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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29055067/cutaneous-atypical-papular-cd8-lymphoproliferative-disorder-at-acral-sites-in-a-renal-transplant-patient
#1
C Baykal, N Büyükbabani, D Seçkin, A Polat Ekinci, Z Yılmaz, W Kempf
A 20-year-old woman presented with a 2-month history of an acute symmetrical eruption, manifesting as asymptomatic ill-defined erythematous macules and hyperkeratotic papules on the palms. The patient was a renal transplant recipient, and the lesions had developed 2 months post-transplantation. Histologically, the eruption shared features of a reactive inflammatory condition called papular eruption of atypical CD8+ lymphocytes as well as primary cutaneous acral CD8+ T-cell lymphoma (a provisional indolent entity in the new World Health Organisation classification of lymphoid neoplasms, 2016)...
October 20, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048509/plasma-but-not-cerebrospinal-fluid-interleukin-7-and-interleukin-5-levels-pre-antiretroviral-therapy-commencement-predict-cryptococcosis-associated-immune-reconstitution-inflammatory-syndrome
#2
Ngomu Akeem Akilimali, Christina C Chang, Daniel M Muema, Tarylee Reddy, Mahomed-Yunus S Moosa, Sharon R Lewin, Martyn A French, Thumbi Ndung'u
Background: Patients with human immunodeficiency virus/AIDS-associated cryptococcal meningitis (CM) frequently experience clinical deterioration, known as cryptococcosis-associated immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (C-IRIS), upon initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART). The immunological mechanisms underlying C-IRIS are incompletely defined and no reliable predictive biomarkers exist. We investigated whether plasma or cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) levels of cytokines and chemokines predicted C-IRIS and are potential predictive biomarkers...
October 16, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048352/effects-of-short-term-probiotic-ingestion-on-immune-profiles-and-microbial-translocation-among-hiv-1-infected-vietnamese-children
#3
Azumi Ishizaki, Xiuqiong Bi, Lam Van Nguyen, Kazunori Matsuda, Hung Viet Pham, Chung Thi Thu Phan, Dung Thi Khanh Khu, Hiroshi Ichimura
Here, we investigated the effects of the probiotic strain Lactobacillus casei Shirota (LcS) on immune profiles and intestinal microbial translocation among children infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). This prospective study included 60 HIV-infected children-including 31 without antiretroviral therapy (ART) (HIV(+)) and 29 who received ART for a median of 3.5 years (ART(+)) and 20 children without HIV infection (HIV(-)). Participants were recruited in Vietnam. All children were given fermented milk containing LcS (6...
October 19, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046675/interpreting-t-cell-cross-reactivity-through-structure-implications-for-tcr-based-cancer-immunotherapy
#4
Dinler A Antunes, Maurício M Rigo, Martiela V Freitas, Marcus F A Mendes, Marialva Sinigaglia, Gregory Lizée, Lydia E Kavraki, Liisa K Selin, Markus Cornberg, Gustavo F Vieira
Immunotherapy has become one of the most promising avenues for cancer treatment, making use of the patient's own immune system to eliminate cancer cells. Clinical trials with T-cell-based immunotherapies have shown dramatic tumor regressions, being effective in multiple cancer types and for many different patients. Unfortunately, this progress was tempered by reports of serious (even fatal) side effects. Such therapies rely on the use of cytotoxic T-cell lymphocytes, an essential part of the adaptive immune system...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046115/bone-and-the-immune-system
#5
M Neale Weitzmann
Osteoporosis increases fracture risk, a cause of crippling morbidity and mortality. The immunoskeletal interface (ISI) is a centralization of cell and cytokine effectors shared between skeletal and immune systems. Consequently, the immune system mediates powerful effects on bone turnover. Physiologically, B cells secrete osteoprotegerin (OPG), a potent anti-osteoclastogenic factor that preserves bone mass. However, activated T cells and B cells secrete pro-osteoclastogenic factors including receptor activator of Nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kB) ligand (RANKL), Interleukin (IL)-17A, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α promoting bone loss in inflammatory states such as rheumatoid arthritis...
