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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046050/immunofluorescent-characterization-of-non-myelinating-schwann-cells-and-their-interactions-with-immune-cells-in-mouse-mesenteric-lymph-node
#1
Zhongli Shi, Wayne K Greene, Philip K Nicholls, Dailun Hu, Janina E E Tirnitz-Parker, Qionglan Yuan, Changfu Yin, Bin Ma
The central nervous system (CNS) influences the immune system in a general fashion by regulating the systemic concentration of humoral substances, whereas the autonomic nervous system communicates specifically with the immune system according to local interactions. Data concerning the mechanisms of this bidirectional crosstalk of the peripheral nervous system (PNS) and immune system remain limited. To gain a better understanding of local interactions of the PNS and immune system, we have used immunofluorescent staining of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), coupled with confocal microscopy, to investigate the non-myelinating Schwann cell (NMSC)-immune cell interactions in mouse mesenteric lymph nodes...
August 7, 2017: European Journal of Histochemistry: EJH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045785/programming-enzyme-initiated-autonomous-dnazyme-nanodevices-in-living-cells
#2
Feng Chen, Min Bai, Ke Cao, Yue Zhao, Xiaowen Cao, Jing Wei, Na Wu, Jiang Li, Lihua Wang, Chunhai Fan, Yongxi Zhao
Molecular nanodevices are computational assemblers that switch defined states upon external stimulation. However, interfacing artificial nanodevices with natural molecular machineries in living cells remains a great challenge. Here we delineate a generic method for programming assembly of enzyme-initiated DNAzyme nanodevices (DzNanos). Two programs including split assembly of two partzymes and toehold-exchange displacement assembly of one intact DNAzyme initiated by telomerase are computed. The intact one obtains higher assembly yield and catalytic performance ascribed to proper conformation folding and active misplaced assembly...
October 18, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045291/devices-for-autonomic-regulation-therapy-in-heart-failure-with-reduced-ejection-fraction
#3
Benjamin R Wagner, William H Frishman
Heart failure is associated with significant morbidity and mortality as well as an increasing economic burden. The persistence of heart failure's risk factors, coupled with an aging population, also leads to an increase in its incidence and prevalence. It is well established that sympathetic hyperactivity and parasympathetic withdrawal are instrumental in the development and worsening of heart failure. Therefore, restoring autonomic balance to the cardiovascular system is an attractive therapeutic approach...
October 17, 2017: Cardiology in Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044128/effects-of-vessel-traffic-and-underwater-noise-on-the-movement-behaviour-and-vocalisations-of-bottlenose-dolphins-in-an-urbanised-estuary
#4
Sarah A Marley, Chandra P Salgado Kent, Christine Erbe, Iain M Parnum
The potential disturbance of dolphins from tourism boats has been widely discussed in the literature, in terms of both physical vessel presence and associated underwater noise. However, less attention has been paid to the potential impact of non-tourism vessels, despite these being much more widespread and occurring in greater numbers throughout coastal dolphin habitats. The Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphin (T. aduncus) community using the Fremantle Inner Harbour, Western Australia, is exposed to high levels of vessel traffic...
October 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043559/nonfunctioning-adrenal-incidentaloma-affecting-central-blood-pressure-and-arterial-stiffness-parameters
#5
Tolga Akkan, Mustafa Altay, Yasemin Ünsal, Murat Dağdeviren, Esin Beyan
PURPOSE: Recently, cardiovascular risk is thought to be increased in patients with nonfunctioning adrenal incidentaloma (NFAI). There are no sufficient studies in the literature to evaluate this situation in NFAI patients without cardiovascular risk. The objective of this study is to compare peripheral and central blood pressure and arterial stiffness between patients with NFAI and healthy volunteers (of a similar age, gender and body mass index as the NFAI group) who have no traditional cardiovascular risk factors and autonomous cortisol secretion, with pulse wave analysis (PWA)...
