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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29461265/severe-acute-malnutrition
#1
Etienne Nel
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Advances in our understanding of the treatment of severe acute malnutrition (SAM) in a resource-limited environment are needed to improve outcome. RECENT FINDINGS: Ready-to-use therapeutic foods (RUTFs) made from local products and with reduced milk content lower costs and may be effective in older children. None of the therapeutic foods used to treat severely malnourished children correct long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid deficiencies.Routine short-term antibiotic (amoxicillin) treatment, in the context of adequate healthcare supervision, does not improve the recovery rate...
February 15, 2018: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29433582/the-frequency-of-klebsiella-pneumonia-encoding-genes-for-ctx-m-tem-1-and-shv-1-extended-spectrum-beta-lactamases-enzymes-isolated-from-urinary-tract-infection
#2
Masomeh Dehshiri, Seyed Sajjad Khoramrooz, Mohammad Zoladl, Seyed Abdolmajid Khosravani, Najmeh Parhizgari, Mohammad Hossein Motazedian, Soheyla Jahedi, Asghar Sharifi
BACKGROUND: The extended- spectrum β-lactamase producing bacteria are widely spread worldwide. The productions of these enzymes cause bacterial resistance to a wide range of antibiotics. The aim of this study was to investigated the frequency of K. pneumonia encoding genes for CTX-M, TEM-1 and SHV-1 extended-spectrum beta lactamases enzymes isolated from urinary tract infection. METHODS: This study is cross-sectional study. All K. pneumonia isolates from urine samples, which had grown on media culture more than 105 were delivered to the medical microbiology laboratory...
February 13, 2018: Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29420819/evaluation-of-the-hepatobiliary-system-in-patients-with-paracoccidioidomycosis-treated-with-cotrimoxazole-or-itraconazole
#3
Adriele Dandara Levorato, Daniela Vanessa Moris, Ricardo de Souza Cavalcante, Tatiane Fernanda Sylvestre, Priscila Zacarias de Azevedo, Lídia Raquel de Carvalho, Rinaldo Poncio Mendes
A prospective study was performed in 200 paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) patients, 51 presenting the acute/subacute form (AF) and 149 the chronic form (CF), submitted to the evaluation of the hepatobiliary system at admission and during the follow-up treatment with cotrimoxazole (CMX) or itraconazole (ITC). This study aimed to better evaluate the involvement of the hepatobiliary system in PCM and the effect of these antifungal compounds on this system. Serum levels of direct bilirubin (DB), total bilirubin (TB), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) were evaluated...
October 9, 2017: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29391040/antimicrobial-susceptibility-pattern-and-associated-factors-of-salmonella-and-shigella-infections-among-under-five-children-in-arba-minch-south-ethiopia
#4
Gemechu Ameya, Tsegaye Tsalla, Fasil Getu, Eyob Getu
BACKGROUND: Diarrheal diseases continue to be the major cause of morbidity and mortality among children under 5 years. Salmonella and Shigella specious are the major enteric pathogen causing diarrhea among children worldwide. Examination of stool sample is the most sensitive method to diagnose diarrheal disease in children. This study aimed to determining the prevalence, antimicrobial susceptibility pattern and associated factor of Salmonella and Shigella infection among under five children...
February 1, 2018: Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29378342/cefoxitin-based-antibiotic-therapy-for-esbl-producing-enterobacteriaceae-prostatitis-a-prospective-pilot-study
#5
Elisa Demonchy, Johan Courjon, Estelle Ughetto, Matthieu Durand, Karine Risso, Rodolphe Garraffo, Pierre-Marie Roger
INTRODUCTION: The emergence of extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-E) infections requires therapeutic tool reassessment. We report the efficacy of a cefoxitin-based antibiotic therapy for ESBL-E prostatitis. METHODS: We conducted a prospective study including patients with ESBL-E prostatitis, resistant to cotrimoxazole and fluoroquinolones from January 2014 to March 2016. Cefoxitin was administered by continuous infusion for three weeks in the case of acute prostatitis or six weeks in the case of chronic prostatitis with intravenous fosfomycin for the first five days...
