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Hayley Dewe, Derrick G Watson, Klaus Kessler, Jason J Braithwaite
Depersonalization and Derealization are characterised by feelings of detachment from one's bodily self/surroundings and a general emotional numbness. We explored predisposition to trait-based experiences of depersonalization/derealization-type experiences and autonomic arousal toward simulated body-threats, which were delivered to the participant's own body (i.e. Self) and when observed being delivered to another individual (i.e. Other). Ninety participants took part in an "Implied Body-Threat Illusion" task (Dewe, Watson, & Braithwaite, 2016) and autonomic arousal was recorded via standardised skin conductance responses and finger temperature...
June 18, 2018: Consciousness and Cognition
Rachit Bakshi, Yuehang Xu, Kaly A Mueller, Xiqun Chen, Eric Granucci, Sabrina Paganoni, Ghazaleh Sadri-Vakili, Michael A Schwarzschild
Dominant mutations in an antioxidant enzyme superoxide dismutase-1 (SOD1) cause amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), an adult-onset neurodegenerative disease characterized by loss of motor neurons. Oxidative stress has also been linked to many of the neurodegenerative diseases and is likely a central mechanism of motor neuron death in ALS. Astrocytes derived from mutant SOD1G93A mouse models or patients play a significant role in the degeneration of spinal motor neurons in ALS through a non-cell-autonomous process...
June 18, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
Sabina Capellari, Simone Baiardi, Rita Rinaldi, Anna Bartoletti-Stella, Claudio Graziano, Silvia Piras, Giovanna Calandra-Buonaura, Roberto D'Angelo, Camilla Terziotti, Raffaele Lodi, Vincenzo Donadio, Loris Pironi, Pietro Cortelli, Piero Parchi
Truncating mutations in PRNP have been associated with heterogeneous phenotypes ranging from chronic diarrhea and neuropathy to dementia, either rapidly or slowly progressive. We identified novel PRNP stop-codon mutations (p.Y163X, p.Y169X) in two Italian kindreds. Disease typically presented in the third or fourth decade with progressive autonomic failure and diarrhea. Moreover, one proband (p.Y163X) developed late cognitive decline, whereas some of his relatives presented with isolated cognitive and psychiatric symptoms...
June 2018: Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology
Charles R Marshall, Christopher J D Hardy, Micah Allen, Lucy L Russell, Camilla N Clark, Rebecca L Bond, Katrina M Dick, Emilie V Brotherhood, Jonathan D Rohrer, James M Kilner, Jason D Warren
Objective: To establish proof-of-principle for the use of heart rate responses as objective measures of degraded emotional reactivity across the frontotemporal dementia spectrum, and to demonstrate specific relationships between cardiac autonomic responses and anatomical patterns of neurodegeneration. Methods: Thirty-two patients representing all major frontotemporal dementia syndromes and 19 healthy older controls performed an emotion recognition task, viewing dynamic, naturalistic videos of facial emotions while ECG was recorded...
June 2018: Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology
Lan Anh Trinh, Mikael Ekström, Baran Cürüklü
Recent industrial developments in autonomous systems, or agents, which assume that humans and the agents share the same space or even work in close proximity, open for new challenges in robotics, especially in motion planning and control. In these settings, the control system should be able to provide these agents a reliable path following control when they are working in a group or in collaboration with one or several humans in complex and dynamic environments. In such scenarios, these agents are not only moving to reach their goals, i...
2018: Frontiers in Neurorobotics
Relish Shah, Emmanuelle Courtiol, Francisco X Castellanos, Catia M Teixeira
Serotonin (5-HT) is one of the best-studied modulatory neurotransmitters with ubiquitous presynaptic release and postsynaptic reception. 5-HT has been implicated in a wide variety of brain functions, ranging from autonomic regulation, sensory perception, feeding and motor function to emotional regulation and cognition. The role of this neuromodulator in neuropsychiatric diseases is unquestionable with important neuropsychiatric medications, e.g., most antidepressants, targeting this system. Importantly, 5-HT modulates neurodevelopment and changes in its levels during development can have life-long consequences...