January 1, 2017: Toxicologic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045906/ctla-4-pd-1-memory-cd4-t-cells-critically-contribute-to-viral-persistence-in-antiretroviral-therapy-suppressed-siv-infected-rhesus-macaques
#6
Colleen S McGary, Claire Deleage, Justin Harper, Luca Micci, Susan P Ribeiro, Sara Paganini, Leticia Kuri-Cervantes, Clarisse Benne, Emily S Ryan, Robert Balderas, Sherrie Jean, Kirk Easley, Vincent Marconi, Guido Silvestri, Jacob D Estes, Rafick-Pierre Sekaly, Mirko Paiardini
Antiretroviral therapy (ART) suppresses viral replication in HIV-infected individuals but does not eliminate the reservoir of latently infected cells. Recent work identified PD-1(+) follicular helper T (Tfh) cells as an important cellular compartment for viral persistence. Here, using ART-treated, SIV-infected rhesus macaques, we show that CTLA-4(+)PD-1(-) memory CD4(+) T cells, which share phenotypic markers with regulatory T cells, were enriched in SIV DNA in blood, lymph nodes (LN), spleen, and gut, and contained replication-competent and infectious virus...
October 17, 2017: Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045731/the-chimpanzee-model-of-viral-hepatitis-advances-in-understanding-the-immune-response-and-treatment-of-viral-hepatitis
#7
Robert E Lanford, Christopher M Walker, Stanley M Lemon
Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) have contributed to diverse fields of biomedical research due to their close genetic relationship to humans and in many instances due to the lack of any other animal model. This review focuses on the contributions of the chimpanzee model to research on hepatitis viruses where chimpanzees represented the only animal model (hepatitis B and C) or the most appropriate animal model (hepatitis A). Research with chimpanzees led to the development of vaccines for HAV and HBV that are used worldwide to protect hundreds of millions from these diseases and, where fully implemented, have provided immunity for entire generations...
October 17, 2017: ILAR Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040164/cd52-expression-on-cd4-t-cells-in-hiv-positive-individuals-on-cart
#8
Fie Juhl Vojdeman, Julie Christine Gaardbo, Hans Jakob Hartling, Marco Gelpi, Malene Hove-Skovsgaard, Anders Elm Pedersen, Susanne Dam Nielsen
BACKGROUND: Human immune defect virus (HIV) persists in a latent state in quiescent CD4+ T cells preventing eradication of HIV. CD52 is a surface molecule modulated by HIV. We aimed at examining factors related to CD52 expression on CD4+ T cells in HIV-positive individuals and the impact of initiation of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). METHODS: Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from 18 HIV-positive individuals and 10 uninfected age and gender matched controls were examined by flow cytometry for CD38 and CD52 expression on CD4+ T cells...
October 14, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038280/targeting-human-cytomegalovirus-infected-cells-by-redirecting-t-cells-using-an-anti-cd3-anti-gb-bispecific-antibody
#9
Weixu Meng, Aimin Tang, Xiaohua Ye, Xun Gui, Leike Li, Xuejun Fan, Robbie D Schultz, Daniel C Freed, Sha Ha, Dai Wang, Ningyan Zhang, Tong-Ming Fu, Zhiqiang An
Host immune response to human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is effective against HCMV reactivation from latency although not sufficient to clear the virus. T cells are primarily responsible for control of the viral reactivation. When host immune system is compromised, as in transplant recipients with immunosuppression, HCMV reactivation and progressive infection can cause serious morbidity and mortality. Adoptive T cell therapy is effective for control of HCMV infection in transplant recipients. However, it is a highly personalized therapeutic regimen, and difficult to implement in routine clinical practice...
October 16, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035156/cd4-t-memory-stem-cells-correlate-with-disease-progression-in-chronically-hiv-1-infected-patients
#10
Xiaofan Lu, Bingbing Song, Wenjia Weng, Huan Xia, Bin Su, Hao Wu, Tong Zhang, Wei Li, Yanqing Gao
Recently identified T memory stem (Tscm) cells have stem-cell-like properties, including long lifespan, self-renewal capacity, and multipotency to differentiate into other memory T cell types. In the study of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection, selective depletion of CCR5(+)CD4(+) Tscm cells and the high proliferation rate of these cells are believed to be responsible for the pathogenesis of SIV-infected rhesus macaques. Here, we conducted a cohort study to investigate the influence of chronic human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 infection on CD4(+) Tscm cell homeostasis, and the effect of antiretroviral therapy (ART) on CD4(+) Tscm cells...
