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Microneurography

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323975/muscle-sympathetic-nerve-activity-is-associated-with-elements-of-the-plasma-lipidomic-profile-in-young-asian-adults
#1
Nina Eikelis, Elisabeth A Lambert, Sarah Phillips, Carolina Ika Sari, Piyushkumar A Mundra, Jacquelyn M Weir, Kevin Huynh, Mariee T Grima, Nora E Straznicky, John B Dixon, Markus P Schlaich, Peter J Meikle, Gavin W Lambert
Background: Asian subjects are at increased cardio-metabolic risk at comparatively lower BMI compared with Caucasians. Sympathetic nervous system activation and dyslipidaemia, both characteristics of increased adiposity, appear to be related. We therefore analysed the association of muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) with the plasma lipidomic profile in young Asian and Caucasian subjects. Methods: Blood samples were collected from 101 participants of either Asian or Caucasian background, aged 18-30, BMI 28...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303912/new-technologies-for-the-assessment-of-neuropathies
#2
REVIEW
Roberto Gasparotti, Luca Padua, Chiara Briani, Giuseppe Lauria
Technical advances are rapidly changing the clinical and instrumental approach to peripheral nerve diseases. Magnetic resonance neurography, diffusion tensor imaging and nerve ultrasonography are increasingly entering the diagnostic workup of peripheral neuropathies as tools that complement neurophysiology and enable investigation of proximal structures, such as plexuses and roots. Progress in the design of magnetic resonance scanners and sequences, and the development of high-frequency ultrasound probes mean that high-resolution peripheral nerve imaging is possible, enabling detailed examination of nerve size, morphology and internal fascicular structure that can integrate nerve conduction studies into clinical practice...
March 17, 2017: Nature Reviews. Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289073/sympathetic-nervous-activity-in-patients-with-acute-coronary-syndrome-a-comparative-study-of-inflammatory-biomarkers
#3
Humberto Graner Moreira, Rony Lopes Lage, Daniel G Martinez, Larissa Ferreira-Santos, Maria U P B Rondon, Carlos Eduardo Negrão, Jose C Nicolau
Previous studies have shown that both sympathetic hyperactivity and enhanced inflammatory responses are associated with poor outcomes in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Whether there is a correlation between these two characteristics remains unclear. Thirty-four patients with uncomplicated ACS were evaluated; their mean age was 51.7 ± 7.0 years, 79.4% were male, and 94.1% had myocardial infarction. On the fourth day of hospitalization, they underwent muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) analysis (microneurography), as well as ultrasensitive C-reactive protein (usCRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2) activity measurements...
March 13, 2017: Clinical Science (1979-)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28263787/precise-coding-of-ankle-angle-and-velocity-by-human-calf-muscle-spindles
#4
Ryan M Peters, Brian H Dalton, Jean-Sébastien Blouin, J Timothy Inglis
Human standing balance control requires the integration of sensory feedback to produce anticipatory, stabilizing ankle torques. However, the ability of human triceps surae muscle spindles to provide reliable sensory feedback regarding the small, slow ankle movements that occur during upright standing has recently come under question. We performed microneurography to directly record axon potentials from single muscle spindle afferents in the human triceps surae during servo-controlled movement of the ankle joint...
March 2, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28248904/serum-uric-acid-and-the-relationship-with-subclinical-organ-damage-in-adults
#5
Elisabeth A Lambert, Mariam Hachem, Robyn Hemmes, Nora E Straznicky, Nina Eikelis, Carolina I Sari, Markus P Schlaich, Gavin W Lambert, John B Dixon
AIMS: Elevated serum uric acid (SUA) is often present in conditions associated with increased cardiovascular risk yet it is not recognized as a marker of risk. We evaluated whether SUA was associated with evidence of early markers of cardiovascular risk factor including subclinical early organ damage, sympathetic tone and metabolic profile in a healthy population with a high prevalence of obesity. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Data from 281 patients (175 women and 106 men, mean age: 35...
