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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446055/investigational-drugs-for-nasopharyngeal-carcinoma
#1
Brigette B Y Ma, Edwin P Hui, Anthony T C Chan
Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is endemic to Southern China and Asia and is etiologically associated with the Epstein Barr virus (EBV). Whole exome and genome sequencing (WES, WGS) studies of NPC have reported several actionable therapeutic targets, and that the mutational load of NPC maybe comparable to that of squamous head and neck cancer. These unique biological characteristics have been exploited as potential targets and a wide range of investigational drugs are being investigated in clinical trials. Area covered: This review focused on the latest clinical development of the most promising classes of investigational agents in the treatment of advanced NPC...
April 27, 2017: Expert Opinion on Investigational Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440692/both-hepatitis-c-virus-specific-t-cell-responses-and-il28b-rs12979860-single-nucleotide-polymorphism-genotype-influence-antihepatitis-c-virus-treatment-outcome-in-patients-with-chronic-hepatitis-c
#2
José M Benito, Javier García-Samaniego, Marcial García, Antonio Madejón, Luz Martín-Carbonero, Alfonso Cabello, Beatriz Álvarez, Miguel Górgolas, Norma Rallón
Despite new treatments for hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, IFNα-based regimens still have clinical relevance in special populations of patients and remain the only therapeutic option for many patients. We sought to elucidate the interplay between two relevant factors (IL28B polymorphism and T cell immune responses) involved in the outcome of this therapy in HCV-infected patients. We evaluated 38 patients infected with HCV genotype 1-17 coinfected with HIV-who were undergoing a full course of pegIFNα/RBV therapy...
April 25, 2017: Journal of Interferon & Cytokine Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440484/expression-of-programmed-cell-death1-in-t-follicular-helper-cells-is-regulated-by-prostaglandin-e2-secreted-by-hbv-infected-hepg2-2-1-5-cells
#3
Zhefeng Sui, Ying Shi, Zhiling Gao, Deguang Yang, Zhihao Wang
The present study aimed to investigate the distribution of T follicular helper (Tfh)-cell subsets in patients with hepatitis B virus (HBV) and determine the underlying mechanism of HBV regulation of Tfh cells. The frequency of peripheral blood Tfh subsets was analyzed using flow cytometry. The expression level of programmed cell death‑1 (PD‑1) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) was quantified using reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blotting. The PGE2 level in culture supernatant was detected using enzyme‑linked immunosorbent assay...
April 24, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439892/cerebrospinal-fluid-cyto-chemokine-profile-during-acute-herpes-simplex-virus-induced-anti-n-methyl-d-aspartate-receptor-encephalitis-and-in-chronic-neurological-sequelae
#4
Kavitha Kothur, Deepak Gill, Melanie Wong, Shekeeb S Mohammad, Sushil Bandodkar, Susan Arbunckle, Louise Wienholt, Russell C Dale
AIM: To examine the cytokine/chemokine profile of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) during acute herpes simplex virus-induced N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) autoimmunity and in chronic/relapsing post-herpes simplex virus encephalitis (HSE) neurological syndromes. METHOD: We measured longitudinal serial CSF cyto-/chemokines (n=34) and a glial marker (calcium-binding astroglial protein, S100B) in one patient during acute HSE and subsequent anti-NMDAR encephalitis, and compared the results with those from two patients with anti-NMDAR encephalitis without preceding HSE...
April 25, 2017: Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435692/a-cd3-cd28-microbead-based-hiv-1-viral-outgrowth-assay
#5
EDITORIAL
Yury V Kuzmichev, Rebecca T Veenhuis, Christopher W Pohlmeyer, Caroline C Garliss, Victoria Ek Walker-Sperling, Joel N Blankson
AIMS: Latently infected resting CD4 T cells represent a major barrier to HIV-1 eradication efforts. The standard assays used for measuring this reservoir induce activation of resting CD4 T cells with either phytohaemagglutinin (PHA) with irradiated feeder cells, or with anti-CD3 antibodies. We designed a study to compare the sensitivity of a new assay (based on the stimulation of CD4 T cells with anti-CD3 and anti-CD28 coated microbeads) with that of the traditional PHA- and feeder-based viral outgrowth assay...
