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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343353/development-reproduction-survival-and-demographic-patterns-of-tuta-absoluta-meyrick-lepidoptera-gelechiidae-on-different-commercial-tomato-cultivars
#1
F S Krechemer, L A Foerster
The increase in the production of tomato, Solanum lycopersicon Mill. (Solanaceae), has favored the proliferation of pests, especially Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae). In this study, the development, reproduction, survival, and demographic parameters of T. absoluta reared on six commercial tomato cultivars (Cherry, Cordilheira, Giuliana, Nemoneta, Paron, and Santa Clara) were evaluated. Tuta absoluta completed its development in all tomato cultivars. Development from newly hatched caterpillar to newly emerged adult varied between 24...
March 25, 2017: Neotropical Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343286/a-mimic-of-sexually-motivated-homicide-insect-stings-and-heat-exhaustion-in-a-forest
#2
Nancy X Liu, Michael S Pollanen
We report the case a woman who was found dead in a forest. The body was nude and the position of the body suggested a sexually motivated homicide. We concluded that death was not related to homicide, but was related to the conjunction of environmental factors, including insect stings, and acute psychosis. A medicolegal death investigation with postmortem examination was undertaken to determine cause of death. At the scene, the body was supine with legs spread apart and the knees flexed, exposing the external genitalia...
March 25, 2017: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342854/evolution-of-ligands-receptors-and-metabolizing-enzymes-of-thyroid-signaling
#3
Guillaume Holzer, Natacha Roux, Vincent Laudet
Thyroid hormones (THs) play important roles in vertebrates such as the control of the metabolism, development and seasonality. Given the pleiotropic effects of thyroid disorders (developmental delay, mood disorder, tachycardia, etc), THs signaling is highly investigated, specially using mammalian models. In addition, the critical role of TH in controlling frog metamorphosis has led to the use of Xenopus as another prominent model to study THs action. Nevertheless, animals regarded as non-model species can also improve our understanding of THs signaling...
March 22, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342852/effects-of-sub-culturing-on-genetic-and-physiological-parameters-in-different-beauveria-bassiana-isolates
#4
Naser Eivazian Kary, Zhila Alizadeh
Beauveria bassiana is a fungus which is widely used as a biological insecticide to control a number of economically important insect pests. Knowledge of the genetic diversity of the isolates, understanding the underlying nature of these evolutionary phenomena and finding appropriate and simple screening tools play an important role in developing effective biocontrol agents. Here, we monitored changes of electrophoretic karyotype of small molecules of extrachromosomal DNAs, presumably mitochondrial DNA or plasmids in several individual isolates of B...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342661/climate-change-and-human-infectious-diseases-a-synthesis-of-research-findings-from-global-and-spatio-temporal-perspectives
#5
Lu Liang, Peng Gong
The life cycles and transmission of most infectious agents are inextricably linked with climate. In spite of a growing level of interest and progress in determining climate change effects on infectious disease, the debate on the potential health outcomes remains polarizing, which is partly attributable to the varying effects of climate change, different types of pathogen-host systems, and spatio-temporal scales. We summarize the published evidence and show that over the past few decades, the reported negative or uncertain responses of infectious diseases to climate change has been growing...
March 22, 2017: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340427/identification-and-characterization-of-a-%C3%AE-defensin-gene-involved-in-the-immune-defense-response-of-channel-catfish-ictalurus-punctatus
#6
Jieyao Zhu, Hong Wang, Jun Wang, Xingli Wang, Shuang Peng, Yi Geng, Kaiyu Wang, Pin Ouyang, Zhiqiong Li, Xiaoli Huang, Defang Chen
Antimicrobial peptides are small peptides that play important roles in a host's innate immune response. As an important antimicrobial peptide, β-defensin widely distribute in mammals, insects and plants with broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity. In this study, the β-defensin gene of the channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, was cloned, sequenced, and subjected to a bioinformatic analysis. The β-defensin gene of the channel catfish contains three exons and two introns, and encodes a precursor peptide consisting of two domains: a signal peptide of 24 amino acid residues and a mature peptide of 43 amino acid residues...
March 21, 2017: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340266/rna-seq-based-transcriptome-and-the-reproduction-related-genes-for-the-aphid-schlechtendalia-chinensis-hemiptera-aphididae
#7
P Liu, Z X Yang, X M Chen, P Yang
Chinese galls form on sumac plants (Rhus chinensis) and are used for medicinal and chemical purposes, due to their richness in tannins. The galls are formed by aphids, the most prominent of which is Schlechtendalia chinensis, which forms horn-shaped galls on the winged rachis of R. chinensis. S. chinensis has a complex life cycle, including both R. chinensis and certain mosses as hosts, as well as the existence of both sexual and asexual reproduction (cyclical parthenogenesis). Previous studies have shown that the alternate occurrence of sexual and asexual reproduction relies on many environmental factors, such as temperature, photoperiod, and host-plant...
