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Polymyxin

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207304/improvement-of-polymyxin-egg-yolk-mannitol-bromothymol-blue-agar-for-the-enumeration-and-isolation-of-bacillus-cereus-in-various-foods
#1
Il-Byeong Kang, Jung-Whan Chon, Dong-Hyeon Kim, Dana Jeong, Hong-Seok Kim, Hyunsook Kim, Kun-Ho Seo
A modified polymyxin-egg yolk-mannitol-bromothymol blue agar (mPEMBA) was developed by supplementing polymyxin-egg yolk-mannitol-bromothymol blue agar (PEMBA) with trimethoprim to improve the selectivity for and recoverability of Bacillus cereus from naturally and artificially contaminated food samples. The number of B. cereus in mPEMBA was significantly higher than in PEMBA, indicating better recoverability (P < 0.05) in red pepper powder (PEMBA 0.80 ± 0.22 log CFU/g versus mPEMBA 1.95 ± 0.17 log CFU/g) and soybean paste (PEMBA 2...
February 16, 2017: Journal of Food Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202493/a-klebsiella-pneumoniae-antibiotic-resistance-mechanism-that-subdues-host-defences-and-promotes-virulence
#2
Timothy J Kidd, Grant Mills, Joana Sá-Pessoa, Amy Dumigan, Christian G Frank, José L Insua, Rebecca Ingram, Laura Hobley, José A Bengoechea
Klebsiella pneumoniae is an important cause of multidrug-resistant infections worldwide. Recent studies highlight the emergence of multidrug-resistant K. pneumoniae strains which show resistance to colistin, a last-line antibiotic, arising from mutational inactivation of the mgrB regulatory gene. However, the precise molecular resistance mechanisms of mgrB-associated colistin resistance and its impact on virulence remain unclear. Here, we constructed an mgrB gene K. pneumoniae mutant and performed characterisation of its lipid A structure, polymyxin and antimicrobial peptide resistance, virulence and inflammatory responses upon infection...
February 15, 2017: EMBO Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186422/seeds-of-the-wild-progenitor-of-maize-possess-bacteria-that-antagonize-foodborne-pathogens
#3
Hanan R Shehata, Mansel W Griffiths, Manish N Raizada
Endophytes are microorganisms that inhabit plant tissues without causing disease. Some endophytes help their hosts to combat pathogens. Here we explored the hypothesis that the plant-derived foods consumed by humans and other animals host endophytes that also antagonize foodborne pathogens or food-rotting agents. Our laboratory previously cultured a library of bacterial endophytes from different members of the maize/corn family (Zea) including wild relatives. Here, 190 of these endophytes were screened for their ability to antagonize four foodborne pathogens (Escherichia coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes, Clostridium perfringens, and Salmonella enterica Newport) and a food spoiling agent (Pseudomonas fluorescens) using dual culture assays...
February 10, 2017: Foodborne Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28180225/rediscovering-the-octapeptins
#4
REVIEW
Tony Velkov, Kade D Roberts, Jian Li
Covering: 1975 up to the end of 2016The decline in the discovery and development of novel antibiotics has resulted in the emergence of bacteria that are resistant to almost all available antibiotics. Currently, polymyxin B and E (colistin) are being used as the last-line therapy against life-threatening infections, unfortunately resistance to polymyxins in both the community and hospital setting is becoming more common. Octapeptins are structurally related non-ribosomal lipopeptide antibiotics that do not exhibit cross-resistance with polymyxins and have a broader spectrum of activity that includes Gram-positive bacteria...
February 9, 2017: Natural Product Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28169850/american-contact-dermatitis-society-core-allergen-series-2017-update
#5
Peter C Schalock, Cory A Dunnick, Susan Nedorost, Bruce Brod, Erin Warshaw, Christen Mowad
The American Contact Dermatitis Society Core Allergen Series was introduced in 2012. After 4 years of use, changes in our recommended allergens are necessary. For the updated series, we have reordered the first 4 panels to approximately mirror the current TRUE Test and removed parthenolide, triclosan, glutaraldehyde, and jasmine. Polymyxin B, lavender, sodium benzoate, ethylhexylglycerin, and benzoic acid are new additions to the American Contact Dermatitis Society series.
