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Worawut Choeyprasert, Suradej Hongeng, Usanarat Anurathapan, Samart Pakakasama
Bacteremia during neutropenic episodes is a cause of morbidity and mortality in patients undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). We have used oral ciprofloxacin and penicillin V, from the start of the conditioning regimen until engraftment, for the prophylaxis of bacterial infection. The objective of this study was to retrospectively analyze the prevalence of and risk factors for breakthrough bacteremia during neutropenic episodes in autologous and allogeneic HSCT patients. There were 215 patients enrolled, with a median age of 8...
October 22, 2016: International Journal of Hematology
Wonhyoung Park, Jae Sung Ahn, Jung Cheol Park, Byung Duk Kwun, Deok Hee Lee
OBJECTIVE: Intracranial infectious aneurysms (IIAs) are a very rare but unique subtype of potentially life-threatening vascular lesion. However, there is no widely accepted standard protocol for their management. We reviewed our treatment experiences of IIAs from 2001 to 2015 and proposed a treatment strategy for future use. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed 25 patients with 33 IIAs. All patients had predisposing infectious disease for which the causative organism had been identified...
October 11, 2016: World Neurosurgery
Oren I Feder, Konrad I Gruson
Septic arthritis of the shoulder girdle remains relatively uncommon, with Staphylococcus aureus and β-hemolytic streptococci the typical offending organisms in adult patients. Rare cases of Streptococcus viridans, an oral bacterium with low virulence, have been reported in the setting of septic arthritis, mostly involving the knee joint or the sternoclavicular joint. In this article, we report a case of Streptococcus mitis infection of the glenohumeral joint that likely resulted from hematogenous spread after oral trauma in a patient with poor underlying dentition...
September 2016: American Journal of Orthopedics
Stefano Mancini, Carmen Menzi, Frank Oechslin, Philippe Moreillon, José Manuel Entenza
Streptococcus gordonii and related species of oral viridans group streptococci (VGS) are common etiological agents of infective endocarditis (IE). We explored vaccination as a strategy to prevent VGS- IE, using a novel antigen presenting system based on non-genetically modified Lactococcus lactis displaying vaccinogens on its surface.Hsa and PadA are surface-located S. gordonii proteins implicated in platelet adhesion and aggregation, which are key steps in the pathogenesis of IE. This function makes them ideal targets for vaccination against VGS- IE...
October 10, 2016: Infection and Immunity
Heidrun Boztug, Nora Mühlegger, Ulrike Pötschger, Andishe Attarbaschi, Christina Peters, Georg Mann, Michael Dworzak
Intensive chemotherapy directed against acute myeloid leukemia of childhood is followed by profound neutropenia and high risk for bacterial and fungal infections, including viridans group streptococci as a common cause for gram-positive septicemia. Few retrospective studies have shown the efficacy of various antibiotic prophylactic regimens in children. We retrospectively studied 50 pediatric patients treated on the AML-BFM 2004 protocol between 2005 and 2015 at St. Anna Children's Hospital and assessed the effect of antibiotic prophylaxis on the frequency of febrile neutropenia and bacterial sepsis...
October 4, 2016: Annals of Hematology
Stephen Starko Francis, Mateusz M Plucinski, Amelia D Wallace, Lee W Riley
Social network structure is a fundamental determinant of human health, from infectious to chronic diseases. However, quantitative and unbiased approaches to measuring social network structure are lacking. We hypothesized that genetic relatedness of oral commensal bacteria could be used to infer social contact between humans, just as genetic relatedness of pathogens can be used to determine transmission chains of pathogens. We used a traditional, questionnaire survey-based method to characterize the contact network of the School of Public Health at a large research university...
2016: PloS One
Serap Süzük, Banu Kaşkatepe, Mustafa Çetin
The viridans group Streptococci (VGS) are most abundant in the mouth; in some instances they might emerge as pathogens particularly in infective endocarditis (IE). In this study, we aimed to define and determine the susceptibility against antibiotics of VGS that are members of the oral microbiota of patients exhibiting a risk of developing IE. Forty-nine patients at risk of infective endocarditis were included in the study. Identification of the bacteria was performed using API STREP (bioMérieux, France). Gradient test strips (E-Test, France) were used to determine MIC of the bacteria against penicillin, ampicillin, and vancomycin...
September 1, 2016: Le Infezioni in Medicina
Joon Hee Lee, Seul Ki Kim, Seong Koo Kim, Seung Beom Han, Jae Wook Lee, Dong Gun Lee, Nack Gyun Chung, Bin Cho, Dae Chul Jeong, Jin Han Kang, Hack Ki Kim
BACKGROUND: The incidence of bacteremia caused by Gram-negative bacteria has increased recently in febrile neutropenic patients with the increase of antibiotic-resistant Gram-negative bacterial infections. This study aimed to identify the distribution of causative bacteria and the proportion of antibiotic-resistant bacteria in bacteremia diagnosed in febrile neutropenic children. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The medical records of febrile neutropenic children diagnosed with bacteremia between 2010 and 2014 were retrospectively reviewed...
