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Pneumonia child

Florencia Escarrá, Ana G Fedullo, Natalia Veliz, Julián Rosa, Rodrigo Oribe, Marisa Di Santo, Bqca Vanesa Reijtman, Lic Alejandra Mastroianni, Guadalupe Pérez
INTRODUCTION: the incidence of invasive infections caused by pneumococcus (Streptococcus pneumoniae) has declined since generalized vaccination with pneumococcal conjugated vaccine, but it is still a prevalent pathogen in children. Amongst pneumococcal invasive infections, IE (infectious endocarditis) is rare, with an incidence between 1 and 7%. CASE REPORT: We describe the case of a previously healthy 4 year old boy, who had received one dose of 10-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine who presents with fever, a new heart murmur and heart failure...
December 2017: Revista Chilena de Pediatría
William Bortcosh, Ashkon Shaahinfar, Sakina Sojar, Jean E Klig
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The diagnostic capability, efficiency and versatility of point-of-care ultrasound (POCUS) have enabled its use in paediatric emergency medicine (PEM) and paediatric critical care (PICU). This review highlights the current applications of POCUS for the critically ill child across PEM and PICU to identify areas of progress and standardized practice and to elucidate areas for future research. RECENT FINDINGS: POCUS technology continues to evolve and advance bedside clinical care for critically ill children, with ongoing research extending its use for an array of clinical scenarios, including respiratory distress, trauma and dehydration...
March 9, 2018: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
Adiatma Y M Siregar, Pipit Pitriyan, Dylan Walters
Background: In Indonesia, 96% of children (< 24mo) are breastfed. However, only 42% of children (< 6mo) are exclusively breastfed, as per World Health Organization recommendations. Breastfeeding provides protective benefits such as reducing the risk of morbidity and mortality associated with diarrhea and pneumonia/respiratory disease (PRD). This study estimates the potential economic impact of not breastfeeding according to recommendation in Indonesia based on infants suffering from attributable diarrhea and PRD...
2018: International Breastfeeding Journal
Claire J Heath, Monica Nayakwadi-Singer, Charles H King, Indu Malhotra, Francis Mutuku, Dunstan Mukoko, A Desiree LaBeaud
Streptococcus pneumoniae (SP) is a leading cause of child mortality globally, killing around half a million children aged 5 years and less per year. Nasopharyngeal carriage of SP is a prerequisite to disease, and the prevalence of colonization reaches 100% within the first few years of life. Serotype prevalence varies geographically, impacting the serotype coverage of pneumococcal vaccines, and serotype prevalence data are limited from large regions of the world, including sub-Saharan Africa. We enrolled 323 unvaccinated children, aged 4-7 years from coastal Kenya and obtained nasopharyngeal swab samples before and after vaccination with the 10-valent pneumococcal vaccine...
February 26, 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
James S Miller, Lacey English, Michael Matte, Rapheal Mbusa, Moses Ntaro, Shem Bwambale, Jessica Kenney, Mark J Siedner, Raquel Reyes, Patrick T Lee, Edgar Mulogo, Geren S Stone
BACKGROUND: Village health workers (VHWs) in five villages in Bugoye subcounty (Kasese District, Uganda) provide integrated community case management (iCCM) services, in which VHWs evaluate and treat malaria, pneumonia, and diarrhoea in children under 5 years of age. VHWs use a "Sick Child Job Aid" that guides them through the evaluation and treatment of these illnesses. A retrospective observational study was conducted to measure the quality of iCCM care provided by 23 VHWs in 5 villages in Bugoye subcounty over a 2-year period...
February 27, 2018: Malaria Journal
Amy Sarah Ginsburg, Jennifer L Lenahan, Rasa Izadnegahdar, J Mark Ansermino
Pneumonia is the leading infectious cause of death in children worldwide, with most deaths occurring in developing countries. Measuring respiratory rate is critical to the World Health Organization's guidelines for diagnosing childhood pneumonia in low-resource settings, yet it is difficult to accurately measure. We conducted a systematic review to landscape existing respiratory rate measurement technologies. We searched Pubmed, Embase, and Compendex for studies published through September 2017 assessing the accuracy of respiratory rate measurement technologies in children...
