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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224103/sex-differences-and-role-of-estradiol-in-hypoglycemia-associated-counter-regulation
#1
Karen P Briski, Hussain N Alhamami, Ayed Alshamrani, Santosh K Mandal, Manita Shakya, Mostafa H H Ibrahim
Vital nerve cell functions, including maintenance of transmembrane voltage and information transfer, occur at high energy expense. Inadequate provision of the obligate metabolic fuel glucose exposes neurons to risk of dysfunction or injury. Clinical hypoglycemia rarely occurs in nondiabetic individuals but is an unfortunate regular occurrence in patients with type 1 or advanced insulin-treated type 2 diabetes mellitus. Requisite strict glycemic control, involving treatment with insulin, sulfonylureas, or glinides, can cause frequent episodes of iatrogenic hypoglycemia due to defective counter-regulation, including reduced glycemic thresholds and diminished magnitude of motor responses...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224089/cellular-mechanisms-driving-sex-differences-in-adipose-tissue-biology-and-body-shape-in-humans-and-mouse-models
#2
Kalypso Karastergiou, Susan K Fried
Sex differences in adipose tissue distribution and the metabolic, endocrine, and immune functions of different anatomical fat depots have been described, but they are incompletely documented in the literature. It is becoming increasingly clear that adipose depots serve distinct functions in males and females and have specific physiological roles. However, the mechanisms that regulate the size and function of specific adipose tissues in men and women remain poorly understood. New insights from mouse models have advanced our understanding of depot differences in adipose growth and remodeling via the proliferation and differentiation of adipose progenitors that can expand adipocyte number in the tissue or simply replace dysfunctional older and larger adipocytes...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223951/heart-rate-variability-in-bipolar-disorder-and-borderline-personality-disorder-a-clinical-review
#3
REVIEW
Oliver Carr, Maarten de Vos, Kate E A Saunders
Heart rate variability (HRV) in psychiatric disorders has become an increasing area of interest in recent years following technological advances that enable non-invasive monitoring of autonomic nervous system regulation. However, the clinical interpretation of HRV features remain widely debated or unknown. Standardisation within studies of HRV in psychiatric disorders is poor, making it difficult to reproduce or build on previous work. Recently, a Guidelines for Reporting Articles on Psychiatry and Heart rate variability checklist has been proposed to address this issue...
December 9, 2017: Evidence-based Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223653/effects-of-cardiac-rehabilitation-on-heart-rate-recovery-of-patients-undergoing-a-cardiac-rehabilitation-programme-after-acute-coronary-syndrome
#4
Tiffany Astolfi, Fabio Borrani, Milos Savcic, Vincent Gremeaux, Grégoire P Millet
BACKGROUND: An efficient cardiac rehabilitation programme (CRP) can improve the functional ability of patients after acute coronary syndrome (ACS). OBJECTIVE: To examine the effect of a CRP on parasympathetic reactivation and heart rate recovery (HRR) measured after a 6-min walk test (6MWT), and correlation with 6MWT distance and well-being after ACS. METHODS: Eleven normoweight patients after ACS (BMI < 25kg/m2; 10 males; mean [SD] age 61 [9] years) underwent an 8-week CRP...
December 6, 2017: Annals of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223281/human-studies-on-hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal-hpa-axis
#5
REVIEW
Kamani Liyanarachchi, Richard Ross, Miguel Debono
The daily rhythm of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is regulated by the central clock in the suprachiasmatic nucleus. Cortisol, a glucocorticoid, acts as a secondary messenger between the central clock and the peripheral tissues. Changes in clock time, as seen in shift workers, alters the HPA axis and results in metabolic disturbances associated with ill health. Depression, anorexia nervosa and obstructive sleep apnoea, are associated with cortisol rhythm phase shifts and increased cortisol exposure...
