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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936462/sinu-virus-a-novel-and-divergent-orthomyxovirus-related-to-members-of-the-genus-thogotovirus-isolated-from-mosquitoes-in-colombia
#1
María Angélica Contreras-Gutiérrez, Marcio R T Nunes, Hilda Guzman, Sandra Uribe, Juan Carlos Gallego Gómez, Juan David Suaza Vasco, Jedson F Cardoso, Vsevolod L Popov, Steven G Widen, Thomas G Wood, Nikos Vasilakis, Robert B Tesh
The genome and structural organization of a novel insect-specific orthomyxovirus, designated Sinu virus, is described. Sinu virus (SINUV) was isolated in cultures of C6/36 cells from a pool of mosquitoes collected in northwestern Colombia. The virus has six negative-sense ssRNA segments. Genetic analysis of each segment demonstrated the presence of six distinct ORFs encoding the following genes: PB2 (Segment 1), PB1, (Segment 2), PA protein (Segment 3), envelope GP gene (Segment 4), the NP (Segment 5), and M-like gene (Segment 6)...
December 6, 2016: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936192/insecticidal-activity-of-melaleuca-alternifolia-essential-oil-and-rna-seq-analysis-of-sitophilus-zeamais-transcriptome-in-response-to-oil-fumigation
#2
Min Liao, Jin-Jing Xiao, Li-Jun Zhou, Yang Liu, Xiang-Wei Wu, Ri-Mao Hua, Gui-Rong Wang, Hai-Qun Cao
BACKGROUND: The cereal weevil, Sitophilus zeamais is one of the most destructive pests of stored cereals worldwide. Frequent use of fumigants for managing stored-product insects has led to the development of resistance in insects. Essential oils from aromatic plants including the tea oil plant, Melaleuca alternifolia may provide environmentally friendly alternatives to currently used pest control agents. However, little is known about molecular events involved in stored-product insects in response to plant essential oil fumigation...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935842/when-obligate-partners-melt-down
#3
Nancy A Moran
Insect hosts derive benefits from their obligate symbionts, including nutrient supplementation and the ability to colonize otherwise inhospitable niches. But long-term symbionts sometimes also limit the ecological range of their hosts; in particular, they are often more temperature sensitive than the hosts themselves. Even small increases in average temperature, comparable to those occurring under current conditions of climate change, can kill symbionts and, with them, their hosts. In some cases, limitations imposed by obligate symbionts may help to counter the spread of invasive pests, but they also contribute to contractions in populations and geographic ranges of invertebrate species...
November 15, 2016: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935594/plant-mediated-horizontal-transmission-of-wolbachia-between-whiteflies
#4
Shao-Jian Li, Muhammad Z Ahmed, Ning Lv, Pei-Qiong Shi, Xing-Min Wang, Ji-Lei Huang, Bao-Li Qiu
Maternal transmission is the main transmission pathway of facultative bacterial endosymbionts, but phylogenetically distant insect hosts harbor closely related endosymbionts, suggesting that horizontal transmission occurs in nature. Here we report the first case of plant-mediated horizontal transmission of Wolbachia between infected and uninfected Bemisia tabaci AsiaII7 whiteflies. After infected whiteflies fed on cotton leaves, Wolbachia was visualized, both in the phloem vessels and in some novel 'reservoir' spherules along the phloem by fluorescence in situ hybridization using Wolbachia-specific 16S rRNA probes and transmission electron microscopy...
December 9, 2016: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27934967/association-between-gut-microbiota-and-diapause-preparation-in-the-cabbage-beetle-a-new-perspective-for-studying-insect-diapause
#5
Wen Liu, Yi Li, Shuang Guo, Han Yin, Chao-Liang Lei, Xiao-Ping Wang
Gut microbiota mediate the nutritional metabolism and play important roles in human obesity. Diapausing insects accumulate large fat reserves and develop obese phenotypes in order to survive unfavorable conditions. However, the possibility of an association between gut microbiota and insect diapause has not been investigated. We used the Illumina MiSeq platform to compare gut bacterial community composition in nondiapause- (i.e. reproductive) and diapause-destined female cabbage beetles, Colaphellus bowringi, a serious pest of vegetables in Asia...
