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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454137/mechanisms-and-management-of-refractory-ventricular-arrhythmias-in-the-age-of-autonomic-modulation
#1
Jason S Bradfield, Olujimi A Ajijola, Marmar Vaseghi, Kalyanam Shivkumar
Ventricular arrhythmias are responsible for hundreds of thousands of deaths every year. Catheter ablation of ventricular tachycardia (VT) is an essential component of the management of these life-threatening arrhythmias. However, in many patients, despite medical and interventional therapy, VT recurs. Further, some VT substrates (mid-myocardial, left ventricular summit, intra-septal) are not easily targeted, due to limitations of currently available technology. In certain clinical settings, ventricular fibrillation (VF) episodes that have premature ventricular contraction (PVC) triggers can also be targeted with catheter ablation...
February 14, 2018: Heart Rhythm: the Official Journal of the Heart Rhythm Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453832/living-donor-liver-transplantation-for-mild-zellweger-spectrum-disorder-up-to-17-years-follow-up
#2
Tanguy Demaret, Sharat Varma, Xavier Stephenne, Françoise Smets, Isabelle Scheers, Ronald Wanders, Lionel Van Maldergem, Raymond Reding, Etienne Sokal
Mild Zellweger spectrum disorder, also described as Infantile Refsum disease, is attributable to mutations in PEX genes. Its clinical course is characterized by progressive hearing and vision loss, and neurodevelopmental regression. Supportive management is currently considered the standard of care, as no treatment has shown clinical benefits. LT was shown to correct levels of circulating toxic metabolites, partly responsible for chronic neurological impairment. Of three patients having undergone LT for mild ZSD, one died after LT, while the other two displayed significant neurodevelopmental improvement on both the long-term (17 years post-LT) and short-term (9 months post-LT) follow-up...
February 16, 2018: Pediatric Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453697/the-sacral-autonomic-outflow-is-parasympathetic-langley-got-it-right
#3
REVIEW
John P Horn
A recent developmental study of gene expression by Espinosa-Medina, Brunet and colleagues sparked controversy by asserting a revised nomenclature for divisions of the autonomic motor system. Should we re-classify the sacral autonomic outflow as sympathetic, as now suggested, or does it rightly belong to the parasympathetic system, as defined by Langley nearly 100 years ago? Arguments for rejecting Espinosa-Medina, Brunet et al.'s scheme subsequently appeared in e-letters and brief reviews. A more recent commentary in this journal by Brunet and colleagues responded to these criticisms by labeling Langley's scheme as a historical myth perpetuated by ignorance...
February 16, 2018: Clinical Autonomic Research: Official Journal of the Clinical Autonomic Research Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453696/interrelationship-between-diabetes-mellitus-and-heart-failure-the-role-of-peroxisome-proliferator-activated-receptors-in-left-ventricle-performance
#4
REVIEW
Evangelos Oikonomou, Konstantinos Mourouzis, Petros Fountoulakis, Georgios Angelos Papamikroulis, Gerasimos Siasos, Alexis Antonopoulos, Georgia Vogiatzi, Sotiris Tsalamadris, Manolis Vavuranakis, Dimitris Tousoulis
Heart failure (HF) is a common cardiac syndrome, whose pathophysiology involves complex mechanisms, some of which remain unknown. Diabetes mellitus (DM) constitutes not only a glucose metabolic disorder accompanied by insulin resistance but also a risk factor for cardiovascular disease and HF. During the last years though emerging data set up, a bidirectional interrelationship between these two entities. In the case of DM impaired calcium homeostasis, free fatty acid metabolism, redox state, and advance glycation end products may accelerate cardiac dysfunction...
February 17, 2018: Heart Failure Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453470/nerve-conduction-and-heart-rate-variability-in-patients-with-hypothyroidism-at-a-tertiary-care-centre-in-eastern-nepal
#5
Shital Gupta, Rita Khadka, Dilip Thakur, Robin Maskey, K D Mehta, B H H Paudel
INTRODUCTION: Thyroid hormone effects on many organs including central and peripheral nervous systems. However, these hormones do not affect all systems/organs to a similar extent. Thus, we conducted this study to explore the effect of thyroid hormones on somatic nervous system assessed by Nerve conduction study and cardiac autonomic activity assessed by heart rate variability. METHODS: The study included newly diagnosed hypothyroid patients and healthy controls...
