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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786562/application-of-hepatocyte-like-cells-to-enhance-hepatic-safety-risk-assessment-in-drug-discovery
#1
REVIEW
Dominic P Williams
Hepatic stress and injury from drugs continues to be a major concern within the pharmaceutical industry, leading to preclinical and clinical attrition precautionary warnings and post-market withdrawal of drugs. There is a requirement for more predictive and mechanistically accurate models to aid risk assessment. Primary human hepatocytes, subject to isolation stress, cryopreservation, donor-to-donor variation and a relatively short period of functional capability in two-dimensional cultures, are not suitable for high-throughput screening procedures...
July 5, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785852/syntheses-of-gibberellins-a-15-and-a-24-the-key-metabolites-in-gibberellin-biosynthesis
#2
David J-Y D Bon, Lewis Norman Mander, Ping Lan
Gibberellins (GAs) are essential phytohormones involved in numerous aspects of plant growth and development. Notably, the biochemistry and genetics of GA biosynthesis which is associated with their endogenous regulation has been largely resolved, however, a crucial unsolved question remains: the precise mechanism of the stepwise oxidation and subsequent removal of C-20 from C20-precursors leading to bioactive C19 gibberellins is still unresolved. In order to satisfy numerous requests from biologists, practical preparations of certain GAs that were isolated in miniscule quantities are highly demanded...
May 22, 2018: Journal of Organic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785391/how-monte-carlo-heuristics-aid-to-identify-the-physical-processes-of-drug-release-kinetics
#3
Paola Lecca
We implement a Monte Carlo heuristic algorithm to model drug release from a solid dosage form. We show that with Monte Carlo simulations it is possible to identify and explain the causes of the unsatisfactory predictive power of current drug release models. It is well known that the power-law, the exponential models, as well as those derived from or inspired by them accurately reproduce only the first 60% of the release curve of a drug from a dosage form. In this study, by using Monte Carlo simulation approaches, we show that these models fit quite accurately almost the entire release profile when the release kinetics is not governed by the coexistence of different physico-chemical mechanisms...
2018: MethodsX
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785292/thoracoscopic-stapler-based-bidirectional-segmentectomy-for-posterior-basal-segment-s10-and-its-variants
#4
Masaaki Sato, Tomonori Murayama, Jun Nakajima
Thoracoscopic segmentectomy for the posterior basal segment (S10) and its variant (e.g., S9+10 and S10b+c combined subsegmentectomy) is one of the most challenging anatomical segmentectomies. Stapler-based segmentectomy is attractive to simplify the operation and to prevent post-operative air leakage. However, this approach makes thoracoscopic S10 segmentectomy even more tricky. The challenges are caused mostly from the following three reasons: first, similar to other basal segments, "three-dimensional" stapling is needed to fold a cuboidal segment; second, the belonging pulmonary artery is not directly facing the interlobar fissure or the hilum, making identification of target artery difficult; third, the anatomy of S10 and adjacent segments such as superior (S6) and medial basal (S7) is variable...
April 2018: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785215/mycobacteriosis-and-tuberculosis-laboratory-diagnosis
#5
REVIEW
Davood Azadi, Tahereh Motallebirad, Kazem Ghaffari, Hasan Shojaei
Background: Tuberculosis is one of the most important infectious diseases that has claimed its victims throughout much of known human history. With Koch's discovery of the tubercle bacillus as the etiologic agent of the disease, his sanitary and hygienic measures, which were based on his discovery and the development of a vaccine against tuberculosis by Albert Calmette and Camille Guérin in 1921, an attenuated Mycobacterium bovis strain, bacilli Calmette-Guérin (BCG), and the discovery of the first antibiotic against tuberculosis, streptomycin by Selman Waksman in 1943, soon led to the opinion that appropriate control measures had become available for tuberculosis and it had been assumed that the disease could ultimately be eradicated...