December 9, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27934524/self-assembled-hierarchical-arrays-for-colored-retroreflective-coatings
#6
Kuan-Yi Tsao, Hui-Ping Tsai, Kun-Yi Andrew Lin, Yi-Xuan He, Hongta Yang
This study reports a self-assembly technology for fabricating retroreflection coatings with hierarchical nano-/microstructures, which are inspired by the binary periodic structures found in the compound eyes of insects. Silica colloidal crystals of adjustable thicknesses are assembled on encountering glass microbeads using a Langmuir-Blodgett-like approach in a layer-by-layer manner. The as-assembled hierarchical structures exhibit a brilliant color caused by Bragg diffraction from the crystalline lattice of silica colloidal crystals on glass microbeads...
December 6, 2016: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933609/the-role-of-electrical-and-jasmonate-signalling-in-the-recognition-of-captured-prey-in-the-carnivorous-sundew-plant-drosera-capensis
#7
Miroslav Krausko, Zdeněk Perutka, Marek Šebela, Olga Šamajová, Jozef Šamaj, Ondřej Novák, Andrej Pavlovič
The carnivorous sundew plant (Drosera capensis) captures prey using sticky tentacles. We investigated the tentacle and trap reactions in response to the electrical and jasmonate signalling evoked by different stimuli to reveal how carnivorous sundews recognize digestible captured prey in their traps. We measured the electrical signals, phytohormone concentration, enzyme activities and Chla fluorescence in response to mechanical stimulation, wounding or insect feeding in local and systemic traps. Seven new proteins in the digestive fluid were identified using mass spectrometry...
December 9, 2016: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933578/inhibitory-activity-of-beauveria-bassiana-and-trichoderma-spp-on-the-insect-pests-xylotrechus-arvicola-coleoptera-cerambycidae-and-acanthoscelides-obtectus-coleoptera-chrisomelidae-bruchinae
#8
Álvaro Rodríguez-González, Sara Mayo, Óscar González-López, Bonifacio Reinoso, Santiago Gutierrez, Pedro Antonio Casquero
Xylotrechus arvicola is an important pest in vineyards (Vitis vinifera) in the main Iberian wine-producing regions, and Acanthoscelides obtectus causes severe post-harvest losses in the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris). Under laboratory conditions with a spray tower, the susceptibility of the immature stages of X. arvicola and A. obtectus against the entomopathogenic fungi Beauveria bassiana and four strains of Trichoderma spp. was evaluated. Both insect pests T. harzianum and B. bassiana showed a good inhibitory activity, accumulating an inhibition on the eggs of values above 85 and 82%, respectively...
January 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933456/penicillin-v-acylases-from-gram-negative-bacteria-degrade-n-acylhomoserine-lactones-and-attenuate-virulence-in-pseudomonas-aeruginosa
#9
Avinash Vellore Sunder, Putri Dwi Utari, Sureshkumar Ramasamy, Ronald van Merkerk, Wim Quax, Archana Pundle
Virulence pathways in gram-negative pathogenic bacteria are regulated by quorum sensing mechanisms, through the production and sensing of N-acylhomoserine lactone (AHL) signal molecules. Enzymatic degradation of AHLs leading to attenuation of virulence (quorum quenching) could pave the way for the development of new antibacterials. Penicillin V acylases (PVAs) belong to the Ntn hydrolase superfamily, together with AHL acylases. PVAs are exploited widely in the pharmaceutical industry, but their role in the natural physiology of their native microbes is not clearly understood...
