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Exercise pressor response

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135658/muscle-strength-influences-pressor-responses-to-static-handgrip-in-men-and-women
#1
Karambir Notay, Jordan B Lee, Anthony V Incognito, Jeremy D Seed, Adam A Arthurs, Philip J Millar
PURPOSE: Whether differences in absolute muscle strength impact blood pressure (BP) responses to relative intensity static exercise remains controversial but could contribute to known sex-based differences and influence the interpretation of cross-sectional data. METHODS: One hundred thirty-two healthy participants (66 men and 66 women, age: 22±3yrs) underwent continuous seated measurements of BP (Finometer) and heart rate (electrocardiography) during baseline rest and two minutes of static handgrip (30% maximal voluntary contraction [MVC])...
November 10, 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131007/proteinase-activated-receptor-2-sensitivity-of-amplified-trpa1-activity-in-skeletal-muscle-afferent-nerves-and-exercise-pressor-reflex-in-rats-with-femoral-artery-occlusion
#2
Jihong Xing, Jianhua Li
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Limb ischemia occurs in peripheral artery disease (PAD). Sympathetic nerve activity (SNA) that regulates blood flow directed to the ischemic limb is exaggerated during exercise in this disease, and transient receptor potential channel A1 (TRPA1) in thin-fiber muscle afferents contributes to the amplified sympathetic response. The purpose of the present study was to determine the role of proteinase-activated receptor-2 (PAR2) in regulating abnormal TRPA1 function and the TRPA1-mediated sympathetic component of the exercise pressor reflex...
November 6, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101169/voluntary-apnea-during-dynamic-exercise-activates-the-muscle-metaboreflex-in-humans
#3
Masashi Ichinose, Mayumi Matsumoto, Naoto Fujii, Narumi Yoshitake, Takeshi Nishiyasu
Voluntary apnea during dynamic exercise evokes marked bradycardia, peripheral vasoconstriction and pressor responses. However, the mechanism(s) underlying the cardiovascular responses seen during apnea in exercising humans is unknown. We therefore tested the hypothesis that the muscle metaboreflex contributes to the apnea-induced pressor response during dynamic exercise. Thirteen healthy subjects participated in apnea and control trials. In both trials, subjects performed a two-legged dynamic knee extension exercise at a workload that elicited heart rates around 100 beats/min...
November 3, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054973/chronic-femoral-artery-ligation-exaggerates-the-pressor-and-sympathetic-nerve-responses-during-dynamic-skeletal-muscle-stretch-in-decerebrate-rats
#4
Evan A Kempf, Korynne S Rollins, Tyler D Hopkins, Alec L Butenas, Joseph M Santin, Joshua R Smith, Steven W Copp
Mechanical and metabolic signals arising during skeletal muscle contraction reflexly increase sympathetic nerve activity and blood pressure (i.e., the exercise pressor reflex). In a rat model of simulated peripheral artery disease (PAD) in which a femoral artery is chronically (~72 hours) ligated, the mechanically-sensitive component of the exercise pressor reflex during 1 Hz dynamic contraction is exaggerated compared to that found in normal rats. Whether this is due to an enhanced acute sensitization of mechanoreceptors by metabolites produced during contraction or involves a chronic sensitization of mechanoreceptors is unknown...
October 20, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28986360/exaggerated-cardiovascular-responses-to-treadmill-running-in-rats-with-peripheral-arterial-insufficiency
#5
J Matthew Kuczmarski, Kellee Unrath, Gail D Thomas
Patients with atherosclerotic peripheral artery disease (PAD) have an augmented pressor response to treadmill walking, but the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood and difficult to isolate due to the confounding presence of numerous cardiovascular risk factors. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that a chronic deficit in muscle blood flow capacity would be sufficient to trigger an exaggerated pressor response to dynamic exercise. Sprague Dawley rats (5 male, 5 female) were instrumented with radiotelemetery devices in order to measure the cardiovascular responses to treadmill running before and after bilateral femoral artery ligation, which has been shown previously to reduce the blood flow capacity of the distal hindlimb muscles by >60%...
