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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925051/adult-t-cell-leukemia-lymphoma
#1
Pedro Dantas Oliveira, Lourdes Farre, Achiléa Lisboa Bittencourt
Adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL) is a malignancy of mature CD4+ T-cells caused by human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1). Twenty million people are believed to be infected throughout the world, mostly in Japan, Africa, the Caribbean, and South America, particularly in Brazil and Peru. ATL affects about 5% of infected individuals and is classified in the following clinical forms: acute, lymphoma, primary cutaneous tumoral, chronic (favorable and unfavorable), and smoldering (leukemic and non-leukemic)...
October 2016: Revista da Associação Médica Brasileira
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922198/dnmt1-modulation-in-chronic-hepatitis-b-patients-and-hypothetic-influence-on-mitochondrial-dna-methylation-status-during-long-term-nucleo-t-side-analogues-therapy
#2
Giordano Madeddu, Silvia Ortu, Giovanni Garrucciu, Ivana Maida, Michela Melis, Alberto Augusto Muredda, Maria Stella Mura, Sergio Babudieri
Inhibition of viral replication is the most important goal in patients with Hepatitis B virus chronic infection (CHB). Currently, five oral nucleo(t)side analogues (NAs), including Lamivudine, Adefovir, Telbivudine, Entecavir and Tenofovir, have been approved for treatment. The widespread use of NAs has also been linked with a progressive growth of unlikely anomaly attributable to mitochondrial dysfunctions, not previously recognized. Here we explore the hypothesis that NAs may cause persistent epigenetic changes during prolonged NAs therapy in CHB patients...
December 6, 2016: Journal of Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917597/chronic-hepatitis-c-infection-and-liver-disease-in-hiv-coinfected-patients-in-asia
#3
N Durier, E Yunihastuti, K Ruxrungtham, N V Kinh, A Kamarulzaman, D Boettiger, A Widhani, A Avihingsanon, B V Huy, S F B Syed Omar, A Sanityoso, S Chittmittrapap, N T H Dung, V Pillai, T Suwan-Ampai, M Law, A H Sohn, G Matthews
Data on markers of hepatitis C virus (HCV) disease in HIV-HCV-coinfected patients in resource-limited settings are scarce. We assessed HCV RNA, HCV genotype (GT), IL28B GT and liver fibrosis (FibroScan(®) ) in 480 HIV-infected patients with positive HCV antibody in four HIV treatment centres in South-East Asia. We enrolled 165 (34.4%) patients in Jakarta, 158 (32.9%) in Bangkok, 110 (22.9%) in Hanoi and 47 (9.8%) in Kuala Lumpur. Overall, 426 (88.8%) were male, the median (IQR) age was 38.1 (34.7-42.5) years, 365 (76...
December 5, 2016: Journal of Viral Hepatitis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917363/future-therapy-for-hepatitis-b-virus-role-of-immunomodulators
#4
REVIEW
Edward A Pham, Ryan B Perumpail, Benjamin J Fram, Jeffrey S Glenn, Aijaz Ahmed, Robert G Gish
Although currently available therapies for chronic hepatitis B virus infection can suppress viremia and provide long-term benefits for patients, they do not lead to a functional cure for most patients. Advances in our understanding of the virus-host interaction and the recent remarkable success of immunotherapy in cancer offer new and promising strategies for developing immune modulators that may become important components of a total therapeutic approach to hepatitis B, some of which are now in clinical development...
2016: Current Hepatology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916837/chloroquine-an-endocytosis-blocking-agent-inhibits-zika-virus-infection-in-different-cell-models
#5
Rodrigo Delvecchio, Luiza M Higa, Paula Pezzuto, Ana Luiza Valadão, Patrícia P Garcez, Fábio L Monteiro, Erick C Loiola, André A Dias, Fábio J M Silva, Matthew T Aliota, Elizabeth A Caine, Jorge E Osorio, Maria Bellio, David H O'Connor, Stevens Rehen, Renato Santana de Aguiar, Andrea Savarino, Loraine Campanati, Amilcar Tanuri
Zika virus (ZIKV) infection in utero might lead to microcephaly and other congenital defects. Since no specific therapy is available thus far, there is an urgent need for the discovery of agents capable of inhibiting its viral replication and deleterious effects. Chloroquine is widely used as an antimalarial drug, anti-inflammatory agent, and it also shows antiviral activity against several viruses. Here we show that chloroquine exhibits antiviral activity against ZIKV in Vero cells, human brain microvascular endothelial cells, human neural stem cells, and mouse neurospheres...