October 17, 2017: Endocrine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042524/-autoimmune-and-epilepsy
#6
Riki Matsumoto, Mitsuhiro Sakamoto, Akio Ikeda
The recent discovery of autoimmune antibodies to the neuronal cell surface membrane and extra- or intra-cellular proteins, such as NMDAR and LGI1, shed light on a proposed new etiology of epilepsy, namely, "autoimmune epilepsy". A large part of this entity most likely belongs to a forme fruste of autoimmune (limbic) encephalitis. Seizures are usually subacute in onset and refractory to antiepileptic medications. Patients occasionally manifest multiple seizure semiologies, such as autonomic or faciobrachial dystonic seizures...
October 2017: Brain and Nerve, Shinkei Kenkyū No Shinpo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042446/clinical-and-metabolic-consequences-of-l-serine-supplementation-in-hereditary-sensory-and-autonomic-neuropathy-type-1c
#7
Mari Auranen, Jussi Toppila, Saranya Suriyanarayanan, Museer A Lone, Anders Paetau, Henna Tyynismaa, Thorsten Hornemann, Emil Ylikallio
Hereditary sensory neuropathy type 1 (HSAN1) may be the first genetic neuropathy amenable to a specific mechanism-based treatment, as L-serine supplementation can be used to lower the neurotoxic levels of 1-deoxysphingolipids (1-deoxySL) that cause the neurodegeneration. The treatment is so far untested in HSAN1C caused by variants in the serine palmitoyl transferase subunit 2 (SPTLC2) gene. The aim of this study was to establish whether oral L-serine lowers 1-deoxySL in a patient with HSAN1C, to perform a dose escalation to find the minimal effective dose, and to assess the safety profile and global metabolic effects of the treatment...
October 17, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Molecular Case Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042411/a-horizontally-transferred-autonomous-helitron-became-a-full-polydnavirus-segment-in-cotesia-vestalis
#8
Pedro Heringer, Guilherme B Dias, Gustavo C S Kuhn
Bracoviruses associate symbiotically with thousands of parasitoid wasp species in the family Braconidae, working as virulence gene vectors, and allowing the development of wasp larvae within hosts. These viruses are composed by multiple DNA circles that are packaged into infective particles and injected together with wasp's eggs during parasitization. One of the viral segments of Cotesia vestalis bracovirus contains a gene that has been previously described as a helicase of unknown origin. Here we demonstrate that this gene is a Rep/Helicase from an intact Helitron transposable element that covers the viral segment almost entirely...
October 17, 2017: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042309/the-binding-of-botulinum-neurotoxins-to-different-peripheral-neurons
#9
O Rossetto
Botulinum neurotoxins are the most potent toxins known. The double receptor binding modality represents one of the most significant properties of botulinum neurotoxins and largely accounts for their incredible potency and lethality. Despite the high affinity and the very specific binding, botulinum neurotoxins are versatile and multi-tasking toxins. Indeed they are able to act both at the somatic and at the autonomic nervous system. In spite of the preference for cholinergic nerve terminals botulinum neurotoxins have been shown to inhibit to some extent also the noradrenergic postganglionic sympathetic nerve terminals and the afferent nerve terminals of the sensory neurons inhibiting the release of neuropeptides and glutamate, which are responsible of nociception...
October 14, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042294/impaired-cardiac-autonomic-regulation-and-long-term-risk-of-atrial-fibrillation-in-patients-with-coronary-artery-disease
#10
Santeri Nortamo, Olavi Ukkola, Antti Kiviniemi, Mikko Tulppo, Heikki Huikuri, Juha Perkiömäki
BACKGROUND: The influence of autonomic cardiac regulation on long-term risk of new-onset atrial fibrillation (AF) in coronary artery disease (CAD) is not well established. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the value of heart rate variability (HRV), a marker of cardiac autonomic regulation, in predicting new-onset AF in CAD. METHODS: The Innovation to Reduce Cardiovascular Complications of Diabetes at the Intersection (ARTEMIS) study population consisted of 1,946 patients with CAD...
