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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445613/neuronal-distribution-of-tyramine-and-the-tyramine-receptor-amtar1-in-the-honeybee-brain
#1
Markus Thamm, Christina Scholl, Tina Reim, Kornelia Grübel, Karin Möller, Wolfgang Rössler, Ricarda Scheiner
Tyramine is an important neurotransmitter, neuromodulator, and neurohormone in insects. In honeybees, it is assumed to have functions in modulating sensory responsiveness and controlling motor behavior. Tyramine can bind to two characterized receptors in honeybees, both of which are coupled to intracellular cAMP pathways. How tyramine acts on neuronal, cellular and circuit levels is unclear. We investigated the spatial brain expression of the tyramine receptor AmTAR1 using a specific antibody. This antibody detects a membrane protein of the expected molecular weight in Western blot analysis...
April 26, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445491/how-people-used-ochre-at-rose-cottage-cave-south-africa-sixty-thousand-years-of-evidence-from-the-middle-stone-age
#2
Tammy Hodgskiss, Lyn Wadley
We describe colour, hardness, grain size, geological type and surface modifications of ochre pieces excavated, first by Malan and later by Harper, from the Middle Stone Age (MSA) of Rose Cottage Cave, 96, 000 to 30, 000 years ago. Soft, bright-red shales are abundant, and most ochre has clayey or silty grain sizes. The post-Howiesons Poort layers contain the most ochre pieces, but the Howiesons Poort layers have the highest frequency of ochre per sediment volume. The pre-Howiesons Poort layers have the highest utilization rate...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444952/similarity-in-volatile-communities-leads-to-increased-herbivory-and-greater-tropical-forest-diversity
#3
Tara Joy Massad, Marcílio Martins de Moraes, Casey Philbin, Celso Oliveira, Gerardo Cebrian Torrejon, Lydia Fumiko Yamaguchi, Christopher S Jeffrey, Lee A Dyer, Lora A Richards, Massuo Jorge Kato
A longstanding paradigm in ecology is that there are positive associations between herbivore diversity, specialization, and plant species diversity, with a focus on taxonomic diversity. However, phytochemical diversity is also an informative metric, as insect herbivores interact with host-plants not as taxonomic entities, but as sources of nutrients, primary metabolites, and mixtures of attractant and repellant chemicals. The present research examines herbivore responses to phytochemical diversity measured as volatile similarity in the tropical genus Piper...
April 26, 2017: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444855/intraguild-interactions-and-behavior-of-spodoptera-frugiperda-and-helicoverpa-spp-on-maize
#4
José P F Bentivenha, Débora G Montezano, Thomas E Hunt, Edson L L Baldin, Julie A Peterson, Vinícius S Victor, Luiz E R Pannuti, Ana M Vélez, Silvana V Paula-Moraes
BACKGROUND: Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), is one of the major pests of maize, and is in the same feeding guild of the noctuid pests, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie), and Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner), recently reported in South and North America. The intraguild interactions of these species were assessed in laboratory and field conditions by determining the survival of larvae in interactions scenarios with non-Bt maize silks and ears. Moreover, a video-tracking system was utilized to evaluate behavioral parameters during larval interactions in scenarios with or without food...
April 26, 2017: Pest Management Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444830/gene-expression-reveals-evidence-for-egfr-dependent-proximal-distal-limb-patterning-in-a-myriapod
#5
Ralf Janssen
Evolution of segmented limbs is one of the key innovations of Arthropoda, allowing development of functionally specific specialized head and trunk appendages, a major factor behind their unmatched evolutionary success. Proximodistal limb patterning is controlled by two regulatory networks in the vinegar fly Drosophila melanogaster, and other insects. The first is represented by the function of the morphogens Wingless (Wg) and Decapentaplegic (Dpp); the second by the EGFR-signaling cascade. While the role of Wg and Dpp has been studied in a wide range of arthropods representing all main branches, that is, Pancrustacea (= Hexapoda + Crustacea), Myriapoda and Chelicerata, investigation of the potential role of EGFR-signaling is restricted to insects (Hexapoda)...
April 26, 2017: Evolution & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444605/recent-trends-of-modern-bacterial-insecticides-for-pest-control-practice-in-integrated-crop-management-system
#6
REVIEW
Pritam Chattopadhyay, Goutam Banerjee, Sayantan Mukherjee
Food security and safety are the major concern in ever expanding human population on the planet earth. Each and every year insect pests cause a serious damage in agricultural field that cost billions of dollars annually to farmers. The loss in term of productivity and high cost of chemical pesticides enhance the production cost. Irrespective use of chemical pesticides (such as Benzene hexachloride, Endosulfan, Aldicarb, and Fenobucarb) in agricultural field raised several types of environmental issues. Furthermore, continuous use of chemical pesticides creates a selective pressure which helps in emerging of resistance pest...