April 1, 2017: Journal of Virus Eradication
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427421/cerebrospinal-fluid-csf-biomarkers-of-iron-status-are-associated-with-csf-viral-load-antiretroviral-therapy-and-demographic-factors-in-hiv-infected-adults
#6
Stephanie M Patton, Quan Wang, Todd Hulgan, James R Connor, Peilin Jia, Zhongming Zhao, Scott L Letendre, Ronald J Ellis, William S Bush, David C Samuels, Donald R Franklin, Harpreet Kaur, Jennifer Iudicello, Igor Grant, Asha R Kallianpur
BACKGROUND: HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND) remains common, despite antiretroviral therapy (ART). HIV dysregulates iron metabolism, but cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) levels of iron and iron-transport proteins in HIV-infected (HIV+) persons are largely unknown. The objectives of this study were to characterize CSF iron-related biomarkers in HIV+ adults and explore their relationships to known predictors of HAND. METHODS: We quantified total iron, transferrin and heavy-chain (H)-ferritin by immunoassay in CSF sampled by lumbar puncture in 403 HIV+ participants in a multi-center, observational study and evaluated biomarker associations with demographic and HIV-related correlates of HAND [e...
April 21, 2017: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423333/hunting-down-the-hiv-1-reservoir-a-starring-role-for-antibodies
#7
Hugo Mouquet
The persistence of viruses "hidden" in a reservoir of latently infected CD4(+) T cells under antiretroviral therapy is the major obstacle to an HIV-1 cure. Recently published in Nature, two seminal studies from Descours et al. (2017) and Nishimura et al. (2017) bring hope for tracking and possibly eradicating the HIV-1 reservoir.
April 18, 2017: Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419653/hcv-viremia-associates-with-nk-cell-activation-and-dysfunction-in-anti-retroviral-hiv-hcv-co-infected-subjects
#8
E Papasavvas, L Azzoni, X Yin, Q Liu, J Joseph, A Mackiewicz, B Ross, K M Lynn, J M Jacobson, K Mounzer, J R Kostman, L J Montaner
The impact of Hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA levels on immune status in chronically HCV mono-infected when compared to HIV/HCV co-infected on antiretroviral therapy (ART) remains poorly understood. A total of 78 African American subjects HCV viremic/naïve to HCV treatment (33 HCV genotype 1 mono-infected, 45 HCV genotype 1/HIV co-infected on ART) were studied. Clinical and liver enzymes measurements were performed. Whole blood was analyzed for immune subset changes by flow-cytometry. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were used for same-day constitutive and in vitro Interferon (IFN)-α-induced Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription (STAT) phosphorylation, K562 target cell lysis and K562 target cell recognition-mediated IFN-γ production...
April 17, 2017: Journal of Viral Hepatitis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414566/the-changed-proportion-of-cd45ra-cd45ro-t-cells-in-chronic-hepatitis-c-patients-during-pegylated-interferon-%C3%AE-with-ribavirin-therapy
#9
Jung-Lung Hsiao, Wang-Sheng Ko, Chia-Ju Shih, Ya-Ling Chiou
Infection with the hepatitis C virus (HCV) may progress toward chronic hepatitis, liver cirrhosis, and liver cancer. A therapy for patients with chronic HCV infection is the combination of pegylated interferon-α with ribavirin, which increases the rate of sustained virological response (SVR) to 56%. However, a practical biomarker to predict SVR is lacking. T cells expressing the CD45RA isoform are considered naive, and antigenic stimulation converts them to CD45RO(+). CD45RO(+) T cells exhibit immediate response and high lymphokine production, leading to the maintenance and upregulation of immune reactions...
April 17, 2017: Journal of Interferon & Cytokine Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413328/effect-of-korean-red-ginseng-intake-on-the-survival-duration-of-human-immunodeficiency-virus-type-1-patients
#10
Young-Keol Cho, Jung-Eun Kim
BACKGROUND: Long-term ginseng intake can increase longevity in healthy individuals. Here, we examined if long-term treatment with Panax ginseng Meyer (Korean Red Ginseng, KRG) can also enhance survival duration (SD) in patients with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed 252 HIV-1 patients diagnosed from 1986 to 2013 prior to the initiation of antiretroviral therapy. Overall, 162 patients were treated with KRG (3,947 ± 4,943 g) for 86 ± 63 mo...
