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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098552/hepatitis-e-virus-infection-in-solid-organ-transplant-recipients-france
#1
Sebastien Lhomme, Laurent Bardiaux, Florence Abravanel, Pierre Gallian, Nassim Kamar, Jacques Izopet
The rate of transfusion-transmitted hepatitis E virus (HEV) in transplant recipients is unknown. We identified 60 HEV-positive solid organ transplant patients and retrospectively assessed their blood transfusions for HEV. Seven of 60 patients received transfusions; 3 received HEV-positive blood products. Transfusion is not the major route of infection in this population.
February 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093535/hepatitis-e-in-singapore-a-case-series-and-viral-phylodynamics-study
#2
Esmeralda Chi-Yuan Teo, Boon-Huan Tan, Michael A Purdy, Pui-San Wong, Pei-Jun Ting, Pik-Eu Jason Chang, Lynette Lin-Ean Oon, Amanda Sue, Chong-Gee Teo, Chee-Kiat Tan
The incidence of hepatitis E in Singapore appears to be increasing. A retrospective case-series study of patients diagnosed with hepatitis E in a tertiary hospital from 2009 to 2013 was conducted. Of 16 cases, eight (50%) were solid-organ transplant recipients (SOTRs), and 14 (88%) were found infected by genotype 3 hepatitis E virus (HEV-3). Bayesian inferences based on HEV subgenomic sequences from seven cases suggest that HEV-3 strains were introduced to Singapore as two principal lineages. Within limitations of the study, it can be inferred that one lineage, in the 3efg clade, emerged about 83 years ago, probably originating from Japan, whereas the other, in the 3abchij clade, emerged about 40 years ago, from the United States...
January 16, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090041/clinical-characteristics-of-stenotrophomonas-maltophilia-bacteremia-a-regional-report-and-a-review-of-a-japanese-case-series
#3
Hirotaka Ebara, Hideharu Hagiya, Yuto Haruki, Eisei Kondo, Fumio Otsuka
Objective Stenotrophomonas maltophilia is an emerging nosocomial pathogen that causes fatal infections in critically ill or immunocompromised patients. S. maltophilia bacteremia (SMB) is a rare condition, and its clinical characteristics in Japanese settings are not well known. Methods The medical charts of patients with SMB were retrospectively reviewed at two medical facilities (Okayama University Hospital and Tsuyama Chuo Hospital) for seven years. The data were analyzed along with those previously reported from other Japanese facilities...
2017: Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089100/community-onset-clostridium-difficile-infection-at-a-tertiary-medical-center-in-southern-taiwan-2007-2015
#4
Chin-Shiang Tsai, Yuan-Pin Hung, Jen-Chieh Lee, Nan-Yao Lee, Po-Lin Chen, Ling-Shan Syue, Ming-Chi Li, Chia-Wen Li, Wen-Chien Ko
BACKGROUND: Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is well-known as the major cause of infectious diarrhea in hospitalized patients. Community-onset CDI (CO-CDI) is an emerging threat. However, clinical information of CO-CDI in Taiwan remains scarce. METHODS: A retrospective study was conducted at a medical center in southern Taiwan. Symptomatic patients between 2007 and 2015 with C. difficile toxin or tcdB detected in stool were identified as CDI, and were classified as CO-CDI [including community-associated CDI (CA-CDI) and community-onset health care facility-associated CDI (CO-HCFA-CDI)] and health care facility-onset CDI (HCFO-CDI)...
December 18, 2016: Journal of Microbiology, Immunology, and Infection, Wei Mian Yu Gan Ran za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067969/disseminated-acanthamoeba-infection-in-a-heart-transplant-recipient-treated-successfully-with-a-miltefosine-containing-regimen-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#5
Max N Brondfield, Michael J A Reid, Rachel L Rutishauser, Jennifer R Cope, Jevon Tang, Jana M Ritter, Almea Matanock, Ibne Ali, Sarah B Doernberg, Alexandra Hilts-Horeczko, Teresa DeMarco, Liviu Klein, Jennifer M Babik
Disseminated acanthamoebiasis is a rare, often fatal, infection most commonly affecting immunocompromised patients. We report a case involving sinuses, skin, and bone in a 60-year-old woman 5 months after heart transplantation. She improved with a combination of flucytosine, fluconazole, miltefosine, and decreased immunosuppression. To our knowledge, this is the first case of successfully treated disseminated acanthamoebiasis in a heart transplant recipient and only the second successful use of miltefosine for this infection among solid organ transplant recipients...