November 29, 2016: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916584/immunological-and-infectious-risk-factors-for-lung-cancer-in-us-veterans-with-hiv-a-longitudinal-cohort-study
#6
Keith Sigel, Juan Wisnivesky, Kristina Crothers, Kirsha Gordon, Sheldon T Brown, David Rimland, Maria C Rodriguez-Barradas, Cynthia Gibert, Matthew Bidwell Goetz, Roger Bedimo, Lesley S Park, Robert Dubrow
BACKGROUND: HIV infection is independently associated with risk of lung cancer, but few data exist for the relation between longitudinal measurements of immune function and lung-cancer risk in people living with HIV. METHODS: We followed up participants with HIV from the Veterans Aging Cohort Study for a minimum of 3 years between Jan 1, 1998, and Dec 31, 2012, and used cancer registry data to identify incident cases of lung cancer. The index date for each patient was the later of the date HIV care began or Jan 1, 1998...
December 1, 2016: Lancet HIV
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914462/recombinant-mhc-tetramers-for-isolation-of-virus-specific-cd8-cells-from-healthy-donors-potential-approach-for-cell-therapy-of-posttransplant-cytomegalovirus-infection
#7
A S Vdovin, S Y Filkin, P R Yefimova, S A Sheetikov, N M Kapranov, Y O Davydova, E S Egorov, E G Khamaganova, M Y Drokov, L A Kuzmina, E N Parovichnikova, G A Efimov, V G Savchenko
Patients undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation have a high risk of cytomegalovirus reactivation, which in the absence of T-cell immunity can result in the development of an acute inflammatory reaction and damage of internal organs. Transfusion of the virus-specific donor T-lymphocytes represents an alternative to a highly toxic and often ineffective antiviral therapy. Potentially promising cell therapy approach comprises transfusion of cytotoxic T-lymphocytes, specific to the viral antigens, immediately after their isolation from the donor's blood circulation without any in vitro expansion...
November 2016: Biochemistry. Biokhimii︠a︡
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911718/attacking-hiv-1-rna-versus-dna-by-sequence-specific-approaches-rnai-versus-crispr-cas
#8
REVIEW
Elena Herrera-Carrillo, Ben Berkhout
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection can be effectively controlled by potent antiviral drugs, but this never results in a cure. The patient should therefore take these drugs for the rest of his/her life, which can cause drug-resistance and adverse effects. Therefore, more durable therapeutic strategies should be considered, such as a stable gene therapy to protect the target T cells against HIV-1 infection. The development of potent therapeutic regimens based on the RNA interference (RNAi) and clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR-Cas) mechanisms will be described, which can be delivered by lentiviral vectors...
October 15, 2016: Biochemical Society Transactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911363/generation-of-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells-from-human-melanoma-tumor-infiltrating-lymphocytes
#9
Hidehito Saito, Kumiko Iwabuchi, Noemi Fusaki, Fumito Ito
Adoptive transfer of ex vivo expanded autologous tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) can mediate durable and complete responses in significant subsets of patients with metastatic melanoma. Major obstacles of this approach are the reduced viability of transferred T cells, caused by telomere shortening, and the limited number of TILs obtained from patients. Less-differentiated T cells with long telomeres would be an ideal T cell subset for adoptive T cell therapy;however, generating large numbers of these less-differentiated T cells is problematic...
November 11, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906865/management-of-post-transplant-lymphoproliferative-disorders
#10
Gabriela Llaurador, Lauren McLaughlin, Birte Wistinghausen
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease (PTLD) is a major complication of hematopoietic stem cell and solid organ transplantation. The incidence of transplantation in childhood has been steadily rising, making PTLD the most common form of lymphoproliferation in childhood. The purpose of this review is to summarize the role of the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) in the pathophysiology and discuss the management of PTLD. RECENT FINDINGS: More than 90% of pediatric PTLD is EBV-positive...
