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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926931/microbial-translocation-and-inflammation-occur-in-hyperacute-immunodeficiency-virus-infection-and-compromise-host-control-of-virus-replication
#1
Adam J Ericsen, Michael Lauck, Mariel S Mohns, Sarah R DiNapoli, James P Mutschler, Justin M Greene, Jason T Weinfurter, Gabrielle Lehrer-Brey, Trent M Prall, Samantha M Gieger, Connor R Buechler, Kristin A Crosno, Eric J Peterson, Matthew R Reynolds, Roger W Wiseman, Benjamin J Burwitz, Jacob D Estes, Jonah B Sacha, Thomas C Friedrich, Jason M Brenchley, David H O'Connor
Within the first three weeks of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, virus replication peaks in peripheral blood. Despite the critical, causal role of virus replication in determining transmissibility and kinetics of progression to acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), there is limited understanding of the conditions required to transform the small localized transmitted founder virus population into a large and heterogeneous systemic infection. Here we show that during the hyperacute "pre-peak" phase of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection in macaques, high levels of microbial DNA transiently translocate into peripheral blood...
December 2016: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925844/a-two-dose-heterologous-prime-boost-vaccine-regimen-eliciting-sustained-immune-responses-to-ebola-zaire-could-support-a-preventive-strategy-for-future-outbreaks
#2
Georgi Shukarev, Benoit Callendret, Kerstin Luhn, Macaya Douoguih, The Ebovac Consortium
The consequences of the 2013-16 Ebola Zaire virus disease epidemic in West Africa were grave. The economies, healthcare systems and communities of Guinea, Sierra Leone and Liberia were devastated by over 18 months of active Ebola virus transmission, followed by sporadic resurgences potentially related to sexual transmission by survivors with viral persistence in body fluids following recovery. The need to develop and implement strategies to prevent and mitigate future outbreaks is now beyond dispute. The potential for unpredictable outbreaks of indeterminate duration, and control challenges posed by the possibility of sporadic re-emergence, mean that implementation of an effective vaccination programme for outbreak containment necessitates a vaccine providing durable immunity...
December 7, 2016: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925335/the-relationship-between-self-blame-for-the-onset-of-a-chronic-physical-health-condition-and-emotional-distress-a-systematic-literature-review
#3
Leah Callebaut, Philip Molyneux, Tim Alexander
OBJECTIVE: Past literature presents contrasting perspectives regarding the potential influence of self-blame on adjustment to illness. This systematic literature review aimed to summarize findings from all investigations to date that have explored the relationship between self-blame for the onset of a chronic physical health condition and emotional distress. METHOD: Between November 2014 and February 2015, electronic databases were searched for relevant literature...
December 7, 2016: Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923674/impact-of-a-decision-aid-on-newly-diagnosed-prostate-cancer-patients-understanding-of-the-rationale-for-active-surveillance
#4
Margaret K Formica, Shaun Wason, John D Seigne, Telisa M Stewart
OBJECTIVE: To compare newly diagnosed localized prostate cancer patients who did and did not view a decision aid (DA) on their knowledge of the rationale for active surveillance (AS). METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 452 newly diagnosed low-risk localized prostate cancer patients. Patients were mailed the video/DVD DA and completed a web-based questionnaire that contained two multiple choice questions assessing knowledge of the rationale for AS...
November 22, 2016: Patient Education and Counseling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923534/rapid-prototyped-patient-specific-guiding-implants-in-critical-mandibular-reconstruction
#5
Patricia Stoor, Anni Suomalainen, Karri Mesimäki, Risto Kontio
Large tumours of the mandible need immediate reconstruction to provide continuity of the mandible, satisfactory function of the jaw, as well as an acceptable aesthetic outcome. In this prospective study we described the immediate reconstruction of the mandible using computer aided design and 15 rapid prototyped patient specific implants (PSI) in 14 patients suffering from benign or malignant tumours demanding continuity resection of the mandible. The scaffold PSI was filled with β-tricalcium phosphate granules and autologous bone...