January 9, 2017: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065627/revision-total-hip-and-knee-arthroplasties-after-solid-organ-transplant
#6
Cameron K Ledford, Joseph M Statz, Brian P Chalmers, Kevin I Perry, Arlen D Hanssen, Matthew P Abdel
BACKGROUND: As solid organ transplant (SOT) patients' survival improves, the number undergoing total hip (THA) and total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is increasing. Accordingly, the number of revision procedures in this higher-risk group is also increasing. The goals of this study were to identify the most common failure mechanisms, associated complications, clinical outcomes, and patient survivorship of SOT patients after revision THA or TKA. METHODS: A retrospective review identified 39 revision procedures (30 revision THAs and 9 revision TKAs) completed in 37 SOT patients between 2000 and 2013...
December 11, 2016: Journal of Arthroplasty
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059091/identification-of-distinct-subgroups-of-ebv-positive-post-transplant-diffuse-large-b-cell-lymphoma
#7
Julie Morscio, Julio Finalet Ferreiro, Sara Vander Borght, Emilie Bittoun, Olivier Gheysens, Daan Dierickx, Gregor Verhoef, Iwona Wlodarska, Thomas Tousseyn
Post-transplantation lymphoproliferative disorder is an aggressive complication of transplantation, most frequently of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma morphology and associated with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection/reactivation. In this study the microenvironment of EBV(+) (n=23) and EBV(-) (n=9) post-transplant non-germinal center B-cell diffuse large B-cell lymphoma was characterized. Of EBV(+) cases somatic hypermutation analysis, gene expression profiling, and extensive phenotyping were performed. Our results demonstrated variable cytotoxic T-cell infiltration and significantly increased CD163(+) M2 macrophage infiltration in EBV(+) compared with EBV(-) post-transplant diffuse large B-cell lymphoma...
January 6, 2017: Modern Pathology: An Official Journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045495/bacterial-networks-on-hydrophobic-micropillars
#8
Zeinab Jahed, Hamed Shahsavan, Mohit S Verma, Jacob L Rogowski, Brandon B Seo, Boxin Zhao, Ting Y Tsui, Frank X Gu, Mohammad R K Mofrad
Bacteria have evolved as intelligent microorganisms that can colonize and form highly structured and cooperative multicellular communities with sophisticated singular and collective behaviors. The initial stages of colony formation and intercellular communication are particularly important to understand and depend highly on the spatial organization of cells. Controlling the distribution and growth of bacterial cells at the nanoscale is, therefore, of great interest in understanding the mechanisms of cell-cell communication at the initial stages of colony formation...
January 9, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040170/hanseniaspora-uvarum-prolongs-shelf-life-of-strawberry-via-volatile-production
#9
Xiaojie Qin, Hongmei Xiao, Xu Cheng, Hailian Zhou, Linyuan Si
Gray mold caused by Botrytis cinerea led to severe postharvest losses for strawberry industry. In recent years, some studies have shown that postharvest diseases of strawberry can be controlled by using bacterial, fungal and yeast strains. The yeast strain Hanseniaspora uvarum was shown as an effective antagonist against B. cinerea growth. Here, we further investigated the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) production of H. uvarum and how this could impact on postharvest gray mold control of strawberry. A total of 28 VOCs were detected by GC-MS in the headspace of H...
