofen is an inexpensive short-acting NSAID and is readily available in liquid formulation for administration to bottle-fed calves. We compared the adverse effects of a 10-day course of ibuprofen and placebo in 16 five- to six-week-old Holstein bull calves that were being treated for experimentally induced bovine respiratory syncytial virus infection. Ibuprofen was administered as a liquid in milk replacer at 30 mg/kg divided three times daily...
October 2016: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Pu Yang, Junwen Zheng, Shouyi Wang, Pin Liu, Meng Xie, Dongchi Zhao
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) nonstructural (NS) proteins 1 and 2 have multiple functions in suppressing the innate immune response and modulating T helper cell subset differentiation. However, little is known about the roles of NS proteins as independent virulence factors. We investigated the effects of recombinant NS1- and NS2-expressing plasmids on the pathogenesis of murine respiratory tissues and splenetic Foxp3+ regulatory T (Treg) cell distribution. Both NS proteins caused weight loss in mice, and NS2 transfection resulted in a persistent weight loss...
November 2015: Virology
Mazen M Jamil Al-Obaidi, Fouad Hussain Al-Bayaty, Rami Al Batran, Jamal Hussaini, Goot Heah Khor
OBJECTIVES: To estimate the impact of ellagic acid (EA) towards healing tooth socket in diabetic animals, after tooth extraction. METHODS: Twenty-four Sprague Dawley male rats weighing 250-300 g were selected for this study. All animals were intraperitoneally injected with 45 mg/kg (b.w.) of freshly prepared streptozotocin (STZ), to induce diabetic mellitus. Then, the animals were anesthetized, and the upper left central incisor was extracted and the whole extracted sockets were filled with Rosuvastatin (RSV)...
2014: TheScientificWorldJournal
Jia Meng, Sujin Lee, Anne L Hotard, Martin L Moore
UNLABELLED: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the most important pathogen for lower respiratory tract illness in children for which there is no licensed vaccine. Live-attenuated RSV vaccines are the most clinically advanced in children, but achieving an optimal balance of attenuation and immunogenicity is challenging. One way to potentially retain or enhance immunogenicity of attenuated virus is to mutate virulence genes that suppress host immune responses. The NS1 and NS2 virulence genes of the RSV A2 strain were codon deoptimized according to either human or virus codon usage bias, and the resulting recombinant viruses (dNSh and dNSv, respectively) were rescued by reverse genetics...
2014: MBio
Lei Fan, Xiaozhi Bai, Longlong Yang, Shuyue Wang, Chen Yang, Chao Li, Linlin Su, Genfa Lyu, Dahai Hu
OBJECTIVE: To explore the effects of activating silent information regulator 1 (SIRT1) on early myocardial damage in severely burned rats. METHODS: Twenty-four healthy male SD rats were divided into sham injury group (SI), scald group (S), and resveratrol (RSV) treatment group (RT) according to the random number table, with 8 rats in each group. Rats in groups S and RT were inflicted with 30% TBSA full-thickness scald on the back by immersing in 95 °C water for 18 s...
June 2014: Zhonghua Shao Shang za Zhi, Zhonghua Shaoshang Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Burns
Valeria Cagno, Manuela Donalisio, Andrea Civra, Marco Volante, Elena Veccelli, Pasqua Oreste, Marco Rusnati, David Lembo
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) exploits cell surface heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) as attachment receptors. The interaction between RSV and HSPGs thus presents an attractive target for the development of novel inhibitors of RSV infection. In this study, selective chemical modification of the Escherichia coli K5 capsular polysaccharide was used to generate a collection of sulfated K5 derivatives with a backbone structure that mimics the heparin/heparan sulfate biosynthetic precursor. The screening of a series of N-sulfated (K5-NS), O-sulfated (K5-OS), and N,O-sulfated (K5-N,OS) derivatives with different degrees of sulfation revealed the highly sulfated K5 derivatives K5-N,OS(H) and K5-OS(H) to be inhibitors of RSV...