November 30, 2016: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906162/activation-of-myeloid-and-endothelial-cells-by-cd40l-gene-therapy-supports-t-cell-expansion-and-migration-into-the-tumor-microenvironment
#11
E Eriksson, R Moreno, I Milenova, L Liljenfeldt, L C Dieterich, L Christiansson, H Karlsson, G Ullenhag, S Mangsbo, A Dimberg, R Alemany, A Loskog
CD40 is an interesting target in cancer immunotherapy due to its ability to stimulate Th1 immunity via maturation of dendritic cells and to drive M2 to M1 macrophage differentiation. Pancreatic cancer has a high M2 content that has shown responsive to anti-CD40 agonist therapy and CD40 may thus be a suitable target for immune activation in these patients. In this study, a novel oncolytic adenovirus armed with a trimerized membrane-bound extracellular CD40L (TMZ-CD40L) was evaluated as a treatment of pancreatic cancer...
December 1, 2016: Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906000/the-antiviral-compound-bit225-inhibits-hiv-1-replication-in-myeloid-dendritic-cells
#12
Gabriela Khoury, Gary Ewart, Carolyn Luscombe, Michelle Miller, John Wilkinson
BACKGROUND: Previous studies with BIT225 (N-carbamimidoyl-5-(1-methyl-1H-pyrazol-4-yl)-2-naphthamide) have demonstrated a unique antiviral activity that blocks the release of HIV-1 from monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM). Antagonising the ion channel formed by HIV-1 Vpu, BIT225 preferentially targets de novo intracellular virus produced in 'virus-containing compartments' of MDM. In primary infections, dendritic cells (DC) are one of the first cells infected by HIV-1 and can transfer virus to more permissive CD4(+) T cells, making these cells an important target for novel antiviral therapies...
February 8, 2016: AIDS Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905841/cell-delivered-entry-inhibitors-for-hiv-1-ccr5-downregulation-and-blocking-virus-membrane-fusion-in-defending-the-host-cell-population
#13
Geoff Symonds, Jeffrey S Bartlett, Hans-Peter Kiem, Marlene Tsie, Louis Breton
HIV-1 infection requires the presence of the CD4 receptor on the target cell surface and a coreceptor, predominantly CC-chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5). It has been shown that individuals who are homozygous for a defective CCR5 gene are protected from HIV-1 infection. A novel self-inactivating lentiviral vector LVsh5/C46 (Cal-1) has been engineered to block HIV-1 infection with two viral entry inhibitors, conferring resistance to HIV-1 infection from both CCR5 and CXCR4 tropic strains. Cal-1 encodes a short hairpin RNA (sh5) to downregulate CCR5 and C46, an HIV-1 fusion inhibitor...
December 2016: AIDS Patient Care and STDs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905838/engineering-hiv-specific-immunity-with-chimeric-antigen-receptors
#14
Scott G Kitchen, Jerome A Zack
HIV remains a highly important public health and clinical issue despite many recent advances in attempting to develop a cure, which has remained elusive for most people infected with HIV. HIV disease can be controlled with pharmacologic therapies; however, these treatments are expensive, may have severe side effects, and are not curative. Consequently, an improved means to control or eliminate HIV replication is needed. Cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) play a critical role in controlling viral replication and are an important part in the ability of the immune response to eradicate most viral infections...
December 2016: AIDS Patient Care and STDs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901098/tumor-specific-delivery-of-biologics-by-a-novel-t-cell-line-hozot
#15
Teppei Onishi, Hiroshi Tazawa, Yuuri Hashimoto, Makoto Takeuchi, Takeshi Otani, Shuji Nakamura, Fuminori Sakurai, Hiroyuki Mizuguchi, Hiroyuki Kishimoto, Yuzo Umeda, Yasuhiro Shirakawa, Yasuo Urata, Shunsuke Kagawa, Toshiyoshi Fujiwara
"Cell-in-cell" denotes an invasive phenotype in which one cell actively internalizes in another. The novel human T-cell line HOZOT, established from human umbilical cord blood, was shown to penetrate a variety of human cancer cells but not normal cells. Oncolytic viruses are emerging as biological therapies for human cancers; however, efficient viral delivery is limited by a lack of tumor-specific homing and presence of pre-existing or therapy-induced neutralizing antibodies. Here, we report a new, intriguing approach using HOZOT cells to transmit biologics such as oncolytic viruses into human cancer cells by cell-in-cell invasion...
