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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150377/urgent-versus-post-stabilisation-antiretroviral-treatment-in-hospitalised-hiv-infected-children-in-kenya-push-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#1
Irene N Njuguna, Lisa M Cranmer, Vincent O Otieno, Cyrus Mugo, Hellen M Okinyi, Sarah Benki-Nugent, Barbra Richardson, Joshua Stern, Elizabeth Maleche-Obimbo, Dalton C Wamalwa, Grace C John-Stewart
BACKGROUND: Urgent antiretroviral therapy (ART) among hospitalised HIV-infected children might accelerate recovery or worsen outcomes associated with immune reconstitution. We aimed to compare urgent versus post-stabilisation ART among hospitalised HIV-infected children in Kenya. METHODS: In this unmasked randomised controlled trial, we randomly assigned (1:1) HIV-infected, ART-naive children aged 0-12 years who were eligible for treatment to receive ART within 48 h (urgent group) or in 7-14 days (post-stabilisation group) at four hospitals in Kenya (two in Nairobi and two in western Kenya)...
November 14, 2017: Lancet HIV
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145277/tricho-hepato-enteric-syndrome-with-novel-skiv2l-gene-mutations-a-case-report
#2
Eitaro Hiejima, Takahiro Yasumi, Hiroshi Nakase, Minoru Matsuura, Yusuke Honzawa, Hirokazu Higuchi, Ikuo Okafuji, Tohru Yorifuji, Takayuki Tanaka, Kazushi Izawa, Tomoki Kawai, Ryuta Nishikomori, Toshio Heike
RATIONALE: Tricho-hepato-enteric syndrome (THES) is a rare disorder caused by mutations in the TTC37 or SKIV2L genes and characterized by chronic diarrhea, liver disease, hair abnormalities, and high mortality in early childhood due to severe infection or liver cirrhosis. PATIENT CONCERNS: The patient is the second child of three siblings born to non-consanguineous healthy Japanese parents. She had intrauterine growth retardation and was delivered at 33 weeks of gestation due to placental abruption...
November 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143618/using-the-missed-opportunity-tool-as-an-application-of-the-lives-saved-tool-list-for-intervention-prioritization
#3
Yvonne Tam, Luwei Pearson
BACKGROUND: The Missed Opportunity tool was developed as an application in the Lives Saved Tool (LiST) to allow users to quickly compare the relative impact of interventions. Global Financing Facility (GFF) investment cases have been identified as a potential application of the Missed Opportunity analyses in Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), Ethiopia, Kenya, and Tanzania, to use 'lives saved' as a normative factor to set priorities. METHODS: The Missed Opportunity analysis draws on data and methods in LiST to project maternal, stillbirth, and child deaths averted based on changes in interventions' coverage...
November 7, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138020/moyamoya-syndrome-in-a-pediatric-patient-with-congenital-human-immunodeficiency-virus-type-1-infection-resulting-in-intracranial-hemorrhage
#4
Junko Yamanaka, Ikuma Nozaki, Mizue Tanaka, Hideko Uryuu, Noriko Sato, Takeji Matsushita, Hiroyuki Shichino
In the era of Antiretroviral Therapy (ART) in which human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection affected children can expect a better prognosis, the importance of careful follow up of pediatric HIV-1 cases for neurological complications has been growing. We present a case of hemorrhagic Moyamoya syndrome in a child with congenital HIV-1 infection. A 10-year-old girl was referred to our hospital for the treatment of Pneumocystis Jirovecii Pneumonia (PCP: Pneumocystis pneumonia). Her HIV-1 control was poor and Moyamoya syndrome was found during the opportunistic infection screening at admission...
November 11, 2017: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125809/burden-of-hospitalized-childhood-community-acquired-pneumonia-a-retrospective-cross-sectional-study-in-vietnam-malaysia-indonesia-and-the-republic-of-korea
#5
Kah Kee Tan, Duc Anh Dang, Ki Hwan Kim, Cissy Kartasasmita, Hwang Min Kim, Xu-Hao Zhang, Fakrudeen Shafi, Ta-Wen Yu, Emilio Ledesma, Nadia Meyer
BACKGROUND: Few studies describe the community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) burden in children in Asia. We estimated the proportion of all CAP hospitalizations in children from nine hospitals across the Republic of Korea (high-income), Indonesia, Malaysia (middle-income), and Vietnam (low/middle-income). METHODS: Over a one or two-year period, children <5 years hospitalized with CAP were identified using ICD-10 discharge codes. Cases were matched to standardized definitions of suspected (S-CAP), confirmed (C-CAP), or bacterial CAP (B-CAP) used in a pneumococcal conjugate vaccine efficacy study (COMPAS)...
