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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918475/octopaminergic-innervation-and-a-neurohaemal-release-site-in-the-antennal-heart-of-the-locust-schistocerca-gregaria
#1
Victoria Antemann, Günther Pass, Hans-Joachim Pflüger
A detailed account is given by the octopaminergic innervation of the antennal heart in Schistocerca gregaria using various immunohistochemical methods. Anterograde axonal filling illustrates the unilateral innervation on the medial ventral surface of the pumping muscle of the antennal heart via the paired corpora cardiaca nerve III. In addition, antibody staining revealed that ascending axons of this nerve terminate at the ampullae of the antennal heart forming synaptoid structures and extensive neurohaemal release sites...
September 16, 2017: Journal of Comparative Physiology. A, Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918473/complete-genome-sequences-of-two-insect-specific-flaviviruses
#2
Jermilia Charles, Chandra S Tangudu, Andrew E Firth, Bradley J Blitvich
We determined the complete genomic sequences of two previously discovered insect-specific flaviviruses, Marisma mosquito virus (MMV) and Nanay virus (NANV), using a combination of high-throughput sequencing, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, 5' and 3' rapid amplification of cDNA ends and Sanger sequencing. Complete polyprotein amino acid sequence alignments revealed that the closest known relatives of MMV and NANV are Donggang virus (89% identity, 95% similarity) and Nounané virus (53% identity, 70% similarity), respectively...
September 16, 2017: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918159/identification-of-circular-rna-in-the-bombyx-mori-silk-gland
#3
Huaiyan Gan, Tieshan Feng, Yuqian Wu, Chun Liu, Qingyou Xia, Tingcai Cheng
Bombyx mori is an economically important holometabolous lepidopteran insect. In B. mori endogenous noncoding RNAs such as microRNAs (miRNAs) and Piwi-interacting RNAs play crucial biological functions in metamorphosis and sex determination. In addition, circular RNAs (circRNAs) have been recently identified as noncoding RNAs in most common model organisms and show potential as gene regulators. However, to date, there have been few studies on the circRNAs present in the B. mori genome conducted to date. Here, we identified 3916 circRNAs by deep circular transcriptome sequencing using the silk gland of B...
September 13, 2017: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917671/scanning-electron-microscopy-and-histopathological-observations-of-beauveria-bassiana-infection-of-colorado-potato-beetle-larvae
#4
Yulin Duan, Hui Wu, Zhiyan Ma, Liu Yang, Deying Ma
Beauveria bassiana is a potential candidate for use as an environmentally friendly bio-pesticide. We studied the infection process and histopathology of B. bassiana strain NDBJJ-BFG infection of the Colorado potato beetle (Leptinotarsa decemlineata) using scanning electron microscopy and hematoxylin-eosin staining of tissue sections. The results show that the fungus penetrated the insect epidermis through germ tubes and appressoria after spraying the larvae with conidial suspensions. The conidia began to germinate after 24 h and invade the epidermis...
September 13, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917645/anti-fibrinolytic-and-anti-microbial-activities-of-a-serine-protease-inhibitor-from-honeybee-apis-cerana-venom
#5
Jie Yang, Kwang Sik Lee, Bo Yeon Kim, Yong Soo Choi, Hyung Joo Yoon, Jingming Jia, Byung Rae Jin
Bee venom contains a variety of peptide constituents, including low-molecular-weight protease inhibitors. While the putative low-molecular-weight serine protease inhibitor Api m 6 containing a trypsin inhibitor-like cysteine-rich domain was identified from honeybee (Apis mellifera) venom, no anti-fibrinolytic or anti-microbial roles for this inhibitor have been elucidated. In this study, we identified an Asiatic honeybee (A. cerana) venom serine protease inhibitor (AcVSPI) that was shown to act as a microbial serine protease inhibitor and plasmin inhibitor...
September 13, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917001/a-neural-network-model-for-familiarity-and-context-learning-during-honeybee-foraging-flights
#6
Jurek Müller, Martin Nawrot, Randolf Menzel, Tim Landgraf
How complex is the memory structure that honeybees use to navigate? Recently, an insect-inspired parsimonious spiking neural network model was proposed that enabled simulated ground-moving agents to follow learned routes. We adapted this model to flying insects and evaluate the route following performance in three different worlds with gradually decreasing object density. In addition, we propose an extension to the model to enable the model to associate sensory input with a behavioral context, such as foraging or homing...
