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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632946/emerging-biomarkers-of-illness-severity-urinary-metabolites-associated-with-sepsis-and-necrotizing-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-pneumonia
#1
Lilliam Ambroggio, Todd A Florin, Samir S Shah, Richard Ruddy, Larisa Yeomans, Julie Trexel, Kathleen A Stringer
STUDY OBJECTIVE: To illustrate the potential of metabolomics to identify novel biomarkers of illness severity in a child with fatal necrotizing pneumonia caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). DESIGN: Case report with two control groups and a metabolomics analysis. PATIENTS: An infant with fatal MRSA pneumonia, four children with influenza pneumonia (pneumonia control group), and seven healthy children with no known infections (healthy control group)...
June 20, 2017: Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616745/bacterial-meningitis-complicating-the-course-of-liver-cirrhosis
#2
Pasquale Pagliano, Giovanni Boccia, Francesco De Caro, Silvano Esposito
Meningitis is rarely reported in studies investigating bacterial infections in patients affected by liver cirrhosis. We investigated the findings of bacterial meningitis in patients affected by liver cirrhosis referred to our department in a 16-year period. MATERIALS: Patients with cirrhosis and bacterial meningitis were enrolled. Cirrhosis was defined by liver histology or clinical, laboratory, and ultrasonographic and endoscopic findings. Bacterial meningitis was defined by cerebro-spinal fluid pleocytosis (>10/mcl) and characteristic clinical presentation...
June 14, 2017: Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607674/gender-bias-in-careseeking-practices-in-57-low-and-middle-income-countries
#3
Janaína Calu Costa, Fernando C Wehrmeister, Aluísio Jd Barros, Cesar G Victora
BACKGROUND: Preventive and curative medical interventions can reduce child mortality. It is important to assess whether there is gender bias in access to these interventions, which can lead to preferential treatment of children of a given sex. METHODS: Data from Demographic and Health Surveys carried out in 57 low- and middle-income countries were used. The outcome variable was a composite careseeking indicator, which represents the proportion of children with common childhood symptoms or illnesses (diarrhea, fever, or suspected pneumonia) who were taken to an appropriate provider...
June 2017: Journal of Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606106/perceptions-of-measles-pneumonia-and-meningitis-vaccines-among-caregivers-in-shanghai-china-and-the-health-belief-model-a-cross-sectional-study
#4
Abram L Wagner, Matthew L Boulton, Xiaodong Sun, Bhramar Mukherjee, Zhuoying Huang, Irene A Harmsen, Jia Ren, Brian J Zikmund-Fisher
BACKGROUND: In China, the measles vaccine is offered for free whereas the pneumococcal vaccine is a for-fee vaccine. This difference has the potential to influence how caregivers evaluate whether a vaccine is important or necessary for their child, but it is unclear if models of health behavior, such as the Health Belief Model, reveal the same associations for different diseases. This study compares caregiver perceptions of different diseases (measles, pneumonia and meningitis); and characterizes associations between Health Belief Model constructs and both pneumococcal vaccine uptake and perceived vaccine necessity for pneumonia, measles, and meningitis...
June 12, 2017: BMC Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606018/a-saprophytic-fungus-sepedonium-associated-with-fatal-pneumonia-in-a-patient-undergoing-stem-cell-transplantation
#5
José Arellano-Galindo, Vázquez-Meraz Eugenio, Jiménez-Hernández Elva, Reséndiz-Sánchez Jesús, Martínez-Rivera María de Los Ángeles, Jiménez-Juárez Rodolfo Norberto, Xicohtencatl-Cortes Juan, Ochoa Sara A, Cruz-Córdoba Ariadna
Sepedonium sp . is a saprophytic fungus that inhabits soil and plant material. Few cases of infection with this fungus have been reported. We describe a case of a child who received haploidentical stem cell transplantation. The patient developed Sepedonium sp . infection after graft failure accompanied by cytomegalovirus infection. This was associated with two genotypes corresponding to a gB1 and gB3 mixture, which suggested involvement of two strains. Throughout the clinical course, immunosuppression and subsequent development of the fungal infection was observed...