November 10, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29115094/the-first-successful-lung-transplantation-in-a-korean-child-with-cystic-fibrosis
#6
Soo Ran Noh, Eun Lee, Jisun Yoon, Sungsu Jung, Song I Yang, Jinho Yu, Soo Jong Hong
Cystic fibrosis (CF) is an autosomal recessive inherited multisystem disorder caused by mutations of the gene encoding the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) protein. Respiratory failure remains the most frequent cause of morbidity and mortality. Lung transplantation is the only option to treat end-stage lung disease. Very few cases of CF occur in Koreans. We report the case of a 12-year-old girl with respiratory failure due to CF who underwent lung transplantation. She had been diagnosed with CF 8 years previously after being treated for recurrent Pseudomonas aeruginosa pneumonia and malnutrition based on sweat chloride concentrations and the CFTR protein gene mutation test...
December 2017: Journal of Korean Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102832/postneonatal-mortality-impacts-following-grants-from-the-gavi-vaccine-alliance-an-econometric-analysis-from-2000-to-2014
#7
R J Kolesar, M Audibert
We completed a retrospective multivariate panel study to evaluate the effect of Gavi Vaccine Alliance grants on vaccine-preventable disease (VPD) postneonatal mortality. We separately tested a composite VPD mortality rate and five vaccine-preventable mortality rates: pertussis, meningitis, measles, diarrhea, and pneumonia (lower-respiratory infection) as dependent variables. All 77 countries eligible for Gavi assistance from 2000 to 2014 were included in the study. To isolate the effect of Gavi funding in our primary model, we controlled for known and likely predictors of child mortality...
November 2, 2017: Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29080892/inferior-petrosal-sinus-thrombosis-in-a-child-due-to-malposition-of-br-central-venous-catheter-a-case-report
#8
Burcu Akıncı, Muhterem Duyu, Liya Alkılıç, Deniz Yılmaz Karapınar, Bülent Karapınar
OBJECTIVE: To report a case of inferior petrosal sinus(IPS) thrombosis associated with malposition of central venous catheterization(CVC). CLINICAL PRESENTATION AND INTERVENTION: A 5-month-old boy was admitted to Şifa University Hospital because of pneumonia. When exophtalmus occurred in the right eye, he was referred to Ege University Hospital. Cranial Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and Magnetic Resonance (MR) venography confirmed that the catheter in right IPS caused the thrombosis...
October 29, 2017: Medical Principles and Practice: International Journal of the Kuwait University, Health Science Centre
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29078810/improving-oxygen-therapy-for-children-and-neonates-in-secondary-hospitals-in-nigeria-study-protocol-for-a-stepped-wedge-cluster-randomised-trial
#9
Hamish R Graham, Adejumoke I Ayede, Ayobami A Bakare, Oladapo B Oyewole, David Peel, Amy Gray, Barbara McPake, Eleanor Neal, Shamim Qazi, Rasa Izadnegahdar, Adegoke G Falade, Trevor Duke
BACKGROUND: Oxygen is a life-saving, essential medicine that is important for the treatment of many common childhood conditions. Improved oxygen systems can reduce childhood pneumonia mortality substantially. However, providing oxygen to children is challenging, especially in small hospitals with weak infrastructure and low human resource capacity. METHODS/DESIGN: This trial will evaluate the implementation of improved oxygen systems at secondary-level hospitals in southwest Nigeria...