2018: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
Gabrielius Jakutis, Vytautas Juknevičius, Juratė Barysienė, Dalia Matačiūnienė, Birutė Petrauskienė, Žaneta Petrulionienė, Aleksandras Laucevičius
Introduction: Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep-related bradyarrhythmia syndrome is characterized by pathological asystoles during the REM sleep phase. It is a rare rhythm disorder, being reported only few times in the literature. Due to non-specific symptoms, REM sleep-related bradyarrhythmia might be often underdiagnosed. Other cardiac diseases associated with pathological sinus arrests must be excluded to establish the correct diagnosis of and appropriate therapy for REM sleep-related bradyarrhythmia...
2018: Acta Medica Lituanica
Diego Fernández-Fernández, Alba Cadaveira-Mosquera, Lola Rueda-Ruzafa, Salvador Herrera-Pérez, Emma L Veale, Antonio Reboreda, Alistair Mathie, J Antonio Lamas
Two-pore domain potassium channels (K2P) constitute major candidates for the regulation of background potassium currents in mammalian cells. Channels of the TREK subfamily are also well positioned to play an important role in sensory transduction due to their sensitivity to a large number of physiological and physical stimuli (pH, mechanical, temperature). Following our previous report describing the molecular expression of different K2P channels in the vagal sensory system, here we confirm that TREK channels are functionally expressed in neurons from the mouse nodose ganglion (mNG)...
2018: PloS One
Katie Kowarski, Julien Delarue, Bruce Martin, Joanne O'Brien, Rossa Meade, Oliver Ó Cadhla, Simon Berrow
Little is known of the spatio-temporal occurrence of beaked whales off western Ireland, limiting the ability of Regulators to implement appropriate management and conservation measures. To address this knowledge gap, static acoustic monitoring was carried out using eight fixed bottom-mounted autonomous acoustic recorders: four from May to December 2015 on Ireland's northern slope and four from March to November 2016 on the western and southern slopes. Recorders ran for 205 to 230 days, resulting in 4.09 TB of data sampled at 250 kHz which could capture beaked whale acoustic signals...
2018: PloS One
Ron R Neyens, George E Gaskill, Julio A Chalela
OBJECTIVES: Anti-N-methyl-D-asparate receptor encephalitis is considered an immune-mediated form of encephalitis with paraneoplastic and nonparaneoplastic forms. Delay in recognition is common and patients typically present to the ICU without a diagnosis or with complications following a delayed diagnosis. The aim of this review is to provide a focused overview for the ICU clinician regarding presentation, diagnosis, and critical care management. DATA SOURCES, STUDY SELECTION, AND DATA EXTRACTION: PubMed database search with manual review of articles involving anti-N-methyl-D-asparate receptor encephalitis...
June 20, 2018: Critical Care Medicine
Nicholas J Wagner, Paul D Hastings, Kenneth H Rubin
Substantial theoretical and empirical literature suggests that the extent to which children's early experiences contribute to the development of aggressive behaviors may depend on the psychophysiological regulatory capacities of the child. This study adds to this literature by examining the relations between mothers' rejecting child-rearing attitudes and children's aggressive behaviors, as well as whether children's parasympathetic regulation, both at rest and in response to anger-inducing films, moderate these links...
June 21, 2018: Developmental Psychobiology
Yu S Mironova, N G Zhukova, I A Zhukova, V M Alifirova, O P Izhboldina, A V Latypova
Clinical variants of Parkinson's disease (PD) are not restricted to motor symptoms but include a wide spectrum of different non-motor symptoms: cognitive, psychotic, autonomic and sensory. These non-motor symptoms often occur long before classical motor features. Associated pathologic changes can now be identified at earliest stages using neuroimaging, pathomorphological and genetic studies. Therefore, PD is currently considered as a multifactorial, heterogenic systemic disease associated with involvement of multiple neurotransmitter systems...
2018: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
Jesus Alfonso D Datu, Mantak Yuen, Gaowei Chen
Previous investigations mostly relied on the two-factor model of grit (with perseverance of effort and consistency of interests as major dimensions) which received a number criticisms in the extant literature. Recent studies have provided promising lines of evidence regarding the triarchic model of grit (TMG) which posits three dimensions of grit in a collectivist setting: perseverance of effort, consistency of interests , and adaptability to situations . However, little is known about how this model of grit may be linked to various indicators of positive educational and psychological functioning...