2018: Open Microbiology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784935/a-causal-mechanism-for-childhood-acute-lymphoblastic-leukaemia
#6
REVIEW
Mel Greaves
In this Review, I present evidence supporting a multifactorial causation of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL), a major subtype of paediatric cancer. ALL evolves in two discrete steps. First, in utero initiation by fusion gene formation or hyperdiploidy generates a covert, pre-leukaemic clone. Second, in a small fraction of these cases, the postnatal acquisition of secondary genetic changes (primarily V(D)J recombination-activating protein (RAG) and activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID)-driven copy number alterations in the case of ETS translocation variant 6 (ETV6)-runt-related transcription factor 1 (RUNX1)+ ALL) drives conversion to overt leukaemia...
May 21, 2018: Nature Reviews. Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784056/biomarker-micrornas-for-prostate-cancer-metastasis-screened-with-a-network-vulnerability-analysis-model
#7
Yuxin Lin, Feifei Chen, Li Shen, Xiaoyu Tang, Cui Du, Zhandong Sun, Huijie Ding, Jiajia Chen, Bairong Shen
BACKGROUND: Prostate cancer (PCa) is a fatal malignant tumor among males in the world and the metastasis is a leading cause for PCa death. Biomarkers are therefore urgently needed to detect PCa metastatic signature at the early time. MicroRNAs are small non-coding RNAs with the potential to be biomarkers for disease prediction. In addition, computer-aided biomarker discovery is now becoming an attractive paradigm for precision diagnosis and prognosis of complex diseases. METHODS: In this study, we identified key microRNAs as biomarkers for predicting PCa metastasis based on network vulnerability analysis...
May 21, 2018: Journal of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783250/-signifuing-resident-of-the-city-poltava-at-the-expense-of-signs-stroke-risk-factors-and-urgent-measures-according-to-medico-social-survey
#8
Anzhelina M Kryvchun, Nataliia V Lytvynenko, Viktoriia A Pinchuk, Galyna Ya Sylenko, Viktoriia M Gladka
OBJECTIVE: Introduction: The problem of cerebrovascular diseases and their most severe form - cerebral stroke is one of the most pressing problems in modern medicine due to the high level of lethality, significant disability of patients. The aim: To assess and increase the sign of residents of the city Poltava at the expense of signs of stroke, its risk factors for emergence and emergency measures for stroke. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Materials and methods: During the annual social event dedicated to the World Stroke Day, on October 27, 2017, a survey of 981 people in Poltava city was conducted by volunteer students and staff of the Department of Nervous Diseases with Neurosurgery and Medical Genetics of "Ukrainian Medical Stomatological Academy"...
2018: Wiadomości Lekarskie: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781742/early-prenatal-diagnosis-of-blakes-pouch-cyst-by-2d-3d-ultrasound-with-cristal-and-realistic-vue-application
#9
Gabriele Tonni, Gianpaolo Grisolia, Paolo Zampriolo, Edward Araujo Júnior, Rodrigo Ruano
INTRODUCTION: Blake's pouch cyst (BPC) represents an abnormal development of the posterior membranous area of the fetal brain. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Two- and three-dimensional ultrasound with Cristal and Realistic Vue were used to characterized the early prenatal diagnosis. RESULTS: At 9 weeks and 5 days a ballooning in the posterior fossa and resulting in an enlarged intracranial translucency (IT) was detected by 3D ultrasound using Cristal Vue in "inversion" mode and Cristal plus Realistic Vue...
May 21, 2018: Fetal and Pediatric Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781677/community-health-workers-in-lesotho-experiences-of-health-promotion-activities
#10
Thato Seutloali, Lizeka Napoles, Nomonde Bam
BACKGROUND: Lesotho adopted primary health care in 1979, and community health workers (CHWs) were included in the programme to focus on health promotion, particularly to reach people in underserved rural areas. Although the CHW programme has been successful, the heavy burden of disease because of HIV and/or AIDS and tuberculosis shifted resources from health promotion to home-based care. AIM: The study explored the lived experience of CHWs in conducting health promotion activities in Lesotho...