January 1, 2017: Journal of International Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605562/microorganisms-associated-with-pneumonia-in-children-5-years-of-age-in-developing-and-emerging-countries-the-gabriel-pneumonia-multicenter-prospective-case-control-study
#6
Thomas Bénet, Valentina Sánchez Picot, Mélina Messaoudi, Monidarin Chou, Tekchheng Eap, Jianwei Wang, Kunling Shen, Jean-William Pape, Vanessa Rouzier, Shally Awasthi, Nitin Pandey, Ashish Bavdekar, Sonali Sanghavi, Annick Robinson, Mala Rakoto-Andrianarivelo, Maryam Sylla, Souleymane Diallo, Pagbajabyn Nymadawa, Nymadawaagiin Naranbat, Graciela Russomando, Wilma Basualdo, Florence Komurian-Pradel, Hubert Endtz, Philippe Vanhems, Gláucia Paranhos-Baccalà
Background.: Pneumonia, the leading infectious cause of child mortality globally, mainly afflicts developing countries. This prospective observational study aimed to assess the microorganisms associated with pneumonia in children aged <5 years in developing and emerging countries. Methods.: A multicenter, case-control study by the GABRIEL (Global Approach to Biological Research, Infectious diseases and Epidemics in Low-income countries) network was conducted between 2010 and 2014 in Cambodia, China, Haiti, India (2 sites), Madagascar, Mali, Mongolia, and Paraguay...
June 12, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594619/managing-acute-respiratory-tract-infections-in-children
#7
Bruce C Schuster, Clare Hoare, Atanu Mukherjee, Siba Prosad Paul
Respiratory tract infections (RTIs), including community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), bronchiolitis, viral-induced wheeze and croup, account for more primary care consultations than any other illness group and are the most likely reason for a parent or carer to contact a health professional. The majority of RTIs in fully immunised children are usually self-limiting. However, in a small percentage of children RTIs may become life threatening and it is crucial that all front-line health professionals are able to recognise and identify these children who are at risk of deterioration...
June 8, 2017: British Journal of Nursing: BJN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28576759/competitive-dominance-within-biofilm-consortia-regulate-the-relative-distribution-of-pneumococcal-nasopharyngeal-density
#8
Xueqing Wu, Nate T Jacobs, Catherine Bozio, Preston Palm, Santiago M Lattar, Christiane R Hanke, David M Watson, Fuminori Sakai, Bruce R Levin, Keith P Klugman, Jorge E Vidal
Streptococcus pneumoniae is a main cause of child mortality worldwide, but strains also asymptomatically colonize the upper airways of most children forming biofilms. Recent studies have demonstrated that ∼50% of colonized children carry at least two different serotypes (i.e., strains) in the nasopharynx; however, studies of how strains coexist are limited. In this work, we investigated the physiological, genetics, and ecological requirements for the relative distribution of densities, and spatial localization, of pneumococcal strains within biofilm consortia...
June 2, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28575375/association-of-c-reactive-protein-with-bacterial-and-respiratory-syncytial-virus-associated-pneumonia-among-children-aged-5-years-in-the-perch-study
#9
Melissa M Higdon, Tham Le, Katherine L O'Brien, David R Murdoch, Christine Prosperi, Henry C Baggett, W Abdullah Brooks, Daniel R Feikin, Laura L Hammitt, Stephen R C Howie, Karen L Kotloff, Orin S Levine, J Anthony G Scott, Donald M Thea, Juliet O Awori, Vicky L Baillie, Stephanie Cascio, Somchai Chuananon, Andrea N DeLuca, Amanda J Driscoll, Bernard E Ebruke, Hubert P Endtz, Anek Kaewpan, Geoff Kahn, Angela Karani, Ruth A Karron, David P Moore, Daniel E Park, Mohammed Ziaur Rahman, Rasheed Salaudeen, Phil Seidenberg, Somwe Wa Somwe, Mamadou Sylla, Milagritos D Tapia, Scott L Zeger, Maria Deloria Knoll, Shabir A Madhi
Background.: Lack of a gold standard for identifying bacterial and viral etiologies of pneumonia has limited evaluation of C-reactive protein (CRP) for identifying bacterial pneumonia. We evaluated the sensitivity and specificity of CRP for identifying bacterial vs respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) pneumonia in the Pneumonia Etiology Research for Child Health (PERCH) multicenter case-control study. Methods.: We measured serum CRP levels in cases with World Health Organization-defined severe or very severe pneumonia and a subset of community controls...
