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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727480/pilot-study-of-propranolol-premedication-to-reduce-fdg-uptake-in-brown-adipose-tissue-on-pet-scans-of-adolescent-and-young-adult-oncology-patients
#1
Anil George, Partha Sinha, Gary Conrad, Aum A Memon, Emily V Dressler, Lars M Wagner
OBJECTIVE: Physiologic uptake of (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) in brown adipose tissue (adipose tissue) of cancer patients may confound interpretation of positron emission tomography (PET) scans. Uptake in adipose tissue occurs in up to half of pediatric oncology patients undergoing PET scans, and is especially common in adolescents. adipose tissue is innervated by the sympathetic nervous system, and beta blockers such as propranolol have shown efficacy in reducing adipose tissue uptake on PET scans done in older adult oncology patients...
July 20, 2017: Pediatric Hematology and Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727208/differential-expression-of-appetite-regulating-genes-in-avian-models-of-anorexia-and-obesity
#2
Jiaqing Yi, Jingwei Yuan, Elizabeth R Gilbert, Paul B Siegel, Mark A Cline
Chickens from lines that have been selected for low (LWS) or high (HWS) juvenile body weight for more than 57 generations provide a unique model to research appetite regulation. The LWS display different severities of anorexia while all HWS become obese. Herein we measured mRNA abundance of various factors in appetite-associated nuclei in the hypothalamus. The lateral hypothalamus (LHA), paraventricular nucleus (PVN), ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH), dorsomedial nucleus (DMN), and arcuate nucleus (ARC) were collected from 5 day-old chicks that were fasted for 180 minutes or provided continuous access to food...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726799/the-insular-cortex-dynamically-maps-changes-in-cardiorespiratory-interoception
#3
Mahlega S Hassanpour, W Kyle Simmons, Justin S Feinstein, Qingfei Luo, Rachel Lapidus, Jerzy Bodurka, Martin P Paulus, Sahib S Khalsa
Palpitations and dyspnea are fundamental to the human experience of panic anxiety, but it remains unclear how the brain dynamically represents changes in these interoceptive sensations. We used isoproterenol, a rapidly acting peripheral beta-adrenergic agonist similar to adrenaline, to induce sensations of palpitation and dyspnea in healthy individuals (n=23) during arterial spin labeling (ASL) functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI). We hypothesized that the right mid-insular cortex, a central recipient of viscerosensory input, would preferentially respond during the peak period of cardiorespiratory stimulation...
July 20, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726661/-heart-rate-variability-in-children-with-false-chords-in-the-left-cardiac-ventricular
#4
A Kuleshov
We examined 64 children with false tendons in the left cardiac ventricular. The research included evaluation of time and frequency domain parameters of the heart rhythm with cardiointervalography. The parameter changes were noted. Thus, sympathetic vegetative system (VS) part prevalence was present in boys and characterized by decreasing of SDNN when compared with control data (85,4±5,8 и 158,2 ±25,6, р<0,05). rMSSD and PNN50%, which are responsible for parasympathetic VS part have the tendency to increasing in girls...
June 2017: Georgian Medical News
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725599/effects-of-metformin-on-endothelial-health-and-erectile-dysfunction
#5
REVIEW
Jay Pravin Patel, Eric Hweegeun Lee, Carlos Ignacio Mena, Charles N Walker
Erectile dysfunction (ED) affects approximately 18 million American men. ED may be attributed to several etiologies, including arteriogenic, psychogenic, neurogenic, hormonal, drug-induced, and systemic disease or aging related factors. Specific to arteriogenic ED, three major mechanisms have been identified: (I) endothelium-dependent vasodilatory impairment; (II) sympathetic nerve activity elevation; (III) atherosclerotic luminal narrowing. Additionally, these insults have been linked to the insulin resistant state, which in turn is comorbid with obesity, dyslipidemia, diabetes, and hypertension...