February 6, 2017: Dermatitis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167938/comparative-analysis-of-the-bacterial-membrane-disruption-effect-of-two-natural-plant-antimicrobial-peptides
#6
Attila Farkas, Gergely Maróti, Attila Kereszt, Éva Kondorosi
In the Medicago truncatula genome about 700 genes code for nodule-specific cysteine-rich (NCR) small peptides that are expressed in the symbiotic organ, the root nodule, where they control terminal differentiation of the endosymbiotic rhizobium bacteria to nitrogen-fixing bacteroids. Cationic NCR peptides were predicted to have antimicrobial activities. Here antibacterial activities of NCR247, NCR335, polymyxin B (PMB), and streptomycin were investigated and compared on two foodborne pathogens Salmonella enterica and Listeria monocytogenes as representatives of Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167564/multiclonal-expansion-of-klebsiella-pneumoniae-isolates-producing-ndm-1-in-rio-de-janeiro-brazil
#7
Caio Augusto Martins Aires, Polyana Silva Pereira, Carlos Felipe Machado de Araujo, Thiago Pavoni Gomes Chagas, Jane Cleide Oliveira, Sibelle Nogueira Buonora, Rodolpho Mattos Albano, Ana Paula D'Alincourt Carvalho-Assef, Marise Dutra Asensi
We characterized NDM-1-producing Klebsiella spp. isolates from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. PCR was applied for resistance and virulence determinants. The genetic context of blaNDM was determined by S1 PFGE and hybridization. The genotyping were performed by PFGE and MLST. Most isolates carried multiple resistance genes and remained susceptible to amikacin, fosfomycin/trometamol, polymyxin B and tigecycline. The spread of NDM-1-producing K. pneumoniae was not associated with a clonal expansion and appears to be associated with Tn3000...
February 6, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167560/nephrotoxicity-in-patients-with-and-without-cystic-fibrosis-treated-with-polymyxin-b-compared-to-colistin
#8
Ryan L Crass, W Cliff Rutter, Donna R Burgess, Craig A Martin, David S Burgess
Nephrotoxicity is the primary adverse effect of the polymyxins. The relative rates of toxicity between polymyxin B and colistin have not been fully elucidated, especially in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). A retrospective cohort study of adults treated with polymyxin B or colistin for at least 48 hours was conducted. The primary endpoint was the incidence of kidney injury by RIFLE (i.e., Risk, Injury, Failure, Loss, End-Stage Renal Disease) criteria. Risk factors for kidney injury were evaluated using multivariate Cox regression...
February 6, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167549/polymyxin-b-based-triple-combinations-wage-war-against-kpc-2-producing-klebsiella-pneumoniae-new-dosing-strategies-for-old-allies
#9
Zackery P Bulman, Michael J Satlin, Liang Chen, Barry N Kreiswirth, Beom Soo Shin, Thomas J Walsh, Patricia N Holden, Alan Forrest, Roger L Nation, Jian Li, Brian T Tsuji
Pharmacodynamics of a polymyxin B, meropenem and rifampin triple combination were examined against Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae (KPC-Kp) ST258. In time-kill experiments against three KPC-Kp isolates, triple combination generated 8.14, 8.19 and 8.29 log10CFU/mL reductions within 24h. In the hollow fiber infection model, the triple combination caused maximal killing of 5.16 log10CFU/mL at 78h and time required for regrowth was more than doubled versus 2-drug combinations...
February 6, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28165586/efficacy-of-postoperative-polymyxin-b-hemoperfusion-in-secondary-peritonitis-patients-with-septic-shock-a-propensity-matched-analysis
#10
Kuo-Ching Yuan, Shang-Yu Wang, Ming-Chin Yu, Yu-Pao Hsu, Heng-Chih Pan, Yung-Chang Chen
INTRODUCTION: Severe sepsis and septic shock is still a challenge. Polymyxin B hemoperfusion (PMX) is a device designed to remove circulating endotoxin by adsorption, which is reported to improve treatment outcomes. This study aimed to further verify the efficacy of PMX on postoperative, peritonitis, septic shock patients. METHODS: This study prospectively analyzed 20 of 155 patients who presented with postoperative septic shock and were treated with PMX in a single institute during the period March 2013 to September 2014 (Clinical Trial Protocol number: ChiCTR-ONC-16008160)...