May 2017: Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28029575/use-of-sirolimus-in-pediatric-heart-transplant-patients-a-multi-institutional-study-from-the-pediatric-heart-transplant-study-group
#10
Joseph W Rossano, John L Jefferies, Elfriede Pahl, David C Naftel, Elizabeth Pruitt, Kathy Lupton, William J Dreyer, Richard Chinnock, Gerard Boyle, William T Mahle
BACKGROUND: Proliferation signal inhibitors, such as sirolimus, are increasingly used in solid-organ transplantation. However, limited data exist on sirolimus-treated pediatric patients. We aimed to describe sirolimus use in pediatric heart transplant patients and test the hypothesis that sirolimus use is associated with improved outcomes. METHODS: A retrospective review and propensity-matched analysis of the Pediatric Heart Transplant Study database was performed on patients undergoing primary heart transplantation from 2004 to 2013 with at least 1 year of follow-up comparing patients treated vs not treated with sirolimus at 1 year after transplant...
October 4, 2016: Journal of Heart and Lung Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027829/complications-of-total-hip-arthroplasty-following-solid-organ-transplantation
#11
Mitchell R Klement, Colin T Penrose, Abiram Bala, Cynthia L Green, Richard C Mather, Samuel S Wellman, Michael P Bolognesi, Thorsten M Seyler
PURPOSE: Solid organ transplants (SOT) continue to increase with recipients living longer than ever before. The lifelong immunosuppression in these patients also may place them at increased risk for postoperative complications. The efficacy of total hip arthroplasty (THA) in this patient population is undisputed but previous studies investigating the complication profiles in these patients often are underpowered to identify rare complications as well as make comparisons between individual organs...
December 24, 2016: Journal of Orthopaedic Science: Official Journal of the Japanese Orthopaedic Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012778/b-cell-and-antibody-responses-in-mice-induced-by-a-putative-cell-surface-peptidase-of-pneumocystis-murina-protect-against-experimental-infection
#12
Sanbao Ruan, Yang Cai, Alistair J Ramsay, David A Welsh, Karen Norris, Judd E Shellito
RATIONALE: Pneumocystis pneumonia is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in HIV-infected subjects, cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy and solid organ transplant recipients. No vaccine is currently available. By chemical labeling coupled with proteomic approach, we have identified a putative surface protein (SPD1, Broad Institute gene accession number PNEG_01848) derived from single suspended P. murina cysts. SPD1 was expressed in an insect cell line and tested for vaccine development...
January 23, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28008662/efficacy-and-safety-of-short-term-treatment-with-isoniazid-and-rifampicin-for-latent-tuberculosis-infection-in-lung-transplant-candidates
#13
Emilio Guirao-Arrabal, Francisco Santos, Javier Redel, José Manuel Vaquero, Julián Torre-Cisneros
BACKGROUND: The current recommendation for the treatment of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) in solid organ transplant candidates is isoniazid for 9 months but this treatment has the main problem of frequently reaching the posttransplant period. METHODS: Study of efficacy and safety of a 3 months regimen with isoniazid and rifampicin (3HR) in lung transplant candidates in the Reina Sofía Hospital in Córdoba. RESULTS: 398 lung transplant patients were evaluated...
December 23, 2016: Clinical Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003816/hla-mismatching-strategies-for-solid-organ-transplantation-a-balancing-act
#14
REVIEW
Andrea A Zachary, Mary S Leffell
HLA matching provides numerous benefits in organ transplantation including better graft function, fewer rejection episodes, longer graft survival, and the possibility of reduced immunosuppression. Mismatches are attended by more frequent rejection episodes that require increased immunosuppression that, in turn, can increase the risk of infection and malignancy. HLA mismatches also incur the risk of sensitization, which can reduce the opportunity and increase waiting time for a subsequent transplant. However, other factors such as donor age, donor type, and immunosuppression protocol, can affect the benefit derived from matching...
2016: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003351/human-microrna-responses-predict-cytomegalovirus-replication-following-solid-organ-transplantation
#15
Sang Hoon Han, D Kumar, V H Ferreira, A Egli, H H Hirsch, M Weisser, C Garzoni, C van Delden, P Y Bochud, O Manuel, P Meylan, K Boggian, S Husain, N J Mueller, A Humar
BACKGROUND: Homo sapiens mature microRNA-200b-3p and -200c-3p are predicted to bind to 3' UTR of mRNA encoding human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) immediate early protein 2 (IE2). We hypothesized that expression of these microRNAs pre-transplant could predict HCMV replication after solid organ transplantation (SOT). METHODS: 272 SOT recipients were HCMV-seropositive pre-transplant and were managed using pre-emptive therapy. Pre-transplant PBMCs were stimulated with HCMV followed by collection of RNA one day post-stimulation...