October 6, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28939649/muscle-metaboreflex-induced-vasoconstriction-in-the-ischemic-active-muscle-is-exaggerated-in-heart-failure
#6
Jasdeep Kaur, Danielle Senador, Abhinav C Krishnan, Hanna W Hanna, Alberto Alvarez, Tiago M Machado, Donal S O'Leary
When oxygen delivery to active muscle is insufficient to meet the metabolic demand during exercise, metabolites accumulate and stimulate skeletal muscle afferents inducing a reflex increase in blood pressure, termed the muscle metaboreflex. In healthy individuals, muscle metaboreflex activation (MMA) during submaximal exercise increases arterial pressure primarily via an increase in cardiac output (CO), as little peripheral vasoconstriction occurs. This increase in CO partially restores blood flow to ischemic muscle...
September 22, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892884/effect-of-metaboreflex-on-cardiovascular-system-in-subjects-of-metabolic-syndrome
#7
Pramita Dubey, Sunita Tiwari, Manish Bajpai, Kalpana Singh, Praveen Jha
INTRODUCTION: Metaboreflex is a reflex in which muscle receptors send signals regarding metabolic (metabolites accumulation like lactic acid, potassium, adenosine) conditions of the muscles to nucleus tractus solitarius via afferent III and IV fibres to cause haemodynamic adjustments in order to regulate blood flow on the basis of the status of contracting muscle. Dysregulation in its mechanism in metabolic syndrome is demonstrated. AIM: To study the effect of metaboreflex by both isometric and rhythmic handgrip exercise on CVS parameters {Blood Pressure (BP), Cardiac Output (CO) and Systemic Vascular Resistance (SVR)} in subjects of metabolic syndrome...
July 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890527/microvascular-angina%C3%A3-long-term-exercise-stress-test-follow-up
#8
Gaetano A Lanza, Monica Filice, Antonio De Vita, Angelo Villano, Laura Manfredonia, Priscilla Lamendola, Filippo Crea
BACKGROUND: A sizeable proportion of patients with primary stable microvascular angina (MVA; exercise-induced angina, positive exercise stress test [EST], normal coronary arteries) have recurrent symptoms during follow-up. There have been no previous studies, however, on the long-term results of EST and their correlation with symptom outcome.Methods and Results:Follow-up EST was performed in 71 MVA patients at an average of 16.2 years (range, 5-25 years) from the first EST. Angina status was assessed on weekly frequency of angina episodes and nitroglycerin consumption and by whether symptoms had worsened, improved, or remained unchanged over time...
September 9, 2017: Circulation Journal: Official Journal of the Japanese Circulation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28857365/functional-haemodynamic-testing-in-pregnancy-recommendations-of-the-international-working-group-on-maternal-haemodynamics
#9
Victoria L Meah, Karianne Backx, Margie H Davenport
In the general population, functional haemodynamic testing, such as submaximal aerobic exercise, isometric handgrip, and the cold pressor test, has long been utilised to unmask abnormalities in cardiovascular function. During pregnancy, functional haemodynamic testing places additional demands on an already stressed maternal cardiovascular system. Dysfunctional responses to such tests in early pregnancy may predict the development of hypertensive disorders that develop later in gestation. These recommendations cover a description, an overview of the current understanding of clinical application, test protocol, equipment and considerations of each of the above functional haemodynamic tests during pregnancy...
August 30, 2017: Ultrasound in Obstetrics & Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28855178/baroreflex-and-neurovascular-responses-to-skeletal-muscle-mechanoreflex-activation-in-humans-an-exercise-in-integrative-physiology
#10
Rachel C Drew
Cardiovascular adjustments to exercise, resulting in increased blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR), occur in response to activation of several neural mechanisms - the exercise pressor reflex, central command, and the arterial baroreflex. Neural inputs from these feedback and feedforward mechanisms integrate in the cardiovascular control centers in the brain stem, and modulate sympathetic and parasympathetic neural outflow, resulting in the increased BP and HR observed during exercise. Another specific consequence of the central neural integration of these inputs during exercise is increased sympathetic neural outflow directed to the kidneys, causing renal vasoconstriction, a key reflex mechanism involved in blood flow redistribution during increased skeletal muscle work...
