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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550792/social-stress-contagion-in-rats-behavioural-autonomic-and-neuroendocrine-correlates
#1
Luca Carnevali, Nicola Montano, Rosario Statello, Gino Coudé, Federica Vacondio, Silvia Rivara, Pier Francesco Ferrari, Andrea Sgoifo
The negative emotional consequences associated with life stress exposure in an individual can affect the emotional state of social partners. In this study, we describe an experimental rat model of social stress contagion and its effects on social behaviour and cardiac autonomic and neuroendocrine functions. Adult male Wistar rats were pair-housed and one animal (designated as "demonstrator" (DEM)) was submitted to either social defeat stress (STR) by an aggressive male Wild-type rat in a separate room or just exposed to an unfamiliar empty cage (control condition, CTR), once a day for 4 consecutive days...
May 20, 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550171/%C3%AE-adrenergic-receptor-stimulation-inhibits-proarrhythmic-alternans-in-post-infarction-border-zone-cardiomyocytes-a-computational-analysis
#2
Jakub Tomek, Blanca Rodriguez, Gil Bub, Jordi Heijman
The border zone (BZ) of viable myocardium adjacent to an infarct undergoes extensive autonomic and electrical remodelling and is prone to repolarisation alternans-induced cardiac arrhythmias. BZ remodelling processes may promote or inhibit calcium and/or repolarisation alternans and may differentially affect ventricular arrhythmogenesis. Here, we employed a detailed computational model of the canine ventricular cardiomyocyte to study the determinants of alternans in the BZ and their regulation by β-adrenergic receptor (βAR) stimulation...
May 26, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550087/transcriptional-networks-in-rodent-models-support-a-role-for-gut-brain-communication-in-neurogenic-hypertension-a-review-of-the-evidence
#3
Jasenka Zubcevic, Ashley Baker, Christopher J Martyniuk
Hypertension (HTN) is the most prevalent condition observed in primary health care. Hypertension shows complex etiology, and neuroinflammation, overactive sympathetic drive, and the microbiome are associated with the disease. To obtain mechanistic perspective into neurogenic HTN, we first constructed a framework for transcriptional regulators of the disease using the Comparative Toxicogenomics Database. This approach yielded a core group of 178 transcripts that are prevalent in HTN, including leptin and neuropeptide Y...
May 26, 2017: Physiological Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549782/central-trkb-blockade-attenuates-icv-angiotensin-ii-hypertension-and-sympathetic-nerve-activity-in-male-sprague-dawley-rats
#4
Bryan K Becker, Hanjun Wang, Irving H Zucker
Increased sympathetic nerve activity and the activation of the central renin-angiotensin system are commonly associated with cardiovascular disease states such as hypertension and heart failure, yet the precise mechanisms contributing to the long-term maintenance of this sympatho-excitation are incompletely understood. Due to the established physiological role of neurotrophins contributing toward neuroplasticity and neuronal excitability along with recent evidence linking the renin-angiotensin system and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) along with its receptor (TrkB), it is likely the two systems interact to promote sympatho-excitation during cardiovascular disease...
May 19, 2017: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549566/asymmetrical-responses-of-skin-blood-flow-in-ischemic-hindlimbs-to-electrical-stimulation-of-the-unilateral-forelimb
#5
Chung-Shin Huang, Ya-Hui Sun, Yi-Ting Wang, Yu-Hung Pan, Shwu-Fen Wang, Yuan-Feen Tsai
The regulation of skin blood flow (SBF) is primarily mediated by the sympathetic nervous system, but the effects of electrical stimulation (ES) of one limb on SBF in the other limbs remain unknown. The present study investigated the effects of unilateral forelimb ES on SBF in the bilateral hindlimbs in anesthetized rats. Bilateral hindlimb ischemia was induced by tourniquet application for 60min. After reperfusion for 24h, ES (3 or 125Hz) was applied to the upper one-fourth of the triceps brachii muscle of the left or right forelimb for 30min...