October 2017: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223196/application-of-psychological-theories-in-agent-based-modeling-the-case-of-the-theory-of-planned-behavior
#6
Andrea Scalco, Andrea Ceschi, Riccardo Sartori
It is likely that computer simulations will assume a greater role in the next future to investigate and understand reality (Rand & Rust, 2011). Particularly, agent-based models (ABMs) represent a method of investigation of social phenomena that blend the knowledge of social sciences with the advantages of virtual simulations. Within this context, the development of algorithms able to recreate the reasoning engine of autonomous virtual agents represents one of the most fragile aspects and it is indeed crucial to establish such models on well-supported psychological theoretical frameworks...
January 2018: Nonlinear Dynamics, Psychology, and Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223069/neuropsychological-and-clinical-heterogeneity-of-cognitive-impairment-in-patients-with-multiple-system-atrophy
#7
Lorena Broseghini Barcelos, Flávia Saad, Carla Giacominelli, Roberta Arb Saba, Patrícia Maria de Carvalho Aguiar, Sonia Maria Azevedo Silva, Vanderci Borges, Paulo Henrique Ferreira Bertolucci, Henrique Ballalai Ferraz
OBJECTIVE: We evaluated neuropsychological tests to compare cognitive impairment between two types of multiple system atrophy: predominant parkinsonism (MSA-P) and predominant cerebellar ataxia (MSA-C). PATIENTS AND METHODS: This cross-sectional study included 14 patients diagnosed with MSA: four with MSA-C and ten with MSA-P. Presence of motor symptoms was determined by using the Unified Rating MSA Scale (URMSAS). Non-motor symptoms were evaluated by the Short Form Health Survey (SF-36), Scales for Outcomes in Parkinson's disease Autonomic (SCOPA-AUT), Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI)...
October 31, 2017: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222896/serum-vitamin-b-12-in-children-presenting-with-vasovagal-syncope
#8
Ayhan Pektas, Resit Koken, Halit Bugra Koca
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The present study aims to determine the serum vitamin B-12 in children presenting with vasovagal syncope. METHODS AND STUDY DESIGN: This is a prospective review of 160 children presenting with vasovagal syncope. Subgroup analysis was done based on the results of head up tilt test. RESULTS: Head up tilt test gave positive results in 80 children and yielded negative results in the remaining 80 children. The tilt test positive children had significantly lower thyroid stimulating hormone concentrations (p=0...
2018: Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222399/pediatric-disorders-of-orthostatic-intolerance
#9
REVIEW
Julian M Stewart, Jeffrey R Boris, Gisela Chelimsky, Phillip R Fischer, John E Fortunato, Blair P Grubb, Geoffrey L Heyer, Imad T Jarjour, Marvin S Medow, Mohammed T Numan, Paolo T Pianosi, Wolfgang Singer, Sally Tarbell, Thomas C Chelimsky
Orthostatic intolerance (OI), having difficulty tolerating an upright posture because of symptoms or signs that abate when returned to supine, is common in pediatrics. For example, ∼40% of people faint during their lives, half of whom faint during adolescence, and the peak age for first faint is 15 years. Because of this, we describe the most common forms of OI in pediatrics and distinguish between chronic and acute OI. These common forms of OI include initial orthostatic hypotension (which is a frequently seen benign condition in youngsters), true orthostatic hypotension (both neurogenic and nonneurogenic), vasovagal syncope, and postural tachycardia syndrome...
December 8, 2017: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222227/pings-phone-based-intervention-under-nurse-guidance-after-stroke-interim-results-of-a-pilot-randomized-controlled-trial
#10
Fred Sarfo, Frank Treiber, Mulugeta Gebregziabher, Sheila Adamu, Sachin Patel, Michelle Nichols, Dominic Awuah, Asumadu Sakyi, Nyantakyi Adu-Darko, Arti Singh, Raelle Tagge, Jenkins Carolyn, Bruce Ovbiagele
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Stroke exacts an immense toll in sub-Saharan Africa where there are few resources, and stroke prevention research is limited. The aim of this study is to test the feasibility and preliminary efficacy of an m-Health technology-enabled, nurse-guided intervention in improving blood pressure (BP) control among Ghanaian stroke patients within 1 month of symptom onset. METHODS: We conducted a 2-arm cluster pilot randomized controlled trial involving 60 recent stroke survivors encountered within a single tertiary medical system in Ghana...