May 2017: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444590/transcripts-of-pectin-degrading-enzymes-and-isolation-of-complete-cdna-sequence-of-a-pectate-lyase-gene-induced-by-coffee-white-stem-borer-xylotrechus-quadripes-in-the-bark-tissue-of-coffea-canephora-robusta-coffee
#7
Kosaraju Bharathi, P Santosh, H L Sreenath
Of the two commercially cultivated coffee (Coffea) species, C. arabica (arabica) is highly susceptible and C. canephora (robusta) is highly resistant to the insect pest Xylotrechus quadripes (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae), commonly known as coffee white stem borer (CWSB). We constructed a forward-subtracted cDNA library by Suppression Subtractive Hybridization (SSH) from robusta bark tissue for profiling genes induced by CWSB infestation. Among the 265 unigenes of the SSH EST library, 7 unigenes (5 contigs and 2 singletons) matching different pectin-degrading enzymes were discovered...
May 2017: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444516/trap-nesting-hymenoptera-and-their-network-with-parasites-in-recovered-riparian-forests-brazil
#8
G J Araujo, R Fagundes, Y Antonini
Different aspects of human activities can cause environmental change that endanger species persistence, alter species distributions, and lead to changes in antagonistic and mutualistic interactions, whereas deforestation and flooding of riparian forest results in landscapes consisting of patchily distributed riparian forest fragments in a matrix of pastures, plantations, and urban areas. Therefore, we assessed the richness, abundance, and trophic interactions of trap-nesting Hymenoptera and their parasites at four patches of restored riparian forest and at one reference natural fragment, of different sizes and ages, located at the Volta Grande Reservoir, in Minas Gerais and São Paulo states to answer the following questions: (1) Does the richness and abundance of cavity-nesting bees and wasps differ in riparian forest fragments according to the seasonal periods? (2) Does the composition of cavity-nesting bees and wasps vary among restoration and reference sites and between climate seasons (wet and dry)? (3) How do the degrees of specialization of the parasites vary among the patches of forest? We recorded 12 species of wasps, eight of bees, and nine species of parasites...
April 25, 2017: Neotropical Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444386/coevolution-with-pollinating-resin-midges-led-to-resin-filled-nurseries-in-the-androecia-gynoecia-and-tepals-of-kadsura-schisandraceae
#9
Shi-Xiao Luo, Ting-Ting Liu, Fei Cui, Zi-Yin Yang, Xiao-Ying Hu, Susanne S Renner
Background and Aims: Resin is a defence against herbivores and a floral reward in a few African and South American species whose bee pollinators collect it for nest construction. Here we describe a new role for floral resin from the Asian genus Kadsura (Schisandraceae). Kadsura tepals tightly cover a globe formed by carpels (in females) or near-fused stamens with fleshy connectives (in male flowers of most, but not all species). Methods: We carried out field observations at four sites in China and used pollinator behavioural assays, chemical analyses and time-calibrated insect and plant phylogenies to investigate the specificity of the interactions and their relationship to floral structure...
April 21, 2017: Annals of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444351/comparative-genomic-analysis-of-set-domain-family-reveals-the-origin-expansion-and-putative-function-of-the-arthropod-specific-smyda-genes-as-histone-modifiers-in-insects
#10
Feng Jiang, Qing Liu, Yanli Wang, Jie Zhang, Huimin Wang, Tianqi Song, Meiling Yang, Xianhui Wang, Le Kang
The SET domain is an evolutionarily conserved motif present in histone lysine methyltransferases, which are important in the regulation of chromatin and gene expression in animals. In this study, we searched for SET domain-containing genes (SET genes) in all of the 147 arthropod genomes sequenced at the time of carrying out this experiment to understand the evolutionary history by which SET domain have evolved in insects. Phylogenetic and ancestral state reconstruction analysis revealed an arthropod-specific SET gene family, named SmydA, which is ancestral to arthropod animals and specifically diversified during insect evolution...
April 22, 2017: GigaScience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444217/direct-and-indirect-effects-of-pesticides-on-the-insidious-flower-bug-hemiptera-anthocoridae-under-laboratory-conditions
#11
Nathan J Herrick, Raymond A Cloyd
Greenhouse producers are interested in integrating natural enemies along with pesticides to suppress western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande), populations. The insidious flower bug, Orius insidiosus (Say), is a commercially available natural enemy of western flower thrips. We conducted a series of laboratory experiments to determine the direct and indirect effects of 28 pesticides (insecticides, miticides, and fungicides), 4 pesticide mixtures, and 4 surfactants (36 total treatments plus a water control) on the adult O...
April 21, 2017: Journal of Economic Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444209/variation-in-the-time-of-colonization-of-broiler-carcasses-by-carrion-flies-in-nakhonsawan-province-thailand
#12
Kittikhun Moophayak, Kabkaew L Sukontason, Watcharapong Ruankham, Jeffery K Tomberlin, Nophawan Bunchu
Carrion flies are the primary insects colonizing vertebrate carrion; however, limited information is available on the variation in the time of colonization (TOC) as related to time of placement (TOP) and time of death (TOD), particularly in Thailand. Three seasonal sets of nine broiler carcasses (euthanized and placed in field within 0.5 h after death) were placed in mesh enclosures within a disturbed deciduous dipterocarp forest at Nakhonsawan Province, upper-central Thailand, for 3 d to determine the colonization time by carrion flies...