March 22, 2017: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339710/productive-performance-and-blood-profiles-of-laying-hens-fed-hermetia-illucens-larvae-meal-as-total-replacement-of-soybean-meal-from-24-to-45-weeks-of-age
#8
S Marono, R Loponte, P Lombardi, G Vassalotti, M E Pero, F Russo, L Gasco, G Parisi, G Piccolo, S Nizza, C Di Meo, Y A Attia, F Bovera
The aim of the research was to study the effects of an insect meal from Hermetia illucens larvae (HILM) as complete replacement of soybean meal (SBM) on productive performance and blood profiles of laying hens, from 24 to 45 wk of age. A total of 108 24-week-old Lohmann Brown Classic laying hens was equally divided into 2 groups (54 hens/group, 9 replicates of 6 hens/group). From 24 to 45 wk of age, the groups were fed 2 different isoproteic and isoenergetic diets: the control group (SBM) was fed a corn-soybean meal based diet, while in the HILM group the soybean meal was completely replaced by Hermetia illucens larvae meal...
February 22, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339462/safety-of-a-topical-insect-repellent-picaridin-during-community-mass-use-for-malaria-control-in-rural-cambodia
#9
Somony Heng, Vincent Sluydts, Lies Durnez, Vanna Mean, Koh Polo, Sochantha Tho, Marc Coosemans, Johan van Griensven
BACKGROUND: While community distribution of topical repellents has been proposed as an additional malaria control intervention, the safety of this intervention at the population level remains poorly evaluated. We describe the safety of mass distribution of the picaridin repellent during a cluster-randomised trial in rural Cambodia in 2012-2013. METHODS: The repellent was distributed among 57 intervention villages with around 25,000 inhabitants by a team of village distributors...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339367/the-functional-significance-of-morphological-changes-in-the-dentitions-of-early-mammals
#10
Andrew J Conith, Michael J Imburgia, Alfred J Crosby, Elizabeth R Dumont
The Mesozoic marked a time of experimentation in the tooth morphology of early mammals. One particular experiment involved the movement of three points, or cusps, on the surface of a molar tooth from a line into a triangle. This transition is exemplified by two extinct insectivorous mammals, Morganucodon (cusps in a line) and Kuehneotherium (cusps in a triangle). Here we test whether this difference in cusp arrangement, alongside cusp heights and angles between cusps, is associated with differences in the ability of the teeth to fracture proxy-insect prey...
November 2016: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339295/antifungal-plant-defensins-increased-insight-in-their-mode-of-action-as-a-basis-for-their-use-to-combat-fungal-infections
#11
Tanne L Cools, Caroline Struyfs, Bruno Pa Cammue, Karin Thevissen
Plant defensins are small, cationic peptides with a highly conserved 3D structure. They have been studied extensively in the past decades. Various biological activities have been attributed to plant defensins, such as anti-insect and antimicrobial activities, but they are also known to affect ion channels and display antitumor activity. This review focuses on the structure, biological activity and antifungal mode of action of some well-characterized plant defensins, with particular attention to their fungal membrane target(s), their induced cell death mechanisms as well as their antibiofilm activity...
March 24, 2017: Future Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339104/transferable-antibiotic-resistances-in-marketed-edible-grasshoppers-locusta-migratoria-migratorioides
#12
Andrea Osimani, Cristiana Garofalo, Lucia Aquilanti, Vesna Milanović, Federica Cardinali, Manuela Taccari, Marina Pasquini, Stefano Tavoletti, Francesca Clementi
Grasshoppers are the most commonly eaten insects by humans worldwide, as they are rich in proteins and micronutrients. This study aimed to assess the occurrence of transferable antibiotic resistance genes in commercialized edible grasshoppers. To this end, the prevalence of 12 selected genes [aac(6')-Ie aph(2″)-Ia, blaZ, erm(A), erm(B), erm(C), mecA, tet(M), tet(O), tet(S), tet(K), vanA, vanB] coding for resistance to antibiotics conventionally used in clinical practice was determined. The majority of samples were positive for tet(M) (70...
March 24, 2017: Journal of Food Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338970/woody-plant-ecosystems-under-climate-change-and-air-pollution-response-consistencies-across-zonobiomes
#13
R Matyssek, A R Kozovits, G Wieser, J King, H Rennenberg
Forests store the largest terrestrial pools of carbon (C), helping to stabilize the global climate system, yet are threatened by climate change (CC) and associated air pollution (AP, highlighting ozone (O3) and nitrogen oxides (NOx)). We adopt the perspective that CC-AP drivers and physiological impacts are universal, resulting in consistent stress responses of forest ecosystems across zonobiomes. Evidence supporting this viewpoint is presented from the literature on ecosystem gross/net primary productivity and water cycling...