January 25, 2018: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29374577/evaluation-of-linezolid-or-cotrimoxazole-in-combination-with-rifampicin-as-alternative-oral-treatments-based-on-an-in-vitro-pharmacodynamic-model-of-staphylococcal-biofilm
#6
Cristina El Haj, Oscar Murillo, Alba Ribera, Nuria Lloberas, Joan Gómez-Junyent, Fe Tubau, Pere Fontova, Carme Cabellos, Javier Ariza
BACKGROUND: Linezolid or cotrimoxazole plus rifampicin (RIF) are alternative oral treatments for staphylococcal prosthetic joint infections when fluoroquinolones are not possible to use, but there is limited evidence about its activity. OBJECTIVES: We evaluated the efficacy of linezolid (LZD) and cotrimoxazole (SXT) alone and in combination with RIF against Staphylococcus aureus in an in vitro pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic biofilm model. METHODS: Using the CDC Biofilm Reactor® system, simulated regimens of LZD (600 mg q12h), SXT (160/800 mg q8h) and levofloxacin (LVX, 750 mg/day) alone and in combination with RIF (600 mg/day) were evaluated against one MSSA and one MRSA strain...
January 25, 2018: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29370234/febrile-urinary-tract-infection-due-to-extended-spectrum-beta-lactamase-producing-enterobacteriaceae-in-children-a-french-prospective-multicenter-study
#7
Fouad Madhi, Camille Jung, Sandra Timsit, Corinne Levy, Sandra Biscardi, Mathie Lorrot, Emmanuel Grimprel, Laure Hees, Irina Craiu, Aurelien Galerne, François Dubos, Emmanuel Cixous, Véronique Hentgen, Stéphane Béchet, Stéphane Bonacorsi, Robert Cohen
OBJECTIVES: To assess the management of febrile urinary-tract infection (FUTIs) due to extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-E) in children, the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Group of the French Pediatric Society set up an active surveillance network in pediatric centers across France in 2014. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We prospectively analysed data from 2014 to 2016 for all children < 18 years old who received antibiotic treatment for FUTI due to ESBL-E in 24 pediatric centers...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29369229/stenotrophomonas-maltophilia-a-case-series-of-a-rare-keratitis-affecting-patients-with-bandage-contact-lens
#8
Henry D J Hogg, We Fong Siah, Arthur Okonkwo, Manjusha Narayanan, Francisco C Figueiredo
OBJECTIVES: Stenotrophomonas maltophilia is an opportunistic pathogen known to form biofilms on contact lens and case surfaces that may result in permanent visual loss in cases of microbial keratitis. Because of its multiple drug resistance and extremely low incidence, there is little consensus on treatment. We investigated the predisposing factors, management, and visual outcomes in a small case series of patients to better inform the management of this rarely reported keratitis. METHODS: Retrospective analysis of medical records was performed at a single tertiary referral center between 2011 and 2017...
January 22, 2018: Eye & Contact Lens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29368165/antibiotic-resistance-in-e-coli-isolates-from-patients-with-urinary-tract-infections-presenting-to-the-emergency-department
#9
Florian Hitzenbichler, Michaela Simon, Thomas Holzmann, Michael Iberer, Markus Zimmermann, Bernd Salzberger, Frank Hanses
PURPOSE: Escherichia coli urine isolates from patients presenting to the emergency department at a German tertiary care hospital were retrospectively analyzed from January 2015-March 2017 to determine antibiotic resistance patterns and patient risk factors for resistance. METHODS: Uncomplicated urinary tract infection (UTI) was defined as UTI in the otherwise healthy patient without relevant co-morbidities and complications. Patients were assumed to have UTI if diagnosis was made by the attending physician with conclusive dipstick results...
January 24, 2018: Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29363636/drug-induced-oral-erythema-multiforme-a-diagnostic-challenge
#10
Syed Ahmed Taqi
Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (cotrimoxazole or TMP/SMX) is commonly used for the treatment of urinary or lower respiratory tract infections. A comprehensive review is presented of the world literature on adverse reactions to TMP/SMX since its first use in 1968, when concern was expressed about possible hematologic toxicity. The adverse reactions to TMP/SMX occur in approximately 1%-3% of persons in general population. Here, we report a case of oral erythema multiforme (EM) secondary to TMP/SMX that presented with oral and lip ulcerations typical of EM without any skin lesions and highlights the importance of distinguishing them from other ulcerative disorders involving oral cavity...