October 27, 2017: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29069315/the-impact-of-pneumococcal-vaccination-on-bacterial-and-viral-pneumonia-in-western-australian-children-record-linkage-cohort-study-of-469-589-births-1996-2012
#10
Parveen Fathima, Christopher C Blyth, Deborah Lehmann, Faye J Lim, Tasnim Abdalla, Nicholas de Klerk, Hannah C Moore
Background: Pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) was included in Australia's National Immunisation Program for all children from 2005. We assessed the impact of PCV on all-cause and pathogen-specific pneumonia hospitalisations in Western Australian (WA) children aged ≤16 years. Methods: All hospitalisations with pneumonia-related ICD-10AM diagnosis codes occurring in WA-born children (1996-2012) were linked to pathology records. Age-specific incidence rate ratios and temporal trends for all-cause and pathogen-specific pneumonia hospitalisations were calculated pre- and post-PCV introduction...
October 23, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29062911/using-data-from-a-multi-hospital-clinical-network-to-explore-prevalence-of-pediatric-rickets-in-kenya
#11
Stella W Karuri, Maureen K Murithi, Grace Irimu, Mike English
Background: Nutritional rickets is a public health concern in developing countries despite tropical climates and a re-emerging issue in developed countries. In this study, we reviewed pediatric admission data from the Clinical Information Network (CIN) to help determine hospital and region based prevalence of rickets in three regions of Kenya (Central Kenya, Western Kenya and Nairobi County). We also examine the association of rickets with other diagnosis, such as malnutrition and pneumonia, and study the effect of rickets on regional hospital stays...
2017: Wellcome Open Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29061148/integrated-community-case-management-by-drug-sellers-influences-appropriate-treatment-of-paediatric-febrile-illness-in-south-western-uganda-a-quasi-experimental-study
#12
Freddy Eric Kitutu, Joan Nakayaga Kalyango, Chrispus Mayora, Katarina Ekholm Selling, Stefan Peterson, Henry Wamani
BACKGROUND: Fever case management is a major challenge for improved child health globally, despite existence of cheap and effective child survival health technologies. The integrated Community Case Management (iCCM) intervention of paediatric febrile illnesses though adopted by Uganda's Ministry of Health to be implemented by community health workers, has not addressed the inaccess to life-saving medicines and diagnostics. Therefore, the iCCM intervention was implemented in private drug shops and evaluated for its effect on appropriate treatment of paediatric fever in a low malaria transmission setting in South Western Uganda...
October 23, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29058249/a-2-year-step-down-withdrawal-from-inhaled-corticosteroids-in-asthmatic-children-receiving-immunotherapy
#13
Chun-Hui He, Xing Li, Jun-Hong Lin, Qiang Xiao, Jia-Lu Yu, Ying-Fen Liu, Wen-Hui Jiang, Chen Chen, Li Deng, Jie Zhou
BACKGROUND: Inhaled corticosteroids (ICSs) for treating asthma are controversial because of their negative effects on the growth of asthmatic children and without clearly defined withdrawal strategy. A 2-year ICS step-down and withdrawal strategy has been developed for asthmatic children receiving 3-year subcutaneous immunotherapy (SCIT). METHODS: Eleven children were included into the SCIT group and 13 children into the ICS group. ICSs were discontinued when children met the following criteria: requiring only 1 puffper day, with good control, for at least 6 months; having a forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1)/forced vital capacity ≥80%; and SCIT discontinued for ≥24 months...
December 2017: World Journal of Pediatrics: WJP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043422/guidelines-for-the-use-of-chest-radiographs-in-community-acquired-pneumonia-in-children-and-adolescents
#14
REVIEW
Savvas Andronikou, Elena Lambert, Jarred Halton, Lucy Hilder, Iona Crumley, Mark D Lyttle, Cara Kosack
National guidance from the United Kingdom and the United States on community-acquired pneumonia in children states that chest radiographs are not recommended routinely in uncomplicated cases. The main reason in the ambulatory setting is that there is no evidence of a substantial impact on clinical outcomes. However clinical practice and adherence to guidance is multifactorial and includes the clinical context (developed vs. developing world), the confidence of the attending physician, the changing incidence of complications (according to the success of immunisation programs), the availability of alternative imaging (and its relationship to perceived risks of radiation) and the reliability of the interpretation of imaging...
