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Exercise pressor response

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397384/characteristics-and-effectiveness-of-vasodilatory-and-pressor-compensation-for-reduced-relaxation-time-during-rhythmic-forearm-contractions
#1
Robert F Bentley, Veronica J Poitras, Terrence Hong, Michael E Tschakovsky
During muscle contraction in rhythmic exercise muscle blood flow is significantly impeded by microvascular compression. The purpose of this study was to establish the nature and magnitude of vasodilatory and/or pressor compensatory responses during forearm exercise in the face of an increased duration of mechanical microvascular compression, and whether the effectiveness of such compensation was exercise intensity dependent. Seven healthy males (21.0 ± 1.8 yrs) completed progressive forearm exercise (24...
April 10, 2017: Experimental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28381455/2015-ludwig-lecture-abnormal-cardiovascular-responses-to-exercise-in-hypertension-contribution-of-neural-factors
#2
Jere Holloway Mitchell
During both dynamic (e.g. endurance) and static (e.g. strength) exercise there are exaggerated cardiovascular responses in hypertension. This includes greater increases in blood pressure, heart rate, and efferent sympathetic nerve activity than in normals. Two of the known neural factors which contribute to this abnormal cardiovascular response are the exercise pressor reflex (EPR) and functional sympatholysis. The EPR originates in contracting skeletal muscle and reflexly increases sympathetic efferent nerve activity to the heart and blood vessels as well as decreases parasympathetic efferent nerve activity to the heart...
April 5, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28364029/intact-blood-pressure-but-not-sympathetic-responsiveness-to-sympathoexcitatory-stimuli-in-a-patient-with-unilateral-carotid-body-resection
#3
Kathryn F Larson, Jacqueline K Limberg, Sarah E Baker, Michael J Joyner, Timothy B Curry
Despite rapidly growing interest in the therapeutic resection of the carotid body (CB) chemoreceptors, few physiologic studies exist on the consequences of unilateral CB resection. We present a case of an otherwise healthy postmenopausal female who underwent unilateral CB resection for a paraganglioma. Approximately 4 years postoperatively, she underwent analysis of her sympathetic and hemodynamic responses to hypoxia, lower body negative pressure, cold pressor test (CPT), and ischemic hand grip exercise and postexercise ischemia (IHE/PEI)...
April 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350576/absence-of-resting-cardiovascular-dysfunction-in-middle-aged-endurance-trained-athletes-with-exaggerated-exercise-blood-pressure-responses
#4
Katharine D Currie, Ryan T Sless, Catherine F Notarius, Scott G Thomas, Jack M Goodman
OBJECTIVE: Untrained individuals with exaggerated blood pressure (EBP) responses to graded exercise testing are characterized as having resting dysfunction of the sympathetic and cardiovascular systems. The purpose of this study was to determine the resting cardiovascular state of endurance-trained individuals with EBP through a comparison of normotensive athletes with and without EBP. METHODS: EBP was defined as a maximal systolic blood pressure (SBP) at least 190 mmHg and at least 210 mmHg for women and men respectively, in response to a graded exercise test...
March 27, 2017: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338362/the-effects-of-caffeine-taurine-or-caffeine-taurine-co-ingestion-on-repeat-sprint-cycling-performance-and-physiological-responses
#5
Rory Warnock, Owen Jeffries, Stephen Patterson, Mark Waldron
PURPOSE: This study investigated the effects of caffeine (C), taurine (T), caffeine and taurine co-ingestion (C+T) or placebo (P) on repeated Wingate cycling performance and associated physiological responses. METHODS: Seven male team sports players participated in a randomised, single-blind, cross-over study, where they completed three Wingate tests, each separated by 2-min, an hour after ingesting: C (5 mg/kg BM), T (50 mg/kg BM), C+T (5 mg/kg BM + 50 mg/kg BM) or P (5 mg/kg BM) in a gelatine capsule...
