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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103294/community-based-entomological-surveillance-reveals-urban-foci-of-chagas-disease-vectors-in-sobral-state-of-cear%C3%A3-northeastern-brazil
#1
Cynara Carvalho Parente, Fernando S M Bezerra, Plutarco I Parente, Raimundo V Dias-Neto, Samanta C C Xavier, Alberto N Ramos, Filipe A Carvalho-Costa, Marli M Lima
BACKGROUND: The aim of this work was to explore the potential risk of vector-borne Chagas disease in urban districts in northeastern Brazil, by analyzing the spatiotemporal distributions and natural infection rates with Trypanosoma cruzi of triatomine species captured in recent years. The main motivation of this work was an acute human case of Chagas disease reported in 2008 in the municipality of Sobral. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We analyzed data from community-based entomological surveillance carried out from 2010 to 2014...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103287/does-a-species-extinction-proneness-predict-its-contribution-to-nestedness-a-test-using-a-sunbird-tree-visitation-network
#2
Charles A Nsor, Hazel M Chapman, William Godsoe
Animal pollinators and the plants they pollinate depend on networks of mutualistic partnerships and more broadly on the stability of such networks. Based mainly on insect-plant visitation networks, theory predicts that species that are most prone to extinction contribute the most to nestedness, however empirical tests are rare. We used a sunbird-tree visitation network within which were both extinction prone vs non extinction prone sunbird species to test the idea. We predicted that the extinction prone species would contribute the most to nestedness...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103247/bombyx-mori-p-element-somatic-inhibitor-bmpsi-is-a-key-auxiliary-factor-for-silkworm-male-sex-determination
#3
Jun Xu, Shuqing Chen, Baosheng Zeng, Anthony A James, Anjiang Tan, Yongping Huang
Manipulation of sex determination pathways in insects provides the basis for a wide spectrum of strategies to benefit agriculture and public health. Furthermore, insects display a remarkable diversity in the genetic pathways that lead to sex differentiation. The silkworm, Bombyx mori, has been cultivated by humans as a beneficial insect for over two millennia, and more recently as a model system for studying lepidopteran genetics and development. Previous studies have identified the B. mori Fem piRNA as the primary female determining factor and BmMasc as its downstream target, while the genetic scenario for male sex determination was still unclear...
January 19, 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103237/adult-tea-green-leafhoppers-empoasca-onukii-matsuda-change-behaviors-under-varying-light-conditions
#4
Longqing Shi, Liette Vasseur, Huoshui Huang, Zhaohua Zeng, Guiping Hu, Xin Liu, Minsheng You
Insect behaviors are often influenced by light conditions including photoperiod, light intensity, and wavelength. Understanding pest insect responses to changing light conditions may help with developing alternative strategies for pest control. Little is known about the behavioral responses of leafhoppers (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) to light conditions. The behavior of the tea green leafhopper, Empoasca onukii Matsuda, was examined when exposed to different light photoperiods or wavelengths. Observations included the frequency of locomotion and cleaning activities, and the duration of time spent searching...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102430/innate-and-intrinsic-antiviral-immunity-in-drosophila
#5
REVIEW
Assel Mussabekova, Laurent Daeffler, Jean-Luc Imler
The fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster has been a valuable model to investigate the genetic mechanisms of innate immunity. Initially focused on the resistance to bacteria and fungi, these studies have been extended to include antiviral immunity over the last decade. Like all living organisms, insects are continually exposed to viruses and have developed efficient defense mechanisms. We review here our current understanding on antiviral host defense in fruit flies. A major antiviral defense in Drosophila is RNA interference, in particular the small interfering (si) RNA pathway...
January 19, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102333/conserving-herbivorous-and-predatory-insects-in-urban-green-spaces
#6
Luis Mata, Caragh G Threlfall, Nicholas S G Williams, Amy K Hahs, Mallik Malipatil, Nigel E Stork, Stephen J Livesley
Insects are key components of urban ecological networks and are greatly impacted by anthropogenic activities. Yet, few studies have examined how insect functional groups respond to changes to urban vegetation associated with different management actions. We investigated the response of herbivorous and predatory heteropteran bugs to differences in vegetation structure and diversity in golf courses, gardens and parks. We assessed how the species richness of these groups varied amongst green space types, and the effect of vegetation volume and plant diversity on trophic- and species-specific occupancy...
January 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102267/a-theoretical-foundation-for-multi-scale-regular-vegetation-patterns
#7
Corina E Tarnita, Juan A Bonachela, Efrat Sheffer, Jennifer A Guyton, Tyler C Coverdale, Ryan A Long, Robert M Pringle
Self-organized regular vegetation patterns are widespread and thought to mediate ecosystem functions such as productivity and robustness, but the mechanisms underlying their origin and maintenance remain disputed. Particularly controversial are landscapes of overdispersed (evenly spaced) elements, such as North American Mima mounds, Brazilian murundus, South African heuweltjies, and, famously, Namibian fairy circles. Two competing hypotheses are currently debated. On the one hand, models of scale-dependent feedbacks, whereby plants facilitate neighbours while competing with distant individuals, can reproduce various regular patterns identified in satellite imagery...