June 15, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28575374/evaluation-of-pneumococcal-load-in-blood-by-polymerase-chain-reaction-for-the-diagnosis-of-pneumococcal-pneumonia-in-young-children-in-the-perch-study
#10
Maria Deloria Knoll, Susan C Morpeth, J Anthony G Scott, Nora L Watson, Daniel E Park, Henry C Baggett, W Abdullah Brooks, Daniel R Feikin, Laura L Hammitt, Stephen R C Howie, Karen L Kotloff, Orin S Levine, Katherine L O'Brien, Donald M Thea, Dilruba Ahmed, Martin Antonio, Juliet O Awori, Vicky L Baillie, James Chipeta, Andrea N Deluca, Michel Dione, Amanda J Driscoll, Melissa M Higdon, Anchalee Jatapai, Ruth A Karron, Razib Mazumder, David P Moore, James Mwansa, Sammy Nyongesa, Christine Prosperi, Phil Seidenberg, Duangkamon Siludjai, Samba O Sow, Boubou Tamboura, Scott L Zeger, David R Murdoch, Shabir A Madhi
Background.: Detection of pneumococcus by lytA polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in blood had poor diagnostic accuracy for diagnosing pneumococcal pneumonia in children in 9 African and Asian sites. We assessed the value of blood lytA quantification in diagnosing pneumococcal pneumonia. Methods.: The Pneumonia Etiology Research for Child Health (PERCH) case-control study tested whole blood by PCR for pneumococcus in children aged 1-59 months hospitalized with signs of pneumonia and in age-frequency matched community controls...
June 15, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28575371/detection-of-pneumococcal-dna-in-blood-by-polymerase-chain-reaction-for-diagnosing-pneumococcal-pneumonia-in-young-children-from-low-and-middle-income-countries
#11
Susan C Morpeth, Maria Deloria Knoll, J Anthony G Scott, Daniel E Park, Nora L Watson, Henry C Baggett, W Abdullah Brooks, Daniel R Feikin, Laura L Hammitt, Stephen R C Howie, Karen L Kotloff, Orin S Levine, Shabir A Madhi, Katherine L O'Brien, Donald M Thea, Peter V Adrian, Dilruba Ahmed, Martin Antonio, Charatdao Bunthi, Andrea N DeLuca, Amanda J Driscoll, Louis Peter Githua, Melissa M Higdon, Geoff Kahn, Angela Karani, Ruth A Karron, Geoffrey Kwenda, Sirirat Makprasert, Razib Mazumder, David P Moore, James Mwansa, Sammy Nyongesa, Christine Prosperi, Samba O Sow, Boubou Tamboura, Toni Whistler, Scott L Zeger, David R Murdoch
Background.: We investigated the performance of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) on blood in the diagnosis of pneumococcal pneumonia among children from 7 low- and middle-income countries. Methods.: We tested blood by PCR for the pneumococcal autolysin gene in children aged 1-59 months in the Pneumonia Etiology Research for Child Health (PERCH) study. Children had World Health Organization-defined severe or very severe pneumonia or were age-frequency-matched community controls...
June 15, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28575370/bayesian-estimation-of-pneumonia-etiology-epidemiologic-considerations-and-applications-to-the-pneumonia-etiology-research-for-child-health-study
#12
Maria Deloria Knoll, Wei Fu, Qiyuan Shi, Christine Prosperi, Zhenke Wu, Laura L Hammitt, Daniel R Feikin, Henry C Baggett, Stephen R C Howie, J Anthony G Scott, David R Murdoch, Shabir A Madhi, Donald M Thea, W Abdullah Brooks, Karen L Kotloff, Mengying Li, Daniel E Park, Wenyi Lin, Orin S Levine, Katherine L O'Brien, Scott L Zeger
In pneumonia, specimens are rarely obtained directly from the infection site, the lung, so the pathogen causing infection is determined indirectly from multiple tests on peripheral clinical specimens, which may have imperfect and uncertain sensitivity and specificity, so inference about the cause is complex. Analytic approaches have included expert review of case-only results, case-control logistic regression, latent class analysis, and attributable fraction, but each has serious limitations and none naturally integrate multiple test results...
June 15, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28575368/introduction-to-the-epidemiologic-considerations-analytic-methods-and-foundational-results-from-the-pneumonia-etiology-research-for-child-health-study
#13
Katherine L O'Brien, Henry C Baggett, W Abdullah Brooks, Daniel R Feikin, Laura L Hammitt, Stephen R C Howie, Maria Deloria Knoll, Karen L Kotloff, Orin S Levine, Shabir A Madhi, David R Murdoch, J Anthony G Scott, Donald M Thea, Scott L Zeger
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 15, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28575366/the-effect-of-antibiotic-exposure-and-specimen-volume-on-the-detection-of-bacterial-pathogens-in-children-with-pneumonia
#14
Amanda J Driscoll, Maria Deloria Knoll, Laura L Hammitt, Henry C Baggett, W Abdullah Brooks, Daniel R Feikin, Karen L Kotloff, Orin S Levine, Shabir A Madhi, Katherine L O'Brien, J Anthony G Scott, Donald M Thea, Stephen R C Howie, Peter V Adrian, Dilruba Ahmed, Andrea N DeLuca, Bernard E Ebruke, Caroline Gitahi, Melissa M Higdon, Anek Kaewpan, Angela Karani, Ruth A Karron, Razib Mazumder, Jessica McLellan, David P Moore, Lawrence Mwananyanda, Daniel E Park, Christine Prosperi, Julia Rhodes, Md Saifullah, Phil Seidenberg, Samba O Sow, Boubou Tamboura, Scott L Zeger, David R Murdoch
Background.: Antibiotic exposure and specimen volume are known to affect pathogen detection by culture. Here we assess their effects on bacterial pathogen detection by both culture and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in children. Methods.: PERCH (Pneumonia Etiology Research for Child Health) is a case-control study of pneumonia in children aged 1-59 months investigating pathogens in blood, nasopharyngeal/oropharyngeal (NP/OP) swabs, and induced sputum by culture and PCR...