May 23, 2017: Microvascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549524/-quadratus-lumborum-block-are-we-aware-of-its-side-effects-a-report-of-2-cases
#6
Miguel Sá, José Miguel Cardoso, Hugo Reis, Marta Esteves, José Sampaio, Isabel Gouveia, Pilar Carballada, Célia Pinheiro, Duarte Machado
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The quadratus lumborum block was initially described in 2007 and aims at blocking the same nerves as the ones involved on the Transverse Abdominis Plane block, while accomplishing some visceral enervation as well due to closer proximity with the neuroaxis and sympathetic trunk. Given its versatility, we have successfully used it in a wide range of procedures. We report two cases where we believe the dispersion of local anesthetic is likely to have led to a previously undescribed complication...
May 23, 2017: Revista Brasileira de Anestesiologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548286/obesity-gets-on-your-renal-nerves
#7
EDITORIAL
Boye L Jensen
In the present issue of Acta Physiologica(1) , Khan et al. in their article "Improvement in baroreflex control of renal sympathetic nerve activity in obese Sprague-Dawley rats following immunosuppression" confirm that obesity-related hypertension involves resetting of the arterial baroreceptor to a state of less sensitivity and relate this mechanistically to inflammation-induced altered renal afferent nerve activity (1) . Pharmocological treatment with the calcineurin phosphatase inhibitor-type immunosuppressant tacrolimus attenuated inflammation, reversed, paradoxically, the hypertension and restored baroreceptor sensitivity similar to the effect of renal denervation...
May 26, 2017: Acta Physiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28547852/the-comparative-study-of-empathy-sympathetic-concern-and-empathic-perspective-taking-in-non-human-animals
#8
Ana Pérez-Manrique, Antoni Gomila
While empathy is a century-old psychological concept, its study in non-human animals has become the focus of much recent scientific interest, as it promises to provide the clues to understand the evolutionary origins of our social and moral nature. A review of the comparative study of empathy is thus timely to complement and constrain anthropocentric views, and to integrate current findings. However, this is not an easy task. The study of animal empathy has developed using different paradigms, different concepts of the phenomena involved, and the absence of a systematic program...
May 25, 2017: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546285/anti-inflammatory-effects-and-mechanisms-of-vagal-nerve-stimulation-combined-with-electroacupuncture-in-a-rodent-model-of-tnbs-induced-colitis
#9
Haifeng Jin, Jie Guo, Jiemin Liu, Bin Lyu, Robert D Foreman, Jieyun Yin, Zhaohong Shi, Jiande Dz Chen
The purpose of this study was to determine effects and mechanisms of vagal nerve stimulation (VNS) and additive effects of electroacupuncture (EA) on colonic inflammation in a rodent model of IBD. Chronic inflammation in rats was induced by intrarectal TNBS (2,4,6-Trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid). The rats were then treated with sham-ES (electrical stimulation), VNS or VNS+EA for 3 weeks. Inflammatory responses were assessed by disease activity index (DAI), macroscopic scores and histological scores of colonic tissues, and plasma levels of TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6, myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity of colonic tissues...
May 25, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546086/physical-activity-and-cardiovascular-aging-physiological-and-molecular-insights
#10
REVIEW
Djordje G Jakovljevic
Aging is associated with significant changes in both cardiac and vascular structure and function that lower the threshold for clinical signs and symptoms, making older people more susceptible to cardiovascular diseases, morbidity and mortality. Understanding of age-related cardiovascular changes is necessary for effective and efficient prevention and treatment of cardiovascular disease in older people. Cardiac aging is associated with left ventricular remodelling marked by increased mass-to-volume ratio and accompanied by systolic and diastolic myocardial dysfunction, and reduced sensitivity to sympathetic stimuli that compromises myocardial contractility and pumping ability in older people...
May 22, 2017: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545853/elevated-sympathetic-activity-endothelial-dysfunction-and-late-hypertension-after-repair-of-coarctation-of-the-aorta
#11
Melissa G Y Lee, Robyn A Hemmes, Jonathan Mynard, Elisabeth Lambert, Geoffrey A Head, Michael M H Cheung, Igor E Konstantinov, Christian P Brizard, Gavin Lambert, Yves d'Udekem
BACKGROUND: There is a high prevalence of late hypertension after coarctation repair. The relative contribution of elevated sympathetic tone and endothelial dysfunction to its development is unknown. This study aims to investigate the neural profile of coarctation patients including muscle sympathetic nerve activity testing to directly measure sympathetic nervous activity. METHODS: Twenty-three patients aged ≥18years with a coarctation repair underwent measurements of clinic and 24-h blood pressures, muscle sympathetic nerve activity, sympathetic and cardiac baroreflex functions, digital endothelial function, and ambulatory arterial stiffness index...