January 18, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101957/summer-co-existence-of-small-sized-cyprinid-and-percid-individuals-in-natural-and-impounded-stretches-of-a-lowland-river-food-niche-partitioning-among-fishes
#8
J Lik, M Dukowska, M Grzybkowska, J Leszczyńska
Due to changes of discharge regime downstream of a dam reservoir, an alluvial natural stretch of the Warta River changed to a macrophyte-dominated ecosystem. Large patches of submersed, aquatic macrophytes appeared in summer and their effect is analysed in this study. These patches contained enriched macroinvertebrate assemblages (epiphyton and benthos) and they were refuge for both zooplankton and young fishes released from the reservoir. Despite these altered conditions in this stretch, roach Rutilus rutilus, perch Perca fluviatilis and ruffe Gymnocephalus cernua dominated, as they did in the natural backwater...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Fish Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101904/functional-analysis-of-the-circadian-clock-gene-timeless-in-tribolium-castaneum
#9
Chengjun Li, Xiaopei Yun, Xiaojuan Yu, Bin Li
Circadian rhythms are endogenous oscillations with a period of about 24 h driven by a circadian clock. So far, the variable oscillators were designed in insects. To explore the circadian clock of Tribolium castaneum, we have cloned the clock gene timeless (Tctimeless). Its open reading frame is 3240 bp in length and consists of 10 exons. Tctimeless is highly expressed in the late pupal stage. Tissue-specific expression analysis in late adult stages revealed high expression of Tctimeless in the head, epidermis, fat body and accessory glands...
January 19, 2017: Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101872/properties-of-engineered-and-fabricated-silks
#10
Gregor Lang, Heike Herold, Thomas Scheibel
Silk is a protein-based material which is predominantly produced by insects and spiders. Hundreds of millions of years of evolution have enabled these animals to utilize different, highly adapted silk types in a broad variety of applications. Silk occurs in several morphologies, such as sticky glue or in the shape of fibers and can, depending on the application by the respective animal, dissipate a high mechanical energy, resist heat and radiation, maintain functionality when submerged in water and withstand microbial settling...
2017: Sub-cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101536/host-range-restriction-of-insect-specific-flaviviruses-occurs-at-several-levels-of-the-viral-life-cycle
#11
Sandra Junglen, Marvin Korries, Wolfgang Grasse, Janett Wieseler, Anne Kopp, Kyra Hermanns, Moises León-Juárez, Christian Drosten, Beate Mareike Kümmerer
The genus Flavivirus contains emerging arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) infecting vertebrates, as well as insect-specific viruses (ISVs) (i.e., viruses whose host range is restricted to insects). ISVs are evolutionary precursors to arboviruses. Knowledge of the nature of the ISV infection block in vertebrates could identify functions necessary for the expansion of the host range toward vertebrates. Mapping of host restrictions by complementation of ISV and arbovirus genome functions could generate knowledge critical to predicting arbovirus emergence...
January 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100820/support-for-the-reproductive-ground-plan-hypothesis-in-a-solitary-bee-links-between-sucrose-response-and-reproductive-status
#12
Karen M Kapheim, Makenna M Johnson
In social bees, foraging behaviour is correlated with reproductive status and sucrose sensitivity via endocrine pathways. This association led to the hypothesis that division of labour in social insect societies is derived from an ancestral ground plan that functions to synchronize dietary preferences with reproductive needs in solitary insects. However, the relationship between these traits is unknown for solitary bees, which represent the ancestral state of social bees. We used the proboscis extension response assay to measure sucrose response among reproductive females of the solitary alkali bee (Nomia melanderi) as a function of acute juvenile hormone (JH) treatments and reproductive physiology...
January 25, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100819/vertically-transmitted-rhabdoviruses-are-found-across-three-insect-families-and-have-dynamic-interactions-with-their-hosts
#13
Ben Longdon, Jonathan P Day, Nora Schulz, Philip T Leftwich, Maaike A de Jong, Casper J Breuker, Melanie Gibbs, Darren J Obbard, Lena Wilfert, Sophia C L Smith, John E McGonigle, Thomas M Houslay, Lucy I Wright, Luca Livraghi, Luke C Evans, Lucy A Friend, Tracey Chapman, John Vontas, Natasa Kambouraki, Francis M Jiggins
A small number of free-living viruses have been found to be obligately vertically transmitted, but it remains uncertain how widespread vertically transmitted viruses are and how quickly they can spread through host populations. Recent metagenomic studies have found several insects to be infected with sigma viruses (Rhabdoviridae). Here, we report that sigma viruses that infect Mediterranean fruit flies (Ceratitis capitata), Drosophila immigrans, and speckled wood butterflies (Pararge aegeria) are all vertically transmitted...
