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Shereen M Hamza, John E Hall
Renal sympathetic nerves contribute significantly to both physiological and pathophysiological phenomena. Evaluating renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA) is of great interest in many areas of research such as chronic kidney disease, hypertension, heart failure, diabetes and obesity. Unequivocal assessment of the role of the sympathetic nervous system is thus imperative for proper interpretation of experimental results and understanding of disease processes. RSNA has been traditionally measured in anesthetized rodents, including mice...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Kai Zhang, Jun Wei, Lin Wang
Purpose: To study the effect on HRV of archer athletes one day before competition after three different abdominal respiratory frequencies. Methods: Eight elite archers performed three different respiratory frequency tests, HRV were recorded in pre-, during, and post-frequency control in frequency 16 (F16 group, n = 8), 8 (F8 group, n = 8), and 5 (F5 group, n = 8) times per minute, and hoped to find a respiratory adjust way to reduce stress. RMSSD, RR_triangular index, TP, VLF, LF, HF and LF/HF were analyzed to describe the effect of respiratory frequency...
December 2017: Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences
Mario Altamura, Salvatore Iuso, Angela Balzotti, Girolamo Francavilla, Andrea Dimitri, Giuseppe Cibelli, Antonello Bellomo, Annamaria Petito
Reported findings on reactivity to stress of the sympathetic-adreno-medullar (SAM) and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) systems in panic disorder (PD) are very variable. This inconsistency may be explained by differences in treatment exposure, illness duration and emotion regulation strategies. The present study examined the reactivity to mental stress of the SAM and HPA axes in a sample of first episode, drug naïve patients with PD which avoids confounds of medications exposure and illness chronicity...
March 14, 2018: Neuroscience Research
Emmanuel Weyne, Johanna L Hannan, Thomas Gevaert, Yodi Soebadi, Hotaka Matsui, Fabio Castiglione, Koenraad van Renterghem, Dirk De Ridder, Frank Van der Aa, Trinity J Bivalacqua, Maarten Albersen
BACKGROUND: Previously, we found that the neuropeptide galanin was strongly upregulated soon after bilateral cavernous nerve injury (BCNI) and that galanin and its receptors were expressed in nitrergic erectile innervation. Galanin has been observed to exert neuroregenerative effects in dorsal root ganglion neurons, but evidence for these effects in the major pelvic ganglion (MPG) after BCNI is lacking. AIM: To evaluate the neurotropic effects of galanin receptor agonists and antagonists in vitro in nitrergic neurons and MPG and in vivo in rats after BCNI...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Sexual Medicine
Gabriel Dias Rodrigues, Jonas Lírio Gurgel, Thiago Rodrigues Gonçalves, Pedro Paulo da Silva Soares
PURPOSE: Aging impairs the autonomic balance reducing the vagal and increasing the sympathetic components of heart rate variability (HRV) and this could be associated with a decline in physical capacity. Inspiratory muscle training (IMT) is a possible tool to attenuate this physical capacity decline in older women. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of IMT in the older women on physical capacity and autonomic cardiac modulation at rest and post exercise. METHODS: 20 female participants 60-72 years old were randomly allocated in two groups...
March 16, 2018: European Journal of Applied Physiology
Kelly Barford, Austin Keeler, Lloyd McMahon, Kathryn McDaniel, Chan Choo Yap, Christopher D Deppmann, Bettina Winckler
The development of the peripheral nervous system relies on long-distance signaling from target organs back to the soma. In sympathetic neurons, this long-distance signaling is mediated by target derived Nerve Growth Factor (NGF) interacting with its axonal receptor, TrkA. This ligand receptor complex internalizes into what is commonly referred to as the signaling endosome which is transported retrogradely to the soma and dendrites to mediate survival signaling and synapse formation, respectively. The molecular identity of signaling endosomes in dendrites has not yet been determined...
March 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
Julia Pietilä, Elina Helander, Ilkka Korhonen, Tero Myllymäki, Urho M Kujala, Harri Lindholm
BACKGROUND: Sleep is fundamental for good health, and poor sleep has been associated with negative health outcomes. Alcohol consumption is a universal health behavior associated with poor sleep. In controlled laboratory studies, alcohol intake has been shown to alter physiology and disturb sleep homeostasis and architecture. The association between acute alcohol intake and physiological changes has not yet been studied in noncontrolled real-world settings. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess the effects of alcohol intake on the autonomic nervous system (ANS) during sleep in a large noncontrolled sample of Finnish employees...