March 24, 2017: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292881/evidence-for-a-histaminergic-input-from-the-ventral-tuberomammillary-nucleus-to-the-solitary-tract-nucleus-involved-in-arterial-pressure-regulation
#6
Ko Yamanaka, Sabine S Gouraud, Miwa Takagishi, Akira Kohsaka, Masanobu Maeda, Hidefumi Waki
The tuberomammillary nucleus (TMN) of the posterior hypothalamus has a high density of histaminergic neurons, the projection fibers of which are present in many areas of the brain, including the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS), which controls arterial pressure (AP). In this study, we investigated whether the TMN-NTS pathway is involved in central cardiovascular regulation. Bicuculline, a gamma-aminobutyric acid type A (GABAA) receptor antagonist, was microinjected into the ventral TMN of anesthetized rats and its effects on AP and heart rate (HR) were observed...
March 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274927/endothelial-dysfunction-correlates-with-exaggerated-exercise-pressor-response-during-whole-body-maximal-exercise-in-chronic-kidney-disease
#7
Ryan M Downey, Peizhou Liao, Erin C Millson, Arshed A Quyyumi, Salman Sher, Jeanie Park
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients have exercise intolerance associated with increased cardiovascular mortality. Previous studies demonstrate that blood pressure (BP) and sympathetic nerve responses to handgrip exercise are exaggerated in CKD. These patients also have decreased nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability and endothelial dysfunction which could potentially lead to an impaired ability to vasodilate during exercise. We hypothesized that CKD patients have exaggerated BP responses during maximal whole body exercise and that endothelial dysfunction correlates with greater exercise pressor responses in these patients...
March 8, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183818/normalization-of-hemoglobin-based-oxygen-carrier-201-induced-vasoconstriction-roles-of-nitric-oxide-scavenging-and-endothelin
#8
Yannick J Taverne, Daphne P M de Wijs-Meijler, Maaike Te Lintel Hekkert, Paula F Moon-Massat, Greg P Dubé, Dirk Jan Duncker, Daphne Merkus
BACKGROUND: Hemoglobin-based oxygen carrier (HBOC)-201 is a cell-free modified hemoglobin solution potentially facilitating oxygen uptake and delivery in cardiovascular disorders and hemorrhagic shock. Clinical use has been hampered by vasoconstriction in the systemic and pulmonary beds. Therefore we aimed to 1) determine the possibility of counteracting HBOC-201-induced pressor effects with adenosine (ADO), 2) assess the potential roles of nitric oxide (NO) scavenging, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and endothelin (ET) in mediating the observed vasoconstriction and 3) compare these effects in resting and exercising swine...
February 9, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28150139/acute-effects-of-moderate-continuous-training-on-stress-test-related-pulse-pressure-and-wave-reflection-in-healthy-men
#9
Florian Milatz, Sascha Ketelhut, Reinhard G Ketelhut
INTRODUCTION: Arterial dysfunction develops early in life even in individuals with modest cardiovascular risk. Stress is associated with increased risk in cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. AIM: The main objectives of this study were to investigate the acute effects of moderate continuous training (MCT) on established markers of arterial stiffness and cardiovascular risk during standardized cold pressor stress testing (CPT). METHODS: 29 young healthy male subjects (33...
February 2, 2017: High Blood Pressure & Cardiovascular Prevention: the Official Journal of the Italian Society of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28041984/exploring-the-possible-mechanisms-of-blunted-cardiac-reactivity-to-acute-psychological-stress
#10
Ryan C Brindle, Anna C Whittaker, Adam Bibbey, Douglas Carroll, Annie T Ginty
Blunted cardiovascular reactivity to acute psychological stress has been linked to a range of adverse health and behavioral outcomes. However, the origins of blunted reactivity remain unclear. The current study aimed to explore the following possibilities: different appraisals of task stressfulness and/or difficulty, diminished task effort, or reduced physiological capacity to respond. Individuals characterized, via pre-screening, as blunted (n=17) or exaggerated (n=16) heart rate (HR) reactors to acute psychological stress (socially evaluative mental arithmetic) were exposed to a psychological stress, cold pressor and exercise tasks during a follow-up testing session while HR and blood pressure (BP) were measured...