September 2016: Infection & Chemotherapy
Bart Peeters, Paul Herijgers, Kurt Beuselinck, Willy E Peetermans, Marie-Christin Herregods, Stefanie Desmet, Katrien Lagrou
Identification of the causative pathogen of infective endocarditis is crucial for adequate management and therapy. A broad range PCR/electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (PCR/ESI-MS) technique was compared with broad-spectrum 16S rRNA PCR and amplicon sequencing (16S rRNA PCR) for detecting bacterial pathogens in 40 heart valves obtained from 34 definite infective endocarditis patients according to the modified Duke Criteria and six non-endocarditis patients. Concordance between both molecular techniques was 98% for being positive or negative, 97% for concordant identification up to genus level and 77% for concordant identification up to species level...
September 14, 2016: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
Menglan Zhou, Qiwen Yang, Timothy Kudinha, Li Zhang, Meng Xiao, Fanrong Kong, Yupei Zhao, Ying-Chun Xu
There are challenges in viridans group streptococci (VGS) identification especially for the mitis group. Few studies have investigated the performance of MALDI-TOF MS system in VGS identification. Using 16S rRNA gene and gyrB gene sequencing as a gold standard, the performance of two MALDI-TOF MS instruments in the identification of 181 VGS clinical isolates was studied. The Bruker Biotyper and Vitek MS IVD systems correctly identified 88.4% and 98.9% of the 181 isolates, respectively. The Vitek MS RUO system was the least reliable, only correctly identifying 38...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Marta K Powell, Kamila Benková, Pavel Selinger, Marek Dogoši, Iva Kinkorová Luňáčková, Hana Koutníková, Jarmila Laštíková, Alena Roubíčková, Zuzana Špůrková, Lucie Laclová, Václav Eis, Josef Šach, Petr Heneberg
OBJECTIVE: AIDS-related mortality has changed dramatically with the onset of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), which has even allowed compensated HIV-infected patients to withdraw from secondary therapy directed against opportunistic pathogens. However, in recently autopsied HIV-infected patients, we observed that associations with a broad spectrum of pathogens remain, although detailed analyses are lacking. Therefore, we focused on the possible frequency and spectrum shifts in pathogens associated with autopsied HIV-infected patients...
2016: PloS One
Marta Vallejo, Diana P Cuesta, Luz E Flórez, Adriana Correa, Carmen E Llanos, Berenice Isaza, Stella Vanegas, Johanna Osorio, Lucía Casanova, María V Villegas
INTRODUCTION: Complicated community-acquired intra-abdominal infections (CA-cIAI) are a common cause of acute abdomen. OBJECTIVE: To identify the clinical and microbiology profile of CA-cIAI in four Colombian hospitals. METHODS: This is a prospective, descriptive study, between 08-2012 and 09-2014, including patients with CA-cIAI > 15 years. Data collected included: socio-demographic, clinical, diagnosis, and isolates of the first culture obtained aseptically during surgery with antimicrobial susceptibility...
June 2016: Revista Chilena de Infectología: órgano Oficial de la Sociedad Chilena de Infectología
Fabio Chirillo, Pompilio Faggiano, Moreno Cecconi, Antonella Moreo, Angelo Squeri, Oscar Gaddi, Enrico Cecchi
UNLABELLED: Efficacy and safety of antibiotic prophylaxis (AP) for prevention of infective endocarditis (IE) in patients with predisposing cardiac condition (PCC) undergoing invasive procedures is still debated. We sought to assess the prevalence of PCC, the type of interventional procedures preceding the onset of symptoms, and the usefulness of AP in a large cohort of consecutive patients with definite IE. METHODS: We examined 677 (median age 65.34 years; male 492 [73%]) consecutive patients with IE enrolled from July 2007 through 2010 into the Italian Registry of Infective Endocarditis...
September 2016: American Heart Journal
Simone Palini, Mariangela Primiterra, Silvia De Stefani, Maria Federica Pedna, Monica Sparacino, Patrizia Farabegoli, Serena Benedetti, Carlo Bulletti, Vittorio Sambri
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to assess the levels of microbial contamination in semen samples before and after the micro swim-up (MSU) procedure in intra-cytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). The new method is an upgrade to the classic wash swim-up procedure. METHODS: Semen analysis and microbiological tests were carried out before and after the MSU procedure. A total of twenty semen samples were analyzed. RESULTS: Pathogens were observed in semen samples only before MSU and never after ICSI...