November 5, 2016: Journal of Cranio-maxillo-facial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923422/first-responders-and-prehospital-care-for-road-traffic-injuries-in-malawi
#6
Linda Chokotho, Wakisa Mulwafu, Isaac Singini, Yasin Njalale, Limbika Maliwichi-Senganimalunje, Kathryn H Jacobsen
: Introduction Road traffic collisions are a common cause of injuries and injury-related deaths in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Basic prehospital care can be the difference between life and death for injured drivers, passengers, and pedestrians. Problem This study examined the challenges associated with current first response practices in Malawi. METHODS: In April 2014, focus groups were conducted in two areas of Malawi: Karonga (in the Northern Region) and Blantyre (in the Southern Region; both are along the M1 highway), and a qualitative synthesis approach was used to identify themes...
December 7, 2016: Prehospital and Disaster Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923276/association-between-maternal-circulating-25-hydroxyvitamin-d-concentration-and-placental-volume-in-the-first-trimester
#7
Çiğdem Yayla Abide, Meryem Kurek Eken, Işıl Turan, Enis Özkaya, Oya Pekin, Ateş Karateke
OBJECTIVES: We aimed to assess placental volume and placental mean gray value in vitamin D deficiency and healthy placentas in the first trimester of pregnancy using three-dimensional (3D) ultrasonography and Virtual Organ Computer-aided Analysis (VOCAL). METHODS: This prospective cross sectional study comprised 274 patients, divided into two groups according to the presence or absence of vitamin D deficiency (<20ng/ml deficient, n = 153,>20 ng/ml not deficient, n= 121) in the first trimester of pregnancy...
December 6, 2016: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922832/individual-external-dose-monitoring-of-all-citizens-of-date-city-by-passive-dosimeter-5-to-51-months-after-the-fukushima-npp-accident-series-1-comparison-of-individual-dose-with-ambient-dose-rate-monitored-by-aircraft-surveys
#8
Makoto Miyazaki, Ryugo Hayano
Date (da'te) City in Fukushima Prefecture has conducted a population-wide individual dose monitoring program after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident, which provides a unique and comprehensive data set of the individual doses of citizens. The purpose of this paper, the first in the series, is to establish a method for estimating effective doses based on the available ambient dose rate survey data. We thus examined the relationship between the individual external doses and the corresponding ambient doses assessed from airborne surveys...
December 6, 2016: Journal of Radiological Protection: Official Journal of the Society for Radiological Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922569/mode-of-information-delivery-does-not-effect-anesthesia-trainee-performance-during-simulated-perioperative-pediatric-critical-events-a-trial-of-paper-versus-electronic-cognitive-aids
#9
Scott C Watkins, Shilo Anders, Anna Clebone, Elisabeth Hughes, Vikram Patel, Laura Zeigler, Yaping Shi, Matthew S Shotwell, Matthew D McEvoy, Matthew B Weinger
INTRODUCTION: Cognitive aids (CAs), including emergency manuals and checklists, have been recommended as a means to address the failure of healthcare providers to adhere to evidence-based standards of treatment during crisis situations. Unfortunately, users of CAs still commit errors, omit critical steps, fail to achieve perfect adherence to guidelines, and frequently choose to not use CA during both simulated and real crisis events. We sought to evaluate whether the mode in which a CA presents information (ie, paper vs...
December 2016: Simulation in Healthcare: Journal of the Society for Simulation in Healthcare
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920808/risk-factors-of-mortality-during-the-first-year-after-low-energy-osteoporosis-fracture-a-retrospective-case-control-study
#10
Aurore Lloret, Guillaume Coiffier, Tiffen Couchouron, Aleth Perdriger, Pascal Guggenbuhl
INTRODUCTION: Osteoporotic fractures are a major public health problem because of the morbidity and mortality of fracture complications. The objective of this study was to examine predictive factors of mortality during the first year after an osteoporotic fracture. METHODS: It is a retrospective case-control study using data of a group of 1081 patients aged over 50 years with severe osteoporotic fractures by the Rennes university hospital emergency department from August 2007 to September 2008...