June 15, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28575365/density-of-upper-respiratory-colonization-with-streptococcus-pneumoniae-and-its-role-in-the-diagnosis-of-pneumococcal-pneumonia-among-children-aged-5-years-in-the-perch-study
#15
Henry C Baggett, Nora L Watson, Maria Deloria Knoll, W Abdullah Brooks, Daniel R Feikin, Laura L Hammitt, Stephen R C Howie, Karen L Kotloff, Orin S Levine, Shabir A Madhi, David R Murdoch, J Anthony G Scott, Donald M Thea, Martin Antonio, Juliet O Awori, Vicky L Baillie, Andrea N DeLuca, Amanda J Driscoll, Julie Duncan, Bernard E Ebruke, Doli Goswami, Melissa M Higdon, Ruth A Karron, David P Moore, Susan C Morpeth, Justin M Mulindwa, Daniel E Park, Wantana Paveenkittiporn, Barameht Piralam, Christine Prosperi, Samba O Sow, Milagritos D Tapia, Khalequ Zaman, Scott L Zeger, Katherine L O'Brien
Background.: Previous studies suggested an association between upper airway pneumococcal colonization density and pneumococcal pneumonia, but data in children are limited. Using data from the Pneumonia Etiology Research for Child Health (PERCH) study, we assessed this potential association. Methods.: PERCH is a case-control study in 7 countries: Bangladesh, The Gambia, Kenya, Mali, South Africa, Thailand, and Zambia. Cases were children aged 1-59 months hospitalized with World Health Organization-defined severe or very severe pneumonia...
June 15, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28575364/the-incremental-value-of-repeated-induced-sputum-and-gastric-aspirate-samples-for-the-diagnosis-of-pulmonary-tuberculosis-in-young-children-with-acute-community-acquired-pneumonia
#16
David P Moore, Melissa M Higdon, Laura L Hammitt, Christine Prosperi, Andrea N DeLuca, Pedro Da Silva, Vicky L Baillie, Peter V Adrian, Azwifarwi Mudau, Maria Deloria Knoll, Daniel R Feikin, David R Murdoch, Katherine L O'Brien, Shabir A Madhi
Background.: Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) contributes to the pathogenesis of childhood acute community-acquired pneumonia in settings with a high tuberculosis burden. The incremental value of a repeated induced sputum (IS) sample, compared with a single IS or gastric aspirate (GA) sample, is not well known. Methods.: Two IS samples were obtained for Mtb culture from children enrolled as cases in the Pneumonia Etiology Research for Child Health (PERCH) study in South Africa...
June 15, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28575363/limited-utility-of-polymerase-chain-reaction-in-induced-sputum-specimens-for-determining-the-causes-of-childhood-pneumonia-in-resource-poor-settings-findings-from-the-pneumonia-etiology-research-for-child-health-perch-study
#17
Donald M Thea, Phil Seidenberg, Daniel E Park, Lawrence Mwananyanda, Wei Fu, Qiyuan Shi, Henry C Baggett, W Abdullah Brooks, Daniel R Feikin, Stephen R C Howie, Maria Deloria Knoll, Karen L Kotloff, Orin S Levine, Shabir A Madhi, Katherine L O'Brien, J Anthony G Scott, Martin Antonio, Juliet O Awori, Vicky L Baillie, Andrea N DeLuca, Amanda J Driscoll, Melissa M Higdon, Lokman Hossain, Yasmin Jahan, Ruth A Karron, Sidi Kazungu, Mengying Li, David P Moore, Susan C Morpeth, Ogochukwu Ofordile, Christine Prosperi, Ornuma Sangwichian, Pongpun Sawatwong, Mamadou Sylla, Milagritos D Tapia, Scott L Zeger, David R Murdoch, Laura L Hammitt
Background.: Sputum examination can be useful in diagnosing the cause of pneumonia in adults but is less well established in children. We sought to assess the diagnostic utility of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for detection of respiratory viruses and bacteria in induced sputum (IS) specimens from children hospitalized with severe or very severe pneumonia. Methods.: Among children aged 1-59 months, we compared organism detection by multiplex PCR in IS and nasopharyngeal/oropharyngeal (NP/OP) specimens...