January 25, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100451/an-aphid-effector-targets-trafficking-protein-vps52-in-a-host-specific-manner-to-promote-virulence
#14
Patricia Rodriguez, Carmen Escudero-Martinez, Jorunn Bos
Plant- and animal-feeding insects secrete saliva inside their hosts, containing effectors, which may promote nutrient release and suppress immunity. Although for plant pathogenic microbes it is well established that effectors target host proteins to modulate host cell processes and promote disease, the host cell targets of herbivorous insects remain elusive. Here, we show that the existing plant pathogenic microbe effector paradigm can be extended to herbivorous insects in that effector-target interactions inside host cells modify critical host processes to promote plant susceptibility...
January 18, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099851/a-molecular-and-cellular-context-dependent-role-for-ir76b-in-detection-of-amino-acid-taste
#15
Anindya Ganguly, Lisa Pang, Vi-Khoi Duong, Angelina Lee, Hanni Schoniger, Erika Varady, Anupama Dahanukar
Amino acid taste is expected to be a universal property among animals. Although sweet, bitter, salt, and water tastes have been well characterized in insects, the mechanisms underlying amino acid taste remain elusive. From a Drosophila RNAi screen, we identify an ionotropic receptor, Ir76b, as necessary for yeast preference. Using calcium imaging, we identify Ir76b(+) amino acid taste neurons in legs, overlapping partially with sweet neurons but not those that sense other tastants. Ir76b mutants have reduced responses to amino acids, which are rescued by transgenic expression of Ir76b and a mosquito ortholog AgIr76b...
January 17, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099501/environmental-persistence-influences-infection-dynamics-for-a-butterfly-pathogen
#16
Dara A Satterfield, Sonia Altizer, Mary-Kate Williams, Richard J Hall
Many pathogens, including those infecting insects, are transmitted via dormant stages shed into the environment, where they must persist until encountering a susceptible host. Understanding how abiotic conditions influence environmental persistence and how these factors influence pathogen spread are crucial for predicting patterns of infection risk. Here, we explored the consequences of environmental transmission for infection dynamics of a debilitating protozoan parasite (Ophryocystis elektroscirrha) that infects monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099483/reading-the-leaves-palm-leaf-traits-and-herbivory-along-the-microclimatic-gradient-of-forest-layers
#17
Stephanie Stiegel, Martin H Entling, Jasmin Mantilla-Contreras
Microclimate in different positions on a host plant has strong direct effects on herbivores. But little is known about indirect effects due to changes of leaf traits. We hypothesized that herbivory increases from upper canopy to lower canopy and understory due to a combination of direct and indirect pathways. Furthermore, we hypothesized that herbivory in the understory differs between tree species in accordance with their leaf traits. We investigated herbivory by leaf chewing insects along the vertical gradient of mixed deciduous forest stands on the broad-leaved tree species Fagus sylvatica L...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098752/microbiological-load-of-edible-insects-found-in-belgium
#18
Rudy Caparros Megido, Sandrine Desmedt, Christophe Blecker, François Béra, Éric Haubruge, Taofic Alabi, Frédéric Francis
Edible insects are gaining more and more attention as a sustainable source of animal protein for food and feed in the future. In Belgium, some insect products can be found on the market, and consumers are sourcing fresh insects from fishing stores or towards traditional markets to find exotic insects that are illegal and not sanitarily controlled. From this perspective, this study aims to characterize the microbial load of edible insects found in Belgium (i.e., fresh mealworms and house crickets from European farms and smoked termites and caterpillars from a traditional Congolese market) and to evaluate the efficiency of different processing methods (blanching for all species and freeze-drying and sterilization for European species) in reducing microorganism counts...
January 13, 2017: Insects
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098233/microrna-34-directly-targets-pair-rule-genes-and-cytoskeleton-component-in-the-honey-bee
#19
Flávia C P Freitas, Camilla V Pires, Charles Claudianos, Alexandre S Cristino, Zilá L P Simões
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are key regulators of developmental processes, such as cell fate determination and differentiation. Previous studies showed Dicer knockdown in honeybee embryos disrupt the processing of functional mature miRNAs and impairs embryo patterning. Here we investigated the expression profiles of miRNAs in honeybee embryogenesis and the role of the highly conserved miR-34-5p in the regulation of genes involved in insect segmentation. A total of 221 miRNAs were expressed in honey bee embryogenesis among which 97 mature miRNA sequences have not been observed before...
January 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098190/an-extraordinary-palaeontinid-from-the-triassic-of-korea-and-its-significance
#20
Kye Soo Nam, Ying Wang, Dong Ren, Jong Heon Kim, Jacek Szwedo
A new, extraordinary palaeontinid Hallakkungis amisanus Nam, Wang &Szwedo, gen. et sp. nov., from the Upper Triassic of the Amisan Formation in Boryeong City, Korea is described. It is the first Palaeontinidae from Korea. The newly described taxon displays a mosaic of characters present in presumed ancestors of this insect family and some highly advanced features.
January 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
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