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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938676/risk-factors-for-mortality-from-pneumocystis-carinii-pneumonia-pcp-in-non-hiv-patients-a-meta-analysis
#1
Yao Liu, Lili Su, Shu-Juan Jiang, Hui Qu
The number of patients with non-human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) related pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP) is increasing with widespread immunosuppressive treatment. We performed a meta-analysis to describe the clinical characteristics and factors associated with outcomes of PCP in HIV-negative patients. A total of 13 studies including 867 patients with non-HIV related PCP was included. The overall mortality for non-HIV patients with PCP was 30.6%. The most common underlying disorder for the development of PCP is hematological malignancies (29...
August 29, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927823/t-cell-therapies-for-human-polyomavirus-diseases
#2
REVIEW
Sarah I Davies, Pawel Muranski
Rapid restoration of virus-specific T immunity via adoptive transfer of ex vivo generated T cells has been proven as a powerful therapy for patients with advanced cancers and refractory viral infections such as cytomegalovirus (CMV) and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). BK virus (BKV), John Cunningham virus (JCV), and Merkel cell carcinoma virus (MCV) are the members of the rapidly growing human polyomavirus (hPyV) family that commonly infects most healthy humans. These viruses have a clearly established potential for causing severe end-organ damage or malignant transformation, especially in individuals with weakened immunity who are unable to mount or regain endogenous T-cell responses as a result of underlying leukemia or iatrogenic immunosuppression in autoimmunity, bone marrow and solid organ transplant settings...
September 15, 2017: Cytotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922286/nocardia-infections-in-solid-organ-and-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplant-recipients
#3
Julien Coussement, David Lebeaux, Claire Rouzaud, Olivier Lortholary
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Nocardia spp. is a gram-positive bacteria that may cause infections in humans. Nocardiosis has been described since the early years of transplantation. This review aims to provide an overview of present knowledge regarding posttransplant nocardiosis, with a focus on recent findings. RECENT FINDINGS: Nocardiosis is not rare among transplant recipients, especially after thoracic transplantation and/or in case of intense immunosuppressive regimen or use of tacrolimus...
September 15, 2017: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917638/novel-antihelmintic-activity-of-tinidazole-coordination-compounds-relevance-of-the-metal-ion-and-structural-properties
#4
Israel Alfaro-Fuentes, Rodrigo Castro-Ramírez, Naytzé Ortiz-Pastrana, Rosa María Medina-Guerrero, Lilia Catherinne Soler-Jiménez, Irma Martínez-Rodríguez, Miguel Betancourt-Lozano, Leonardo Ibarra-Castro, Norah Barba-Behrens, Emma Josefina Fajer-Ávila
The in vitro and in vivo antihelmintic activity of cobalt(II), copper(II) and zinc(II) coordination compounds of tinidazole (tnz) were investigated in cultivated spotted rose snapper, infested with dactylogyrid monogeneans. The tinidazole coordination compounds [Co(tnz)2Cl2], [Co(tnz)2Br2], [Cu(tnz)2Cl2], [Cu(tnz)2Br2], [Zn(tnz)2Cl2] and [Zn(tnz)2Br2] were synthesized and spectroscopically characterized. Their molecular structures were determined by their single crystal X-ray diffraction. The metal ions presented distorted tetrahedral geometries, with an intramolecular bifurcated lone pair SO⋯π, from the sulfone group with the imidazolic ring, which contributed to the stability of the compounds in solid state and in solution...
August 30, 2017: Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915342/transplantation-of-solid-organ-recipients-shedding-epstein-barr-virus-dna-pretransplant-a-prospective-study
#5
Priya S Verghese, David O Schmeling, Emma A Filtz, Jennifer M Grimm, Arthur J Matas, Henry H Balfour
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) poses a significant threat to patient and graft survival posttransplant. We hypothesized that recipients who shed EBV at transplant had less immunologic control of the virus and hence were more likely to have active EBV infection and disease posttransplant. To test this hypothesis, we conducted a 5-year prospective study in primary solid organ transplant recipients. We measured EBV DNA in oral washes and blood samples by quantitative PCR before transplant and periodically thereafter for up to 4 years...