February 27, 2018: African Journal of Primary Health Care & Family Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781231/the-combination-of-three-autoantibodies-acpa-rf-and-anti-carp-antibodies-is-highly-specific-for-rheumatoid-arthritis-implications-for-very-early-identification-of-individuals-at-risk-to-develop-rheumatoid-arthritis
#11
Marije K Verheul, Stefan Böhringer, Myrthe A M van Delft, Jonathan D Jones, William F C Rigby, Ryan W Gan, V Michael Holers, Jess D Edison, Kevin D Deane, Koen M J Janssen, Johanna Westra, Mikael Brink, Solbritt Rantapää-Dahlqvist, Tom W J Huizinga, Annette H M van der Helm-van Mil, Diane van der Woude, Rene E M Toes, Leendert A Trouw
OBJECTIVE: In rheumatoid arthritis(RA), the autoantibodies anti-citrullinated protein antibodies(ACPA) and rheumatoid factor(RF) are commonly used to aid RA diagnosis. Although these autoantibodies are mainly found in RA, their specificity is not optimal. It is therefore difficult to identify RA patients, especially in very early disease, based on the presence of ACPA and RF alone. Also, anti-carbamylated protein(anti-CarP) antibodies have diagnostic and prognostic value as the presence of anti-CarP antibodies associates with joint damage in RA patients and with future RA development in arthralgia patients...
May 21, 2018: Arthritis & Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780633/deep-learning-aided-decision-support-for-pulmonary-nodules-diagnosing-a-review
#12
REVIEW
Yixin Yang, Xiaoyi Feng, Wenhao Chi, Zhengyang Li, Wenzhe Duan, Haiping Liu, Wenhua Liang, Wei Wang, Ping Chen, Jianxing He, Bo Liu
Deep learning techniques have recently emerged as promising decision supporting approaches to automatically analyze medical images for different clinical diagnosing purposes. Diagnosing of pulmonary nodules by using computer-assisted diagnosing has received considerable theoretical, computational, and empirical research work, and considerable methods have been developed for detection and classification of pulmonary nodules on different formats of images including chest radiographs, computed tomography (CT), and positron emission tomography in the past five decades...
April 2018: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779371/detection-of-nucleic-acids-in-complex-samples-via-magnetic-microbead-assisted-catalyzed-hairpin-assembly-and-dd-a-fret
#13
Hongmei Fang, Nuli Xie, Min Ou, Jin Huang, Wenshan Li, Qing Wang, Jianbo Liu, Xiaohai Yang, Kemin Wang
Nucleic acids, as one kind of significant biomarkers, have attracted tremendous attention and exhibited immense value in fundamental studies and clinical applications. In this work, we developed a fluorescent assay for detecting nucleic acids in complex samples based on magnetic microbead (MMB)-assisted catalyzed hairpin assembly (CHA) and donor donor-acceptor fluorescence resonance energy transfer ("DD-A" FRET) signaling mechanism. Three types of DNA hairpin probes were employed in this system, including Capture, H1 (double FAM-labelled probe as FRET donor) and H2 (TAMRA-labelled probe as FRET acceptor)...
May 21, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779284/-investigation-on-level-and-influencing-factors-of-first-aid-knowledge-among-dentists-in-sichuan-province
#14
Yu Qiu, Yuan-Yuan Li, Tian-Guo Li, Yi-Ge Chen, Jing-Jun Kong, Jian Pan
OBJECTIVE: The study aims to investigate the cognition degree and influencing factors of first aid knowledge among dentists in Sichuan province, and to provide suggestions for the training of oral clinician. METHODS: A questionnaire was designed for this study. It included the basic situation of population, first aid knowledge level, emergency situation often encountered in stomatology clinic, first aid training situation, learning approach and attitude of first aid knowledge, etc...
April 1, 2018: Hua Xi Kou Qiang Yi Xue za Zhi, Huaxi Kouqiang Yixue Zazhi, West China Journal of Stomatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776861/acceptability-and-functionality-of-the-kettle-strap-an-attempt-to-decrease-kettle-related-burns-in-children
#15
Obakeng Makhubalo, Dorothy Schulman, Heinz Rode, Sharon Cox
BACKGROUND: Extensive hot water burns (HWB) are common at Red Cross War Memorial Children's Hospital (RCWMCH). The majority are caused by kettle scalds. These burn injuries usually affect toddlers living in poor socio-economic circumstances. The majority of these injuries are preventable. AIM: This trial aims to demonstrate the acceptability and functionality of the Kettle Strap as a kettle safety device. The feedback will be used for a public awareness program marketed by the Child Accident Prevention Foundation of Southern Africa and ChildSafe as part of their mandate to reduce kettle related thermal injuries...