March 14, 2017: Tree Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338679/entomopathogenic-bacteria-use-multiple-mechanisms-for-bioactive-peptide-library-design
#14
Xiaofeng Cai, Sarah Nowak, Frank Wesche, Iris Bischoff, Marcel Kaiser, Robert Fürst, Helge B Bode
The production of natural product compound libraries has been observed in nature for different organisms such as bacteria, fungi and plants; however, little is known about the mechanisms generating such chemically diverse libraries. Here we report mechanisms leading to the biosynthesis of the chemically diverse rhabdopeptide/xenortide peptides (RXPs). They are exclusively present in entomopathogenic bacteria of the genera Photorhabdus and Xenorhabdus that live in symbiosis with nematodes delivering them to insect prey, which is killed and utilized for nutrition by both nematodes and bacteria...
April 2017: Nature Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338605/comparing-species-composition-of-passive-trapping-of-adult-flies-with-larval-collections-from-the-body-during-scene-based-medicolegal-death-investigations
#15
Michelle R Sanford
Collection of insects at the scene is one of the most important aspects of forensic entomology and proper collection is one of the biggest challenges for any investigator. Adult flies are highly mobile and ubiquitous at scenes, yet their link to the body and the time of colonization (TOC) and post-mortem interval (PMI) estimates is not well established. Collection of adults is widely recommended for casework but has yet to be rigorously evaluated during medicolegal death investigations for its value to the investigation...
March 24, 2017: Insects
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338049/breeding-system-and-spatial-isolation-from-congeners-strongly-constrain-seed-set-in-an-insect-pollinated-apomictic-tree-sorbus-subcuneata-rosaceae
#16
Tracey J Hamston, Robert J Wilson, Natasha de Vere, Tim C G Rich, Jamie R Stevens, James E Cresswell
In plants, apomixis results in the production of clonal offspring via seed and can provide reproductive assurance for isolated individuals. However, many apomicts require pollination to develop functional endosperm for successful seed set (pseudogamy) and therefore risk pollination-limitation, particularly in self-incompatible species that require heterospecific pollen. We used microsatellite paternity analysis and hand pollinations to investigate pollen-limitation in Sorbus subcuneata, a threatened endemic tree that co-occurs with its congener, S...
March 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337632/comparative-toxicity-of-imidacloprid-and-thiacloprid-to-different-species-of-soil-invertebrates
#17
Cláudia de Lima E Silva, Nicola Brennan, Jitske M Brouwer, Daniël Commandeur, Rudo A Verweij, Cornelis A M van Gestel
Neonicotinoid insecticides have come under increasing scrutiny for their impact on non-target organisms, especially pollinators. The current scientific literature is mainly focused on the impact of these insecticides on pollinators and some aquatic insects, leaving a knowledge gap concerning soil invertebrates. This study aimed at filling this gap, by determining the toxicity of imidacloprid and thiacloprid to five species of soil invertebrates: earthworms (Eisenia andrei), enchytraeids (Enchytraeus crypticus), Collembola (Folsomia candida), oribatid mites (Oppia nitens) and isopods (Porcellio scaber)...
March 23, 2017: Ecotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337138/motor-skill-learning-in-an-insect-inspired-neuro-computational-control-system
#18
Eleonora Arena, Paolo Arena, Roland Strauss, Luca Patané
In nature, insects show impressive adaptation and learning capabilities. The proposed computational model takes inspiration from specific structures of the insect brain: after proposing key hypotheses on the direct involvement of the mushroom bodies (MBs) and on their neural organization, we developed a new architecture for motor learning to be applied in insect-like walking robots. The proposed model is a nonlinear control system based on spiking neurons. MBs are modeled as a nonlinear recurrent spiking neural network (SNN) with novel characteristics, able to memorize time evolutions of key parameters of the neural motor controller, so that existing motor primitives can be improved...
2017: Frontiers in Neurorobotics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336605/draft-genome-sequence-of-chromobacterium-subtsugae-mwu12-2387-isolated-from-a-wild-cranberry-bog-in-truro-massachusetts
#19
Kristin Vöing, Alisha Harrison, Scott D Soby
Chromobacterium subtsugae MWU12-2387 was isolated from the rhizosphere of cranberry plants. While it is unknown what environmental role these bacteria play in bog soils, they hold potential as biological control agents against nematodes and insect pests. Potential virulence genes were identified, including the violacein synthesis pathway, siderophores, and several chitinases.
March 23, 2017: Genome Announcements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336393/contributions-of-%C3%AE-tubulin-to-cellular-morphology-sporulation-and-virulence-in-the-insect-fungal-pathogen-metarhizium-acridum
#20
Jie Zhang, Kai Jin, Yuxian Xia
β-tubulin is an elementary subunit of microtubules that form the cytoskeleton, participating in a wide range of cellular processes. The contributions of the single β-tubulin gene in affecting cell morphology, sporulation and virulence were examined in the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium acridum. Targeted gene knockout of β-tubulin resulted in resistance to benomyl but impaired proper nuclear segregation, lipid droplet transport, and deposition of chitin to the cell wall. M. acridum β-tubulin mutants displayed wavy hyphal growth and densely packed, wrinkled colonies...
March 20, 2017: Fungal Genetics and Biology: FG & B
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