April 2017: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230704/muscle-metaboreflex-control-of-sympathetic-activity-in-obstructive-sleep-apnea
#6
Linda M Ueno-Pardi, Renan S Guerra, Thiago T Goya, Rosyvaldo F Silva, Elisangela M Gara, Marta F Lima, Thais S Nobre, Maria J N N Alves, Ivani C Trombetta, Geraldo Lorenzi-Filho
PURPOSE: Previous studies report abnormal muscle metaboreflex control of muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) in obesity, hypertension, and heart failure. We hypothesized that obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is associated with augmented metaboreflex control of MSNA. METHODS: Thirty-one sedentary individuals with no comorbidities (age = 52±1 y, body mass index = 28±1 kg/m) without (control, n = 14) and with OSA (n = 17) defined by polysomnography, underwent echocardiography...
February 22, 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228418/folic-acid-supplementation-increases-cutaneous-vasodilator-sensitivity-to-sympathetic-nerve-activity-in-older-adults
#7
Anna E Stanhewicz, Jody L Greaney, Lacy M Alexander, W Larry Kenney
During heat stress, blunted increases in skin sympathetic nervous system activity (SSNA) and reductions in end-organ vascular responsiveness contribute to the age-related reduction in reflex cutaneous vasodilation. In older adults, folic acid supplementation improves the cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC) response to passive heating; however, the influence of folic acid supplementation on SSNA:CVC transduction is unknown. Fourteen older adults (66±1yrs, 8M/6F) ingested folic acid (5mg·day(-1)) or placebo for 6 weeks in a randomized, double-blind, crossover design...
February 22, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28162847/c-tactile-afferents-cutaneous-mediators-of-oxytocin-release-during-affiliative-tactile-interactions
#8
REVIEW
Susannah C Walker, Paula D Trotter, William T Swaney, Andrew Marshall, Francis P Mcglone
Low intensity, non-noxious, stimulation of cutaneous somatosensory nerves has been shown to trigger oxytocin release and is associated with increased social motivation, plus reduced physiological and behavioural reactivity to stressors. However, to date, little attention has been paid to the specific nature of the mechanosensory nerves which mediate these effects. In recent years, the neuroscientific study of human skin nerves (microneurography studies on single peripheral nerve fibres) has led to the identification and characterisation of a class of touch sensitive nerve fibres named C-tactile afferents...
January 19, 2017: Neuropeptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28123010/optimal-delineation-of-single-c-tactile-and-c-nociceptive-afferents-in-humans-using-latency-slowing
#9
Roger H Watkins, Johan Wessberg, Helena Backlund Wasling, James P Dunham, Håkan Olausson, Richard D Johnson, Rochelle Ackerley
C-mechanoreceptors in humans comprise a population of unmyelinated afferents exhibiting a wide range of mechanical sensitivities. C-mechanoreceptors are putatively divided into those signaling gentle touch (C-tactile afferents, CTs) and nociception (C-mechanosensitive nociceptors, CMs), giving rise to positive and negative affect, respectively. We sought to distinguish, compare and contrast the properties of a population of human C-mechanoreceptors to see how fundamental the divisions between these putative subpopulations are...
January 25, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100923/reductions-in-central-arterial-compliance-with-age-are-related-to-sympathetic-vasoconstrictor-nerve-activity-in-healthy-men
#10
Hirofumi Tanaka, Frank A Dinenno, Douglas R Seals
The compliance of large elastic arteries in the cardiothoracic circulation declines, whereas sympathetic nervous system activity increases markedly with advancing age in adult humans. We tested the hypothesis that the reduction in compliance of the large elastic arteries with age is associated with elevations in sympathetic tone to vascular smooth muscle in 16 young and 17 older adults. Carotid arterial compliance (via ultrasonography) was 45% lower in healthy older compared with young men (P<0.001), and was inversely related to sympathetic nerve activity (via microneurography) (r=-0...