2016: JBRA Assisted Reproduction
Xuan Zhang, Xiaoli Liu, Meifang Yang, Huihui Dong, Lichen Xv, Lanjuan Li
BACKGROUND: Endoscopic variceal ligation (EVL) is the endoscopic treatment of acute esophageal variceal hemorrhage, however, prophylaxis antibiotic during EVL is controversial. METHODS: We reported a 60-year-old man with diabetes, liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma who received EVL for esophageal variceal haemorrhage. RESULTS: On the second day after EVL, the patient developed fever and chills. A week after EVL, the blood cultures were viridans streptococcus positive, and echocardiogram showed a vegetation on the cardiac valve...
August 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
D Khalil, M Hultin, M U Rashid, B Lund
The study aimed to determine the effects of a single-dose antibiotic prophylaxis on normal oral microflora. A single dose of 2 g amoxicillin was given to 29 healthy volunteers. Saliva was collected before antibiotic administration (day 1), and again on days 2, 5, 10, 17 and 24 and subjected to culturing and antibiotic sensitivity analysis. Twenty-one per cent (6/29) of the individuals carried penicillin-V- and amoxicillin-resistant viridans streptococci before antibiotic administration. After a single dose of amoxicillin there was a significant reduction in Streptococcus salivarius on days 2 and 5, a significant reduction in other viridans streptococci on day 2 and the proportion of viridans streptococci with reduced susceptibility to amoxicillin was significantly increased on days 2 and 5...
August 26, 2016: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
Idil Kurtulus Waschulewski, Aslan Y Gökbuget, Nina M Christiansen, Maike Ziegler, Volker Schuster, Gerhard Wahl, Werner Götz
OBJECTIVE: Type I plasminogen deficiency (Plgdef) is an uncommon chronic inflammation of mucous membranes. Gingival enlargements usually proceed with progressive periodontal destruction and tooth-loss. Plasmin(ogen)-independent enzymatic mechanisms for fibrin clearance have already been discussed in the literature. Our primary objective was to verify, immunohistochemically, the occurrence of different enzymatic factors involved in tissue breakdown of inflamed compared to healthy gingiva...
August 2, 2016: Archives of Oral Biology
Daiichi Morii, Takayuki Yokozawa, Naoki Ichinose, Toshimi Oda
The blood culture contamination rate is often used to validate specimen-collection procedures. CUMITECH has set its optimal target to be 2% to 3%. However, the term "contamination rate" has been defined in many ways, limiting its generalizability. The definitions used in earlier studies can be divided into two categories; definitions based on clinical judgements, and those based on preset rules. According to each principle, the equation must be composed of a defined numerator and denominator. The problem with clinical definitions is that the decision is inevitably subjective, and the process is too cumbersome...
May 2016: Kansenshōgaku Zasshi. the Journal of the Japanese Association for Infectious Diseases
Hiroya Miyamoto, Harumi Gomi, Haruhiko Ishioka, Taijiro Shirokawa
An 84-year-old man was admitted to our hospital with bloody sputum. He was found to have a right lower lobe wedge-shaped nodular lesion with chest X-ray and computed tomography of the chest. Ceftriaxone and minocycline were started empirically based on a working diagnosis of community-acquired pneumonia. Streptococcus parasanguinis was isolated with sputum cultures obtained on three consecutive days and was identified based on its biochemical properties. S. parasanguinis is a member of the sanguinis group of viridans Streptococci...
May 2016: Kansenshōgaku Zasshi. the Journal of the Japanese Association for Infectious Diseases
Muneyoshi Kimura, Hideki Araoka, Atsushi Yoshida, Hisashi Yamamoto, Masahiro Abe, Yuki Okamoto, Mitsuhiro Yuasa, Daisuke Kaji, Kosei Kageyama, Aya Nishida, Kazuya Ishiwata, Shinsuke Takagi, Go Yamamoto, Yuki Asano-Mori, Naoyuki Uchida, Akira Hishinuma, Koji Izutsu, Atsushi Wake, Shuichi Taniguchi, Akiko Yoneyama
BACKGROUND: Breakthrough viridans streptococcal bacteremia (VSB) in patients with hematological malignancy receiving levofloxacin prophylaxis is a major blood stream infection (BSI) occurring during febrile neutropenia. However, clinical data focused on VSB in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant (allo-HSCT) recipients are lacking. METHODS: The medical records of allo-HSCT recipients who received oral levofloxacin prophylaxis between January 2011 and August 2013 at Toranomon Hospital were reviewed to evaluate breakthrough VSB...
2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
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