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Microneurography

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733092/exercise-training-to-reduce-sympathetic-nerve-activity-in-heart-failure-patients-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#1
REVIEW
María Javiera Saavedra, Fernando Romero, Jorge Roa, Iván Rodríguez-Núñez
OBJECTIVE: To determine the effects of exercise training on sympathetic nerve activity in heart failure patients. METHODS: A systematic review was performed. An electronic search of MEDLINE, ProQuest, SciELO, SPORTDiscus, Rehabilitation and Sport Medicine Source, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Tripdatabase, Science Direct and PEDrO was performed from their inception to February 2017. Clinical trials and quasi-experimental studies were considered for primary article selection...
July 7, 2017: Brazilian Journal of Physical Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724309/effects-of-long-term-device-guided-slow-breathing-on-sympathetic-nervous-activity-in-hypertensive-patients-a-randomized-open-label-clinical-trial
#2
Silvana de Barros, Giovanio Vieira da Silva, Josiane Lima de Gusmão, Tatiana Goveia de Araújo, Dinoélia Rosa de Souza, Crivaldo Gomes Cardoso, Bruna Oneda, Décio Mion
PURPOSE: Device-guided slow breathing (DGB) is indicated as nonpharmacological treatment for hypertension. The sympathetic nerve activity (SNA) reduction may be one of the mechanisms involved in blood pressure (BP) decrease. The aim of this study is to evaluate the long-term use of DGB in BP and SNA. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Hypertensive patients were randomized to listen music (Control Group-CG) or DGB (aim to reduce respiratory rate to less than 10 breaths/minute during 15 minutes/day for 8 weeks)...
July 20, 2017: Blood Pressure
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720715/ischemic-preconditioning-does-not-alter-muscle-sympathetic-responses-to-static-handgrip-and-metaboreflex-activation-in-young-healthy-men
#3
Anthony V Incognito, Connor J Doherty, Jordan B Lee, Matthew J Burns, Philip J Millar
Ischemic preconditioning (IPC) has been hypothesized to elicit ergogenic effects by reducing feedback from metabolically sensitive group III/IV muscle afferents during exercise. If so, reflex efferent neural outflow should be attenuated. We investigated the effects of IPC on muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) during static handgrip (SHG) and used post-exercise circulatory occlusion (PECO) to isolate for the muscle metaboreflex. Thirty-seven healthy men (age: 24 ± 5 years [mean ± SD]) were randomized to receive sham (n = 16) or IPC (n = 21) interventions...
July 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701539/measuring-and-quantifying-skin-sympathetic-nervous-system-activity-in-humans
#4
Jody L Greaney, W Larry Kenney
Development of the technique of microneurography has substantially increased our understanding of the function of the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) in health and in disease. The ability to directly record signals from peripheral autonomic nerves in conscious humans allows for qualitative and quantitative characterization of SNS responses to specific stimuli and over time. Further, distinct neural outflow to muscle (MSNA) and skin (SSNA) can be delineated. However, there are limitations and caveats to the use of microneurography, measurement criteria, and signal analysis and interpretation...
July 12, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28679842/the-firing-characteristics-of-foot-sole-cutaneous-mechanoreceptor-afferents-in-response-to-vibration-stimuli
#5
Nicholas Dj Strzalkowski, Ayesha Ali, Leah R Bent
Single unit microneurography was used to record the firing characteristics of the four classes of foot sole cutaneous afferents (fast and slowly adapting type I and II; FAI, FAII, SAI, SAII) in response to sinusoidal vibratory stimuli. Frequency (3-250Hz) and amplitude (0.001-2mm) combinations were applied to afferent receptive fields through a 6mm diameter probe. The impulses per cycle, defined as the number of action potentials evoked per vibration sine wave, were measured over one second of vibration at each frequency-amplitude combination tested...