December 8, 2016: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933079/small-rnas-from-bemisia-tabaci-are-transferred-to-solanum-lycopersicum-phloem-during-feeding
#10
Paula J M van Kleeff, Marc Galland, Robert C Schuurink, Petra M Bleeker
The phloem-feeding whitefly Bemisia tabaci is a serious pest to a broad range of host plants, including many economically important crops such as tomato. These insects serve as a vector for various devastating plant viruses. It is known that whiteflies are capable of manipulating host-defense responses, potentially mediated by effector molecules in the whitefly saliva. We hypothesized that, beside putative effector proteins, small RNAs (sRNA) are delivered by B. tabaci into the phloem, where they may play a role in manipulating host plant defenses...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932998/gene-expression-dynamics-in-major-endocrine-regulatory-pathways-along-the-transition-from-solitary-to-social-life-in-a-bumblebee-bombus-terrestris
#11
Pavel Jedlička, Ulrich R Ernst, Alena Votavová, Robert Hanus, Irena Valterová
Understanding the social evolution leading to insect eusociality requires, among other, a detailed insight into endocrine regulatory mechanisms that have been co-opted from solitary ancestors to play new roles in the complex life histories of eusocial species. Bumblebees represent well-suited models of a relatively primitive social organization standing on the mid-way to highly advanced eusociality and their queens undergo both, a solitary and a social phase, separated by winter diapause. In the present paper, we characterize the gene expression levels of major endocrine regulatory pathways across tissues, sexes, and life-stages of the buff-tailed bumblebee, Bombus terrestris, with special emphasis on critical stages of the queen's transition from solitary to social life...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932997/characterization-of-reproductive-dormancy-in-male-drosophila-melanogaster
#12
Olga I Kubrak, Lucie Kučerová, Ulrich Theopold, Sören Nylin, Dick R Nässel
Insects are known to respond to seasonal and adverse environmental changes by entering dormancy, also known as diapause. In some insect species, including Drosophila melanogaster, dormancy occurs in the adult organism and postpones reproduction. This adult dormancy has been studied in female flies where it is characterized by arrested development of ovaries, altered nutrient stores, lowered metabolism, increased stress and immune resistance and drastically extended lifespan. Male dormancy, however, has not been investigated in D...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932995/genome-sizes-of-nine-insect-species-determined-by-flow-cytometry-and-k-mer-analysis
#13
Kang He, Kejian Lin, Guirong Wang, Fei Li
The flow cytometry method was used to estimate the genome sizes of nine agriculturally important insects, including two coleopterans, five Hemipterans, and two hymenopterans. Among which, the coleopteran Lissorhoptrus oryzophilus (Kuschel) had the largest genome of 981 Mb. The average genome size was 504 Mb, suggesting that insects have a moderate-size genome. Compared with the insects in other orders, hymenopterans had small genomes, which were averagely about ~200 Mb. We found that the genome sizes of four insect species were different between male and female, showing the organismal complexity of insects...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932950/amyloid-precursor-proteins-are-dynamically-trafficked-and-processed-during-neuronal-development
#14
Jenna M Ramaker, Robert S Cargill, Tracy L Swanson, Hanil Quirindongo, Marlène Cassar, Doris Kretzschmar, Philip F Copenhaver
Proteolytic processing of the Amyloid Precursor Protein (APP) produces beta-amyloid (Aβ) peptide fragments that accumulate in Alzheimer's Disease (AD), but APP may also regulate multiple aspects of neuronal development, albeit via mechanisms that are not well understood. APP is a member of a family of transmembrane glycoproteins expressed by all higher organisms, including two mammalian orthologs (APLP1 and APLP2) that have complicated investigations into the specific activities of APP. By comparison, insects express only a single APP-related protein (APP-Like, or APPL) that contains the same protein interaction domains identified in APP...
2016: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932939/plant-defense-and-herbivore-counter-defense-benzoxazinoids-and-insect-herbivores
#15
REVIEW
Felipe C Wouters, Blair Blanchette, Jonathan Gershenzon, Daniel G Vassão
Benzoxazinoids are a class of indole-derived plant chemical defenses comprising compounds with a 2-hydroxy-2H-1,4-benzoxazin-3(4H)-one skeleton and their derivatives. These phytochemicals are widespread in grasses, including important cereal crops such as maize, wheat and rye, as well as a few dicot species, and display a wide range of antifeedant, insecticidal, antimicrobial, and allelopathic activities. Although their overall effects against insect herbivores are frequently reported, much less is known about how their modes of action specifically influence insect physiology...