September 15, 2017: Biological Cybernetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916802/local-juvenile-hormone-activity-regulates-gut-homeostasis-and-tumor-growth-in-adult-drosophila
#7
M M Rahman, X Franch-Marro, J L Maestro, D Martin, A Casali
Hormones play essential roles during development and maintaining homeostasis in adult organisms, regulating a plethora of biological processes. Generally, hormones are secreted by glands and perform a systemic action. Here we show that Juvenile Hormones (JHs), insect sesquiterpenoids synthesized by the corpora allata, are also synthesized by the adult Drosophila gut. This local, gut specific JH activity, is synthesized by and acts on the intestinal stem cell and enteroblast populations, regulating their survival and cellular growth through the JH receptors Gce/Met and the coactivator Tai...
September 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916376/transcriptome-profiling-of-the-plutella-xylostella-lepidoptera-plutellidae-ovary-reveals-genes-involved-in-oogenesis
#8
Lu Peng, Lei Wang, Yi-Fan Yang, Ming-Min Zou, Wei-Yi He, Yue Wang, Qing Wang, Liette Vasseur, Min-Sheng You
BACKGROUND: As a specialized organ, the insect ovary performs valuable functions by ensuring fecundity and population survival. Oogenesis is the complex physiological process resulting in the production of mature eggs, which are involved in epigenetic programming, germ cell behavior, cell cycle regulation, etc. Identification of the genes involved in ovary development and oogenesis is critical to better understand the reproductive biology and screening the potential molecular targets in Plutella xylostella, a worldwide destructive pest of economically major crops...
September 12, 2017: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915542/comparative-susceptibility-of-two-neotropical-predators-eriopis-connexa-and-chrysoperla-externa-to-acetamiprid-and-pyriproxyfen-short-and-long-term-effects-after-egg-exposure
#9
Federico Rimoldi, Marilina N Fogel, Alicia E Ronco, Marcela I Schneider
Compatibility assessments between selective insecticides and the natural enemies of pests are essential for integrated-pest-management programs. Chrysoperla externa and Eriopis connexa are two principal Neotropical predators of agricultural pests whose conservation in agroecosystems requires a toxicity evaluation of pesticides to minimize the impact on those beneficial insects on the environment. The objective of this work was to evaluate the toxicity of the insecticides pyriproxyfen and acetamiprid on C. externa and E...
September 11, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914880/tremblaya-phenacola-pper-an-evolutionary-beta-gammaproteobacterium-collage
#10
Rosario Gil, Carlos Vargas-Chavez, Sergio López-Madrigal, Diego Santos-García, Amparo Latorre, Andrés Moya
Many insects rely on bacterial endosymbionts to obtain nutrients that are scarce in their highly specialized diets. The most surprising example corresponds to the endosymbiotic system found in mealybugs from subfamily Pseudococcinae in which two bacteria, the betaproteobacterium 'Candidatus Tremblaya princeps' and a gammaproteobacterium, maintain a nested endosymbiotic consortium. In the sister subfamily Phenacoccinae, however, a single beta-endosymbiont, 'Candidatus Tremblaya phenacola', has been described...
September 15, 2017: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914754/investigation-of-antimicrobial-peptide-genes-associated-with-fungus-and-insect-resistance-in-maize
#11
Joseph Noonan, William Paul Williams, Xueyan Shan
Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are small defense proteins present in various organisms. Major groups of AMPs include beta-barrelin, hevein, knottin, lipid transfer protein (LTP), thionin, defensin, snakin, and cyclotide. Most plant AMPs involve host plant resistance to pathogens such as fungi, viruses, and bacteria, whereas a few plant AMPs from the cyclotide family carry insecticidal functions. In this research, a genome-wide investigation on antimicrobial peptide genes in maize genome was conducted. AMPs previously identified from various plant species were used as query sequences for maize genome data mining...
September 15, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914357/erratum-to-density-dependent-effects-of-larval-dispersal-mediated-by-host-plant-quality-on-populations-of-an-invasive-insect
#12
Adam A Pepi, Hannah J Broadley, Joseph S Elkinton
There was a coding error in the original paper resulting in incorrect model parameter estimates and in some cases incorrect model conclusions. The error was the specification of logistic models (using the glm and glmer functions) in R as cbind (survived, total) instead of cbind (survived, dead). The differences between the originally published and correct models of those affected are detailed.