October 2017: JNMA; Journal of the Nepal Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453396/bone-marrow-lympho-myeloid-malfunction-in-obesity-requires-precursor-cell-autonomous-tlr4
#6
Ailing Liu, Minhui Chen, Rashmi Kumar, Maja Stefanovic-Racic, Robert M O'Doherty, Ying Ding, Willi Jahnen-Dechent, Lisa Borghesi
Obesity, a prevalent condition in adults and children, impairs bone marrow (BM) function. However, the underlying mechanisms are unclear. Here, we show that obese mice exhibit poor emergency immune responses in a toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)-dependent manner. Canonical myeloid genes (Csf1r, Spi1, Runx1) are enhanced, and lymphoid genes (Flt3, Tcf3, Ebf1) are reduced. Using adoptive transfer and mixed BM chimera approaches we demonstrate that myeloid>lymphoid bias arises after 6 weeks of high-fat diet and depends on precursor cell-autonomous TLR4...
February 16, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453306/acute-pressor-response-to-psychosocial-stress-is-dependent-on-endothelium-derived-endothelin-1
#7
Brandon M Fox, Bryan K Becker, Analia S Loria, Kelly A Hyndman, Chunhua Jin, Hannah Clark, Robin Johns, Masashi Yanagisawa, David M Pollock, Jennifer S Pollock
BACKGROUND: Acute psychosocial stress provokes increases in circulating endothelin-1 (ET-1) levels in humans and animal models. However, key questions about the physiological function and cellular source of stress-induced ET-1 remain unanswered. We hypothesized that endothelium-derived ET-1 contributes to the acute pressor response to stress via activation of the endothelin A receptor. METHODS AND RESULTS: Adult male vascular endothelium-specific ET-1 knockout mice and control mice that were homozygous for the floxed allele were exposed to acute psychosocial stress in the form of cage switch stress (CSS), with blood pressure measured by telemetry...
February 16, 2018: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453279/il-12-il-18-cosignaling-in-human-macrophages-and-lung-epithelial-cells-activates-cathelicidin-and-autophagy-inhibiting-intracellular-mycobacterial-growth
#8
Rui Yang, Enzhuo Yang, Ling Shen, Robert L Modlin, Hongbo Shen, Zheng W Chen
The ability of Mycobacterium tuberculosis to block host antimicrobial responses in infected cells provides a key mechanism for disease pathogenesis. The immune system has evolved to overcome this blockade to restrict the infection, but it is not clear whether two key innate cytokines (IL-12/IL-18) involved in host defense can enhance antimycobacterial mechanisms. In this study, we demonstrated that the combination of IL-12 and IL-18 triggered an antimicrobial response against mycobacteria in infected macrophages (THP-1 and human primary monocyte-derived macrophages) and pulmonary epithelial A549 cells...
February 16, 2018: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453140/serum-apolipoprotein-a-1-concentrations-and-the-prevalence-of-cardiovascular-autonomic-neuropathy-in-individuals-with-type-2-diabetes
#9
Jin Ook Chung, Seon-Young Park, Ji Hyun Han, Dong Hyeok Cho, Dong Jin Chung, Min Young Chung
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the relationship between levels of serum apolipoproteins and the prevalence of cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy (CAN) in type 2 diabetes. METHODS: In total, 3199 individuals with type 2 diabetes were investigated in a cross-sectional study. The diagnosis of CAN was made based on the results of a cardiovascular reflex test. Serum apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) and apolipoprotein B (apoB) levels were measured. RESULTS: Serum apoA-1 levels were significantly low in individuals with CAN, but there was no significant association between serum apoB levels and CAN...