June 2017: Translational Andrology and Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725206/physiological-signal-analysis-for-evaluating-flow-during-playing-of-computer-games-of-varying-difficulty
#6
Yu Tian, Yulong Bian, Piguo Han, Peng Wang, Fengqiang Gao, Yingmin Chen
Flow is the experience of effortless attention, reduced self-consciousness, and a deep sense of control that typically occurs during the optimal performance of challenging tasks. On the basis of the person-artifact-task model, we selected computer games (tasks) with varying levels of difficulty (difficult, medium, and easy) and shyness (personality) as flow precursors to study the physiological activity of users in a flow state. Cardiac and respiratory activity and mean changes in skin conductance (SC) were measured continuously while the participants (n = 40) played the games...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724789/red-blood-cell-%C3%AE-adrenergic-receptors-contribute-to-diet-induced-energy-expenditure-by-increasing-o2-supply
#7
Eun Ran Kim, Shengjie Fan, Dmitry Akhmedov, Kaiqi Sun, Hoyong Lim, William O'Brien, Yuanzhong Xu, Leandra R Mangieri, Yaming Zhu, Cheng-Chi Lee, Yeonseok Chung, Yang Xia, Yong Xu, Feng Li, Kai Sun, Rebecca Berdeaux, Qingchun Tong
Diet-induced obesity (DIO) represents the major cause for the current obesity epidemic, but the mechanism underlying DIO is unclear. β-Adrenergic receptors (β-ARs) play a major role in sympathetic nervous system-mediated (SNS-mediated) diet-induced energy expenditure (EE). Rbc express abundant β-ARs; however, a potential role for rbc in DIO remains untested. Here, we demonstrated that high-fat, high-caloric diet (HFD) feeding increased both EE and blood O2 content, and the HFD-induced increases in blood O2 level and in body weight gain were negatively correlated...
July 20, 2017: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724548/bradykinin-does-not-acutely-sensitize-the-reflex-pressor-response-during-hindlimb-skeletal-muscle-stretch-in-decerebrate-rats
#8
Korynne S Rollins, Joshua R Smith, Peter J Esau, Evan A Kempf, Tyler D Hopkins, Steven W Copp
Hindlimb skeletal muscle stretch (i.e., selective activation of the muscle mechanoreflex) in decerebrate rats evokes reflex increases in blood pressure and sympathetic nerve activity. Bradykinin has been found to sensitize mechano-gated channels through a bradykinin B2 receptor-dependent mechanism. Moreover, bradykinin B2 receptor expression on sensory neurons is increased following chronic femoral artery ligation in the rat (a model of simulated peripheral artery disease). We tested the hypothesis that, in decerebrate, unanesthetized rats, the injection of bradykinin into the arterial supply of a hindlimb would acutely augment (i...
July 19, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724309/effects-of-long-term-device-guided-slow-breathing-on-sympathetic-nervous-activity-in-hypertensive-patients-a-randomized-open-label-clinical-trial
#9
Silvana de Barros, Giovanio Vieira da Silva, Josiane Lima de Gusmão, Tatiana Goveia de Araújo, Dinoélia Rosa de Souza, Crivaldo Gomes Cardoso, Bruna Oneda, Décio Mion
PURPOSE: Device-guided slow breathing (DGB) is indicated as nonpharmacological treatment for hypertension. The sympathetic nerve activity (SNA) reduction may be one of the mechanisms involved in blood pressure (BP) decrease. The aim of this study is to evaluate the long-term use of DGB in BP and SNA. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Hypertensive patients were randomized to listen music (Control Group-CG) or DGB (aim to reduce respiratory rate to less than 10 breaths/minute during 15 minutes/day for 8 weeks)...
July 20, 2017: Blood Pressure
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723879/suppression-of-sympathetic-nerve-sprouting-by-local-administration-of-an-%C3%AE-antagonist-around-the-dorsal-root-ganglion-in-a-lumbar-radiculopathy-model
#10
Izaya Ogon, Tsuneo Takebayashi, Tsuyoshi Miyakawa, Takehito Iwase, Katsumasa Tanimoto, Yoshinori Terashima, Syunsuke Jimbo, Takeshi Kobayashi, Noritsugu Tohse, Toshihiko Yamashita
STUDY DESIGN: Animal experimental study with intervention OBJECTIVE.: The purpose of this study was to elucidate whether local administration of an α-antagonist around the dorsal root ganglion (DRG) suppressed sympathetic nerve sprouting, from the acute to the chronic pain development phase, in a lumbar radiculopathy model using immunohistochemical methods. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: The abnormal sympathetic-somatosensory interaction may underlie some forms of neuropathic pain...