December 30, 2016: International Journal of Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27849115/blood-pressure-response-to-isometric-handgrip-testing-and-aerobic-capacity-and-associations-with-sprint-performance-in-middle-aged-men-following-high-intensity-interval-training
#11
Ryszard Zarzeczny, Cyprian Tomza, Anna Polak, Agnieszka Nawrat-Szołtysik
BACKGROUND: Of this study were to determine if a 6-week high-intensity interval training (HIIT) protocol with increasing exercise volume affects aerobic capacity and arterial blood pressure (BP) measured during a fatiguing isometric handgrip test (IHT) in middle-aged, normotensive men and to assess whether sprint performance is associated with training-induced changes in BP. METHODS: Fourteen recreationally active men (age 43.0 ± 0.9 years, body mass 74.4 ± 2...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27802438/bradykinin-contributes-to-sympathetic-and-pressor-responses-evoked-by-activation-of-skeletal-muscle-afferents-p2x-in-heart-failure
#12
Jihong Xing, Jianhua Li
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Published data suggest that purinergic P2X receptors of muscle afferent nerves contribute to the enhanced sympathetic nervous activity (SNA) and blood pressure (BP) responses during static exercise in heart failure (HF). In this study, we examined engagement of bradykinin (BK) in regulating responses of SNA and BP evoked by P2X stimulation in rats with HF. We further examined cellular mechanisms responsible for BK. We hypothesized that BK potentiates P2X currents of muscle dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons, and this effect is greater in HF due to upregulation of BK kinin B2 and P2X3 receptor...
2016: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798354/low-frequency-stimulation-of-group-iii-and-iv-hind-limb-afferents-evokes-reflex-pressor-responses-in-decerebrate-rats
#13
Jonathan E Harms, Steven W Copp, Marc P Kaufman
Contraction of freely perfused hind limb muscles in decerebrate rats evokes the exercise pressor reflex, resulting in sympathetic activation and increased blood pressure. This reflex is propagated along mechanically sensitive group III and metabolically sensitive group IV afferent nerve fibers. Recent research by our laboratory has focused on the exaggeration of the exercise pressor reflex in decerebrate rats with simulated peripheral artery disease, which was induced by ligating the femoral artery for 72 h before the start of the experiment...
October 2016: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27763873/whole-body-heat-stress-attenuates-the-pressure-response-to-muscle-metaboreceptor-stimulation-in-humans
#14
Jian Cui, Cheryl Blaha, Lawrence I Sinoway
The effects of whole body heat stress on sympathetic and cardiovascular responses to stimulation of muscle metaboreceptors and mechanoreceptors remains unclear. We examined the muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA), blood pressure, and heart rate in 14 young healthy subjects during fatiguing isometric handgrip exercise, postexercise circulatory occlusion (PECO), and passive muscle stretch during PECO. The protocol was performed under normothermic and whole body heat stress (increase internal temperature ~0...
November 1, 2016: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27690366/rate-of-rise-in-diastolic-blood-pressure-influences-vascular-sympathetic-response-to-mental-stress
#15
Khadigeh El Sayed, Vaughan G Macefield, Sarah L Hissen, Michael J Joyner, Chloe E Taylor
KEY POINTS: Research indicates that individuals may experience a rise (positive responders) or fall (negative responders) in muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) during mental stress. In this study, we examined the early blood pressure responses (including the peak, time of peak and rate of rise in blood pressure) to mental stress in positive and negative responders. Negative MSNA responders to mental stress exhibit a more rapid rise in diastolic pressure at the onset of the stressor, suggesting a baroreflex-mediated suppression of MSNA...
December 15, 2016: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27614226/interaction-between-the-muscle-metaboreflex-and-the-arterial-baroreflex-in-control-of-arterial-pressure-and-skeletal-muscle-blood-flow
#16
Jasdeep Kaur, Alberto Alvarez, Hanna W Hanna, Abhinav C Krishnan, Danielle Senador, Tiago M Machado, Yasir H Altamimi, Abe T Lovelace, Maryetta D Dombrowski, Marty D Spranger, Donal S O'Leary
The muscle metaboreflex and arterial baroreflex regulate arterial pressure through distinct mechanisms. During submaximal exercise muscle metaboreflex activation (MMA) elicits a pressor response virtually solely by increasing cardiac output (CO) while baroreceptor unloading increases mean arterial pressure (MAP) primarily through peripheral vasoconstriction. The interaction between the two reflexes when activated simultaneously has not been well established. We activated the muscle metaboreflex in chronically instrumented canines during dynamic exercise (via graded reductions in hindlimb blood flow; HLBF) followed by simultaneous baroreceptor unloading (via bilateral carotid occlusion; BCO)...