February 23, 2018: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
Ciro Esposito, Amulya Saxena, Sabine Irtan, Holger Till, Maria Escolino
INTRODUCTION: Respiratory manifestations of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), particularly chronic cough, are being recognized with increased frequency in children. This survey aimed to investigate the efficacy of laparoscopic Nissen fundoplication for treatment of GERD-related respiratory symptoms not responsive to medical therapy in neurological normal children. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We collected data of children with GERD-related respiratory complaints not responsive to medical therapy who underwent laparoscopic Nissen fundoplication in four European centers of Pediatric Surgery over a 10-year period...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Laparoendoscopic & Advanced Surgical Techniques. Part A
Rosalind Ashton, Karen W Wong, Miriam Weinstein
BACKGROUND: Erythema multiforme (EM) is a mucocutaneous disease most often associated with preceding herpes simplex virus or Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection. It is characterized by targetoid lesions occurring on the limbs and head and neck. Mucosal involvement can be extensive. OBJECTIVE: We report a case of lip adhesion as a complication of EM in a child who required corrective surgery and review similar oral commissure complications. METHODS: We completed a review of the literature for similar cases using PubMed and Medline...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Cutaneous Medicine and Surgery
Wen-Ying Zeng, Yan Li, Zhi-Lan Xu, Xiao-Lei Xie, Feng-Qin Xu, Na Rui
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 17, 2018: Chinese Journal of Integrative Medicine
J A A S Jayaweera, F Noordeen, S Kothalaweala, F N N Pitchai, M L M Rayes
OBJECTIVES: The prevalence of hMPV infections in Sri Lanka has not been reported and here we report a case series of hMPV infection in children less than 5 years. Patients with ARTI were included from Teaching Hospital, Anuradhapura from March 2013 to August 2014. Indirect fluorescence assay was performed on nasopharyngeal aspirates for the identification of respiratory viruses [respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), parainfluenza virus 1, 2 and 3, influenza A and B and hMPV]. Moreover, reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction was done to further confirm the hMPV infection...
February 14, 2018: BMC Research Notes
Manaka Matsunaga, Yuichi Kodama, Shinsuke Maruyama, Akinori Miyazono, Shunji Seki, Takayuki Tanabe, Michiyoshi Yoshimura, Junichiro Nishi, Yoshifumi Kawano
We report the case of a 12-year-old girl who developed Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) and optic neuritis (ON) following Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection. Her symptoms, including bilateral vision impairment and tingling in her hands and right foot, were resolved after methylprednisolone pulse therapy. Serum anti-galactocerebroside (Gal-C) IgM antibodies were detected in our patient. This is the first report of a child with GBS and ON associated with M. pneumoniae infection.
February 9, 2018: Brain & Development
Fang Peng, Li-Li Zhong, Xiao-Juan Lin, Min Chen, Miao Zhou
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the distribution characteristics and clinical features of Burkholderia cepacia infection in children. METHODS: A retrospective analysis was performed for the clinical data of 16 children with Burkholderia cepacia infection who were hospitalized between June 2012 and September 2017. RESULTS: All 16 children with Burkholderia cepacia infection were sporadic cases. A total of 16 strains of Burkholderia cepacia were isolated, among which 8 were detected by sputum culture, 5 were detected by blood culture, 2 were detected by tracheal intubation tip culture, and 1 was detected by lung biopsy culture...
February 2018: Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics
Yasmin Jahan, Sm Atiqur Rahman, Abu Sayeed Chowdhury, Md Moshiur Rahman
Background: Pneumonia is a major cause of child mortality among children under 5 years, worldwide. Pneumonia infection may be caused by bacteria, viruses, or fungi in single or in both lungs. According to recent criteria developed by the World Health Organization(WHO) in September (2013), pneumonia can be classified into severe pneumonia, pneumonia and no pneumonia. Most of the deaths occur from severe pneumonia. Methods: Disease management of severe childhood pneumonia requires early identification,prompt referral and the availability of intensive quality care...
2018: Health Promotion Perspectives
Yangxin Xie, Bo Tu, Xin Zhang, Jingfeng Bi, Lei Shi, Peng Zhao, Weiwei Chen, Suxia Liu, Dongping Xu, Enqiang Qin
Objective: The study aimed at analyzing the epidemiology and outcomes of liver cirrhosis patients undergoing gram-negative bacterial bloodstream infection. Results: Totally 508 eligible patients were collected, with 25.79% 30-day mortality, and 58.86% patients were confirmed as nosocomial infection. The most common isolates were Escherichia coli (48.29%) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (19.29%), and multidrug-resistant isolates accounted for 36.61%. The bacterial distributions were similar between survivors and non-survivors (P>0...