March 16, 2018: JMIR Mental Health
Francesc Miró-Mur, Carlos Laredo, Arturo Renú, Salvatore Rudilosso, Yashu Zhao, Sergio Amaro, Laura Llull, Xabier Urra, Anna M Planas, Ángel Chamorro
Ischemic stroke sets in motion a dialogue between the central nervous and the immune systems that includes the sympathetic/adrenal system. We investigated the course of immune cells and adrenocortical and adrenomedullary effectors in a cohort of 51 patients with acute stroke receiving reperfusion therapy (intravenous alteplase or mechanical thrombectomy) and its correlation with stroke outcomes and infarct growth. Cortisol increased rapidly and fleetingly after stroke, but 39% of patients who had larger infarctions on admission showed a positive delta cortisol at day 1...
March 13, 2018: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
Milton Packer
BACKGROUND: Current guidelines for the treatment of heart failure strongly recommend the use of inhibitors of the renin-angiotensin system and sympathetic nervous system in all patients with a reduced ejection fraction who can tolerate these drugs. Yet, there is no consensus about the efficacy of low doses of these drugs or the likely shape of the dose-response relationship for these agents. METHODS: Inferences were made by examining the effects of drugs in placebo-controlled trials before the protocol-specified opportunity for uptitration and by reassessing the results of large-scale trials with active comparators that inadvertently produced different intensities of neurohormonal blockade...
March 11, 2018: International Journal of Cardiology
Ziv Bell, Tiffany Shader, Carolyn Webster-Stratton, M Jamila Reid, Theodore P Beauchaine
Abnormal patterns of sympathetic- and parasympathetic- linked cardiac activity and reactivity are observed among externalizing children, and mark deficiencies in central nervous system regulation of behavior and emotion. Although changes in these biomarkers have been observed following treatment, mechanisms remain unexplored. We used MEMORE-a new approach to analyzing intervening variable effects-to evaluate improvements in parenting as mediators of changes in SNS- and PNS-linked cardiac activity and reactivity among 99 preschoolers with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder who were treated using an empirically supported intervention...
2018: Clinical Psychological Science
Julie E Finnell, Brandon L Muniz, Akhila R Padi, Calliandra M Lombard, Casey M Moffitt, Christopher S Wood, L Britt Wilson, Lawrence P Reagan, Marlene A Wilson, Susan K Wood
BACKGROUND: Women are at greater risk than men of developing depression and comorbid disorders such as cardiovascular disease. This enhanced risk begins at puberty and ends following menopause, suggesting a role for ovarian hormones in this sensitivity. Here we used a model of psychosocial witness stress in female rats to determine the stress-induced neurobiological adaptations that underlie stress susceptibility in an ovarian hormone-dependent manner. METHODS: Intact or ovariectomized (OVX) female rats were exposed to five daily 15-minute witness-stress exposures...
January 31, 2018: Biological Psychiatry
Nicholas P Jones, Archana Pradeep, Binu John
PURPOSE: To identify the causes of severe visual loss in a UK uveitis clinic, to suggest means of reducing incidence, and to propose improvement in data collection of vision impairment. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Retrospective case series. RESULTS: Over 128 months, 76 (3.5-4% of patients referred) were certified as vision-impaired or severely vision-impaired. The mean age at registration was 48.4 years, 76% were of working age, and 7% were children...
March 15, 2018: Ocular Immunology and Inflammation
Hiroyuki Hattori, Kosei Yamauchi, Siaw Onwona-Agyeman, Thoru Mitsunaga
BACKGROUND: Grains of Paradise (GP) is the seed of Aframomum melegueta, which is widely distributed throughout West Africa and has been used as a spice and a folk remedy for a long time. The anti-obesity effect by GP intake was demonstrated in our previous report. In this present study, we tried to isolate some compounds in GP and clarify the anti-obesity mechanism. RESULTS: Ten vanilloid compounds were determined. Among ten vanilloids, 1-(4'-hydroxy-3'-methoxyphenyl)-decan-3-ol and 1-(4'-hydroxy-3'-methoxyphenyl)-3-octen-5-one were determined as novel compounds and 6-gingerol, 6-paradol, and 6-shogaol were identified as the major constituents in GP extract...