July 18, 2017: Spine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723813/effect-of-resistance-training-on-blood-pressure-and-autonomic-responses-in-treated-hypertensives
#11
Gabriela Alves Trevizani, Mariana Balbi Seixas, Paulo Roberto Benchimol-Barbosa, Jeferson Macedo Vianna, Lilian Pinto da Silva, Jurandir Nadal
This study evaluated the effect of resistance training (RT) on heart rate variability (HRV) and on blood pressure (BP) responses to acute and short-term exposure in treated hypertensive subjects. Twenty one men participated in the study, eight hypertensive under drug treatment regimen and achieving adequate blood pressure control prior to inclusion (HT) and thirteen normotensive (NT). The RT protocol consisted of 12 sessions with 8 exercises (leg extension, leg press, leg curl, bench press, seated row, triceps push-down, seated calf flexion and seated arm curl) performed for 2 sets of 15-20 repetitions with 50% of one repetition-maximum (1RM) with 2-minute rest intervals in between sets, 3x/week...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721279/age-related-circadian-disorganization-caused-by-sympathetic-dysfunction-in-peripheral-clock-regulation
#12
Yu Tahara, Yuta Takatsu, Takuya Shiraishi, Yosuke Kikuchi, Mayu Yamazaki, Hiroaki Motohashi, Aya Muto, Hiroyuki Sasaki, Atsushi Haraguchi, Daisuke Kuriki, Takahiro J Nakamura, Shigenobu Shibata
The ability of the circadian clock to adapt to environmental changes is critical for maintaining homeostasis, preventing disease, and limiting the detrimental effects of aging. To date, little is known about age-related changes in the entrainment of peripheral clocks to external cues. We therefore evaluated the ability of the peripheral clocks of the kidney, liver, and submandibular gland to be entrained by external stimuli including light, food, stress, and exercise in young versus aged mice using in vivo bioluminescence monitoring...
2017: NPJ Aging and Mechanisms of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721030/regular-physical-exercise-improves-cardiac-autonomic-and-muscle-vasodilatory-responses-to-isometric-exercise-in-healthy-elderly
#13
Adriana de Oliveira Sarmento, Amilton da Cruz Santos, Ivani Credidio Trombetta, Marciano Moacir Dantas, Ana Cristina Oliveira Marques, Leone Severino do Nascimento, Bruno Teixeira Barbosa, Marcelo Rodrigues Dos Santos, Maria do Amparo Andrade, Anna Myrna Jaguaribe-Lima, Maria do Socorro Brasileiro-Santos
The objective of this study was to evaluate cardiac autonomic control and muscle vasodilation response during isometric exercise in sedentary and physically active older adults. Twenty healthy participants, 10 sedentary and 10 physically active older adults, were evaluated and paired by gender, age, and body mass index. Sympathetic and parasympathetic cardiac activity (spectral and symbolic heart rate analysis) and muscle blood flow (venous occlusion plethysmography) were measured for 10 minutes at rest (baseline) and during 3 minutes of isometric handgrip exercise at 30% of the maximum voluntary contraction (sympathetic excitatory maneuver)...
2017: Clinical Interventions in Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720883/chronic-high-sodium-diet-intake-after-weaning-lead-to-neurogenic-hypertension-in-adult-wistar-rats
#14
Paula Magalhães Gomes, Renato Willian Martins Sá, Giovana Lopes Aguiar, Milede Hanner Saraiva Paes, Andréia Carvalho Alzamora, Wanderson Geraldo Lima, Lisandra Brandino de Oliveira, Sean David Stocker, Vagner Roberto Antunes, Leonardo M Cardoso
In this study, we investigated some mechanisms involved in sodium-dependent hypertension of rats exposed to chronic salt (NaCl) intake from weaning until adult age. Weaned male Wistar rats were placed under high (0.90% w/w, HS) or regular (0.27% w/w, Cont) sodium diets for 12 weeks. Water consumption, urine output and sodium excretion were higher in HS rats compared to control. Blood pressure (BP) was directly measured by the arterial catheter and found 13.8% higher in HS vs Cont rats. Ganglionic blockade with hexamethonium caused greater fall in the BP of HS rats (33%), and central antagonism of AT1 receptors (losartan) microinjected into the lateral ventricle reduced BP level of HS, but not of Cont group...