August 30, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28835448/cyclical-blood-flow-restriction-resistance-exercise-a-potential-parallel-to-remote-ischemic-preconditioning
#11
Justin Daniel Sprick, Caroline A Rickards
Remote ischemic preconditioning (RIPC) is characterized by the cyclical application of limb blood flow restriction and reperfusion, and has been shown to protect vital organs during a subsequent ischemic insult. Blood flow restriction exercise (BFRE) similarly combines bouts of blood flow restriction with low-intensity exercise and thus could potentially emulate the protection demonstrated by RIPC. One concern with BFRE, however, is the potential for an augmented rise in sympathetic outflow, due to greater activation of the exercise pressor reflex...
August 23, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28835447/combining-remote-ischemic-preconditioning-and-aerobic-exercise-a-novel-adaptation-of-blood-flow-restriction-exercise
#12
Justin Daniel Sprick, Caroline A Rickards
Remote ischemic preconditioning (RIPC) can attenuate tissue damage sustained by ischemia-reperfusion injury. Blood flow restriction exercise (BFRE) restricts blood flow to exercising muscles. We implemented a novel approach to BFRE with cyclical bouts of blood flow restriction-reperfusion, reflecting the RIPC model. A concern about BFRE, however, is potential amplification of the exercise pressor reflex, which could be unsafe in at-risk populations. We hypothesized that cyclical BFRE would elicit greater increases in sympathetic outflow and arterial pressure than conventional exercise (CE), performed at the same relative intensity...
August 23, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782491/the-impact-of-cardiovascular-diseases-on-the-cardiovascular-regulation-during-exercise-in-humans-studies-on-the-metaboreflex-elicited-by-the-post-exercise-muscle-ischemia-method
#13
Antonio Crisafulli
Hemodynamics during dynamic exercise is finely regulated by some neural mechanisms. One of these mechanisms is the metabolic part of the exercise pressor reflex, i.e. the muscle metaboreflex. Hemodynamic response during the metaboreflex is characterised by the recruitment of the reserves in cardiac inotropism, pre-load, after-load and chronotropism. If one of these reserves is exhausted, then the cardiovascular response is achieved by recruiting one of the other reserves, thereby indicating a remarkable plasticity of the control of circulation...
August 4, 2017: Current Cardiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733447/mineralocorticoid-receptor-antagonists-attenuate-exaggerated-exercise-pressor-reflex-responses-in-hypertensive-rats
#14
Ryan M Downey, Masaki Mizuno, Jere H Mitchell, Wanpen Vongpatanasin, Scott A Smith
Exaggerated heart rate (HR) and blood pressure responses to exercise in hypertension are mediated, in part, by overactivity of the exercise pressor reflex (EPR). The mechanisms underlying this EPR dysfunction have not been fully elucidated. Previous studies have shown that stimulation of mineralocorticoid receptors (MRs) with exogenous administration of aldosterone in normal, healthy rats reproduces the EPR overactivity characteristic of hypertensive animals. Conversely, the purpose of this study was to examine whether antagonizing MR with spironolactone (SPIR) or eplerenone (EPL) in decerebrated hypertensive rats ameliorates abnormal EPR function...
October 1, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706000/absence-of-compensatory-vasodilation-with-perfusion-pressure-challenge-in-exercise-evidence-for-and-implications-of-the-non-compensator-phenotype
#15
Robert F Bentley, Jeremy J Walsh, Patrick J Drouin, Aleksandra Velickovic, Sarah J Kitner, Alyssa M Fenuta, Michael E Tschakovsky
Compromising oxygen delivery (O2D) during exercise requires compensatory vasodilatory and/or pressor responses to protect O2D : demand matching. The purpose of the study was to determine whether compensatory vasodilation is absent in some healthy, young individuals in the face of a sudden reduction in exercising forearm perfusion pressure, and whether this affects the exercise pressor response. 21 healthy, young males (21.6±2.0yrs) completed rhythmic forearm exercise at a work rate equivalent to 70% of their own maximal exercise vasodilation...