March 15, 2018: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
William Bullock, E Reed Smith, Craig Heligman
A number of recent incidents in the United States resulted in a large number of citizens reporting to the Emergency Room seeking reassurance that they were okay. These citizens are being referred to in the medical community as the "Worried Well." We conducted a review of a transportation incident involving a chemical release and fire, which resulted in over 100 people reporting to the local emergency room for evaluation. Few, if any of the patients seen in the hospital had a potential exposure to the chemical or combustion byproducts...
January 2018: Journal of Emergency Management: JEM
Kotaro Nochioka, Yasuhiko Sakata, Hiroaki Shimokawa
Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) and sympathetic nervous system play crucial roles in heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF). Clinical trials provide strong evidence of prognostic benefits for combination therapy with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI) and β-blocker in the treatment of HFrEF. Angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB) is not superior to ACEI in improving mortality and an alternative for patients who are intolerant to ACEI. Prognostic evidence for triple therapy which combined angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB) and ACEI in addition to β-blocker therapy, is still controversial in HFrEF...
March 15, 2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Marion Griton, Jan Pieter Konsman
Although the immune and nervous systems have long been considered independent biological systems, they turn out to mingle and interact extensively. The present review summarizes recent insights into the neural pathways activated by and involved in infection-induced inflammation and discusses potential clinical applications. The simplest activation concerns a reflex action within C-fibers leading to neurogenic inflammation. Low concentrations of pro-inflammatory cytokines or bacterial fragments may also act on these afferent nerve fibers to signal the central nervous system and bring about early fever, hyperalgesia and sickness behavior...
March 14, 2018: Clinical Autonomic Research: Official Journal of the Clinical Autonomic Research Society
Sophie Kobuch, Azharuddin Fazalbhoy, Rachael Brown, Vaughan G Macefield, Luke A Henderson
Introduction: Long-lasting experimental muscle pain elicits divergent muscle sympathetic responses, with some individuals exhibiting a persistent increase in muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA), and others a decrease. These divergent responses are thought to result from sustained functional changes in specific brain regions that modulate the cardiovascular responses to pain. Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate brain regions that are functionally coupled to the generation of an MSNA burst at rest and to determine their behavior during tonic muscle pain...
March 2018: Brain and Behavior
Motohisa Osaka
There are some reports that sympathetic nerve activity (SNA) shows a characteristic pattern a few hours before the onset of lethal ventricular arrhythmias. If so, it could be possible to predict sudden cardiac death a few hours in advance of its occurrence. Recently, we reported that a previously unidentified V-trough of SNA is a potential precursor of lethal cardiac events by examining 24-hour ambulatory electrocardiograms in which such an event was recorded by chance. In contrast, the chaotic nature of heart rate variability has been noted recently from the viewpoint of nonlinear dynamics...
2018: Journal of Nippon Medical School, Nippon Ika Daigaku Zasshi
Stefan Roth, Vikramjeet Singh, Steffen Tiedt, Lisa Schindler, Georg Huber, Arie Geerlof, Daniel J Antoine, Antoine Anfray, Cyrille Orset, Maxime Gauberti, Antoine Fournier, Lesca M Holdt, Helena Erlandsson Harris, Britta Engelhardt, Marco E Bianchi, Denis Vivien, Christof Haffner, Jürgen Bernhagen, Martin Dichgans, Arthur Liesz
Stroke induces a multiphasic systemic immune response, but the consequences of this response on atherosclerosis-a major source of recurrent vascular events-have not been thoroughly investigated. We show that stroke exacerbates atheroprogression via alarmin-mediated propagation of vascular inflammation. The prototypic brain-released alarmin high-mobility group box 1 protein induced monocyte and endothelial activation via the receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE)-signaling cascade and increased plaque load and vulnerability...
March 14, 2018: Science Translational Medicine
Debora de Souza Santos, Silvana Martins Mishima, Emerson Elias Merhy
This is a study with a qualitative approach that aims to analyze the subjective dimension of the Family Health teams' practices conducted in order to reconfigure the care model, using the work process in health as the fundamental analytical category from the Marxist standpoint. The data gathering tool used was the focus group, applied in 13 Family Health teams in Maceió, Alagoas. Thematic analysis combined with principles of hermeneutics and dialectics was used for treatment and interpretation of the data...
March 2018: Ciência & Saúde Coletiva
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