July 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720715/ischemic-preconditioning-does-not-alter-muscle-sympathetic-responses-to-static-handgrip-and-metaboreflex-activation-in-young-healthy-men
#15
Anthony V Incognito, Connor J Doherty, Jordan B Lee, Matthew J Burns, Philip J Millar
Ischemic preconditioning (IPC) has been hypothesized to elicit ergogenic effects by reducing feedback from metabolically sensitive group III/IV muscle afferents during exercise. If so, reflex efferent neural outflow should be attenuated. We investigated the effects of IPC on muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) during static handgrip (SHG) and used post-exercise circulatory occlusion (PECO) to isolate for the muscle metaboreflex. Thirty-seven healthy men (age: 24 ± 5 years [mean ± SD]) were randomized to receive sham (n = 16) or IPC (n = 21) interventions...
July 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720509/the-neuropeptide-galanin-promotes-an-anti-thrombotic-phenotype-on-endocardial-endothelial-cells-from-heart-failure-patients
#16
Christina Tyrrell, Amanda Toyooka, Faiza Khan, Kent L Thornburg, James O Mudd, Wohaib Hasan
Thromboembolic complications are a significant cause of mortality and re-hospitalization in heart failure (HF) patients. One source of thrombi is the ventricular endocardial surface that becomes increasingly pro-thrombotic as HF progresses. Anticoagulation comes with bleeding risks so identifying therapeutic agents for improving cardiac endothelial health are of critical clinical importance. Endocardial endothelial cells are closely apposed to cardiac sympathetic nerves. In HF, cardiac sympathetic nerves are dysregulated and promote disease progression...
July 12, 2017: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720479/interaction-between-prenatal-risk-and-infant-parasympathetic-and-sympathetic-stress-reactivity-predicts-early-aggression
#17
J Suurland, K B Van der Heijden, S C J Huijbregts, S H M Van Goozen, H Swaab
Nonreciprocal action of the parasympathetic (PNS) and sympathetic (SNS) nervous systems, increases susceptibility to emotional and behavioral problems in children exposed to adversity. Little is known about the PNS and SNS in interaction with early adversity during infancy. Yet this is when the physiological systems involved in emotion regulation are emerging and presumably most responsive to environmental influences. We examined whether parasympathetic respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) and sympathetic pre-ejection period (PEP) response and recovery at six months, moderate the association between cumulative prenatal risk and physical aggression at 20 months (N=113)...
July 15, 2017: Biological Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720049/outcomes-following-isolated-posterior-interosseous-nerve-neurectomy-a-systematic-review
#18
Dennis J Vanden Berge, Nicholas A Kusnezov, Sydney Rubin, Thomas Dagg, Justin Orr, Justin Mitchell, Miguel Pirela-Cruz, John C Dunn
BACKGROUND: Posterior interosseous nerve neurectomies (PINN) are an option in the treatment of chronic dorsal wrist pain. However, the literature describing PINN consists primarily of small case series, and the procedure is typically done as an adjunct treatment; therefore, the outcomes of the PINN itself are not well known. We performed a systematic review of the literature to provide characteristics of patients following a PINN. METHODS: A systematic review of the literature was performed...
February 1, 2017: Hand: Official Journal of the American Association for Hand Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718814/physiological-effects-of-touching-wood
#19
Harumi Ikei, Chorong Song, Yoshifumi Miyazaki
This study aimed to clarify the physiological effects of touching wood with the palm, in comparison with touching other materials on brain activity and autonomic nervous activity. Eighteen female university students (mean age, 21.7  ±  1.6 years) participated in the study. As an indicator of brain activity, oxyhemoglobin (oxy-Hb) concentrations were measured in the left/right prefrontal cortex using near-infrared time-resolved spectroscopy. Heart rate variability (HRV) was used as an indicator of autonomic nervous activity...
July 18, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717991/prolonged-bed-rest-impairs-rapid-cpi-17-phosphorylation-and-contraction-in-rat-mesenteric-resistance-arteries-to-cause-orthostatic-hypotension
#20
Toshio Kitazawa, Kazuyo Kitazawa
Prolonged bed rest (PBR) causes orthostatic hypotension (OH). Rapid constriction of splanchnic resistance arteries in response to a sudden increase in sympathetic tone contributes to the recovery of orthostatic arterial pressure upon standing. However, the molecular mechanism of PBR-induced dysfunction in arterial constriction is not fully understood. Previously, we showed that CPI-17, a regulatory protein for myosin phosphatase, mediates α1A-adrenergic receptor-induced rapid contraction of small mesenteric arteries...
July 17, 2017: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
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