May 2016: Clinical Cases in Mineral and Bone Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920753/neuroproteomics-and-systems-biology-approach-to-identify-temporal-biomarker-changes-post-experimental-traumatic-brain-injury-in-rats
#11
Firas H Kobeissy, Joy D Guingab-Cagmat, Zhiqun Zhang, Ahmed Moghieb, Olena Y Glushakova, Stefania Mondello, Angela M Boutté, John Anagli, Richard Rubenstein, Hisham Bahmad, Amy K Wagner, Ronald L Hayes, Kevin K W Wang
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) represents a critical health problem of which diagnosis, management, and treatment remain challenging. TBI is a contributing factor in approximately one-third of all injury-related deaths in the United States. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention estimate that 1.7 million people suffer a TBI in the United States annually. Efforts continue to focus on elucidating the complex molecular mechanisms underlying TBI pathophysiology and defining sensitive and specific biomarkers that can aid in improving patient management and care...
2016: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920669/the-neurovestibular-challenges-of-astronauts-and-balance-patients-some-past-countermeasures-and-two-alternative-approaches-to-elicitation-assessment-and-mitigation
#12
REVIEW
Ben D Lawson, Angus H Rupert, Braden J McGrath
Astronauts and vestibular patients face analogous challenges to orientation function due to adaptive exogenous (weightlessness-induced) or endogenous (pathology-induced) alterations in the processing of acceleration stimuli. Given some neurovestibular similarities between these challenges, both affected groups may benefit from shared research approaches and adaptation measurement/improvement strategies. This article reviews various past strategies and introduces two plausible ground-based approaches, the first of which is a method for eliciting and assessing vestibular adaptation-induced imbalance...
2016: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919696/the-role-of-anxiety-in-stuttering-evidence-from-functional-connectivity
#13
Yang Yang, Fanlu Jia, Wai Ting Siok, Li Hai Tan
Persistent developmental stuttering is a neurologically based speech disorder associated with cognitive-linguistic, motor and emotional abnormalities. Previous studies investigating the relationship between anxiety and stuttering have yielded mixed results, but it has not yet been examined whether anxiety influences brain activity underlying stuttering. Here, by using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we investigated the functional connectivity associated with state anxiety in a syllable repetition task, and trait anxiety during rest in adults who stutter (N=19) and fluent controls (N=19)...
December 2, 2016: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919375/software-intelligent-system-for-effective-solutions-for-hearing-impaired-subjects
#14
Rajkumar S, Muttan S, Sapthagirivasan V, Jaya V, Vignesh S S
PURPOSE: The anatomy and physiology of the ear is complex in nature, which makes it a challenge for audiologists to prescribe solutions for varied hearing-impaired subjects. There is a need to increase the satisfaction level of hearing-aid users by adopting better strategies that involve modern technological advancements. AIM: To design and develop a decision support Software Intelligent System (SIS) that performs audiological investigations to assess the degree of hearing loss and to suggest appropriate hearing-aid gain values...
January 2017: International Journal of Medical Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919242/reducing-child-abuse-amongst-adolescents-in-low-and-middle-income-countries-a-pre-post-trial-in-south-africa
#15
Lucie Cluver, Franziska Meinck, Alexa Yakubovich, Jenny Doubt, Alice Redfern, Catherine Ward, Nasteha Salah, Sachin De Stone, Tshiamo Petersen, Phelisa Mpimpilashe, Rocio Herrero Romero, Lulu Ncobo, Jamie Lachman, Sibongile Tsoanyane, Yulia Shenderovich, Heidi Loening, Jasmina Byrne, Lorraine Sherr, Lauren Kaplan, Frances Gardner
BACKGROUND: No known studies have tested the effectiveness of child abuse prevention programmes for adolescents in low- or middle-income countries. 'Parenting for Lifelong Health' ( http://tiny.cc/whoPLH ) is a collaborative project to develop and rigorously test abuse-prevention parenting programmes for free use in low-resource contexts. Research aims of this first pre-post trial in South Africa were: i) to identify indicative effects of the programme on child abuse and related outcomes; ii) to investigate programme safety for testing in a future randomised trial, and iii) to identify potential adaptations...