April 21, 2017: Journal of Medical Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444203/a-chemosensory-protein-gene-si-csp1-associated-with-necrophoric-behavior-in-red-imported-fire-ants-hymenoptera-formicidae
#13
Hua-Long Qiu, Dai-Feng Cheng
Necrophoric behavior is essential to colony health in social insects. Little is known about the genes that are responsible for necrophoric behavior. Here, we show that a chemosensory protein gene Si-CSP1 was expressed significantly higher in the antennae than in other tissues such as the legs and heads of Solenopsis invicta Buren workers. Furthermore, Si-CSP1-silenced workers moved significantly fewer corpses of their nestmates than normal workers. Finally, Si-CSP1-silenced workers exhibited weaker antennal responses to oleic acid and linoleic acid than controls...
April 21, 2017: Journal of Economic Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443639/insect-immunity-mechanism-of-adaptive-immunity-found-in-the-fruitfly
#14
Alexandra Flemming
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2017: Nature Reviews. Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442469/recurrent-superficial-lymphangitis-after-insect-bites
#15
Patrick M Meyer Sauteur, Patrick Orban, Martin Theiler
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 25, 2017: Archives of Disease in Childhood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442446/proteomic-and-transcriptomic-analysis-of-saliva-components-from-the-hematophagous-reduviid-triatoma-pallidipennis
#16
María J Hernández-Vargas, Jeovanis Gil, Luis Lozano, Martha Pedraza-Escalona, Ernesto Ortiz, Sergio Encarnación-Guevara, Alejandro Alagón, Gerardo Corzo
Species belonging to the Triatominae subfamily are commonly associated with Chagas disease, as they are potential vectors of the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi. However, their saliva contains a cocktail of diverse anti-hemostatic proteins that prevent blood coagulation, vasodilation and platelet aggregation of blood; components with indisputable therapeutic potential. We performed a transcriptomic and proteomic analyses of salivary glands and protein spots from 2DE gels of milked saliva, respectively, from the Mexican Triatoma pallidipennis...
April 22, 2017: Journal of Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441117/sexual-dimorphism-of-parental-care-from-genes-to-behavior
#17
Noga Zilkha, Niv Scott, Tali Kimchi
Parental care is found in species across the animal kingdom, from small insects to large mammals, with a conserved purpose of increasing offspring survival. Yet enormous variability exists between different species and between the sexes in the pattern and level of parental investment. Here, we review the literature on the neurobiological mechanisms underlying maternal and paternal care, especially in rodents, and discuss the relationship between sex differences in behavior and sexual dimorphism in the brain...
April 24, 2017: Annual Review of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440594/identification-of-a-hypertrehalosemic-factor-in-spodoptera-exigua
#18
Youngjin Park, Yonggyun Kim
Trehalose is a major blood sugar in insects with a range of physiological functions, including an energy source and a cryoprotectant. Hemolymph trehalose concentrations are tightly regulated according to physiological conditions. An insulin-like peptide, SeILP1, downregulates hemolymph trehalose concentrations in Spodoptera exigua. Here, we identified a factor that upregulates hemolymph trehalose concentration in S. exigua. Hemolymph trehalose concentrations were significantly increased after immune challenge or under starvation in a time-dependent manner...
April 25, 2017: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439825/small-rna-profiling-by-next-generation-sequencing-using-high-definition-adapters
#19
Martina Billmeier, Ping Xu
Small RNAs (sRNAs) as key regulators of gene expression play fundamental roles in many biological processes. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) has become an important tool for sRNA discovery and profiling. However, NGS data often show bias for or against certain sequences which is mainly caused by adapter oligonucleotides that are ligated to sRNAs more or less efficiently by RNA ligases. In order to reduce ligation bias, High-definition (HD) adapters for the Illumina sequencing platform were developed. However, a large amount of direct 5' and 3' adapter ligation products are often produced when the current commercially available kits are used for cloning with HD adapters...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439742/exploration-of-the-binding-affinities-between-ecdysone-agonists-and-ecr-usp-by-docking-and-mm-pb-gbsa-approaches
#20
Xueping Hu, Jin Xie, Song Hu, Li Zhang, Yanhong Dong
Ecdysone receptor (EcR) is a significant target in the identification of new environmentally friendly pesticides. There are two types of ecdysone agonists: steroidal ecdysone agonists and dibenzoylhydrazines (DBHs). In this study, various modeling methods (homology modeling, molecular docking, MD simulation, binding free energy calculation, and per-residue binding free energy decomposition) were utilized to study the different binding mechanisms of two types of ecdysone agonists. Our theoretical results indicated that the relative binding potencies of DBHs can be ranked sufficiently accurately using the MOE docking method...
May 2017: Journal of Molecular Modeling
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