September 15, 2017: Oecologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913925/a-cascade-of-destabilizations-combining-wolbachia-and-allee-effects-to-eradicate-insect-pests
#13
Julie C Blackwood, Roger Vargas, Xavier Fauvergue
1.The management of insect pests has long been dominated by the use of chemical insecticides, with the aim of instantaneously killing enough individuals to limit their damage. To minimize unwanted consequences, environmentally friendly approaches have been proposed that utilize biological control and take advantage of intrinsic demographic processes to reduce pest populations. 2.We address the feasibility of a novel pest management strategy based on the release of insects infected with Wolbachia, which causes cytoplasmic incompatibilities in its host population, into a population with a pre-existing Allee effect...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913804/doubled-haploid-laboratory-protocol-for-wheat-using-wheat-maize-wide-hybridization
#14
Meenakshi Santra, Hong Wang, Scott Seifert, Scott Haley
In traditional wheat breeding, the uniformity of lines derived from a breeding population is obtained by repeated selfing from the F1 which takes several generations to reach homozygosity in loci controlling traits of interest. Using doubled haploid technology, however, it is possible to attain 100% homozygosity at all loci in a single generation and completely homogeneous breeding lines can be obtained in 1-2 years. Thus, doubled haploid technology may significantly reduce cultivar development time. Two major methods for producing wheat doubled haploids are androgenesis (anther culture and microspore culture) and embryo culture using wheat-maize wide hybridization, the latter being the most effective and widely used method...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913796/allergenicity-assessment-of-transgenic-wheat-lines-in-silico
#15
Ankita Mishra, Naveen Arora
Agriculture biotechnology is a promising tool for developing varieties with enhanced quality and quantity. Transgenic proteins expressed by genetically modified (GM) food crops improve crop characteristics like nutritional value, taste, and texture, and endow plants with resistance against fungus, pests, and insects. Despite such potential benefits, there are concerns regarding possible adverse effects of GM crops on human health, animals and the environment. Among the proposed guidelines for GM food safety testing-the weight-of-evidence approach proposed by the Codex Alimentarius Commission (ALINORM 03/34A) is the most recent...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913794/wheat-improvement-in-india-present-and-future
#16
Sonia Goel, Kalpana Singh, N K Singh
Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) contributes substantially to global food and nutritional security. With the growing demands under the constraints of depleting natural resources, environmental fluctuation, and increased risk of epidemic outbreaks, the task of increasing wheat production has become daunting. The factors responsible for first green revolution seem to be exhausting rapidly, and there is an immediate need to develop the technologies which can not only increase the wheat production but also sustain the same at a higher level without adversely affecting the natural resources...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913792/what-will-be-the-benefits-of-biotech-wheat-for-european-agriculture
#17
Agnès E Ricroch
In European countries, wheat occupies the largest crop area with high yielding production. France, a major producer and exporter in Europe, ranks the fifth producer worldwide. Biotic stresses are European farmers' major challenges (fungal and viral diseases, and insect pests) followed by abiotic ones such as drought and grain protein composition. During the last 40 years, 1136 scientific articles on biotech wheat were published by USA followed by China, Australia, Canada, and European Union with the UK. European research focuses on pests and diseases resistances using widely marker-assisted selection (MAS)...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913775/complete-mitochondrial-genome-of-taharana-fasciana-insecta-hemiptera-cicadellidae-and-comparison-with-other-cicadellidae-insects
#18
Jiajia Wang, Hu Li, Renhuai Dai
Here, we describe the first complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) sequence of the leafhopper Taharana fasciana (Coelidiinae). The mitogenome sequence contains 15,161 bp with an A + T content of 77.9%. It includes 13 protein-coding genes, two ribosomal RNA genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, and one non-coding (A + T-rich) region; in addition, a repeat region is also present (GenBank accession no. KY886913). These genes/regions are in the same order as in the inferred insect ancestral mitogenome. All protein-coding genes have ATN as the start codon, and TAA or single T as the stop codons, except the gene ND3, which ends with TAG...
September 14, 2017: Genetica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912995/coprophagia-and-entomophagia-in-a-patient-with-alcohol-related-dementia
#19
João B Fonseca, Pedro Morgado
Coprophagia and entomophagia are two phenomena not commonly reported in the medical literature and their occurrence is usually associated with mental disorders. We present the case of a 59-year-old man with a history of alcohol abuse who was evaluated due to cognitive deterioration and disturbed eating habits including feces and living insects. Organic causes were ruled out and an important cognitive impairment became evident on neuropsychological formal test. The behavior remitted after antipsychotic pharmacologic therapy and alcohol detoxification, leaving the diagnostic impression of alcohol related dementia...
2017: Case Reports in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912965/medically-important-parasites-carried-by-cockroaches-in-melong-subdivision-littoral-cameroon
#20
R J Atiokeng Tatang, H G Tsila, J Wabo Poné
Cockroaches have been recognized as mechanical vectors of pathogens that can infest humans or animals. A total of 844 adult cockroaches (436 males and 408 females) were caught. In the laboratory, cockroaches were first washed in saturated salt solution to remove ectoparasites and then rinsed with 70% alcohol, dried, and dissected for endoparasites. An overall transport rate of 47.39% was recorded. Six genera of parasites were identified. These were Ascaris (33.76%), Trichuris (11.97%), Capillaria (6.16%), Toxocara (4...
2017: Journal of Parasitology Research
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