2016: Phytochemistry Reviews: Proceedings of the Phytochemical Society of Europe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932932/atlas-of-ohio-aquatic-insects-volume-ii-plecoptera
#16
R Edward DeWalt, Scott A Grubbs, Brian J Armitage, Richard W Baumann, Shawn M Clark, Michael J Bolton
BACKGROUND: We provide volume II of a distributional atlas of aquatic insects for the eastern USA state of Ohio. This treatment of stoneflies (Plecoptera) is companion to Armitage et al. (2011) on caddisflies (Trichoptera). We build on a recent analysis of Ohio stonefly diversity patterns based on large drainages (DeWalt et al. 2012), but add 3717 new records to the data set. We base most analyses on the United States Geological Survey Hierarchical Unit Code eight (HUC8) drainage scale...
2016: Biodiversity Data Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932930/testing-the-global-malaise-trap-program-how-well-does-the-current-barcode-reference-library-identify-flying-insects-in-germany
#17
Matthias F Geiger, Jerome Moriniere, Axel Hausmann, Gerhard Haszprunar, Wolfgang Wägele, Paul D N Hebert, Björn Rulik
BACKGROUND: Biodiversity patterns are inherently complex and difficult to comprehensively assess. Yet, deciphering shifts in species composition through time and space are crucial for efficient and successful management of ecosystem services, as well as for predicting change. To better understand species diversity patterns, Germany participated in the Global Malaise Trap Program, a world-wide collection program for arthropods using this sampling method followed by their DNA barcode analysis...
2016: Biodiversity Data Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932918/salix-transect-of-europe-variation-in-ploidy-and-genome-size-in-willow-associated-common-nettle-urtica-dioica-l-sens-lat-from-greece-to-arctic-norway
#18
Quentin Cronk, Oriane Hidalgo, Jaume Pellicer, Diana Percy, Ilia J Leitch
BACKGROUND: The common stinging nettle, Urtica dioica L. sensu lato, is an invertebrate "superhost", its clonal patches maintaining large populations of insects and molluscs. It is extremely widespread in Europe and highly variable, and two ploidy levels (diploid and tetraploid) are known. However, geographical patterns in cytotype variation require further study. NEW INFORMATION: We assembled a collection of nettles in conjunction with a transect of Europe from the Aegean to Arctic Norway (primarily conducted to examine the diversity of Salix and Salix-associated insects)...
2016: Biodiversity Data Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932027/gut-symbiotic-bacteria-stimulate-insect-growth-and-egg-production-by-modulating-hexamerin-and-vitellogenin-gene-expression
#19
Jun Beom Lee, Kyoung-Eun Park, Seung Ah Lee, Seong Han Jang, Ho Jeong Eo, Ho Am Jang, Chan-Hee Kim, Tsubasa Ohbayashi, Yu Matsuura, Yoshitomo Kikuchi, Ryo Futahashi, Takema Fukatsu, Bok Luel Lee
Recent studies have suggested that gut symbionts modulate insect development and reproduction. However, the mechanisms by which gut symbionts modulate host physiologies and the molecules involved in these changes are unclear. To address these questions, we prepared three different groups of the insect Riptortus pedestris: Burkholderia gut symbiont-colonized (Sym) insects, Burkholderia-non-colonized (Apo) insects, and Burkholderia-depleted (Sym(Burk-)) insects, which were fed tetracycline. When the hemolymph proteins of three insects were analyzed by SDS-PAGE, the hexamerin-α, hexamerin-β and vitellogenin-1 proteins of Sym-adults were highly expressed compared to those of Apo- and Sym(Burk-)-insects...
December 5, 2016: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931186/transcriptome-profiling-reveals-differential-gene-expression-of-detoxification-enzymes-in-a-hemimetabolous-tobacco-pest-after-feeding-on-jasmonate-silenced-nicotiana-attenuata-plants
#20
Cristina M Crava, Christoph Brütting, Ian T Baldwin
BACKGROUND: The evolutionary arms race between plants and insects has driven the co-evolution of sophisticated defense mechanisms used by plants to deter herbivores and equally sophisticated strategies that enable phytophagous insects to rapidly detoxify the plant's defense metabolites. In this study, we identify the genetic determinants that enable the mirid, Tupiocoris notatus, to feed on its well-defended host plant, Nicotiana attenuata, an outstanding model for plant-insect interaction studies...
December 8, 2016: BMC Genomics
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