September 15, 2017: Clinical Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904437/cryptococcal-infection-in-transplant-kidney-manifesting-as-chronic-allograft-dysfunction
#6
C Agrawal, V Sood, A Kumar, V Raghavan
Invasive fungal infections (IFIs) are a significant cause of morbidity in solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients. Common causes among them are Aspergillus, Candida, and Cryptococcus. Antifungal prophylaxis has led to decrease in overall incidence of IFI; however, there is very little decline in the incidence of Cryptococcal infections of SOT recipients because effective prophylaxis is not available against this infectious agent. Spectrum of manifestation of Cryptococcal infection varies in immunocompetent and immunocompromised host with subclinical and self-limiting with lungs being the primary site in immunocompetent and central nervous system as the most common site in an immunocompromised host...
September 2017: Indian Journal of Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888133/rhesus-monkeys-for-a-nonhuman-primate-model-of-cytomegalovirus-infections
#7
REVIEW
Hannah L Itell, Amitinder Kaur, Jesse D Deere, Peter A Barry, Sallie R Permar
Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is the leading opportunistic viral infection in solid organ transplant patients and is the most common congenitally transmitted pathogen worldwide. Despite the significant burden of disease HCMV causes in immunosuppressed patients and infected newborns, there are no licensed preventative vaccines or effective immunotherapeutic treatments for HCMV, largely due to our incomplete understanding of the immune correlates of protection against HCMV infection and disease. Though CMV species-specificity imposes an additional challenge in defining a suitable animal model for HCMV, nonhuman primate (NHP) CMVs are the most genetically related to HCMV...
September 6, 2017: Current Opinion in Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886714/the-oxylipin-and-endocannabidome-responses-in-acute-phase-plasmodium-falciparum-malaria-in-children
#8
Izabella Surowiec, Sandra Gouveia-Figueira, Judy Orikiiriza, Elisabeth Lindquist, Mari Bonde, Jimmy Magambo, Charles Muhinda, Sven Bergström, Johan Normark, Johan Trygg
BACKGROUND: Oxylipins and endocannabinoids are low molecular weight bioactive lipids that are crucial for initiation and resolution of inflammation during microbial infections. Metabolic complications in malaria are recognized contributors to severe and fatal malaria, but the impact of malaria infection on the production of small lipid derived signalling molecules is unknown. Knowledge of immunoregulatory patterns of these molecules in malaria is of great value for better understanding of the disease and improvement of treatment regimes, since the action of these classes of molecules is directly connected to the inflammatory response of the organism...
September 8, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884635/psoriasis-in-solid-organ-transplant-patients-best-practice-recommendations-from-the-medical-board-of-the-national-psoriasis-foundation
#9
Ronald Prussick, Jashin J Wu, April W Armstrong, Michael P Siegel, Abby S Van Voorhees
BACKGROUND: Treatment of solid organ-transplant patients who have psoriasis can be a therapeutic challenge. Biologic and systemic drugs used to treat psoriasis can result in an increase in infections or malignancies. OBJECTIVE: We sought to develop a treatment algorithm for organ transplant recipients (OTR) diagnosed with psoriasis vulgaris. METHODS: A systematic literature search for psoriasis treatment in organ transplant patients was performed using MEDLINE and GOOGLE...
September 8, 2017: Journal of Dermatological Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882857/effect-of-sofosbuvir-based-hepatitis-c-virus-therapy-on-kidney-function-in-patients-with-ckd
#10
Meghan E Sise, Elke Backman, Guillermo A Ortiz, Gregory L Hundemer, Nneka N Ufere, Donald F Chute, Joseph Brancale, Dihua Xu, Jessica Wisocky, Ming V Lin, Arthur Y Kim, Ravi Thadhani, Raymond T Chung
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Hepatitis C virus infection is common in patients with CKD and leads to accelerated progression to ESRD. Sofosbuvir is a potent direct-acting antiviral therapy against hepatitis C virus; however, there are concerns about its safety in patients with CKD. The objective of our study was to determine the safety and efficacy of sofosbuvir in patients with CKD. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, & MEASUREMENTS: We studied a retrospective observational cohort of patients with CKD defined by eGFR<60 ml/min per 1...