November 30, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898737/transcriptomic-analysis-implicates-the-p53-signaling-pathway-in-the-establishment-of-hiv-1-latency-in-central-memory-cd4-t-cells-in-an-in-vitro-model
#16
Cory H White, Bastiaan Moesker, Nadejda Beliakova-Bethell, Laura J Martins, Celsa A Spina, David M Margolis, Douglas D Richman, Vicente Planelles, Alberto Bosque, Christopher H Woelk
The search for an HIV-1 cure has been greatly hindered by the presence of a viral reservoir that persists despite antiretroviral therapy (ART). Studies of HIV-1 latency in vivo are also complicated by the low proportion of latently infected cells in HIV-1 infected individuals. A number of models of HIV-1 latency have been developed to examine the signaling pathways and viral determinants of latency and reactivation. A primary cell model of HIV-1 latency, which incorporates the generation of primary central memory CD4 T cells (TCM), full-length virus infection (HIVNL4-3) and ART to suppress virus replication, was used to investigate the establishment of HIV latency using RNA-Seq...
November 2016: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898590/reactivation-of-simian-immunodeficiency-virus-reservoirs-in-the-brain-of-virally-suppressed-macaques
#17
Lucio Gama, Celina M Abreu, Erin N Shirk, Sarah L Price, Ming Li, Greg M Laird, Kelly A Metcalf Pate, Stephen W Wietgrefe, Shelby L O'Connor, Luiz Pianowski, Ashley T Haase, Carine Van Lint, Robert F Siliciano, Janice E Clements
OBJECTIVE: Resting CD4 T cells have been recognized as the major cell reservoir of latent HIV-1 during antiretroviral therapy (ART). Using an simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)/macaque model for AIDS and HIV-related neurocognitive disorders we assessed the contribution of the brain to viral latency and reactivation. DESIGN: Pigtailed macaques were dual inoculated with SIVDeltaB670 and SIV17E-Fr and treated with an efficacious central nervous system-penetrant ART...
January 2, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897246/rapid-control-of-pandemic-h1n1-influenza-by-targeting-nkt-cells
#18
Bianca L Artiaga, Guan Yang, Tarun E Hutchinson, Julia C Loeb, Jürgen A Richt, John A Lednicky, Shahram Salek-Ardakani, John P Driver
Swine influenza A viruses (IAV) are a major cause of respiratory disease in pigs and humans. Currently approved anti-influenza therapies directly target the virus, but these approaches are losing effectiveness as new viral strains quickly develop drug resistance. To over come this challenge, there is an urgent need for more effective antiviral drugs. Here we tested the anti-influenza efficacy of the invariant natural killer T (NKT) cell superagonist, α-galactosylceramide (α-GalCer), which stimulates a wide array of anti-viral immune responses...
November 29, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895644/recent-developments-in-cellular-immunotherapy-for-hsct-associated-complications
#19
REVIEW
Monica Reis, Justyna Ogonek, Marsela Qesari, Nuno M Borges, Lindsay Nicholson, Liane Preußner, Anne Mary Dickinson, Xiao-Nong Wang, Eva M Weissinger, Anne Richter
Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is associated with serious complications, and improvement of the overall clinical outcome of patients with hematological malignancies is necessary. During the last decades, posttransplant donor-derived adoptive cellular immunotherapeutic strategies have been progressively developed for the treatment of graft-versus-host disease (GvHD), infectious complications, and tumor relapses. To date, the common challenge of all these cell-based approaches is their implementation for clinical application...
2016: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892400/increase-in-cd4-t-cell-count-at-the-time-of-hiv-diagnosis-and-antiretroviral-treatment-initiation-among-persons-with-hiv-in-new-york-city
#20
Sarah L Braunstein, McKaylee M Robertson, Julie Myers, Bisrat Abraham, Denis Nash
BACKGROUND:  Trends in CD4(+) T-cell count at human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection diagnosis and antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation can be characterized using laboratory tests from surveillance. METHODS:  We used CD4(+) T-cell counts and viral loads from New York City for persons who received a diagnosis of HIV infection during 2006-2012. RESULTS:  From 2006 to 2012, the median CD4(+) T-cell count increased from 325 to 379 cells/µL at diagnosis and from 178 to 360 cells/μL at ART initiation...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Infectious Diseases
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