January 2018: Annals of African Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29356079/molecular-characterization-of-diarrheagenic-escherichia-coli-pathotypes-association-of-virulent-genes-serogroups-and-antibiotic-resistance-among-moderate-to-severe-diarrhea-patients
#11
Nutan Thakur, Swapnil Jain, Harish Changotra, Rahul Shrivastava, Yashwant Kumar, Neelam Grover, Jitendraa Vashistt
BACKGROUND: Diarrheagenic Escherichia coli (DEC) signifies as an important etiological agent of moderate-to-severe diarrhea. This study was primarily focused on molecular identification of DEC pathotypes; their association with serogroups and estimates of resistance profiles against different antibiotics regime. METHODS: Five hundred seventy-two stool specimens from diarrhea patients were investigated for DEC pathotypes. Molecular pathotypes were identified by amplification of virulence genes associated with distinct pathotypes followed by sequencing...
January 21, 2018: Journal of Clinical Laboratory Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352771/severe-cutaneous-adverse-reactions-due-to-inappropriate-medication-use
#12
G Chaby, L Valeyrie-Allanore, T A Duong, B Lebrun-Vignes, B Milpied, B Sassolas, F Tetart, P Wolkenstein, O Chosidow, L Fardet
BACKGROUD: The proportion of severe cutaneous adverse reactions (SCARs) that could be avoided if medication use was consistent with good medical practice is unknown. OBJECTIVES: To estimate the proportion of SCARs related to inappropriate medication use. METHODS: Retrospective study of all validated SCARs collected in a French registry between 2003 and 2016. For each case, all plausible drugs suspected to induce SCARs (i.e., not just the drug regarded as "the most probable") were considered regarding three causes of preventability: (1) prescription for an inappropriate indication, (2) unintentional rechallenge despite a previous allergy to the drug, or (3) self-medication with prescription medicines...
January 20, 2018: British Journal of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351806/isolated-septic-arthritis-of-hip-joint-a-rare-presentation-of-melioidosis-a-case-report
#13
N P Weerasinghe, H M M Herath, T M U Liyanage
BACKGROUND: Despite, Sri Lanka lies in the melioidosis endemic belt between 5°N and 10°N surrounded by countries known to have endemic melioidosis for many years, comparatively fewer cases of melioidosis infection have been reported in Sri Lanka. Melioidosis has a wide spectrum of clinical presentation, ranging from severe pneumonia to abscess formation in various organs. Isolated septic arthritis, which is a rare but well-recognized manifestation of melioidosis, could be the sole presenting problem in some patients with melioidosis...
January 19, 2018: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351771/characterization-of-salmonella-enterica-from-invasive-bloodstream-infections-and-water-sources-in-rural-ghana
#14
Denise Dekker, Ralf Krumkamp, Daniel Eibach, Nimako Sarpong, Kennedy Gyau Boahen, Michael Frimpong, Elina Fechtner, Sven Poppert, Ralf Matthias Hagen, Norbert Georg Schwarz, Yaw Adu-Sarkodie, Ellis Owusu-Dabo, Justin Im, Florian Marks, Hagen Frickmann, Jürgen May
BACKGROUND: Non-typhoidal Salmonella (NTS) cause the majority of bloodstream infections in Ghana, however the mode of transmission and source of invasive NTS in Africa are poorly understood. This study compares NTS from water sources and invasive bloodstream infections in rural Ghana. METHODS: Blood from hospitalised, febrile children and samples from drinking water sources were analysed for Salmonella spp. Strains were serotyped to trace possible epidemiological links between human and water-derived isolates...