January 19, 2017: Hypertension Research: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077660/muscle-spindles-in-human-tibialis-anterior-encode-muscle-fascicle-length-changes
#11
James Thomas Day, Leah R Bent, Ingvars Birznieks, Vaughan G Macefield, Andrew G Cresswell
Muscle spindles provide exquisitely sensitive proprioceptive information regarding joint position and movement. Through passively driven length changes in the muscle-tendon unit (MTU), muscle spindles detect joint rotations because of their in-parallel mechanical linkage to muscle fascicles. In human microneurography studies, muscle fascicles are assumed to follow the MTU and, as such, fascicle length is not measured in such studies. However, under certain mechanical conditions compliant structures can act to decouple the fascicles, and therefore the spindles, from the MTU...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057441/non-invasive-approach-for-the-assessment-of-sympathetic-baroreflex-function-a-feasibility-study
#12
Bartłomiej Paleczny, Agnieszka Siennicka, Piotr Ponikowski, Beata Ponikowska
BACKGROUND: Evaluation of sympathetic baroreflex (sBR) function in humans requires intra-neural recording of muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) by microneurography. AIMS: We proposed noninvasive approach for the evaluation of sBR function by applying the threshold-analysis (traditionally, based on MSNA) to systemic vascular resistance (SVR) measurement by photoplethysmography. METHODS & RESULTS: In nine healthy subjects (5M; age: 25±5y), the threshold-analysis was calculated twice: using MSNA and SVR...
December 29, 2016: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28055999/-role-of-the-sympathetic-nervous-system-in-vasovagal-syncope-and-rationale-for-beta-blockers-and-norepinephrine-transporter-inhibitors
#13
Manlio F Márquez, Jorge Rafael Gómez-Flores, Jesús A González-Hermosillo, Teresita de Jesús Ruíz-Siller, Manuel Cárdenas
Vasovagal or neurocardiogenic syncope is a common clinical situation and, as with other entities associated with orthostatic intolerance, the underlying condition is a dysfunction of the autonomic nervous system. This article reviews various aspects of vasovagal syncope, including its relationship with orthostatic intolerance and the role of the autonomic nervous system in it. A brief history of the problem is given, as well as a description of how the names and associated concepts have evolved. The response of the sympathetic system to orthostatic stress, the physiology of the baroreflex system and the neurohumoral changes that occur with standing are analyzed...
December 29, 2016: Medwave
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28029639/sleep-disordered-breathing-exacerbates-muscle-vasoconstriction-and-sympathetic-neural-activation-in-patients-with-systolic-heart-failure
#14
Denise M L Lobo, Patricia F Trevizan, Edgar Toschi-Dias, Patricia A Oliveira, Rafael B Piveta, Dirceu R Almeida, Charles Mady, Edimar A Bocchi, Geraldo Lorenzi-Filho, Holly R Middlekauff, Carlos E Negrão
BACKGROUND: Sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) is common in patients with heart failure (HF), and hypoxia and hypercapnia episodes activate chemoreceptors stimulating autonomic reflex responses. We tested the hypothesis that muscle vasoconstriction and muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) in response to hypoxia and hypercapnia would be more pronounced in patients with HF and SDB than in patients with HF without SDB (NoSBD). METHODS AND RESULTS: Ninety consecutive patients with HF, New York Heart Association functional class II-III, and left ventricular ejection fraction ≤40% were screened for the study...
November 2016: Circulation. Heart Failure
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27956555/the-influence-of-aetiology-on-the-benefits-of-exercise-training-in-patients-with-heart-failure
#15
Ligia M Antunes-Correa, Linda M Ueno-Pardi, Patricia F Trevizan, Marcelo R Santos, Carlos Henrique P da Silva, Fábio Gm Franco, Maria Janieire Nn Alves, Maria Urbana Pb Rondon, Carlos E Negrao
Background Exercise training improves neurovascular control and functional capacity in heart failure (HF) patients. However, the influence of the aetiology on these benefits is unknown. We compared the effects of exercise training on neurovascular control and functional capacity in idiopathic, ischaemic and hypertensive HF patients. Design Subjects consisted of 45 exercise-trained HF patients from our database (2000-2015), aged 40-70 years old, functional class II/III and ejection fraction ≤40%, and they were divided into three groups: idiopathic ( n = 11), ischaemic ( n = 18) and hypertensive ( n = 16)...