October 2017: Pediatric Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038283/ctx-m-15-producing-shewanella-sp-clinical-isolate-expressing-oxa-535-a-chromosome-encoded-oxa-48-variant-putative-progenitor-of-the-plasmid-encoded-oxa-436
#15
Agnès B Jousset, Laura Dabos, Rémy A Bonnin, Delphine Girlich, Anaïs Potron, Nicolas Cabanel, Laurent Dortet, Philippe Glaser, Thierry Naas
Shewanella spp. constitute a reservoir of antibiotic resistance determinants. In a bile sample, we have identified three Extended Spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing bacteria (Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Shewanella sp. JAB-1) isolated from a child suffering from cholangitis. Our objectives were to characterize the genome and the resistome of the first ESBL-producing isolate of the genus Shewanella and determine whether plasmidic exchange occurred between the three-bacterial species. Bacterial isolates were characterized using MALDI-TOF, standard biochemical tools and antimicrobial susceptibility testing...
October 16, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037396/maternal-exposure-to-ambient-air-temperature-during-pregnancy-and-early-childhood-pneumonia
#16
Yufeng Miao, Yong-Ming Shen, Chan Lu, Ji Zeng, Qihong Deng
BACKGROUND: Pneumonia has been widely recognized as the leading cause of death in children worldwide, but its etiology still remains unclear. OBJECTIVE: We examined the association between maternal exposure to ambient air temperature during pregnancy and lifetime pneumonia in the offspring. METHODS: We conducted a cohort study of 2598 preschool children aged 3-6 years in Changsha, China. The lifetime prevalence of pneumonia was assessed using questionnaire...
October 2017: Journal of Thermal Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026398/where-there-is-no-doctor-can-volunteer-community-health-workers-in-rural-uganda-provide-integrated-community-case-management
#17
Jennifer L Brenner, Celestine Barigye, Samuel Maling, Jerome Kabakyenga, Alberto Nettel-Aguirre, Denise Buchner, Teddy Kyomuhangi, Carolyn Pim, Kathryn Wotton, Natukwatsa Amon, Nalini Singhal
INTRODUCTION: Integrated community case management (iCCM) involves assessment and treatment of common childhood illnesses by community health workers (CHWs). Evaluation of a new Ugandan iCCM program is needed. OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this study were to assess if iCCM by lay volunteer CHWs is feasible and if iCCM would increase proportions of children treated for fever, pneumonia, and diarrhoea in rural Uganda. METHODS: This pre/post study used a quasi-experimental design and non-intervention comparison community...
March 2017: African Health Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017588/morbidity-and-mortality-of-children-aged-2-59%C3%A2-months-admitted-in-the-tanzania-lake-zone-s-public-hospitals-a-cross-sectional-study
#18
Kristina Lugangira, Method Kazaura, Festus Kalokola
BACKGROUND: There is a growing concern about child mortality especially in developing countries. The Government of Tanzania and non-governmental organizations are fighting against diseases like malaria, anaemia, diarrhoea and pneumonia that contribute extensively to child mortality. This was a hospital-based, retrospective cohort study involving 1130 under-fives (excluding neonates) being either discharged from or died in public hospitals of the Lake Zone in Tanzania. We extracted information on symptoms and signs at admission, major diagnoses and causes of death from the medical records...
October 10, 2017: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28990899/cytomegalovirus-pneumonia-in-an-immunosuppressed-child-mimicking-interstitial-lung-disease
#19
Esra Karakuş, Güzin Cinel, Saliha Kanık Yüksek, Belgin Gülhan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2017: Tüberküloz Ve Toraks
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28982123/kinetics-of-antibodies-against-pneumococcal-proteins-and-their-relationship-to-nasopharyngeal-carriage-in-the-first-two-months-of-life
#20
Awa L Mendy, Schadrac C Agbla, Aderonke A Odutola, Martin Antonio, Brian M Greenwood, Jayne S Sutherland, Martin O C Ota
INTRODUCTION: The currently used Streptococcus pneumoniae vaccines have had a significant impact on the pneumococcal diseases caused by the serotypes they cover. Their limitations have stimulated a search for alternate vaccines that will cover all serotypes, be affordable and effective in young children. Pneumococcal protein antigens are potential vaccine candidates that may meet some of the shortfalls of the current vaccines. Thus, this study aimed to determine the relationship between antibodies against pneumococcal protein antigens and nasopharyngeal carriage in infants...
2017: PloS One
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