December 21, 2016: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003123/chronic-norovirus-infection-among-solid-organ-recipients-in-a-tertiary-care-hospital-the-netherlands-2006-2014
#16
J van Beek, A A van der Eijk, P L A Fraaij, K Caliskan, K Cransberg, M Dalinghaus, R A S Hoek, H J Metselaar, J Roodnat, H Vennema, M P G Koopmans
OBJECTIVES: Since recent years, it is known that immunocompromised patients can suffer of prolonged norovirus symptoms and viral shedding up to multiple years. Little is known about the prevalence of chronic norovirus infection among solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients. In this study 2182 SOT recipients were retrospectively tested for chronic norovirus infection. METHODS: The first and last norovirus positive faecal sample of SOT recipients was sequenced to distinguish between persisting and re-infection...
December 18, 2016: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28002308/clinical-updates-in-women-s-health-care-summary-liver-disease-reproductive-considerations
#17
(no author information available yet)
All women are at risk of acute and chronic liver diseases. Of particular importance are those diseases that exclusively affect pregnant women and have adverse effects on maternal, fetal, or neonatal outcomes. Acute viral hepatitis is an important cause of liver disease in pregnant women, and hepatitis E infection is associated with substantial mortality. An increasing number of women have chronic liver diseases caused by viral hepatitis, alcoholic liver disease and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, autoimmune liver diseases, and genetic liver diseases...
January 2017: Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27998802/janus-kinase-inhibition-for-immunosuppression-in-solid-organ-transplantation-is-there-a-role-in-complex-immunologic-challenges
#18
REVIEW
Cody A Moore, Carlo J Iasella, Raman Venkataramanan, Fadi G Lakkis, Randall B Smith, John F McDyer, Adriana Zeevi, Christopher R Ensor
Inhibition of the Janus kinase-signal transducer and activator of transcription (JAK-STAT) pathway for immunosuppression in solid organ transplantation is appealing due to its specificity for immune cell function, particularly for JAK3. This is due to its unique association with only the common gamma chain (γc). The γc is an appealing immunosuppression target in transplantation because of the critically important lymphokines that act at it, including IL-2, IL-4, IL-7, IL-9, IL-15, and IL-21. Tofacitinib was initially purported to selectively inhibit solely JAK3, but subsequent analyses have also demonstrated its activity at the other members of the JAK family...
December 18, 2016: Human Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27998492/abdominal-tuberculosis-a-retrospective-analysis-of-45-cases
#19
Suruchi Shreshtha, Deepak Ghuliani
Abdominal tuberculosis is defined as infection of the peritoneum, hollow or solid abdominal organs with Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The peritoneum and the ileocaecal region are the most likely sites of infection and are involved in the majority of the cases by haematogenous spread or through swallowing of infected sputum from primary pulmonary tuberculosis. Pulmonary tuberculosis is apparent in less than half of the patients. Patients usually present with abdominal pain, and the cause is usually identified through a combination of radiologic, endoscopic, microbiologic, histologic and molecular techniques...
October 2016: Indian Journal of Tuberculosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27998189/letermovir-for-the-management-of-cytomegalovirus-infection
#20
Lyndsey J Bowman, Jennifer Iuppa Melaragno, Daniel C Brennan
Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised patients. Available antivirals are fraught with adverse effects and risk for the development of CMV resistance. Letermovir is a novel antiviral in the late stages of drug development for the treatment and prevention of CMV. Areas covered: A MEDLINE search of the MeSH terms 'letermovir,' 'cytomegalovirus,' 'hematopoietic stem cell transplant,' and 'solid organ transplant,' was last conducted on 15 August 2016. Articles were selected on the basis of their contribution to current knowledge about letermovir...
December 28, 2016: Expert Opinion on Investigational Drugs
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