January 31, 2018: Journal of Diabetes and its Complications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452687/diagnostic-challenges-in-epilepsy-seizure-under-reporting-and-seizure-detection
#10
REVIEW
Christian E Elger, Christian Hoppe
Epileptic seizures vary greatly in clinical phenomenology and can markedly affect the patient's quality of life. As therapeutic interventions focus on reduction or elimination of seizures, the accurate documentation of seizure occurrence is essential. However, patient self-evaluation compared with objective evaluation by video-electroencephalography (EEG) monitoring or long-term ambulatory EEG revealed that patients document fewer than 50% of their seizures, on average, and that documentation accuracy varies significantly over time...
March 2018: Lancet Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451109/-orthostatic-hypotension-in-elderly-patients
#11
J A H R Claassen
- Orthostatic hypotension is a condition in which there is insufficient recovery of the blood pressure drop which occurs after getting up, which causes a temporary reduction of cerebral perfusion. This increases the risk of falls resulting in injuries.- Orthostatic hypotension is most common in the elderly. The cause is usually multifactorial (including reduced circulating volume, reduced peripheral resistance and limited heart rate increase). Orthostatic hypotension caused by autonomic dysfunction is called neurogenic orthostatic hypotension...
2018: Nederlands Tijdschrift Voor Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451063/epithelial-tumors-growing-from-within
#12
Mariana Muzzopappa, Marco Milán
The growth of epithelial tumors is often governed by cell interactions with the surrounding stroma. Drosophila has been instrumental in identifying the relevant molecular elements mediating these interactions. Of note is the role of the TNF ligand Eiger, released from recruited blood cells, in activating the JNK tumor-promoting pathway in epithelial tumors. JNK drives the transcriptional induction of mitogenic molecules, matrix metalloproteases and systemic signals that lead to tumor growth, tissue invasiveness and malignancy...
February 16, 2018: Fly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450935/community-violence-exposure-correlates-with-smaller-gray-matter-volume-and-lower-iq-in-urban-adolescents
#13
Oisin Butler, Xiao-Fei Yang, Corinna Laube, Simone Kühn, Mary Helen Immordino-Yang
Adolescents' exposure to community violence is a significant public health issue in urban settings and has been associated with poorer cognitive performance and increased risk for psychiatric illnesses, including PTSD. However, no study to date has investigated the neural correlates of community violence exposure in adolescents. Sixty-five healthy adolescents (age = 14-18 years; 36 females, 29 males) from moderate- to high-crime neighborhoods in Los Angeles reported their violence exposure, parents' education level, and free/reduced school lunch status (socio-economic status, SES), and underwent structural neuroimaging and intelligence testing...
February 15, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450873/peripheral-nerve-blocks-for-the-treatment-of-short-lasting-unilateral-neuralgiform-headache-with-conjunctival-injection-and-tearing-sunct-during-pregnancy
#14
Osman Özgür Yalın, Derya Uludüz, Aynur Özge
Short-lasting unilateral neuralgiform headache attacks with conjunctival injection and tearing (SUNCT) is a rare, primary headache syndrome, which is classified as a subtype of trigeminal autonomic cephalalgias. Although SUNCT is usually refractory to treatment, several antiepileptic drugs have recently shown promising results for its treatment. However, there is a lack of evidence regarding the course of SUNCT during pregnancy and the available treatment options. Here, we present a 30-week pregnant female with SUNCT who was successfully treated with infra- and supraorbital nerve blocks...
January 2018: Aǧrı: Ağrı (Algoloji) Derneği'nin Yayın Organıdır, the Journal of the Turkish Society of Algology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450695/a-clinical-approach-to-arrhythmias-revisited-in-2018-from-ecg-over-noninvasive-and-invasive-electrophysiology-to-advanced-imaging
#15
REVIEW
L Jordaens
Understanding arrhythmias and their treatment is not always easy. The current straightforward approach with catheter ablation and device therapy is an amazing achievement, but does not make management of underlying or other cardiac disease and pharmacological therapy unnecessary. The goal of this paper is to describe how much of the knowledge of the 1980s and early 1990s can and should still be applied in the modern treatment of patients with arrhythmias. After an introduction, this review will focus on paroxysmal atrial fibrillation and a prototype of 'idiopathic' ventricular arrhythmias, two diseases with a striking similarity, and will discuss the arrhythmogenesis...