December 8, 2017: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222103/a-novel-non-antibiotic-lgt-based-selection-system-for-stable-maintenance-of-expression-vectors-in-escherichia-coli-and-vibrio-cholerae
#11
Manuela Terrinoni, Stefan L Nordqvist, Susanne Källgård, Jan Holmgren, Michael Lebens
Antibiotic selection for maintenance of expression plasmids is discouraged in production of recombinant proteins for pharmaceutical or other human uses due to the risks of antibiotic residue contamination of the final products and release of DNA encoding antibiotic resistance into the environment. We describe the construction of expression plasmids that are instead maintained by complementation of the lgt gene encoding a (pro)lipoprotein glyceryl transferase essential for biosynthesis of bacterial lipoprotein...
December 8, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222023/regional-brain-gray-matter-changes-in-adolescents-with-single-ventricle-heart-disease
#12
Sadhana Singh, Rajesh Kumar, Bhaswati Roy, Mary A Woo, Alan Lewis, Nancy Halnon, Nancy Pike
Adolescents with single ventricle heart disease (SVHD) show autonomic, mood, and cognitive deficits, indicating aberrations in brain areas that regulate these functions. However, the gray matter integrity in autonomic, mood, and cognitive control sites is unclear. We examined regional brain gray matter changes, using high-resolution T1-weighted images (3.0-T magnetic resonance scanner) with voxel based morphometry procedures, as well as mood and cognitive functions in SVHD (n=18; age, 15.7±1.1years; male, 10) and controls (n=31; age, 16...
December 6, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221885/-design-of-a-questionnaire-on-the-knowledge-and-attitudes-of-the-population-of-madrid-spain-facing-the-end-of-life
#13
Belén Ortiz-Gonçalves, Andrés Santiago-Sáez, Elena Albarrán Juan, Elena Labajo González, Bernardo Perea-Pérez
OBJECTIVE: To create and validate a questionnaire about knowledge and attitudes of the general population in Madrid (Spain) about life's end stage. METHOD: A descriptive study designed as a structured self-administered questionnaire, validated by seven Madrid Health Service professional experts and assessed through a pilot study. RESULTS: The questionnaire consisted of 42 questions, divided into six modules: 1) decisions and psychological-physical care at life's end; 2) palliative care; 3) euthanasia and assisted suicide; 4) advance directives document; 5) spiritual factors; and 6) socio-demographic data...
December 5, 2017: Gaceta Sanitaria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221826/trends-of-invasive-pneumococcal-disease-and-its-serotypes-in-the-autonomous-community-of-madrid
#14
Pello Latasa Zamalloa, Juan Carlos Sanz Moreno, María Ordobás Gavín, María Dolores Barranco Ordoñez, Esther Insúa Marisquerena, Ángel Gil de Miguel, Abelardo Claudio Fernández Chávez, Luis García-Comas
INTRODUCTION: Streptococcus pneumoniae is an important cause of morbidity. Vaccination is the most effective measure to prevent it. The aim of this study is to analyse the evolution of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD). MATERIAL AND METHODS: Observational study of IPD cases notified to the Epidemiological Surveillance Network of the Autonomous Community of Madrid between 2008 and 2015. The IPD case was defined as the disease caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae, with isolation and DNA or antigen detection, in samples from normally sterile sites...
December 5, 2017: Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221019/data-analysis-based-autonomic-bandwidth-adjustment-in-software-defined-multi-vendor-optical-transport-networks
#15
Yajie Li, Yongli Zhao, Jie Zhang, Xiaosong Yu, Ruiquan Jing
Network operators generally provide dedicated lightpaths for customers to meet the demand for high-quality transmission. Considering the variation of traffic load, customers usually rent peak bandwidth that exceeds the practical average traffic requirement. In this case, bandwidth provisioning is unmetered and customers have to pay according to peak bandwidth. Supposing that network operators could keep track of traffic load and allocate bandwidth dynamically, bandwidth can be provided as a metered service and customers would pay for the bandwidth that they actually use...