September 7, 2017: Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: CJASN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28881059/pancreas-preserving-duodenectomy-after-living-donor-liver-transplantation-for-invasive-cytomegalovirus-disease
#11
Rodrigo Vincenzi, Eduardo A Fonseca, Paulo Chapchap, Marcel C C Machado, Karina M O Roda, Helry L Candido, Marcel R Benavides, Marco A D'Assuncao, Rogerio C Afonso, Plinio Turine, Fernando P Marson, João Seda Neto
CMV infection plays an important role in the postoperative course following solid organ transplantation. We present the case of an 11-year-old male patient who underwent LDLT due to severe hepatopulmonary syndrome and biliary cirrhosis. Four weeks after LDLT, he developed persistent GI bleeding and was subjected to repeated endoscopic treatment and radiological arterial embolization to stop the bleeding from duodenal ulcers. Diagnostic workup was negative for CMV disease. Because the bleeding persisted, surgical treatment was indicated, and a pancreas-preserving duodenectomy was performed...
September 7, 2017: Pediatric Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28874227/the-impact-of-virus-population-diversity-on-the-dynamics-of-cytomegalovirus-dnaemia-in-allogeneic-stem-cell-transplant-recipients
#12
Víctor Vinuesa, María Alma Bracho, Eliseo Albert, Carlos Solano, Manuela Torres-Puente, Estela Giménez, Fernando González-Candelas, David Navarro
Mixed cytomegalovirus (CMV) infections are associated with delayed viral clearance in solid organ transplant recipients. We investigated whether this could be extrapolated to allogeneic stem cell transplant (allo-SCT) recipients. A total of 48 plasma specimens, obtained during 29 episodes of active CMV infection in 25 non-consecutive allo-SCT patients, were analysed. Baseline blood specimens, drawn shortly prior to the inception of pre-emptive antiviral therapy (pre-treatment specimen; n=29), as well as follow-up samples obtained either after the initiation of antiviral therapy (post-treatment specimen; n=15) or during recurrent episodes (n=4) were analysed...
September 6, 2017: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28872867/multidrug-anti-hiv-amorphous-solid-dispersions-nature-and-mechanisms-of-impacts-of-drugs-on-each-other-s-solution-concentrations
#13
Hale Çigdem Arca, Laura I Mosquera-Giraldo, Durga Dahal, Lynne S Taylor, Kevin J Edgar
Drug therapy has been instrumental in prolonging the lives of patients infected by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). In order to combat development of resistance, therapies involving three or more drugs in combination are recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) to suppress HIV and prevent development of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). It is desirable for multidrug combinations to be co-formulated into single dosage forms where possible, to promote patient convenience and adherence to dosage regimens, for which when amorphous solid dispersion (ASD) is particularly well-suited...
September 5, 2017: Molecular Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28865149/bordetella-bronchiseptica-bloodstream-infection-in-a-renal-transplant-patient
#14
Harry R Powers, Kairav Shah
Bordetella bronchiseptica is a gram-negative coccobacillus that infects animals, but rarely affects humans. B. bronchiseptica has been reported to cause disease in immunocompromised hosts. We present a case of a 61-year-old man with a renal transplant who developed B. bronchiseptica bacteremia likely as a result of close contact between dogs and his skin cancer biopsy sites. The patient was successfully treated with 2 weeks of oral levofloxacin. This case alerts physicians to B. bronchiseptica as a cause of bacteremia in solid organ transplant patients with exposure to animals...
September 2, 2017: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28859257/cytomegalovirus-infection-management-in-solid-organ-transplant-recipients-across-european-centers-in-the-time-of-molecular-diagnostics-an-esgich-survey
#15
David Navarro, Rafael San-Juan, Oriol Manuel, Estela Giménez, Mario Fernández-Ruiz, Hans H Hirsch, Paolo Antonio Grossi, José María Aguado
BACKGROUND: Scant information is available about how transplant centers are managing their use of quantitative molecular testing (QNAT) assays for active cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection monitoring in solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients. The current study was aimed at gathering information on current practices in the management of CMV infection across European centers in the era of molecular testing assays. METHODS: A questionnaire-based cross-sectional survey study was conducted by the European Study Group of Infections in Immunocompromised Hosts (ESGICH) of the Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases (ESCMID)...