May 19, 2017: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545464/c10orf10-depp-mediated-ros-accumulation-is-a-critical-modulator-of-foxo3-induced-autophagy
#12
S Salcher, M Hermann, U Kiechl-Kohlendorfer, M J Ausserlechner, P Obexer
BACKGROUND: Neuroblastoma is the most common solid tumor in childhood and develops from undifferentiated progenitor cells of the sympathetic nervous system. In neuronal tumor cells DNA-damaging chemotherapeutic agents activate the transcription factor FOXO3 which regulates the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and cell death as well as a longevity program associated with therapy resistance. We demonstrated before that C10ORF10/DEPP, a transcriptional target of FOXO3, localizes to peroxisomes and mitochondria and impairs cellular ROS detoxification...
May 25, 2017: Molecular Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545163/coccygeal-body-revisited-an-immunohistochemical-study-using-donated-elderly-cadavers
#13
Zhe Wu Jin, Kwang Ho Cho, Hyung Suk Jang, Gen Murakami, Jose Francisco Rodríguez-Vázquez, Masahito Yamamoto, Shin-Ichi Abe
To describe the normal anatomy and histology of the adult coccygeal body (CB) and to discuss about the origin and function. Using immunohistochemistry, we examined 29 CBs found in 32 elderly donated cadavers without macroscopic pathology in the pelvis. The CB was usually located in or near the anococcygeal ligaments. It was almost always composed of multiple masses or nodules of round glomus cells (smooth muscle actin, or SMA++). However, the CB sometimes contained abundant dilated veins with scattered glomus cells...
May 25, 2017: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545128/common-variants-upstream-of-mlf1-at-3q25-and-within-cpz-at-4p16-associated-with-neuroblastoma
#14
Lee D McDaniel, Karina L Conkrite, Xiao Chang, Mario Capasso, Zalman Vaksman, Derek A Oldridge, Anna Zachariou, Millicent Horn, Maura Diamond, Cuiping Huo, Achille Iolascon, Hakon Hakonarson, Nazneen Rahman, Marcella Devoto, Sharon J Diskin
Neuroblastoma is a cancer of the developing sympathetic nervous system that most commonly presents in young children and accounts for approximately 12% of pediatric oncology deaths. Here, we report on a genome-wide association study (GWAS) in a discovery cohort or 2,101 cases and 4,202 controls of European ancestry. We identify two new association signals at 3q25 and 4p16 that replicated robustly in multiple independent cohorts comprising 1,163 cases and 4,396 controls (3q25: rs6441201 combined P = 1.2x10-11, Odds Ratio 1...
May 18, 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544688/prolonged-denervation-induces-remodeling-of-nasal-mucosa-in-rat-model-of-posterior-nasal-neurectomy
#15
Hironobu Nishijima, Kenji Kondo, Makiko Toma-Hirano, Shu Kikuta, Mizuo Ando, Rumi Ueha, Tatsuya Yamasoba
BACKGROUND: The posterior nasal nerve is the dominant source of the parasympathetic, sympathetic, and sensory fibers that innervate the nasal respiratory mucosa. Therefore, a posterior nasal neurectomy (PNN) induces denervation of the nasal mucosa and relieves the nasal symptoms of intractable rhinitis. PNN depletes nerve fibers, choline acetyltransferase, and neuropeptides in nasal respiratory mucosa, and reduces nasal secretion. However, the histological and symptomatic changes over an extended period after PNN remain unknown...
