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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095414/mosquito-disseminated-insecticide-for-citywide-vector-control-and-its-potential-to-block-arbovirus-epidemics-entomological-observations-and-modeling-results-from-amazonian-brazil
#1
Fernando Abad-Franch, Elvira Zamora-Perea, Sérgio L B Luz
BACKGROUND: Mosquito-borne viruses threaten public health worldwide. When the ratio of competent vectors to susceptible humans is low enough, the virus's basic reproductive number (R0) falls below 1.0 (each case generating, on average, <1.0 additional case) and the infection fades out from the population. Conventional mosquito control tactics, however, seldom yield R0 < 1.0. A promising alternative uses mosquitoes to disseminate a potent growth-regulator larvicide, pyriproxyfen (PPF), to aquatic larval habitats; this kills most mosquito juveniles and substantially reduces adult mosquito emergence...
January 2017: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095069/the-evolution-of-champion-cross-country-skier-training-from-lumberjacks-to-professional-athletes
#2
Øyvind Sandbakk
Competitive cross-country (XC) skiing has traditions extending back to the mid-19th century, and was included as a men's event in the first Winter Games in 1924. Since then, tremendous improvements in equipment, track preparation, and knowledge about training have prompted greater increases in XC skiing speeds than in any other Olympic sport. In response, this commentary focuses on how the training of successful XC skiers has evolved, with interviews and training data from surviving Norwegian world and Olympic XC champions as primary sources...
January 17, 2017: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057516/social-motivation-and-conflict-resolution-tactics-as-potential-building-blocks-of-sociality-in-cichlid-fishes
#3
REVIEW
Sigal Balshine, Marian Y L Wong, Adam R Reddon
Even closely related and ecologically similar cichlid species of Lake Tanganyika exhibit an impressive diversity of social systems, and therefore these fishes offer an excellent opportunity to examine the evolution of social behaviour. Sophisticated social relationships are thought to have evolved via a building block design where more fundamental social behaviours and cognitive processes have been combined, incrementally modified, and elaborated over time. Here, we studied two of these putative social building blocks in two closely related species of cichlids: Neolamprologus pulcher a group-living species, and Telmatochromis temporalis, a non-grouping species...
January 2, 2017: Behavioural Processes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057368/genomic-translational-research-paving-the-way-to-individualized-cardiac-functional-analyses-and-personalized-cardiology
#4
REVIEW
Ares Pasipoularides
For most of Medicine's past, the best that physicians could do to cope with disease prevention and treatment was based on the expected response of an average patient. Currently, however, a more personalized/precise approach to cardiology and medicine in general is becoming possible, as the cost of sequencing a human genome has declined substantially. As a result, we are witnessing an era of precipitous advances in biomedicine and bourgeoning understanding of the genetic basis of cardiovascular and other diseases, reminiscent of the resurgence of innovations in physico-mathematical sciences and biology-anatomy-cardiology in the Renaissance, a parallel time of radical change and reformation of medical knowledge, education and practice...
March 1, 2017: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28031470/effectiveness-of-naturally-occurring-substances-added-to-duck-litter-in-reducing-emergence-and-landing-of-adult-musca-domestica-diptera-muscidae
#5
Simon Lachance, Justine Shiell, Michele T Guerin, Cynthia Scott-Dupree
Poultry barns provide an ideal breeding environment for Musca domestica L. (Diptera: Muscidae) owing to the controlled temperatures and litter (manure plus bedding material) accumulation. Management techniques that render the litter less suitable for immature stage development, such as the addition of naturally occurring insecticidal substances, could reduce fly infestations. The effectiveness of acetic, boric, and citric acids; diatomaceous earth; and hydrated lime at restricting female landing and growth of house flies in duck litter was evaluated...
December 28, 2016: Journal of Economic Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28019078/target-site-mutations-conferring-resistance-to-glyphosate-in-feathertop-rhodes-grass-chloris-virgata-populations-in-australia
#6
The D Ngo, Mahima Krishnan, Peter Boutsalis, Gurjeet Gill, Christopher Preston
BACKGROUND: Chloris virgata is a warm season, C4 , annual grass weed affecting field crops in northern Australia that has become an emerging weed in southern Australia. Four populations with suspected resistance to glyphosate were collected in South Australia, Queensland and New South Wales, Australia and compared to one susceptible (S) population to confirm glyphosate resistance and elucidate possible mechanisms of resistance. RESULTS: Based on the rate of glyphosate required to kill 50% of treated plants (LD50 ), glyphosate resistance (GR) was confirmed in four populations of C...