April 2017: Journal of Ginseng Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409558/in-vitro-detection-of-cholangiocarcinoma-cells-using-a-fluorescent-protein-expressing-oncolytic-herpes-virus
#11
R J S Coelen, M J de Keijzer, R Weijer, V V Loukachov, J K Wiggers, F P J Mul, A C W A van Wijk, Y Fong, M Heger, T M van Gulik
Pathological confirmation is desired prior to high-risk surgery for suspected perihilar cholangiocarcinoma (PHC), but preoperative tissue diagnosis is limited by poor sensitivity of available techniques. This study aimed to validate whether a tumor-specific enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP)-expressing oncolytic virus could be used for cholangiocarcinoma (CC) cell detection. Extrahepatic CC cell lines SK-ChA-1, EGI-1, TFK-1 and control cells (primary human liver cells) were exposed to the oncolytic herpes simplex type 1 virus NV1066 for up to 24 h in adherent culture...
April 14, 2017: Cancer Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408179/5-year-expression-and-neutrophil-defect-repair-after-gene-therapy-in-alpha-1-antitrypsin-deficiency
#12
Christian Mueller, Gwladys Gernoux, Alisha M Gruntman, Florie Borel, Emer P Reeves, Roberto Calcedo, Farshid N Rouhani, Anthony Yachnis, Margaret Humphries, Martha Campbell-Thompson, Louis Messina, Jeffrey D Chulay, Bruce Trapnell, James M Wilson, Noel G McElvaney, Terence R Flotte
Alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency is a monogenic disorder resulting in emphysema due principally to the unopposed effects of neutrophil elastase. We previously reported achieving plasma wild-type alpha-1 antitrypsin concentrations at 2.5%-3.8% of the purported therapeutic level at 1 year after a single intramuscular administration of recombinant adeno-associated virus serotype 1 alpha-1 antitrypsin vector in alpha-1 antitrypsin deficient patients. We analyzed blood and muscle for alpha-1 antitrypsin expression and immune cell response...
April 10, 2017: Molecular Therapy: the Journal of the American Society of Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406093/antiviral-activity-of-nobiletin-against-chikungunya-virus-in-vitro
#13
Shih-Chao Lin, Mei-Chun Chen, Shiming Li, Chi-Chen Lin, Tony T Wang
BACKGROUND: Chikungunya virus (CHIKV), a highly contagious re-emerging virus, is transmitted by infected mosquitoes. CHIKV is prevalent in tropical countries and is continuing to creep farther north into temperate areas. CHIKV is responsible for induction of Chikungunya Fever (CF) and severe joint stiffness with the capability of developing into bilateral and systemic arthralgia or even encephalitis. Despite the high morbidity rate, no approved antiviral drug is available. Therefore, an anti-CHIKV therapy is necessary to control this disease...
April 13, 2017: Antiviral Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404854/autologous-stem-cell-transplantation-disrupts-adaptive-immune-responses-during-rebound-shiv-viremia
#14
Daniel B Reeves, Christopher W Peterson, Hans-Peter Kiem, Joshua T Schiffer
Primary HIV-1 infection induces a virus-specific adaptive/cytolytic immune response that impacts plasma viral load setpoint and rate of progression to AIDS. Combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) suppresses plasma viremia to undetectable levels that rebound upon cART treatment interruption. Following cART withdrawal, the memory component of the virus-specific adaptive immune response may improve viral control compared to primary infection. Here, using primary infection and treatment interruption data from macaques infected with simian/human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV), we observe lower peak viral load but unchanged viral setpoint during viral rebound...
April 12, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403051/modelling-cd4-t-cell-recovery-in-hepatitis-c-and-hiv-co-infected-children-receiving-antiretroviral-therapy
#15
Adedeji O Majekodunmi, Claire Thorne, Ruslan Malyuta, Alla Volokha, Robin E Callard, Nigel J Klein, Joanna Lewis
BACKGROUND: The effect of hepatitis C virus (HCV) coinfection on CD4 T cell recovery in treated HIV-infected children is poorly understood. OBJECTIVE: To compare CD4 T cell recovery in HIV/HCV coinfected children with recovery in HIV monoinfected children. METHOD: We studied 355 HIV monoinfected and 46 HIV/HCV coinfected children receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) during a median follow-up period of 4.2 years (interquartile range: 2.7-5...
May 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400654/discoid-lupus-and-human-immunodeficiency-virus-a-retrospective-chart-review-to-determine-the-prevalence-and-progression-of-co-occurrence-of-these-conditions-at-a-single-academic-center
#16
Aimee Two, Jessica Kim So, Taraneh Paravar
CONTEXT: Discoid lupus erythematosus (DLE) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are both disorders of the immune system. The pathophysiology of these diseases varies greatly as DLE is characterized by an overactive immune system that attacks normal host cells, whereas HIV is characterized by an exogenous attack on the immune system that depletes it of key cell types. Although the reason is unknown, co-occurrence of DLE and HIV is rare. AIMS: The goal of this study is to determine the prevalence of co-occurrence of DLE and HIV and to determine whether patients with both DLE and HIV share any clinical feature...