January 19, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351338/stockouts-of-hiv-commodities-in-public-health-facilities-in-kinshasa-barriers-to-end-hiv
#15
Tinne Gils, Claire Bossard, Kristien Verdonck, Philip Owiti, Ilse Casteels, Maria Mashako, Gilles Van Cutsem, Tom Ellman
Stockouts of HIV commodities increase the risk of treatment interruption, antiretroviral resistance, treatment failure, morbidity and mortality. The study objective was to assess the magnitude and duration of stockouts of HIV medicines and diagnostic tests in public facilities in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of the Congo. This was a cross-sectional survey involving visits to facilities and warehouses in April and May 2015. All zonal warehouses, all public facilities with more than 200 patients on antiretroviral treatment (ART) (high-burden facilities) and a purposive sample of facilities with 200 or fewer patients (low-burden facilities) in Kinshasa were selected...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338693/in-vitro-antimicrobial-susceptibility-testing-of-human-brucella-melitensis-isolates-from-ulanqab-of-inner-mongolia-china
#16
Zhi-Guo Liu, Dong-Dong Di, Miao Wang, Ri-Hong Liu, Hong-Yan Zhao, Dong-Ri Piao, Zhong-Zhi Zhao, Yong-Qing Hao, Ya-Nan Du, Hai Jiang, Bu-Yun Cui, Xian-Zhu Xia
BACKGROUND: Brucellosis is an endemic disease in the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region of China and Ulanqab exhibits the highest prevalence of brucellosis in this region. Due to the complex nature of Brucellosis, a cure for this disease has proven to be elusive. Furthermore, the reduced susceptibility of Brucella spp. to antimicrobial agents has been reported as a potential cause of therapeutic failure. However, detailed in vitro antimicrobial susceptibility patterns pertaining to Brucella isolates from this region have not yet been published...
January 16, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313506/prevalence-of-tb-hiv-coinfection-in-antiretroviral-na%C3%A3-ve-patients-at-the-fann-ambulatory-treatment-center-in-dakar
#17
D Ka, N F Ngom Guéye, N Fall, N O Touré-Badiane, N Diop, G Batista, K Ndiaye, C T Ndour, M Seydi, M A Faye
To determine the prevalence of tuberculosis and describe its epidemiological, clinical, paraclinical, and therapeutic characteristics and its outcome in patients with HIV. This retrospective, descriptive, and analytical study examined the records of patients with HIV at our outpatient treatment center and selected those who were antiretroviral-naive and presented tuberculosis between January 2008 and December 2012. Among a total of 757 HIV-positive patients, 76 had tuberculosis, for a prevalence of 10 %. The sex ratio of 1...
November 1, 2017: Médecine et Santé Tropicales
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29274210/impact-of-alternative-treatment-approach-for-cerebral-toxoplasmosis-among-hiv-aids-patients-from-a-resource-poor-setting-in-burkina-faso
#18
Sanata Bamba, Jacques Zoungrana, Zakari Nikièma, Apoline K Sondo, Jean-Louis Ndiaye, Stéphane Bretagne
Cerebral toxoplasmosis is caused by the protozoan Toxoplasma gondii because of reactivation of latent tissue cysts in the Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) patients with severe immunosuppression. The objective of this study was to evaluate the benefit of co-trimoxazole in presumptive and prevention of cerebral toxoplasmosis in Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)/AIDS patients at Bobo-Dioulasso Hospital in Burkina Faso from June 2012 to October 2014. ELISA and ELFA were performed on serum for the quantitative determination of IgG and IgM anti-T...
2017: Annals of Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29273314/antibiotic-drug-use-and-the-risk-of-stevens-johnson-syndrome-and-toxic-epidermal-necrolysis-a-population-based-case-control-study
#19
Noel Frey, Andreas Bircher, Michael Bodmer, Susan S Jick, Christoph R Meier, Julia Spoendlin
Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS) and toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) are rare, life-threatening mucocutaneous adverse drug reactions. Sulphonamide antibiotics are commonly accepted as one of the primary causes of SJS/TEN. This notion is based on results from two hospital-based case-control studies that identified the combined antibiotic cotrimoxazole (sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim) as the cause of several SJS/TEN cases. Associations were also reported for penicillins, quinolones, cephalosporins, macrolides, tetracyclines, and metronidazole...
December 19, 2017: Journal of Investigative Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29261764/pyoderma-outbreak-among-kindergarten-families-association-with-a-panton-valentine-leukocidin-pvl-producing-s-aureus-strain
#20
Rasmus Leistner, Axel Kola, Petra Gastmeier, Renate Krüger, Pia-Alice Hoppe, Sylke Schneider-Burrus, Irina Zuschneid, Nicoletta Wischnewski, Jennifer Bender, Franziska Layer, Michaela Niebank, Carmen Scheibenbogen, Leif G Hanitsch
OBJECTIVES: We report on an outbreak of skin and soft tissue infections (SSTI) among kindergarten families. We analyzed the transmission route and aimed to control the outbreak. METHODS: The transmission route was investigated by nasal screening for Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL)-producing Staphylococcus aureus (PVL-SA), subsequent microbiological investigation including whole genome sequencing and a questionnaire-based analysis of epidemiological information...
2017: PloS One
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