December 26, 2016: Pest Management Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28005978/emergence-of-exploratory-technical-and-tactical-behavior-in-small-sided-soccer-games-when-manipulating-the-number-of-teammates-and-opponents
#7
Carlota Torrents, Angel Ric, Robert Hristovski, Lorena Torres-Ronda, Emili Vicente, Jaime Sampaio
The effects that different constraints have on the exploratory behavior, measured by the variety and quantity of different responses within a game situation, is of the utmost importance for successful performance in team sports. The aim of this study was to determine how the number of teammates and opponents affects the exploratory behavior of both professional and amateur players in small-sided soccer games. Twenty-two professional (age 25.6 ± 4.9 years) and 22 amateur (age 23.1 ± 0.7 years) male soccer players played three small-sided game formats (4 vs...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27983501/a-framework-for-modeling-emerging-diseases-to-inform-management
#8
Robin E Russell, Rachel A Katz, Katherine L D Richgels, Daniel P Walsh, Evan H C Grant
The rapid emergence and reemergence of zoonotic diseases requires the ability to rapidly evaluate and implement optimal management decisions. Actions to control or mitigate the effects of emerging pathogens are commonly delayed because of uncertainty in the estimates and the predicted outcomes of the control tactics. The development of models that describe the best-known information regarding the disease system at the early stages of disease emergence is an essential step for optimal decision-making. Models can predict the potential effects of the pathogen, provide guidance for assessing the likelihood of success of different proposed management actions, quantify the uncertainty surrounding the choice of the optimal decision, and highlight critical areas for immediate research...
January 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901311/video-gaming-as-practical-accomplishment-ethnomethodology-conversation-analysis-and-play
#9
Stuart Reeves, Christian Greiffenhagen, Eric Laurier
Accounts of video game play developed from an ethnomethodological and conversation analytic (EMCA) perspective remain relatively scarce. This study collects together an emerging, if scattered, body of research which focuses on the material, practical "work" of video game players. The study offers an example-driven explication of an EMCA perspective on video game play phenomena. The materials are arranged as a "tactical zoom." We start very much "outside" the game, beginning with a wide view of how massive-multiplayer online games are played within dedicated gaming spaces; here, we find multiple players, machines, and many different sorts of activities going on (besides playing the game)...
November 30, 2016: Topics in Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862872/temporal-patterns-of-imidacloprid-resistance-throughout-a-growing-season-in-leptinotarsa-decemlineata-populations
#10
Justin Clements, Sean Schoville, Nathan Clements, Scott Chapman, Russell L Groves
BACKGROUND: The Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say), is a major agricultural pest of commercial potatoes. Pest managers use a combination of control tactics to limit populations, including multiple insecticides. Finding a window of insecticide susceptibility and understanding genetic responses to insecticide exposure during a growing season may provide novel management recommendations for L. decemlineata. RESULTS: We examined temporal changes (during one growing season) in phenotypic response between a susceptible population and an imidacloprid-resistant population...
March 2017: Pest Management Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27858502/prehospital-providers-perceptions-on-providing-patient-and-family-centered-care
#11
Emily M Ayub, Esther M Sampayo, Manish I Shah, Cara B Doughty
BACKGROUND: A gap exists in understanding a provider's approach to delivering care that is mutually beneficial to patients, families, and other providers in the prehospital setting. The purpose of this study was to identify attitudes, beliefs, and perceived barriers to providing patient and family centered care (PFCC) in the prehospital setting and to describe potential solutions for improving PFCC during critical pediatric events. METHODS: We conducted a qualitative, cross-sectional study of a purposive sample of Emergency Medical Technicians (EMTs) and paramedics from an urban, municipal, fire-based EMS system, who participated in the Pediatric Simulation Training for Emergency Prehospital Providers (PediSTEPPS) course...
November 18, 2016: Prehospital Emergency Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27825363/pre-hospital-management-of-mass-casualty-civilian-shootings-a-systematic-literature-review
#12
Conor D A Turner, David J Lockey, Marius Rehn
BACKGROUND: Mass casualty civilian shootings present an uncommon but recurring challenge to emergency services around the world and produce unique management demands. On the background of a rising threat of transnational terrorism worldwide, emergency response strategies are of critical importance. This study aims to systematically identify, describe and appraise the quality of indexed and non-indexed literature on the pre-hospital management of modern civilian mass shootings to guide future practice...
November 8, 2016: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27822967/emerging-drugs-and-drug-targets-against-tuberculosis
#13
Nzungize Lambert, Abualgasim Elgaili Abdalla, Xiangke Duan, Jianping Xie
Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis), the causative agent of tuberculosis, uses various tactics to resist on antibiotics and evade host immunity. To control tuberculosis, antibiotics with novel mechanisms of action are urgently needed. Emerging new antibiotics and underlying novel drug targets are summarized in this paper.