November 27, 2017: Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220864/the-nature-of-catecholamine-containing-neurons-in-the-enteric-nervous-system-in-relationship-with-organogenesis-normal-human-anatomy-and-neurodegeneration
#16
G Natale, L Ryskalin, C L Busceti, F Biagioni, F Fornai
The gastrointestinal tract is provided with extrinsic and intrinsic innervation. The extrinsic innervation includes the classic vagal parasympathetic and sympathetic components, with afferent sensitive and efferent secretomotor fibers. The intrinsic innervations is represented by the enteric nervous system (ENS), which is recognized as a complex neural network controlling a variety of cell populations, including smooth muscle cells, mucosal secretory cells, endocrine cells, microvasculature, immune and inflammatory cells...
September 1, 2017: Archives Italiennes de Biologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220714/mapping-of-radiation-anomalies-using-uav-mini-airborne-gamma-ray-spectrometry
#17
Ondřej Šálek, Milan Matolín, Lubomír Gryc
Localization of size-limited gamma-ray anomalies plays a fundamental role in uranium prospecting and environmental studies. Possibilities of a newly developed mini-airborne gamma-ray spectrometric equipment were tested on a uranium anomaly near the village of Třebsko, Czech Republic. The measurement equipment was based on a scintillation gamma-ray spectrometer specially developed for unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) mounted on powerful hexacopter. The gamma-ray spectrometer has two 103 cm3 BGO scintillation detectors of relatively high sensitivity...
December 5, 2017: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220503/downregulation-of-survivin-contributes-to-cell-cycle-arrest-during-postnatal-cardiac-development-in-a-severe-spinal-muscular-atrophy-mouse-model
#18
Lei Sheng, Bo Wan, Pengchao Feng, Junjie Sun, Frank Rigo, C Frank Bennett, Martin Akerman, Adrian R Krainer, Yimin Hua
Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is the leading genetic cause of infant mortality, characterized by progressive degeneration of spinal-cord motor neurons, leading to atrophy of skeletal muscles. However, accumulating evidence indicates that it is a multi-system disorder, particularly in its severe forms. Several studies delineated structural and functional cardiac abnormalities in SMA patients and mouse models, yet the abnormalities have been primarily attributed to autonomic dysfunction. Here, we show in a severe mouse model that its cardiomyocytes undergo G0/G1 cell-cycle arrest and enhanced apoptosis during postnatal development...
December 6, 2017: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218644/cardiovascular-complications-of-marijuana-and-related-substances-a-review
#19
REVIEW
Amitoj Singh, Sajeev Saluja, Akshat Kumar, Sahil Agrawal, Munveer Thind, Sudip Nanda, Jamshid Shirani
The recreational use of cannabis has sharply increased in recent years in parallel with its legalization and decriminalization in several countries. Commonly, the traditional cannabis has been replaced by potent synthetic cannabinoids and cannabimimetics in various forms. Despite overwhelming public perception of the safety of these substances, an increasing number of serious cardiovascular adverse events have been reported in temporal relation to recreational cannabis use. These have included sudden cardiac death, vascular (coronary, cerebral and peripheral) events, arrhythmias and stress cardiomyopathy among others...
December 7, 2017: Cardiology and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218052/spoiling-for-a-fight-b-lymphocytes-as-initiator-and-effector-populations-within-tertiary-lymphoid-organs-in-autoimmunity-and-transplantation
#20
REVIEW
Jawaher Alsughayyir, Gavin J Pettigrew, Reza Motallebzadeh
Tertiary lymphoid organs (TLOs) develop at ectopic sites within chronically inflamed tissues, such as in autoimmunity and rejecting organ allografts. TLOs differ structurally from canonical secondary lymphoid organs (SLOs), in that they lack a mantle zone and are not encapsulated, suggesting that they may provide unique immune function. A notable feature of TLOs is the frequent presence of structures typical of germinal centers (GCs). However, little is known about the role of such GCs, and in particular, it is not clear if the B cell response within is autonomous, or whether it synergizes with concurrent responses in SLOs...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
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