March 2017: Indian Journal of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400540/cd56-bright-nk-il-7r%C3%AE-expression-negatively-associates-with-hcv-level-and-il-7-induced-nk-function-is-impaired-during-hcv-and-hiv-infections
#17
Chelsey J Judge, Lenche Kostadinova, Kenneth E Sherman, Adeel A Butt, Yngve Falck-Ytter, Nicholas T Funderburg, Alan L Landay, Michael M Lederman, Scott F Sieg, Johan K Sandberg, Donald D Anthony
Several lines of evidence support the concept that NK cells play an important role in control of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection via cytokine secretion and cytotoxicity. IL-7 is a homeostatic cytokine with a role in T cell development, activation, proliferation, and cytokine secretion. The IL-7Rα chain [cluster of differentiation (CD)127] is expressed on NK cells, with greatest abundance on the CD56(bright)CD16(dim/-) (CD56(bright)) subset. Here, we measured CD127 expression on CD56(bright), CD56(dim)CD16(+) (CD56(dim)), or CD56(neg)CD16(+) (CD56(neg)) NK cell subsets of 25 uninfected donors (UD); 34 chronic HCV-infected, treatment-naïve; 25 HIV-infected, virally suppressed on antiretroviral therapy (ART); and 42 HCV-HIV-coinfected subjects on ART...
April 11, 2017: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399423/bone-mineral-density-and-vitamin-d-concentration-the-challenges-in-taking-care-of-children-and-adolescents-infected-with-hiv
#18
Fabiana Bononi Carmo, Maria Teresa Terreri, Regina Célia de Menezes Succi, Suenia Vasconcelos Beltrão, Aida de Fátima Tomé Barbosa Gouvea, Erica Regina Cruz Paulino, Daisy Maria Machado
The increase in life expectancy for patients living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection has resulted in health complications related to a chronic disease. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the prevalence of bone mineral density (BMD) alterations and vitamin D concentrations in HIV-infected children and adolescents and to verify the variations in those parameters during a 12-month interval. METHODS: A prospective cohort study with a dual period of evaluation was conducted in 57 patients perinatally HIV-infected and one patient with sexual abuse in early infancy...
April 8, 2017: Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399128/creation-of-an-immunodeficient-hla-transgenic-mouse-humamice-and-functional-validation-of-human-immunity-after-transfer-of-hla-matched-human-cells
#19
Yang Zeng, Bingrun Liu, Marie-Thérèse Rubio, Xinyue Wang, David M Ojcius, Ruoping Tang, Antoine Durrbach, Zhitao Ru, Yusen Zhou, Yu-Chun Lone
Research on human immunology has been hindered by the lack of optimal small animal models, given that the protective immune responses of human and non-human species show significant differences. However, due to ethical constraints[1] and the high cost of clinical trials, it is urgent to improve the current animal models that can mimic faithfully human physiology, particularly the human immune system (HIS). HIS mice had been generated recently by engrafting human hematopoietic stem cells (hHSCs) or human peripheral mononuclear cells (hPBMCs) into highly immuno-deficient mice such as NSG, NOG or NRG mice...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397698/ledipasvir-sofosbuvir-for-6-weeks-to-treat-acute-hepatitis-c-virus-genotype-1-or-4-infection-in-patients-with-hiv-coinfection-an-open-label-single-arm-trial
#20
Jürgen K Rockstroh, Sanjay Bhagani, Robert H Hyland, Chohee Yun, Hadas Dvory-Sobol, Wei Zheng, Diana M Brainard, Patrick Ingiliz, Thomas Lutz, Christoph Boesecke, Mark Nelson
BACKGROUND: The latest European Association for the Study of the Liver (EASL) guidelines now recommend that patients with acute hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection should be treated with a combination of sofosbuvir and an NS5A inhibitor for 8 weeks. However, the ideal duration of treatment with interferon-free regimens, particularly in HIV-coinfected individuals, remains unknown. We assessed the efficacy and safety of 6 weeks of ledipasvir-sofosbuvir for acute genotype 1 or 4 HCV in HIV-1-coinfected patients...
May 2017: Lancet. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
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