July 13, 2016: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919211/development-of-mlr-and-svm-aided-qsar-models-to-identify-common-sar-of-gaba-uptake-herbal-inhibitors-used-in-the-treatment-of-schizophrenia
#16
Sahila Mohammed Marunnan, Babitha Pallikkara Pulikka, V K Gopalakrishnan, Srinivas Bandaru, Mukesh Yadav, Anuraj Nayarisseri, Victor Arokia Doss
Deficits in GABAnergic system is implicated in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. Available antipsychotics that target GABA receptor form a desirable therapeutic strategy in the treatment regimen of schizophrenia but, unfortunately, suffers serious setback due to their prolonged side effects. The present investigation focuses on developing QSAR models from the biological activity of herbal compounds and their derivatives that promise to be alternative candidates to GABA uptake inhibitors. Three sets of compounds were undertaken in the study to develop the QSAR models...
December 5, 2016: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918468/transcriptome-analysis-of-the-tadpole-shrimp-triops-longicaudatus-by-illumina-paired-end-sequencing-assembly-annotation-and-marker-discovery
#17
Jiyeon Seong, Se Won Kang, Bharat Bhusan Patnaik, So Young Park, Hee Ju Hwang, Jong Min Chung, Dae Kwon Song, Mi Young Noh, Seung-Hwan Park, Gwang Joo Jeon, Hong Sik Kong, Soonok Kim, Ui Wook Hwang, Hong Seog Park, Yeon Soo Han, Yong Seok Lee
The tadpole shrimp (Triops longicaudatus) is an aquatic crustacean that helps control pest populations. It inhabits freshwater ponds and pools and has been described as a living fossil. T. longicaudatus was officially declared an endangered species South Korea in 2005; however, through subsequent protection and conservation management, it was removed from the endangered species list in 2012. The limited number of available genetic resources on T. longicaudatus makes it difficult to obtain valuable genetic information for marker-aided selection programs...
December 2, 2016: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917261/anti-hepatitis-c-virus-drugs-and-kidney
#18
REVIEW
Paul Carrier, Marie Essig, Marilyne Debette-Gratien, Denis Sautereau, Annick Rousseau, Pierre Marquet, Jérémie Jacques, Véronique Loustaud-Ratti
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) mainly targets the liver but can also induce extrahepatic manifestations. The kidney may be impacted via an immune mediated mechanism or a cytopathic effect. HCV patients are clearly at a greater risk of chronic kidney disease (CKD) than uninfected patients are, and the presence of CKD increases mortality. Interferon-based therapies and ribavirin are difficult to manage and are poorly effective in end-stage renal disease and hemodialysis. These patients should be given priority treatment with new direct anti-viral agents (DAAs) while avoiding peginterferon and ribavirin...
November 18, 2016: World Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915580/a-crossover-trial-comparing-wide-dynamic-range-compression-and-frequency-compression-in-hearing-aids-for-tinnitus-therapy
#19
Shirley-Anne Hodgson, Regina Herdering, Giriraj Singh Shekhawat, Grant D Searchfield
PURPOSE: It has been suggested that frequency lowering may be a superior tinnitus reducing digital signal processing (DSP) strategy in hearing aids than conventional amplification. A crossover trial was undertaken to determine if frequency compression (FC) was superior to wide dynamic range compression (WDRC) in reducing tinnitus. METHOD: A 6-8-week crossover trial of two digital signal-processing techniques (WDRC and 2 WDRC with FC) was undertaken in 16 persons with high-frequency sensorineural hearing loss and chronic tinnitus...
January 2017: Disability and Rehabilitation. Assistive Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915125/artificial-neural-networks-as-a-powerful-numerical-tool-to-classify-specific-features-of-a-tooth-based-on-3d-scan-data
#20
Stefan Raith, Eric Per Vogel, Naeema Anees, Christine Keul, Jan-Frederik Güth, Daniel Edelhoff, Horst Fischer
Chairside manufacturing based on digital image acquisition is gainingincreasing importance in dentistry. For the standardized application of these methods, it is paramount to have highly automated digital workflows that can process acquired 3D image data of dental surfaces. Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) arenumerical methods primarily used to mimic the complex networks of neural connections in the natural brain. Our hypothesis is that an ANNcan be developed that is capable of classifying dental cusps with sufficient accuracy...
November 27, 2016: Computers in Biology and Medicine
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