February 15, 2018: Netherlands Heart Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450627/can-the-use-of-a-single-integrated-unitary-autonomic-index-provide-early-clues-for-eventual-eligibility-for-olympic-games
#16
Daniela Lucini, Roberto Sala, Antonio Spataro, Mara Malacarne, Manuela Benzi, Stefano Tamorri, Massimo Pagani
PURPOSE: Optimal autonomic regulation and stress resilience might be considered critical elements of athletic performance. We hypothesize that a novel unitary autonomic index for sports (ANSIs), together with a somatic stress related symptom score (4SQ) might help characterize athletes who were eventually selected for the Rio 2016 Olympic Games Italian team (Rio +). METHODS: In this retrospective study we examined 778 athletes (age 24.4 ± 6.7 yrs) who underwent a planned yearly pre-participation screening...
February 15, 2018: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450240/improving-cerebral-oxygenation-cognition-and-autonomic-nervous-system-control-of-a-chronic-alcohol-abuser-through-a-three-month-running-program
#17
Daniel Aranha Cabral, Kell Grandjean da Costa, Alexandre Hideki Okano, Hassan Mohamed Elsangedy, Vanessa Paula Rachetti, Eduardo Bodnariuc Fontes
The abusive use of alcohol has shown to be associated to cerebral damage, impaired cognition, poor autonomic nervous control, impaired cardiovascular health, increased levels of stress and anxiety, depression symptoms and poor quality of life. Aerobic exercise has shown to be an efficient tool to reduce and overcome these issues. In this case report, a patient (forty-four years old, male) under treatment in public psychiatric hospital, classified as having a substance use disorder, underwent a three-month running program...
December 2017: Addictive Behaviors Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449958/a-mobile-phone-based-program-to-promote-healthy-behaviors-among-adults-with-prediabetes-study-protocol-for-a-pilot-randomized-controlled-trial
#18
Dina H Griauzde, Jeffrey T Kullgren, Brad Liestenfeltz, Caroline Richardson, Michele Heisler
Background: Rates of participation in Diabetes Prevention Programs (DPPs) are low. This may be due, in part, to low levels of autonomous motivation (i.e., motivation that arises from internal sources and sustains healthy behaviors over time) to prevent type 2 diabetes (T2DM) among many individuals with prediabetes. Mobile health (mHealth) technologies that incorporate principles from the Self-Determination Theory offer an effective and scalable approach to increase autonomous motivation levels...
2018: Pilot and Feasibility Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449571/an-in-silico-argument-for-mitochondrial-microrna-as-a-determinant-of-primary-non-function-in-liver-transplantation
#19
Shirin Elizabeth Khorsandi, Siamak Salehi, Miriam Cortes, Hector Vilca-Melendez, Krishna Menon, Parthi Srinivasan, Andreas Prachalias, Wayel Jassem, Nigel Heaton
Mitochondria have their own genomic, transcriptomic and proteomic machinery but are unable to be autonomous, needing both nuclear and mitochondrial genomes. The aim of this work was to use computational biology to explore the involvement of Mitochondrial microRNAs (MitomiRs) and their interactions with the mitochondrial proteome in a clinical model of primary non function (PNF) of the donor after cardiac death (DCD) liver. Archival array data on the differential expression of miRNA in DCD PNF was re-analyzed using a number of publically available computational algorithms...
February 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449528/als-related-human-cortical-and-motor-neurons-survival-is-differentially-affected-by-sema3a
#20
Anastasya Birger, Miri Ottolenghi, Liat Perez, Benjamin Reubinoff, Oded Behar
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by cell death of upper and lower motor neurons (MNs). The cause of MN cell loss is not completely understood but involves both cell autonomous and non-cell autonomous mechanisms. Numerous molecules have been implicated to be involved in the death of MNs. One such candidate is semaphorin 3A (Sema3A). In ALS patients, Sema3A was shown to be significantly upregulated in the motor cortex and downregulated in the spinal cord. In the mouse, Sema3A was shown to be an axon repellent molecule for MNs...
February 15, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
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