May 15, 2018: Burns: Journal of the International Society for Burn Injuries
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776400/associations-of-training-to-assist-a-suicidal-person-with-subsequent-quality-of-support-results-from-a-national-survey-of-the-australian-public
#16
Anthony F Jorm, Angela Nicholas, Jane Pirkis, Alyssia Rossetto, Nicola J Reavley
BACKGROUND: When a person is in severe distress, people in their social network can potentially take action to reduce the person's suicide risk. The present study used data from a community survey to examine whether people who had received training in how to assist a person at risk of suicide had higher quality intentions and actions to provide support. METHODS: A national telephone survey was carried out with 3002 Australian adults on attitudes and intentions toward helping someone in severe distress or at risk of suicide as well as actions taken...
May 18, 2018: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776380/use-of-designed-sequences-in-protein-structure-recognition
#17
Gayatri Kumar, Richa Mudgal, Narayanaswamy Srinivasan, Sankaran Sandhya
BACKGROUND: Knowledge of the protein structure is a pre-requisite for improved understanding of molecular function. The gap in the sequence-structure space has increased in the post-genomic era. Grouping related protein sequences into families can aid in narrowing the gap. In the Pfam database, structure description is provided for part or full-length proteins of 7726 families. For the remaining 52% of the families, information on 3-D structure is not yet available. We use the computationally designed sequences that are intermediately related to two protein domain families, which are already known to share the same fold...
May 9, 2018: Biology Direct
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775405/the-mouse-heart-attack-research-tool-mhart-1-0-database
#18
Kristine Y DeLeon-Pennell, Rugmani Padmanabhan Iyer, Yonggang Ma, Andriy Yabluchanskiy, Rogelio Zamilpa, Ying Ann Chiao, Presley Cannon, Courtney Cates, Elizabeth R Flynn, Ganesh V Halade, Lisandra E de Castro Bras, Merry L Lindsey
The generation of Big Data has enabled systems-level dissections into the mechanisms of cardiovascular pathology. Integration of genetic, proteomic, and pathophysiological variables across platforms and laboratories fosters discoveries through multidisciplinary investigations and minimizes unnecessary redundancy in research efforts. The Mouse Heart Attack Research Tool (mHART) consolidates a large dataset of over 10 years of experiments from a single laboratory for cardiovascular investigators to generate novel hypotheses and identify new predictive markers of progressive left ventricular remodeling following myocardial infarction (MI) in mice...
May 18, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775079/improved-glycemic-control-with-minimal-change-in-medication-regimen-complexity-in-a-pharmacist-endocrinologist-diabetes-intense-medical-management-dimm-tune-up-clinic
#19
Candis M Morello, Taylor Rotunno, John Khoan, Jan D Hirsch
BACKGROUND: Gaining glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) usually requires more complicated medication regimens. Increased medication regimen complexity (MRC) negatively impacts adherence and clinical outcomes. OBJECTIVE: Compare MRC change in patients with uncontrolled T2D referred to a collaborative pharmacist-endocrinologist Diabetes Intense Medical Management (DIMM) clinic "tune up" model versus similar patients receiving usual primary care provider (PCP) care over 6 months...
May 1, 2018: Annals of Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774221/magnetic-resonance-imaging-findings-for-differential-diagnosis-of-perianal-plexiform-schwannoma-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#20
Xue-Liang Sun, Ke Wen, Zhi-Zhong Xu, Xiao-Peng Wang
Plexiform schwannoma is an extremely rare variant of schwannoma, accounting for approximately 5% of cases. Due to the rarity and lack of typical symptoms, signs and radiological images, a definite diagnosis of plexiform schwannoma may not be made by clinicians prior to biopsy. In the present study, we report the first case (to our knowledge) of perianal plexiform schwannoma arising from the overlapped skin of the ischioanal fossa, and we propose an intratumorally nonenhanced circumferential capsule dividing the tumour into multiple homogeneously enhanced nodules as a magnetic resonance imaging feature to aid in the differential diagnosis of plexiform schwannoma from ancient schwannoma, cavernous haemangioma, liposarcoma and plexiform neurofibroma...
May 16, 2018: World Journal of Clinical Cases
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