June 15, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28575362/the-diagnostic-utility-of-induced-sputum-microscopy-and-culture-in-childhood-pneumonia
#18
David R Murdoch, Susan C Morpeth, Laura L Hammitt, Amanda J Driscoll, Nora L Watson, Henry C Baggett, W Abdullah Brooks, Maria Deloria Knoll, Daniel R Feikin, Karen L Kotloff, Orin S Levine, Shabir A Madhi, Katherine L O'Brien, J Anthony G Scott, Donald M Thea, Peter V Adrian, Dilruba Ahmed, Muntasir Alam, Juliet O Awori, Andrea N DeLuca, Melissa M Higdon, Ruth A Karron, Geoffrey Kwenda, Eunice M Machuka, Sirirat Makprasert, Jessica McLellan, David P Moore, John Mwaba, Salim Mwarumba, Daniel E Park, Christine Prosperi, Ornuma Sangwichian, Seydou Sissoko, Milagritos D Tapia, Scott L Zeger, Stephen R C Howie
Background.: Sputum microscopy and culture are commonly used for diagnosing the cause of pneumonia in adults but are rarely performed in children due to difficulties in obtaining specimens. Induced sputum is occasionally used to investigate lower respiratory infections in children but has not been widely used in pneumonia etiology studies. Methods.: We evaluated the diagnostic utility of induced sputum microscopy and culture in patients enrolled in the Pneumonia Etiology Research for Child Health (PERCH) study, a large study of community-acquired pneumonia in children aged 1-59 months...
June 15, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28575361/chest-radiograph-findings-in-childhood-pneumonia-cases-from-the-multisite-perch-study
#19
Nicholas Fancourt, Maria Deloria Knoll, Henry C Baggett, W Abdullah Brooks, Daniel R Feikin, Laura L Hammitt, Stephen R C Howie, Karen L Kotloff, Orin S Levine, Shabir A Madhi, David R Murdoch, J Anthony G Scott, Donald M Thea, Juliet O Awori, Breanna Barger-Kamate, James Chipeta, Andrea N DeLuca, Mahamadou Diallo, Amanda J Driscoll, Bernard E Ebruke, Melissa M Higdon, Yasmin Jahan, Ruth A Karron, Nasreen Mahomed, David P Moore, Kamrun Nahar, Sathapana Naorat, Micah Silaba Ominde, Daniel E Park, Christine Prosperi, Somwe Wa Somwe, Somsak Thamthitiwat, Syed M A Zaman, Scott L Zeger, Katherine L O'Brien
Background.: Chest radiographs (CXRs) are frequently used to assess pneumonia cases. Variations in CXR appearances between epidemiological settings and their correlation with clinical signs are not well documented. Methods.: The Pneumonia Etiology Research for Child Health project enrolled 4232 cases of hospitalized World Health Organization (WHO)-defined severe and very severe pneumonia from 9 sites in 7 countries (Bangladesh, the Gambia, Kenya, Mali, South Africa, Thailand, and Zambia)...
June 15, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28575359/standardized-interpretation-of-chest-radiographs-in-cases-of-pediatric-pneumonia-from-the-perch-study
#20
Nicholas Fancourt, Maria Deloria Knoll, Breanna Barger-Kamate, John de Campo, Margaret de Campo, Mahamadou Diallo, Bernard E Ebruke, Daniel R Feikin, Fergus Gleeson, Wenfeng Gong, Laura L Hammitt, Rasa Izadnegahdar, Anchalee Kruatrachue, Shabir A Madhi, Veronica Manduku, Fariha Bushra Matin, Nasreen Mahomed, David P Moore, Musaku Mwenechanya, Kamrun Nahar, Claire Oluwalana, Micah Silaba Ominde, Christine Prosperi, Joyce Sande, Piyarat Suntarattiwong, Katherine L O'Brien
Background.: Chest radiographs (CXRs) are a valuable diagnostic tool in epidemiologic studies of pneumonia. The World Health Organization (WHO) methodology for the interpretation of pediatric CXRs has not been evaluated beyond its intended application as an endpoint measure for bacterial vaccine trials. Methods.: The Pneumonia Etiology Research for Child Health (PERCH) study enrolled children aged 1-59 months hospitalized with WHO-defined severe and very severe pneumonia from 7 low- and middle-income countries...
June 15, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
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