July 5, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28663324/new-indices-from-microneurography-to-investigate-the-arterial-baroreflex
#6
Alexandre Laurin, Matthew G Lloyd, Tesshin Hachiya, Mitsuru Saito, Victoria E Claydon, Andrew Blaber
Baroreflex-mediated changes in heart rate and vascular resistance in response to variations in blood pressure are critical to maintain homeostasis. We aimed to develop time domain analysis methods to complement existing cross-spectral techniques in the investigation of the vascular resistance baroreflex response to orthostatic stress. A secondary goal was to apply these methods to distinguish between levels of orthostatic tolerance using baseline data. Eleven healthy, normotensive males participated in a graded lower body negative pressure protocol...
June 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28460516/neuroendocrine-dysregulation-in-irritable-bowel-syndrome-patients-a-pilot-study
#7
Cristina Stasi, Massimo Bellini, Dario Gambaccini, Emiliano Duranti, Nicola de Bortoli, Bernardo Fani, Eleonora Albano, Salvatore Russo, Isabella Sudano, Giacomo Laffi, Stefano Taddei, Santino Marchi, Rosa Maria Bruno
Background/Aims: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a multifactorial disorder, involving dysregulation of brain-gut axis. Our aim was to evaluate the neuroendocrine activity in IBS. Methods: Thirty IBS and 30 healthy volunteers were enrolled. Psychological symptoms were evaluated by questionnaires. Urinary 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid, plasma serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT), endothelin, and neuropeptide Y (NPY), and plasma and urinary cortisol levels were evaluated...
July 30, 2017: Journal of Neurogastroenterology and Motility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428756/neck-circumference-is-associated-with-muscle-sympathetic-nerve-activity-in-overweight-and-obese-men-but-not-women
#8
Nora E Straznicky, Mariee T Grima, Carolina I Sari, Nina Eikelis, Paul J Nestel, John B Dixon, Gavin W Lambert, Markus P Schlaich, Sarah E Phillips, Elisabeth A Lambert
Background: Neck circumference (NC) is a predictor of cardiometabolic risk. The objective of this study was to explore the relationship of NC to muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) within an overweight and obese population. Methods: The study design was a retrospective cross-sectional analysis. Un-medicated persons (72 men, 53 postmenopausal women) aged 56 ± 1 years (mean ± SEM) with body mass index (BMI) 32.8 ± 0.4 kg/m(2), were studied. NC was measured together with traditional anthropometric measures, supine blood pressure, fasting blood lipids, insulin, and glucose...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28378458/sensitivity-to-ischaemia-of-single-sympathetic-nerve-fibres-innervating-the-dorsum-of-the-human-foot
#9
W J Z'Graggen, R Solà, N E Graf, J Serra, H Bostock
KEY POINTS: Changes in nerve conduction velocity following an impulse (i.e. velocity recovery cycles) reflect after-potentials, and can provide an indication of altered nerve membrane properties. This study used microneurography to assess the effects of ischaemia on single human sympathetic fibres innervating the dorsum of the foot. It was found that velocity recovery cycles can distinguish whether a sympathetic nerve fibre is depolarized or not. The method may be used to detect membrane depolarization of sympathetic nerve fibres in human patients when autonomic neuropathy is suspected...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28364029/intact-blood-pressure-but-not-sympathetic-responsiveness-to-sympathoexcitatory-stimuli-in-a-patient-with-unilateral-carotid-body-resection
#10
Kathryn F Larson, Jacqueline K Limberg, Sarah E Baker, Michael J Joyner, Timothy B Curry
Despite rapidly growing interest in the therapeutic resection of the carotid body (CB) chemoreceptors, few physiologic studies exist on the consequences of unilateral CB resection. We present a case of an otherwise healthy postmenopausal female who underwent unilateral CB resection for a paraganglioma. Approximately 4 years postoperatively, she underwent analysis of her sympathetic and hemodynamic responses to hypoxia, lower body negative pressure, cold pressor test (CPT), and ischemic hand grip exercise and postexercise ischemia (IHE/PEI)...