October 14, 2017: Heart Rhythm: the Official Journal of the Heart Rhythm Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042190/hematopoietic-stem-progenitor-involvement-in-retinal-microvascular-repair-during-diabetes-implications-for-bone-marrow-rejuvenation
#11
Ashay D Bhatwadekar, Yaqian Duan, Maria Korahw, Jeffrey S Thinschmidt, Ping Hu, Sameer P Leley, Sergio Caballero, Lynn Shaw, Julia Busik, Maria B Grant
The widespread nature of diabetes affects all organ systems of an individual including the bone marrow. Long-term damage to the cellular and extracellular components of the bone marrow leads to a rapid decline in the bone marrow-hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HS/PCs) compartment. This review will highlight the importance of bone marrow microenvironment in maintaining bone marrow HS/PC populations and the contribution of these key populations in microvascular repair during the natural history of diabetes...
October 14, 2017: Vision Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042168/autonomous-bone-reposition-around-anatomical-landmark-for-robot-assisted-orthognathic-surgery
#12
Sang-Yoon Woo, Sang-Jeong Lee, Ji-Yong Yoo, Jung-Joon Han, Soon-Jung Hwang, Kyung-Hoe Huh, Sam-Sun Lee, Min-Suk Heo, Soon-Chul Choi, Won-Jin Yi
The purpose of this study was to develop a new method for enabling a robot to assist a surgeon in repositioning a bone segment to accurately transfer a preoperative virtual plan into the intraoperative phase in orthognathic surgery. We developed a robot system consisting of an arm with six degrees of freedom, a robot motion-controller, and a PC. An end-effector at the end of the robot arm transferred the movements of the robot arm to the patient's jawbone. The registration between the robot and CT image spaces was performed completely preoperatively, and the intraoperative registration could be finished using only position changes of the tracking tools at the robot end-effector and the patient's splint...
September 19, 2017: Journal of Cranio-maxillo-facial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29041200/graphene-metamaterial-spatial-light-modulator-for-infrared-single-pixel-imaging
#13
Kebin Fan, Jonathan Y Suen, Willie J Padilla
High-resolution and hyperspectral imaging has long been a goal for multi-dimensional data fusion sensing applications - of interest for autonomous vehicles and environmental monitoring. In the long wave infrared regime this quest has been impeded by size, weight, power, and cost issues, especially as focal-plane array detector sizes increase. Here we propose and experimentally demonstrated a new approach based on a metamaterial graphene spatial light modulator (GSLM) for infrared single pixel imaging. A frequency-division multiplexing (FDM) imaging technique is designed and implemented, and relies entirely on the electronic reconfigurability of the GSLM...
October 16, 2017: Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040410/ror%C3%AE-coordinates-thalamic-and-cortical-maturation-to-instruct-barrel-cortex-development
#14
Tania Vitalis, Luce Dauphinot, Pierre Gressens, Marie-Claude Potier, Jean Mariani, Patricia Gaspar
The retinoic acid-related orphan receptor alpha (RORα) is well-known for its role in cerebellar development and maturation as revealed in staggerer mice. However, its potential involvement in the development of other brain regions has hardly been assessed. Here, we describe a new role of RORα in the development of primary somatosensory maps. Staggerer mice showed a complete disruption of barrels in the somatosensory cortex and of barreloids in the thalamus. This phenotype results from a severe reduction of thalamocortical axon (TCA) branching and a defective maturation of layer IV cortical neurons during postnatal development...
October 13, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040294/towards-social-autonomous-vehicles-efficient-collision-avoidance-scheme-using-richardson-s-arms-race-model
#15
Faisal Riaz, Muaz A Niazi
This paper presents the concept of a social autonomous agent to conceptualize such Autonomous Vehicles (AVs), which interacts with other AVs using social manners similar to human behavior. The presented AVs also have the capability of predicting intentions, i.e. mentalizing and copying the actions of each other, i.e. mirroring. Exploratory Agent Based Modeling (EABM) level of the Cognitive Agent Based Computing (CABC) framework has been utilized to design the proposed social agent. Furthermore, to emulate the functionality of mentalizing and mirroring modules of proposed social agent, a tailored mathematical model of the Richardson's arms race model has also been presented...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038818/a-c-hcr-assembly-of-branched-dna-nanostructures-for-amplified-uracil-dna-glycosylase-assays
#16
Jing Wang, Min Pan, Jie Wei, Xiaoqing Liu, Fuan Wang
An autonomous nonenzymatic DNA machine has been successfully engineered based on a two-layered cascaded hybridization chain reaction (C-HCR) circuit, in which the tandem outputs of the upstream HCR-1 unit activate the downstream HCR-2 unit to induce successive repeated hybridizations, generating branched DNA structures and enabling sensitive and selective detection of uracil-DNA glycosylase and its inhibitors.