November 1, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27594392/influence-of-a-high-intensity-interval-training-session-on-peripheral-and-central-blood-pressure-at-rest-and-during-stress-testing-in-healthy-individuals
#17
Sascha Ketelhut, Florian Milatz, Walter Heise, Reinhard G Ketelhut
BACKGROUND: Regular physical activity is known to reduce arterial pressure (BP). In a previous investigation, we could prove that even a single bout of moderate-intensity continuous exercise (MICE) causes a prolonged reduction in BP. Whether high-intensity interval training (HIIT) has a favourable influence on BP, and therefore may be followed subjects and methods by a prolonged BP reduction, should be examined on the basis of blood pressure response after exercise and during a subsequent stress test...
September 2016: VASA. Zeitschrift Für Gefässkrankheiten
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27550055/why-not-to-use-the-handgrip-test-in-the-assessment-of-cardiovascular-autonomic-neuropathy-among-patients-with-diabetes-mellitus
#18
Anna E Körei, Miklós Kempler, Ildikó Istenes, Orsolya E Vági, Zsuzsanna Putz, Viktor J Horváth, Katalin Keresztes, Csaba Lengyel, Ádám Gy Tabák, Vincenza Spallone, Péter Kempler
OBJECTIVE: Historically, a set of 5 Cardiovascular Autonomic Reflex Tests (CARTs) were considered to be the gold standard in the assessment of Cardiovascular Autonomic Neuropathy (CAN). However, measuring diastolic Blood Pressure (BP) response to sustained handgrip is omitted in recent guidelines. We aimed to assess the association between the handgrip and the other 4 tests as well as to identify determinants of the handgrip test results in diabetic patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS: 353 patients with diabetes (DM) were recruited (age: 60...
2017: Current Vascular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27539494/central-command-does-not-suppress-baroreflex-control-of-cardiac-sympathetic-nerve-activity-at-the-onset-of-spontaneous-motor-activity-in-the-decerebrate-cat
#19
Kanji Matsukawa, Kei Ishii, Ryota Asahara, Mitsuhiro Idesako
Our laboratory has reported that central command blunts the sensitivity of aortic baroreceptor-heart rate (HR) reflex at the onset of voluntary static exercise in animals. We have examined whether baroreflex control of cardiac sympathetic nerve activity (CSNA) and/or cardiovagal baroreflex sensitivity are altered at the onset of spontaneously occurring motor behavior, which was monitored with tibial nerve activity in paralyzed, decerebrate cats. CSNA exhibited a peak increase (126 ± 17%) immediately after the exercise onset, followed by increases in HR and mean arterial pressure (MAP)...
August 18, 2016: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27526332/preoperative-hypoalgesia-after-cold-pressor-test-and-aerobic-exercise-is-associated-with-pain-relief-six-months-after-total-knee-replacement
#20
Henrik Bjarke Vaegter, Gitte Handberg, Claus Emmeluth, Thomas Graven-Nielsen
OBJECTIVES: Chronic pain after total knee replacement (TKR) is not uncommon. Preoperative impaired conditioning pain modulation (CPM) has been used to predict chronic postoperative pain. Interestingly, exercises reduce pain sensitivity in patients with knee osteoarthritis. This pilot study investigated the association between exercise-induced hypoalgesia (EIH) and CPM on post-TKR pain relief. METHODS: Before and six months post-TKR, 14 patients with chronic knee osteoarthritis performed the cold pressor test on the non-affected leg and two exercise conditions (bicycling and isometric knee extension), randomized and counterbalanced...
August 12, 2016: Clinical Journal of Pain
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