April 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350577/reliability-of-heart-rate-as-neuroadrenergic-marker-in-the-metabolic-syndrome
#11
Fosca Quarti Trevano, Gino Seravalle, Mario Macchiarulo, Paolo Villa, Carlo Valena, Raffaella Dell'Oro, Giuseppe Mancia, Guido Grassi
BACKGROUND: Metabolic syndrome is characterized by a pronounced sympathetic overactivity as documented by the marked increase in muscle sympathetic nerve traffic (MSNA) as well as in plasma norepinephrine values reported in this condition. Whether and to what extent heart rate (HR) reflects the abovementioned adrenergic alterations in metabolic syndrome remains largely undefined. It is also undefined the validity of the abovementioned adrenergic markers in reflecting the main features of the metabolic syndrome...
August 2017: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323975/muscle-sympathetic-nerve-activity-is-associated-with-elements-of-the-plasma-lipidomic-profile-in-young-asian-adults
#12
Nina Eikelis, Elisabeth A Lambert, Sarah Phillips, Carolina Ika Sari, Piyushkumar A Mundra, Jacquelyn M Weir, Kevin Huynh, Mariee T Grima, Nora E Straznicky, John B Dixon, Markus P Schlaich, Peter J Meikle, Gavin W Lambert
Background: Asian subjects are at increased cardio-metabolic risk at comparatively lower body mass index (BMI) compared with white subjects. Sympathetic nervous system activation and dyslipidemia, both characteristics of increased adiposity, appear to be related. We therefore analyzed the association of muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) with the plasma lipidomic profile in young adult Asian and white subjects. Methods: Blood samples were collected from 101 participants of either Asian or white background (age, 18 to 30 years; BMI, 28...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303912/new-technologies-for-the-assessment-of-neuropathies
#13
REVIEW
Roberto Gasparotti, Luca Padua, Chiara Briani, Giuseppe Lauria
Technical advances are rapidly changing the clinical and instrumental approach to peripheral nerve diseases. Magnetic resonance neurography, diffusion tensor imaging and nerve ultrasonography are increasingly entering the diagnostic workup of peripheral neuropathies as tools that complement neurophysiology and enable investigation of proximal structures, such as plexuses and roots. Progress in the design of magnetic resonance scanners and sequences, and the development of high-frequency ultrasound probes mean that high-resolution peripheral nerve imaging is possible, enabling detailed examination of nerve size, morphology and internal fascicular structure that can integrate nerve conduction studies into clinical practice...
March 17, 2017: Nature Reviews. Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289073/sympathetic-nervous-activity-in-patients-with-acute-coronary-syndrome-a-comparative-study-of-inflammatory-biomarkers
#14
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Humberto G Moreira, Rony L Lage, Daniel G Martinez, Larissa Ferreira-Santos, Maria U P B Rondon, Carlos E Negrão, José C Nicolau
Previous studies have shown that both sympathetic hyperactivity and enhanced inflammatory responses are associated with poor outcomes in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Whether there is a correlation between these two characteristics remains unclear. Thirty-four patients with uncomplicated ACS were evaluated; their mean age was 51.7±7.0 years, 79.4% were male, and 94.1% had myocardial infarction (MI). On the fourth day of hospitalization, they underwent muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) analysis (microneurography), as well as ultrasensitive C-reactive protein (usCRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2) activity measurements...
May 1, 2017: Clinical Science (1979-)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28263787/precise-coding-of-ankle-angle-and-velocity-by-human-calf-muscle-spindles
#15
Ryan M Peters, Brian H Dalton, Jean-Sébastien Blouin, J Timothy Inglis
Human standing balance control requires the integration of sensory feedback to produce anticipatory, stabilizing ankle torques. However, the ability of human triceps surae muscle spindles to provide reliable sensory feedback regarding the small, slow ankle movements that occur during upright standing has recently come under question. We performed microneurography to directly record axon potentials from single muscle spindle afferents in the human triceps surae during servo-controlled movement of the ankle joint...