October 17, 2017: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038467/self-sensing-in-bacillus-subtilis-quorum-sensing-systems
#17
Tasneem Bareia, Shaul Pollak, Avigdor Eldar
Bacterial cell-cell signalling, or quorum sensing, is characterized by the secretion and groupwide detection of small diffusible signal molecules called autoinducers. This mechanism allows cells to coordinate their behaviour in a density-dependent manner. A quorum-sensing cell may directly respond to the autoinducers it produces in a cell-autonomous and quorum-independent manner, but the strength of this self-sensing effect and its impact on bacterial physiology are unclear. Here, we explore the existence and impact of self-sensing in the Bacillus subtilis ComQXP and Rap-Phr quorum-sensing systems...
October 16, 2017: Nature Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038247/constitutive-activation-of-integrin-%C3%AE-9-augments-self-directed-hyperplastic-and-proinflammatory-properties-of-fibroblast-like-synoviocytes-of-rheumatoid-arthritis
#18
Takashi Emori, Jun Hirose, Kotoko Ise, Jun-Ichiro Yomoda, Michiko Kasahara, Tadanobu Shinkuma, Hiroyuki Yoshitomi, Hiromu Ito, Motomu Hashimoto, Shingo Sugahara, Hirotada Fujita, Nobuchika Yamamoto, Yoshiaki Morita, Shuh Narumiya, Ichiro Aramori
Despite advances in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), currently approved medications can have significant side effects due to their direct immunosuppressive activities. Additionally, current therapies do not address residual synovial inflammation. In this study, we evaluated the role of integrin α9 and its ligand, tenascin-C (Tn-C), on the proliferative and inflammatory response of fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLSs) from RA patients grown in three-dimensional (3D)-micromass culture. FLSs from osteoarthritis patients, when grown in the 3D-culture system, formed self-directed lining-like structures, whereas FLSs from RA tissues (RA-FLSs) developed an abnormal structure of condensed cellular accumulation reflective of the pathogenic features of RA synovial tissues...
October 16, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038244/overactivity-of-liver-related-neurons-in-the-paraventricular-nucleus-of-the-hypothalamus-electrophysiological-findings-in-db-db-mice
#19
Hong Gao, Adrien Jr Molinas, Kayoko Miyata, Xin Qiao, Andrea Zsombok
Preautonomic neurons in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the hypothalamus play a large role in the regulation of hepatic functions via the autonomic nervous system. Activation of hepatic sympathetic nerves increases glucose and lipid metabolism and contributes to the elevated hepatic glucose production observed in type 2 diabetic condition. This augmented sympathetic output could originate from altered activity of liver-related PVN neurons. Remarkably, despite the importance of the brain-liver pathway, the cellular properties of liver-related neurons are not known...
October 16, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038229/the-polymorphic-proteins-tgrb1-and-tgrc1-function-as-a-ligand-receptor-pair-in-dictyostelium-allorecognition
#20
Shigenori Hirose, Gong Chen, Adam Kuspa, Gad Shaulsky
Allorecognition is a key factor in Dictyostelium development and sociality. It is mediated by two polymorphic transmembrane proteins, TgrB1 and TgrC1, that contain extracellular immunoglobulin domains. TgrB1 and TgrC1 are necessary and sufficient for allorecognition and they carry out separate albeit overlapping functions in development, but their mechanism of action is unknown. Here we show that TgrB1 acts as a receptor and TgrC1 as its ligand in cooperative aggregation and differentiation. The proteins bind each other in a sequence-specific manner, TgrB1 exhibits a cell-autonomous function, and TgrC1 acts non-cell-autonomously...
October 16, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
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