July 13, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687588/the-carotid-baroreflex-modifies-the-pressor-threshold-of-the-muscle-metaboreflex-in-humans
#16
Masashi Ichinose, Tomoko Ichinose-Kuwahara, Kazuhito Watanabe, Narihiko Kondo, Takeshi Nishiyasu
The purpose of the present study was to test our hypothesis that unloading the carotid baroreceptors alters the threshold and gain of the muscle metaboreflex in humans. Ten healthy subjects performed a static handgrip exercise at 50% of maximum voluntary contraction. Contraction was sustained for 15, 30, 45, and 60 s and was followed by 3 min of forearm circulatory arrest, during which forearm muscular pH is known to decrease linearly with increasing contraction time. The carotid baroreceptors were unloaded by applying 0...
September 1, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28677340/rapid-onset-pressor-response-to-exercise-in-young-women-with-a-family-history-of-hypertension
#17
Evan L Matthews, Jody L Greaney, Megan M Wenner
What is the central question of this study? Alterations in blood pressure control at exercise onset are apparent in older adults with established cardiovascular disease. It is currently not known whether these alterations are evident in young adults with a family history of hypertension. What is the main finding and its importance? We demonstrate that young women with a family history of hypertension display a larger change in blood pressure within the first 10 s of isometric exercise. These data suggest altered blood pressure control in young women with a family history of hypertension...
September 1, 2017: Experimental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28666804/cardiovascular-responses-associated-with-the-moving-beans-task-influence-of-psychological-characteristics
#18
Kazuaki Iokawa, Masanori Munakata, Tomomi Hattori, Shuko Saiki, Toshimasa Sone, Masahiro Kohzuki
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: High blood pressure (BP) after stroke is associated with a poor outcome. However, exercise training or speech therapy for patients with stroke can raise the BP. The aim of this study was to examine cardiovascular responses during the moving beans task (MBT) used in occupational therapy and to study the influence of psychological characteristics on cardiovascular responses during this task in healthy subjects. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In 34 healthy volunteers, the BP and the heart rate (HR) were continuously measured during the baseline period, the 5-minute MBT, and the 1-minute cold pressor test (CPT)...
September 2017: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438985/decreased-compliance-in-the-deep-and-superficial-conduit-veins-of-the-upper-arm-during-prolonged-cycling-exercise
#19
Anna Oue, Kohei Sato, Marina Yoneya, Tomoko Sadamoto
We examined whether there is a difference in compliance between the deep and superficial conduit veins of the upper arm in response to prolonged exercise. Eight young men performed cycling exercise at 60% of peak oxygen uptake until rectal temperature had been increased by 1.1°C for 38-48 min. The cross-sectional area (CSA) of the brachial (deep) and basilic (superficial) veins was assessed by ultrasound during a cuff deflation protocol. Compliance (CPL) was calculated as the numerical derivative of the cuff pressure and CSA curve...
April 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397384/characteristics-and-effectiveness-of-vasodilatory-and-pressor-compensation-for-reduced-relaxation-time-during-rhythmic-forearm-contractions
#20
Robert F Bentley, Veronica J Poitras, Terrence Hong, Michael E Tschakovsky
During muscle contraction in rhythmic exercise muscle blood flow is significantly impeded by microvascular compression. The purpose of this study was to establish the nature and magnitude of vasodilatory and/or pressor compensatory responses during forearm exercise in the face of an increased duration of mechanical microvascular compression, and whether the effectiveness of such compensation was exercise intensity dependent. Seven healthy males (21.0 ± 1.8 yrs) completed progressive forearm exercise (24...
April 10, 2017: Experimental Physiology
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