August 2014: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Peirui Zhang, Hongjing Gu, Chengrong Bian, Na Liu, Zhiwei Li, Yueqiang Duan, Shaogeng Zhang, Xiliang Wang, Penghui Yang
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the most common cause of respiratory infection in infants and the elderly, and no vaccine against this virus has yet been licensed. Here, we report a recombinant PR8 influenza virus with the RSV fusion (F) protein epitopes of the subgroup A gene inserted into the influenza virus non-structural (NS) gene (rFlu/RSV/F) that was generated as an RSV vaccine candidate. The rescued viruses were assessed by microscopy and Western blotting. The proper expression of NS1, the NS gene product, and the nuclear export protein (NEP) of rFlu/RSV/F was also investigated using an immunofluorescent assay...
September 2014: Journal of General Virology
Carlos G Grijalva, Marie R Griffin, Kathryn M Edwards, Monika Johnson, Ana I Gil, Héctor Verástegui, Claudio F Lanata, John V Williams
BACKGROUND: Epidemiologic studies of respiratory infections frequently rely on separate sample collections for the detection of bacteria and viruses. The requirement for two specimens presents cost, logistical, and acceptability challenges. OBJECTIVES: To determine the agreement in detection of respiratory viruses using RT-PCR between two different types of samples collected on the same day: nasal swabs preserved in viral transport medium (NS) and nasopharyngeal swabs preserved in skim milk-tryptone-glucose-glycerol [STGG] medium (NP), the current standard for pneumococcal colonization studies...
July 2014: Journal of Clinical Virology: the Official Publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
Michel R Rey, Michael Undi, Juan C Rodriguez-Lecompte, Tomy Joseph, Jason Morrison, Alexander Yitbarek, Karin Wittenberg, Robert Tremblay, Gary H Crow, Kim H Ominski
The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of a needle-free injection device (NF) with a needle and syringe (NS) when used to vaccinate calves against bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) and infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus (IBRV). The study was conducted in two independent phases. Ninety-six crossbred beef calves were vaccinated in the spring and 98 beef calves in the autumn. The calves were vaccinated using a NF or NS at 2 months of age (day 0) and again on day 119, with a modified-live virus vaccine containing IBRV, BVDV (types 1 and 2), parainfluenza-3 virus, and bovine respiratory syncytial virus...
October 2013: Veterinary Journal
Ramansu Goswami, Tanmay Majumdar, Jayeeta Dhar, Saurabh Chattopadhyay, Sudip K Bandyopadhyay, Valentina Verbovetskaya, Ganes C Sen, Sailen Barik
The balance between the innate immunity of the host and the ability of a pathogen to evade it strongly influences pathogenesis and virulence. The two nonstructural (NS) proteins, NS1 and NS2, of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) are critically required for RSV virulence. Together, they strongly suppress the type I interferon (IFN)-mediated innate immunity of the host cells by degrading or inhibiting multiple cellular factors required for either IFN induction or response pathways, including RIG-I, IRF3, IRF7, TBK1 and STAT2...
August 2013: Cell Research
Yu-Hong Jing, Kuan-Hsing Chen, Pei-Ching Kuo, Chia-Chi Pao, Jan-Kan Chen
AIM: Diabetes mellitus-associated hyperglycemia and oxidative stress have been shown to have detrimental effects on the brain and may lead to impairment of cognitive functions. Resveratrol (Rsv), a polyphenolic antioxidant, has been shown to have moderate hypoglycemic and prominent hypolipidemic effects in diabetic rats. In the present study, we examined if Rsv improves the diabetic encephalopathy and explored its possible underlying mechanisms. METHODS: Male SD rats were treated with streptozotocin (65 mg/kg), and the diabetic rats were orally fed with Rsv (0...
2013: Neuroendocrinology
Su Young Jung, Seung Youp Shin, Young Gyu Eun, Sung Wan Kim, Joong Saeng Cho
BACKGROUND: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is reported as the most influential factor that triggers hyperreactivity of the airway and causes asthma in infants and children. However, the mechanisms remain to be elucidated. The study evaluated the changes in the levels of four types of histamine receptor (HR) and CC chemokines, such as eotaxin and regulated on activation, normal T cell expressed and presumably secreted (RANTES), in nasal epithelial cells and fibroblasts after RSV infection...