March 2, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28248904/serum-uric-acid-and-the-relationship-with-subclinical-organ-damage-in-adults
#16
Elisabeth A Lambert, Mariam Hachem, Robyn Hemmes, Nora E Straznicky, Nina Eikelis, Carolina I Sari, Markus P Schlaich, Gavin W Lambert, John B Dixon
AIMS: Elevated serum uric acid (SUA) is often present in conditions associated with increased cardiovascular risk yet it is not recognized as a marker of risk. We evaluated whether SUA was associated with evidence of early markers of cardiovascular risk factor including subclinical early organ damage, sympathetic tone and metabolic profile in a healthy population with a high prevalence of obesity. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Data from 281 patients (175 women and 106 men, mean age: 35...
April 2017: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230704/muscle-metaboreflex-control-of-sympathetic-activity-in-obstructive-sleep-apnea
#17
Linda M Ueno-Pardi, Renan S Guerra, Thiago T Goya, Rosyvaldo F Silva, Elisangela M Gara, Marta F Lima, Thais S Nobre, Maria J N N Alves, Ivani C Trombetta, Geraldo Lorenzi-Filho
PURPOSE: Previous studies report abnormal muscle metaboreflex control of muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) in obesity, hypertension, and heart failure. We hypothesized that obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is associated with augmented metaboreflex control of MSNA. METHODS: Thirty-one sedentary individuals with no comorbidities (age = 52 ± 1 yr, body mass index = 28 ± 1 kg·m) without (control, n = 14) and with OSA (n = 17) defined by polysomnography, underwent echocardiography...
July 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228418/folic-acid-supplementation-increases-cutaneous-vasodilator-sensitivity-to-sympathetic-nerve-activity-in-older-adults
#18
Anna E Stanhewicz, Jody L Greaney, Lacy M Alexander, W Larry Kenney
During heat stress, blunted increases in skin sympathetic nervous system activity (SSNA) and reductions in end-organ vascular responsiveness contribute to the age-related reduction in reflex cutaneous vasodilation. In older adults, folic acid supplementation improves the cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC) response to passive heating; however, the influence of folic acid supplementation on SSNA:CVC transduction is unknown. Fourteen older adults (66±1yrs, 8M/6F) ingested folic acid (5mg·day(-1)) or placebo for 6 weeks in a randomized, double-blind, crossover design...
February 22, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28162847/c-tactile-afferents-cutaneous-mediators-of-oxytocin-release-during-affiliative-tactile-interactions
#19
REVIEW
Susannah C Walker, Paula D Trotter, William T Swaney, Andrew Marshall, Francis P Mcglone
Low intensity, non-noxious, stimulation of cutaneous somatosensory nerves has been shown to trigger oxytocin release and is associated with increased social motivation, plus reduced physiological and behavioural reactivity to stressors. However, to date, little attention has been paid to the specific nature of the mechanosensory nerves which mediate these effects. In recent years, the neuroscientific study of human skin nerves (microneurography studies on single peripheral nerve fibres) has led to the identification and characterisation of a class of touch sensitive nerve fibres named C-tactile afferents...
January 19, 2017: Neuropeptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28123010/optimal-delineation-of-single-c-tactile-and-c-nociceptive-afferents-in-humans-by-latency-slowing
#20
Roger H Watkins, Johan Wessberg, Helena Backlund Wasling, James P Dunham, Håkan Olausson, Richard D Johnson, Rochelle Ackerley
C-mechanoreceptors in humans comprise a population of unmyelinated afferents exhibiting a wide range of mechanical sensitivities. C-mechanoreceptors are putatively divided into those signaling gentle touch (C-tactile afferents, CTs) and nociception (C-mechanosensitive nociceptors, CMs), giving rise to positive and negative affect, respectively. We sought to distinguish, compare, and contrast the properties of a population of human C-mechanoreceptors to see how fundamental the divisions between these putative subpopulations are...
April 1, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
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