March 2017: European Journal of Preventive Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891612/neurovascular-mechanisms-underlying-augmented-cold-induced-reflex-cutaneous-vasoconstriction-in-human-hypertension
#16
Jody L Greaney, W Larry Kenney, Lacy M Alexander
KEY POINTS: In hypertensive adults (HTN), cardiovascular risk increases disproportionately during environmental cold exposure. Despite ample evidence of dysregulated sympathetic control of the peripheral vasculature in hypertension, no studies have examined integrated neurovascular function during cold stress in HTN. The findings of the present study show that whole-body cold stress elicits greater increases in sympathetic outflow directed to the cutaneous vasculature and, correspondingly, greater reductions in skin blood flow in HTN...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861895/effects-of-postural-change-from-supine-to-head-up-tilt-on-the-skin-sympathetic-nerve-activity-component-synchronised-with-the-cardiac-cycle-in-warmed-men
#17
Yu Ogawa, Yoshi-Ichiro Kamijo, Shigeki Ikegawa, Shizue Masuki, Hiroshi Nose
KEY POINTS: Humans are unique in controlling body temperature in a hot environment by a large amount of skin blood flow; however, the decrease in total peripheral resistance due to systemic cutaneous vasodilatation and the reduction of venous return to the heart due to blood pooling in the cutaneous vein threatens blood pressure maintenance in the upright position, and occasionally causes heat syncope. Against this condition, cutaneous vasodilatation is reportedly suppressed to maintain arterial pressure; however, the nerve activity responsible for this phenomenon has not been identified...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27857694/comparable-attenuation-of-sympathetic-nervous-system-activity-in-obese-subjects-with-normal-glucose-tolerance-impaired-glucose-tolerance-and-treatment-na%C3%A3-ve-type-2-diabetes-following-equivalent-weight-loss
#18
Nora E Straznicky, Mariee T Grima, Carolina I Sari, Elisabeth A Lambert, Sarah E Phillips, Nina Eikelis, Justin A Mariani, Daisuke Kobayashi, Dagmara Hering, John B Dixon, Gavin W Lambert
Background and Purpose: Elevated sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activity is a characteristic of obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D) that contributes to target organ damage and cardiovascular risk. In this study we examined whether baseline metabolic status influences the degree of sympathoinhibition attained following equivalent dietary weight loss. Methods: Un-medicated obese individuals categorized as normal glucose tolerant (NGT, n = 15), impaired glucose tolerant (IGT, n = 24), and newly-diagnosed T2D (n = 15) consumed a hypocaloric diet (29% fat, 23% protein, 45% carbohydrate) for 4-months...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27789772/blunted-increases-in-skin-sympathetic-nerve-activity-are-related-to-attenuated-reflex-vasodilation-in-aged-human-skin
#19
Anna E Stanhewicz, Jody L Greaney, Lacy M Alexander, W Larry Kenney
Reflex cutaneous vasodilation in response to passive heating is attenuated in human aging. This diminished response is mediated, in part, by age-associated reductions in endothelial function; however, the contribution of altered skin sympathetic nervous system activity (SSNA) is unknown. We hypothesized that 1) healthy older adults would demonstrate blunted SSNA responses to increased core temperature compared with young adults and 2) the decreased SSNA response would be associated with attenuated cutaneous vasodilation...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27784689/central-vs-peripheral-determinants-of-sympathetic-neural-recruitment-insights-from-static-handgrip-exercise-and-postexercise-circulatory-occlusion
#20
Mark B Badrov, T Dylan Olver, J Kevin Shoemaker
Sympathetic outflow is modified during acute homeostatic stress through increased firing of low-threshold axons, recruitment of latent axons, and synaptic delay modifications. However, the role of central mechanisms versus peripheral reflex control over sympathetic recruitment remains unknown. Here, we examined sympathetic discharge patterns during fatiguing static handgrip (SHG) exercise and postexercise circulatory occlusion (PECO) to study the central vs. peripheral reflex elements of sympathetic neural coding...
December 1, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
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