October 16, 2017: Viral Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034313/newly-characterized-murine-undifferentiated-sarcoma-models-sensitive-to-virotherapy-with-oncolytic-hsv-1-m002
#11
Eric K Ring, Rong Li, Blake P Moore, Li Nan, Virginia M Kelly, Xiaosi Han, Elizabeth A Beierle, James M Markert, Jianmei W Leavenworth, G Yancey Gillespie, Gregory K Friedman
Despite advances in conventional chemotherapy, surgical techniques, and radiation, outcomes for patients with relapsed, refractory, or metastatic soft tissue sarcomas are dismal. Survivors often suffer from lasting morbidity from current treatments. New targeted therapies with less toxicity, such as those that harness the immune system, and immunocompetent murine sarcoma models to test these therapies are greatly needed. We characterized two new serendipitous murine models of undifferentiated sarcoma (SARC-28 and SARC-45) and tested their sensitivity to virotherapy with oncolytic herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1)...
December 15, 2017: Molecular Therapy Oncolytics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034312/tgf-%C3%AE-inhibition-improves-oncolytic-herpes-viroimmunotherapy-in-murine-models-of-rhabdomyosarcoma
#12
Brian Hutzen, Chun-Yu Chen, Pin-Yi Wang, Les Sprague, Hayley M Swain, Julia Love, Joe Conner, Louis Boon, Timothy P Cripe
Oncolytic viruses are an emerging class of cancer therapeutics that couple cytotoxicity with the induction of an anti-tumor immune response. Host-virus interactions are complex and modulated by a tumor microenvironment whose immunosuppressive activities can limit the effectiveness of cancer immunotherapies. In an effort to improve this aspect of oncolytic virotherapy, we combined the oncolytic herpes virus HSV1716 with the transforming growth factor beta receptor 1 (TGF-βR1) inhibitor A8301 to treat syngeneic models of murine rhabdomyosarcoma...
December 15, 2017: Molecular Therapy Oncolytics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034105/changes-of-the-intestinal-microbiome-host-homeostasis-in-hiv-infected-individuals-a-focus-on-the-bacterial-gut-microbiome
#13
REVIEW
Ana Beatriz Dein Terra Mota Ribeiro, Markus M Heimesaat, Stefan Bereswill
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections cause severe CD4+ T cell depletion leading to chronic inflammation and immune activation, impaired barrier function, and microbial translocation. Even under effective antiretroviral therapy, these processes persist, leading to gut microbiome dysbiosis and disturbance of microbiome-host homeostasis. This systematic review aims at analyzing how gut microbiome and host immune system influence each other during HIV pathogenesis. An online search applying the PubMed database was conducted...
September 2017: European Journal of Microbiology & Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032062/virus-specific-t-cells-broadening-applicability
#14
REVIEW
A John Barrett, Susan Prockop, Catherine M Bollard
Virus infection still remains an appreciable cause of morbidity and mortality after Hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT). While pharmacotherapy and/or antibody therapy may help to prevent or treat viral disease, these drugs are expensive, toxic and often ineffective due to primary or secondary resistance. Further, effective treatments are limited for many infections (e.g. Ad and BKV), which are increasingly detected after alternative donor transplants. These deficiencies in conventional therapeutics have increased interest in an immunotherapeutic approach to viral disorders, leading to adoptive transfer of virus-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (VSTs), which can rapidly reconstitute antiviral immunity post-transplant without causing GvHD...
October 11, 2017: Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029813/innovative-therapy-monoclonal-antibodies-and-beyond
#15
M Di Nicola, L Apetoh, M Bellone, M P Colombo, G Dotti, S Ferrone, M Muscolini, J Hiscott, A Anichini, S M Pupa, F de Braud, M Del Vecchio
The seventh Edition of "Innovative Therapy, Monoclonal Antibodies and Beyond" Meeting took place in Milan, Italy, on January 27, 2017. The two sessions of the meeting were focused on: 1) Preclinical assays and novel biotargets; and 2) monoclonal antibodies, cell therapies and targeted molecules. Between these two sessions, a lecture entitled "HLA-antigens modulation and response to immune checkpoint inhibitor immunotherapy" was also presented. Despite the impressive successes in cancer immunotherapy in recent years, the response to immune based interventions occurs only in a minority of patients (∼20%)...