May 23, 2017: International Forum of Allergy & Rhinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544507/the-effect-of-binaural-beat-technology-on-the-cardiovascular-stress-response-in-military-service-members-with-postdeployment-stress
#16
MeLisa A Gantt, Stephanie Dadds, Debra S Burns, Dale Glaser, Angelo D Moore
PURPOSE: To assess the efficacy of embedded theta brainwave frequency in music using binaural beat technology (BBT) compared to music alone on the cardiovascular stress response in military service members with postdeployment stress. DESIGN: A double-blinded, randomized, pre- and postintervention trial. METHODS: Seventy-four military services members with complaint of postdeployment stress were randomized to either music with BBT or music alone...
May 23, 2017: Journal of Nursing Scholarship
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544033/impaired-neurovascular-reactivity-in-the-microvasculature-of-pregnant-women-with-preeclampsia
#17
Karine Ferreira Agra, Isabelle Eunice Albuquerque Pontes, José Roberto da Silva, José Natal Figueiroa, Geraldine F Clough, João Guilherme Bezerra Alves
Preeclampsia (PE) is associated with maternal vascular dysfunction, leading to serious cardiovascular risk both during and following pregnancy. OBJECTIVE: To assess microvascular reactivity in pregnant women with PE. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was performed in 36 pregnant women with PE and 36 normotensive pregnant women (C) in the third trimester. Skin microvascular blood flow was measured using laser Doppler flowmetry at rest (RF), during the maximum hyperaemic response to brief arterial occlusion (MF) and during the sympathetically-mediated constrictor response to deep inspiratory breath hold (IBH)...
May 19, 2017: Microcirculation: the Official Journal of the Microcirculatory Society, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542469/biophysical-markers-of-the-peripheral-vasoconstriction-response-to-pain-in-sickle-cell-disease
#18
Patjanaporn Chalacheva, Maha Khaleel, John Sunwoo, Payal Shah, Jon A Detterich, Roberta M Kato, Wanwara Thuptimdang, Herbert J Meiselman, Richard Sposto, Jennie Tsao, John C Wood, Lonnie Zeltzer, Thomas D Coates, Michael C K Khoo
Painful vaso-occlusive crisis (VOC), a complication of sickle cell disease (SCD), occurs when sickled red blood cells obstruct flow in the microvasculature. We postulated that exaggerated sympathetically mediated vasoconstriction, endothelial dysfunction and the synergistic interaction between these two factors act together to reduce microvascular flow, promoting regional vaso-occlusions, setting the stage for VOC. We previously found that SCD subjects had stronger vasoconstriction response to pulses of heat-induced pain compared to controls but the relative degrees to which autonomic dysregulation, peripheral vascular dysfunction and their interaction are present in SCD remain unknown...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541489/respiratory-effects-and-systemic-stress-response-following-acute-acrolein-inhalation-in-rats
#19
Samantha J Snow, Marie A McGee, Andres Henriquez, Judy E Richards, Mette C Schladweiler, Allen D Ledbetter, Urmila P Kodavanti
Previous studies have demonstrated that exposure to the pulmonary irritant ozone causes myriad systemic metabolic and pulmonary effects attributed to sympathetic and hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activation, which are exacerbated in metabolically-impaired models. We examined respiratory and systemic effects following exposure to a sensory irritant acrolein to elucidate the systemic and pulmonary consequences in healthy and diabetic rat models. Male Wistar and Goto Kakizaki (GK) rats, a non-obese type II diabetic Wistar-derived model, were exposed by inhalation to 0, 2, or 4 ppm acrolein, 4h/day for 1 or 2 days...
May 24, 2017: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539889/baroreflex-coupling-assessed-by-cross-compression-entropy
#20
Andy Schumann, Steffen Schulz, Andreas Voss, Susann Scharbrodt, Mathias Baumert, Karl-Jürgen Bär
Estimating interactions between physiological systems is an important challenge in modern biomedical research. Here, we explore a new concept for quantifying information common in two time series by cross-compressibility. Cross-compression entropy (CCE) exploits the ZIP data compression algorithm extended to bivariate data analysis. First, time series are transformed into symbol vectors. Symbols of the target time series are coded by the symbols of the source series. Uncoupled and linearly coupled surrogates were derived from cardiovascular recordings of 36 healthy controls obtained during rest to demonstrate suitability of this method for assessing physiological coupling...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
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