June 21, 2018: School Psychology Quarterly
Sarah Kahle, Jonas G Miller, Jonathan L Helm, Paul D Hastings
Physiological recovery from negative emotions may be important for effective self-regulation, but little is known about recovery processes in children. The current study investigated links between autonomic physiology, anger expressions, and emotion regulation in a sample of eighty-three 3.5-year-olds. Respiratory sinus arrhythmia and pre-ejection period were measured during an anger induction task as parasympathetic and sympathetic indices, respectively. We examined whether preschoolers' anger expressions and emotion regulation behaviors were associated with individual differences in physiology...
June 21, 2018: Developmental Psychobiology
Dale R Sengelaub, Xiao-Ming Xu
Spinal cord injury (SCI) results in lesions that destroy tissue and disrupt spinal tracts, producing deficits in locomotor and autonomic function. The majority of treatment strategies after SCI have concentrated on the damaged spinal cord, for example working to reduce lesion size or spread, or encouraging regrowth of severed descending axonal projections through the lesion, hoping to re-establish synaptic connectivity with caudal targets. In our work, we have focused on a novel target for treatment after SCI, surviving spinal motoneurons and their target musculature, with the hope of developing effective treatments to preserve or restore lost function following SCI...
June 2018: Neural Regeneration Research
Kathryn Lawton, Karen Royals, Kristin V Carson-Chahhoud, Fiona Campbell, Brian J Smith
BACKGROUND: Specialist nursing roles to manage stable disease populations are being used to meet the needs of both patients and health services. With increasing cost pressures on health departments, alternative models such as nurse-led care are gaining momentum as a substitute for traditional doctor-led care. This review evaluates the safety, effectiveness, and health outcomes of nurses practising in autonomous roles while using advanced practice skills, within the context of bronchiectasis management in subacute, ambulatory, and/or community care...
June 20, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Allison K Ikeda, Qiao Li, Arshed A Quyuumi, Raj C Dedhia
PURPOSE: Hypoglossal nerve stimulation (HGNS) is being increasingly utilized in the setting of moderate-severe obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). While moderate-severe OSA confers excess cardiovascular risk, the impact of HGNS on cardiovascular requires further investigation. With the advent of peripheral arterial tonometry (PAT), one can non-invasively study real-time changes to the autonomic nervous system. This study evaluates the effect of HGNS therapy on autonomic output, using PAT-integrated polysomnography...
June 21, 2018: Sleep & Breathing, Schlaf & Atmung
Marek Wartenberg, Joseph Schornak, Katie Gandomi, Paulo Carvalho, Chris Nycz, Niravkumar Patel, Iulian Iordachita, Clare Tempany, Nobuhiko Hata, Junichi Tokuda, Gregory S Fischer
Intra-operative imaging is sometimes available to assist needle biopsy, but typical open-loop insertion does not account for unmodeled needle deflection or target shift. Closed-loop image-guided compensation for deviation from an initial straight-line trajectory through rotational control of an asymmetric tip can reduce targeting error. Incorporating robotic closed-loop control often reduces physician interaction with the patient, but by pairing closed-loop trajectory compensation with hands-on cooperatively controlled insertion, a physician's control of the procedure can be maintained while incorporating benefits of robotic accuracy...
June 20, 2018: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
Stefania Paolillo, Piergiuseppe Agostoni, Fabiana De Martino, Francesca Ferrazzano, Fabio Marsico, Paola Gargiulo, Elisabetta Pirozzi, Caterina Marciano, Santo Dellegrottaglie, Pasquale Perrone Filardi
Exercise intolerance is a typical manifestation of patients affected by heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF); however, the relationship among functional capacity, mortality, and exercise-induced heart rate response during exercise remains unclear in either sinus rhythm or atrial fibrillation subjects. Heart rate increase during incremental load exercise has a typical pattern in normal subjects, whereas it is commonly compromised in HFrEF patients, mainly due to the imbalance of the autonomic nervous system...
July 2018: Heart Failure Reviews
Katsuya Nagai, Yoshiko Misonou, Yosiyuki Fujisaki, Risa Fuyuki, Yuko Horii
We previously obtained evidence suggesting that physical exercise increases the release of L-carnosine (CAR) from muscles and that CAR affects autonomic neurotransmission and physiological phenomena in rats. It has also been reported that exercise elicits an increase in activity of the sympathetic nerve innervating the skeletal muscle. Therefore, in this study, we investigated the effect of CAR application, onto the surface of the right femoral muscle, on activity of the sympathetic nerve innervating the left femoral muscle, in urethane-anesthetized rats...
June 20, 2018: Amino Acids
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