October 5, 2017: Cytokine & Growth Factor Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026137/opiate-use-inhibits-tlr9-signaling-pathway-in-vivo-possible-role-in-pathogenesis-of-hiv-1-infection
#16
Yanyan Liao, Junjun Jiang, Bingyu Liang, Fumei Wei, Jiegang Huang, Peijiang Pan, Jinming Su, Bo Zhou, Ning Zang, Li Ye, Hao Liang
The molecular mechanism of opiate use promoting HIV-1 infection is not fully understood. TLR9 is expressed in many immune cells, including monocytes, macrophages, which can recognize viruses and viral products and consequently induce the production of antiviral factors and initiate immune responses. Previous studies have shown that chronic viral infections can overcome and impair TLR9 pathway. We aimed to explore whether opiate use enhances HIV infection through inhibition of TLR9 pathway via a population-based study...
October 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024228/de-novo-hepatocellular-carcinoma-post-multivisceral-transplantation-in-a-child
#17
P Tran, S Zhou, L Wang, M Finegold, L Mascarenas, S Alexopolous, Y Genyk, N Kerkar
De novo hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) post-transplantation in patients without viral hepatitis is extremely rare, with only three reported adult cases in the English literature. Here, we present a case of de novo HCC that developed in a 7-year-old female, who at 8 months of age received a liver, small bowel, spleen, and pancreas transplantation 6.5 years ago for gastroschisis and total parenteral nutrition (TPN)-related cirrhosis. The post-transplant course was complicated by Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection, post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease, and subsequent development of multifocal EBV-associated post-transplant smooth muscle tumors (EBV-PTSMT) in the small bowel 1 year and 10 months after transplantation, respectively...
November 2017: Pediatric Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021396/quiescence-promotes-latent-hiv-infection-and-resistance-to-reactivation-from-latency-with-histone-deacetylase-inhibitors
#18
Mark M Painter, Thomas D Zaikos, Kathleen L Collins
Human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) establishes transcriptionally silent latent infections in many cell types, including resting memory T cells and hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs), which allow the virus to persist in infected individuals despite antiretroviral therapy. Developing in vitro models of HIV-1 latency that recapitulate the characteristics of latently-infected cells in vivo is crucial to identifying and developing effective latency-reversing therapies. HSPCs exist in a quiescent state in vivo, and quiescence is correlated with latent infections in T cells...
October 11, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020215/long-term-use-of-proton-pump-inhibitors-is-associated-with-increased-microbial-product-translocation-innate-immune-activation-and-reduced-immunologic-recovery-in-patients-with-chronic-human-immunodeficiency-virus-1-infection
#19
J A Serpa, A M Rueda, A Somasunderam, N S Utay, D Lewis, J P Couturier, K G Breaux, M Rodriguez-Barradas
Background: Translocation of microbial products from the damaged gut causes increased immune activation in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) predispose to bacterial overgrowth in the gut. We hypothesized that long-term use of PPIs is associated with greater microbial translocation and immune activation in HIV. Methods: HIV-infected persons on suppressive antiretroviral therapy (ART), including those receiving long-term PPIs (PPI+ group) or not (PPI- group), were enrolled...
July 7, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018834/in-situ-liver-expression-of-hbsag-cd3-bispecific-antibodies-for-hbv-immunotherapy
#20
Robert L Kruse, Thomas Shum, Xavier Legras, Mercedes Barzi, Frank P Pankowicz, Stephen Gottschalk, Karl-Dimiter Bissig
Current therapies against hepatitis B virus (HBV) do not reliably cure chronic infection, necessitating new therapeutic approaches. The T cell response can clear HBV during acute infection, and the adoptive transfer of antiviral T cells during bone marrow transplantation can cure patients of chronic HBV infection. To redirect T cells to HBV-infected hepatocytes, we delivered plasmids encoding bispecific antibodies directed against the viral surface antigen (HBsAg) and CD3, expressed on almost all T cells, directly into the liver using hydrodynamic tail vein injection...
December 15, 2017: Molecular Therapy. Methods & Clinical Development
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