August 31, 2017: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28858185/lumbar-spine-fusion-surgery-in-solid-organ-transplant-recipients-is-associated-with-increased-medical-complications-and-mortality
#16
Raj Amin, Varun Puvanesarajah, Rabia Qureshi, Amit Jain, Khaled Kebaish, Frank Shen, Hamid Hassanzadeh
STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective database review OBJECTIVE.: To characterize the outcomes of solid organ transplant (SOT) patients following 1 or 2 level lumbar fusion surgery. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Over the past decade advances in SOT patients have improved graft survival. As such, this patient population is increasingly eligible for elective surgery such as lumbar fusion procedures to improve mobility and quality of life. However, the outcomes of spine surgery in this population is not well defined...
August 29, 2017: Spine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28852681/comparison-of-standardized-cytomegalovirus-cmv-viral-load-thresholds-in-whole-blood-and-plasma-of-solid-organ-and-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplant-recipients-with-cmv-infection-and-disease
#17
M Veronica Dioverti, Brian D Lahr, Jeffrey J Germer, Joseph D Yao, Michelle L Gartner, Raymund R Razonable
BACKGROUND: Quantification of cytomegalovirus (CMV) deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) has important diagnostic, prognostic, and therapeutic implications in the management of transplant recipients. We aimed to assess a viral load in plasma and whole blood that distinguishes CMV disease from asymptomatic infection in a cohort of solid organ and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. METHODS: We prospectively measured and compared CMV viral load in paired plasma and whole blood samples collected from transplant recipients with CMV infection and disease...
2017: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28852522/systematic-review-of-mixed-cryoglobulinemia-associated-with-hepatitis-e-virus-infection-association-or-causation
#18
REVIEW
Fateh Bazerbachi, Michael D Leise, Kymberly D Watt, M Hassan Murad, Larry J Prokop, Samir Haffar
Background and aim: Mixed cryoglobulinemia (MC) has been associated with several viral infections, and chronic hepatitis C is recognized as a major cause. MC associated with hepatitis E virus (HEV) has been described and little is known about this rare association. The aim of this study is to perform a systematic review of MC associated with HEV, and examine the presence of a causal relationship. Methods: An experienced librarian conducted a search of databases from each database's inception to 12 December 2016 based on a priori criteria...
August 2017: Gastroenterology Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28844154/vancomycin-prophylaxis-for-prevention-of-clostridium-difficile-infection-recurrence-in-renal-transplant-patients
#19
Lindsey E Splinter, Luiza Kerstenetzky, Margaret R Jorgenson, Jillian L Descourouez, Glen E Leverson, Christopher M Saddler, Jeannina A Smith, Nasia Safdar, Robert R Redfield
BACKGROUND: Incidence of primary and recurrent Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is higher in solid-organ transplant recipients than in the average hospitalized patient. Strategies for preventing recurrent CDI are limited. Prophylaxis with oral vancomycin (VPPx) for preventing recurrent CDI may be beneficial, but there is limited evidence supporting its use. OBJECTIVE: To examine the impact of VPPx (125 mg twice daily) for the prevention of recurrent CDI in renal transplant recipients (RTX) receiving high-risk broad spectrum antibiotics (BSAs)...
August 1, 2017: Annals of Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28838461/fever-malaise-and-dyspnea-in-a-diabetic-heart-transplant-patient-a%C3%A2-case-report
#20
A Alperi, I Pascual, B D Molina, I Silva, R Lorca, D Hernández-Vaquero, P Avanzas, J L Lambert, C M de la Tassa
Patients with solid-organ transplants usually present at the emergency department with nonspecific symptoms. The physician should consider a great variety of syndromes and diseases, given the greater risk that solid-organ transplant patients carry because of immunosuppression and transplant-related conditions. Myocardial infarction caused by cardiac allograft vasculopathy must be always suspected and ruled out, even when initial symptoms do not orientate in that direction. We present a case that conjugates signs that can be present in different pathologies...
September 2017: Transplantation Proceedings
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