January 9, 2018: Oncotarget
Meseret Ekubay, Aster Berhe, Engida Yisma
Background: Breast milk is comprised of the essential nutrients that an infant needs in the first six months of life. Timely initiation of breastfeeding guarantees that infants receive the colostrum, 'the first breastmilk', which contains antibodies that protect the newborn against diseases. Breastfeeding within the first hour of life prevents newborn death due to sepsis, pneumonia, diarrhea and hypothermia. Although breastfeeding is a common practice in sub-Saharan Africa, evidence show that early initiation of breastfeeding is low...
2018: International Breastfeeding Journal
Bishnu Rath Giri, Ram Hari Chapagain, Samana Sharma, Sandeep Shrestha, Sunita Ghimire, P Ravi Shankar
BACKGROUND: Earthquakes impact child health in many ways. Diseases occurring immediately following an earthquake have been studied in field based hospitals but studies on the inpatient disease pattern among children without trauma in a permanent hospital setup is lacking. METHODS: We examined the diagnoses of all children without trauma, admitted to Kanti Children's Hospital, Kathmandu for fifteen-week duration (from 4th week to end of the 18th week) following the 7...
February 5, 2018: BMC Pediatrics
Fady M El-Gendy, Mahmoud A El-Hawy, Mohamed S Rizk, Sally M El-Hefnawy, Mohamed Z Mahmoud
There are many causes of anemia; the most common of these are acute and chronic infections, iron deficiency, or both. Identifying the cause is a very important step in management of anemia. So, we evaluated the usefulness of soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR) and of the sTfR/log ferritin in the diagnosis of iron deficiency anemia accompanied by acute infection. This study was conducted on 131 children aged 2-11 years old from those who attended the pediatric outpatient clinics in Menoufia university hospital...
January 2018: Indian Journal of Hematology & Blood Transfusion
Jessica A Schults, Marie Cooke, Debbie A Long, Andreas Schibler, Robert S Ware, Marion L Mitchell
INTRODUCTION: Endotracheal suction (ETS) is a frequent and necessary airway intervention for the intubated child. The aim of ETS is to clear the endotracheal tube and airways of respiratory secretions; however, the methods of performing ETS are varied. Internationally a number of ETS treatments are in use. Many have not been rigorously evaluated in a randomised controlled trial setting, and it is uncertain whether any are associated with better outcomes for the critically ill child. With approximately 50% of paediatric intensive care admissions requiring intubation, ETS interventions that maximise the efficacy and minimise the complications of ETS could translate to improved health for substantial numbers of critically ill children, and significant cost savings...
January 31, 2018: BMJ Open
Charles Opondo, Elizabeth Allen, Jim Todd, Mike English
BACKGROUND: Measuring the quality of hospital admission care is essential to ensure that standards of practice are met and continuously improved to reduce morbidity and mortality associated with the illnesses most responsible for inpatient deaths. The Paediatric Admission Quality of Care (PAQC) score is a tool for measuring adherence to guidelines for children admitted with acute illnesses in a low-income setting. We aimed to explore the external and criterion-related validity of the PAQC score by investigating its association with mortality using data drawn from a diverse sample of Kenyan hospitals...
February 2018: Lancet Global Health
Wafa Aftab, Leah Shipton, Fauziah Rabbani, Kashif Sangrasi, Shagufta Perveen, Aysha Zahidie, Imran Naeem, Shamim Qazi
BACKGROUND: Where access to facilities for childhood diarrhea and pneumonia is inadequate, community case management (CCM) is an effective way of improving access to care. In Pakistan, utilization of CCM for these diseases through the Lady Health Worker Program remains low. Challenges of access to facilities persist leading to delayed care and poor outcomes. Estimating caregiver knowledge, understanding their perceptions and practices, and recognizing how these are related to care seeking decisions about childhood diarrhea and pneumonia is crucial to bring about coherence between supply and demand-side practices...
January 27, 2018: BMC Health Services Research
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