December 2, 2016: Journal of Drug Targeting
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27813664/habitat-management-to-suppress-pest-populations-progress-and-prospects
#14
Geoff M Gurr, Steve D Wratten, Douglas A Landis, Minsheng You
Habitat management involving manipulation of farmland vegetation can exert direct suppressive effects on pests and promote natural enemies. Advances in theory and practical techniques have allowed habitat management to become an important subdiscipline of pest management. Improved understanding of biodiversity-ecosystem function relationships means that researchers now have a firmer theoretical foundation on which to design habitat management strategies for pest suppression in agricultural systems, including landscape-scale effects...
January 31, 2017: Annual Review of Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27793357/and-then-the-internet-happened-thoughts-on-the-future-of-concept-mapping
#15
Daniel McLinden
Over 25 years ago, in the late twentieth century, concept mapping emerged as a mixed method approach to inquiry that enables a group of people to conceptualize their thinking about a specific topic. Since then, the application of concept mapping has spread widely and an easy prediction for the future is that this trend is likely to continue; a more important and greater challenge is to think about the ways in which concept mapping may and should evolve. Discussed here are thoughts about the future of concept mapping including some predictions of likely directions and suggestions for new possibilities...
February 2017: Evaluation and Program Planning
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27788410/everyday-tactics-in-local-moral-worlds-e-cigarette-practices-in-a-working-class-area-of-the-uk
#16
Frances Thirlway
Research into e-cigarette use has largely focused on their health effects and efficacy for smoking cessation, with little attention given to their potential effect on health inequalities. Drawing on three years of ethnographic research between 2012 and 2015, I investigate the emerging e-cigarette practices of adult smokers and quitters in a working-class area of the UK. I first use de Certeau's notion of 'tactics' to describe the informal economy of local e-cigarette use. Low-priced products were purchased through personal networks and informal sources for financial reasons, but also as a solution to the moral problems of addiction and expenditure on the self, particularly for older smokers...
December 2016: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27784815/osimertinib-in-the-treatment-of-patients-with-epidermal-growth-factor-receptor-t790m-mutation-positive-metastatic-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-clinical-trial-evidence-and-experience
#17
REVIEW
Ivana Sullivan, David Planchard
Patients with advanced epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutant non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) are particularly sensitive to treatment with first- or second-generation EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors such as gefitinib, erlotinib and afatinib, which block the cell-signaling pathways that drive the growth of tumor cells. Unfortunately, the majority of patients develop resistance to them after a median duration of response of around 10 months, and in over half of these patients the emergence of the EGFR T790M resistance mutation is detected...
October 26, 2016: Therapeutic Advances in Respiratory Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27761120/soft-assembled-multilevel-dynamics-of-tactical-behaviors-in-soccer
#18
Angel Ric, Carlota Torrents, Bruno Gonçalves, Jaime Sampaio, Robert Hristovski
This study aimed to identify the tactical patterns and the timescales of variables during a soccer match, allowing understanding the multilevel organization of tactical behaviors, and to determine the similarity of patterns performed by different groups of teammates during the first and second halves. Positional data from 20 professional male soccer players from the same team were collected using high frequency global positioning systems (5 Hz). Twenty-nine categories of tactical behaviors were determined from eight positioning-derived variables creating multivariate binary (Boolean) time-series matrices...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27755710/repeated-wildfires-alter-forest-recovery-of-mixed-conifer-ecosystems
#19
Camille Stevens-Rumann, Penelope Morgan
Most models project warmer and drier climates that will contribute to larger and more frequent wildfires. However, it remains unknown how repeated wildfires alter post-fire successional patterns and forest structure. Here, we test the hypothesis that the number of wildfires, as well as the order and severity of wildfire events interact to alter forest structure and vegetation recovery and implications for vegetation management. In 2014, we examined forest structure, composition, and tree regeneration in stands that burned 1-18 yr before a subsequent 2007 wildfire...
September 2016: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27740660/fluorescent-glycoprobes-a-sweet-addition-for-improved-sensing
#20
Xiao-Peng He, Yi Zang, Tony D James, Jia Li, Guo-Rong Chen, Juan Xie
The development of small-molecule fluorescent probes for the detection of ions and biomacromolecules and for cellular and in vivo imaging has been a very active research area. Nevertheless, many problems exist for traditional probes including their poor water solubility, toxicity and the inability to target specific tissues. Because of the enhanced water solubility, biocompatibility and targeting ability for specific cells, there has been an emerging movement to use carbohydrates as either the backbone or as a warhead to decorate conventional fluorescent probes, producing "glycoprobes" with enhanced properties...
December 20, 2016: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
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