January 2013: American Journal of Rhinology & Allergy
Yu-Rong Tan, Dan Peng, Cui-Mei Chen, Xiao-Qun Qin
Human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), a major cause of severe respiratory diseases, constitutes an important risk factor for the development of subsequent asthma. In searching for its mechanism, the present study was designed to screen the interacting proteins of two important nonstructural (NS) proteins in human BECs. The subcellular localization and the effects of NS on HOX gene expression were also examined. The results showed that NS1 was distributed throughout the nucleus and cytoplasm, while NS2 was mainly distributed in cytoplasm of BECs...
January 2013: Molecular Biology Reports
Michael N Teng
Over fifty years have passed since the identification of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) as an important pediatric pathogen. However, an effective vaccine is still lacking. Immunization with formalin-inactivated RSV resulted in vaccine-enhanced disease; thus, a greater focus has been placed more recently on developing live attenuated RSV vaccines. The difficulty in identifying a live attenuated vaccine candidate has been balancing appropriate attenuation with sufficient immunogenicity. With the advent of reverse genetics systems for RSV, researchers have been able to generate recombinint vaccine candidates by introducing specific mutations into the genome wild-type RSV...
April 2012: Infectious Disorders Drug Targets
Megan J Brooks, Elena I Burtseva, Philip J Ellery, Glenn A Marsh, Andrew M Lew, Anatoly N Slepushkin, Suzanne M Crowe, Gregory A Tannock
The therapeutic activity of arbidol was investigated against representatives of seven different virus families. Its 50% median effective concentration (EC(50) ) was 0.22-11.8 µg/ml (0.41-22 nM). Therapeutic indices of 91 were obtained for type 1 poliovirus and 1.9-8.5 for influenza A and B, human paramyxo-3, avian infectious bronchitis-, and Marek's disease viruses. Arbidol was more inhibitory for influenza A/Aichi/2/68 (H3N2) virus than rimantadine or amantadine (EC(50) 10 vs. >15 and >31.6 µg/ml); greater inhibition occurred when end-points were expressed as TCID(50) s...
January 2012: Journal of Medical Virology
Britta Heinze, Stefanie Frey, Markus Mordstein, Anette Schmitt-Gräff, Stephan Ehl, Ursula J Buchholz, Peter L Collins, Peter Staeheli, Christine D Krempl
Infection of mice with pneumonia virus of mice (PVM) provides a convenient experimental pathogenesis model in a natural host for a human respiratory syncytial virus-related virus. Extending our previous work showing that the PVM nonstructural (NS) proteins were pathogenicity factors in mice, we identify both the NS1 and NS2 proteins as antagonists of alpha/beta interferon (IFN-α/β) and IFN-λ by use of recombinant PVM (rPVM) with single and combined deletions of the NS proteins (ΔNS1, ΔNS2, and ΔNS1 ΔNS2)...
May 2011: Journal of Virology
Zhijun Jie, Darrell L Dinwiddie, Albert P Senft, Kevin S Harrod
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Dendritic cells (DCs) act as a portal for virus invasion as well as potent antigen-presenting cells (APCs) involved in the antiviral host response. Interferons (IFNs) are produced in response to bacterial and viral infection and activate innate immune responses to efficiently counteract and remove pathogenic invaders. Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) could inhibit IFN-mediated signaling pathway in epithelial cells; however, the effects of RSV on IFN signaling in the dendritic cells (DCs) are still unknown...
March 2011: Virus Research
Li-Ping Fang, Hao-Wen Qi, Han-Jun Lin, Shu-Jun Li, Dong-Liang Xu
AIM: To study the relation between Respiratory Syncytial Virus infection and asthma development by measuring airway responsiveness (AR) and M2R function. METHODS: Guinea pigs (n = 34) were randomly divided into 4 groups: Hep-2/NS group (group A, n = 9), RSV/NS group (group B, n =9), Hep-2/OVA group (group C, n = 8) and RSV/OVA group(group D, n = 8). On day 21 after infection we tested AR and M2R. Then counted eosinophils in BALF and observed pathological change...
February 2009: Chinese Journal of Applied Physiology
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