February 4, 2017: International Journal of Artificial Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163137/resistance-to-polymyxins-in-gram-negative-organisms
#11
Katy Jeannot, Arnaud Bolard, Patrick Plésiat
Polymyxins have recently been re-introduced into the therapeutic arsenal to combat infections caused by multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria. However, the emergence of strains resistant to these last-resort drugs is becoming a critical issue in a growing number of countries. Both intrinsic and transferable mechanisms of polymyxin resistance have been characterised. These mechanisms as well as the epidemiological data regarding four relevant bacterial pathogens (Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) are considered in this review...
February 3, 2017: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28159445/serratia-marcescens-harboring-sme-4-in-brazil-a-silent-threat
#12
Rodrigo Cayô, Rodrigo Cuiabano Paes Leme, Ana Paula Streling, Adriana Pereira Matos, Carolina Silva Nodari, Jessica Reis Esteves Chaves, Jorge Luiz Ferreira Brandão, Maíra Fernandes de Almeida, Valério Carrareto, Marco Aurélio de Castro Pereira, Jean Pierre Aquino de Almeida, Demian Candido Ferreira, Ana Cristina Gales
The intrinsic polymyxin resistance displayed by Serratia marcescens makes the acquisition of carbapenemase encoding genes a worrisome event. This study report a SME-4-producing S. marcescens isolate causing septic shock in Brazil. The insertion of novel resistance determinants and their consequent spread in our territory is noteworthy.
January 20, 2017: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28150578/resistotyping-phenotyping-and-genotyping-of-new-delhi-metallo-%C3%AE-lactamase-ndm-among-gram-negative-bacilli-from-iranian-patients
#13
Dariush Shokri, Mohammad Rabbani Khorasgani, Seyed Masih Fatemi, Abbas Soleimani-Delfan
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was investigation of New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase (NDM) production among gram negative bacilli. METHODOLOGY: Antibiogram-Resistotyping and detection of NDM in clinical isolates of Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii and Pseudomonas aeruginosa and comparative evaluation of the diagnostic performance of three phenotypic methods for NDM detection considering PCR as gold standard were performed. Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) of antibiotics against NDM positive strains by E-test and clonal relationship analysis using Enterobacterial Repetitive Intergenic Consensus Polymerase Chain Reaction (ERIC-PCR) in these strains were determined...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28139543/antibiotic-resistance-pathogen-profile-in-ventilator-associated-pneumonia-in-a-tertiary-care-hospital-in-india
#14
Abhijit Chaudhury, A Shobha Rani, Usha Kalawat, Sachin Sumant, Anju Verma, B Venkataramana
BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES: Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is an important hospital-acquired infection with substantial mortality. Only a few studies are available from India addressing the microbiological aspects of VAP, which have been done with small study populations. This study was carried out in the intensive care units (ICUs) of a tertiary care hospital to assess the profile of pathogens and to determine the pattern of antimicrobial resistance. METHODS: This was a retrospective study of clinically suspected cases of VAP...
September 2016: Indian Journal of Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28139430/prevalence-of-mcr-1-in-escherichia-coli-and-klebsiella-pneumoniae-recovered-from-bloodstream-infections-in-china-a-multicentre-longitudinal-study
#15
Jingjing Quan, Xi Li, Yan Chen, Yan Jiang, Zhihui Zhou, Huichuan Zhang, Lu Sun, Zhi Ruan, Ye Feng, Murat Akova, Yunsong Yu
BACKGROUND: Polymyxin antibiotics are used as last-resort therapies to treat infections caused by multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria. The plasmid-mediated colistin resistance determinant MCR-1 has been identified in Enterobacteriaceae in China. We did this study to investigate the prevalence of the mcr-1 gene in clinical isolates from patients with bloodstream infections in China. METHODS: Clinical isolates of Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae were collected from patients with bloodstream infections at 28 hospitals in China, then screened for colistin resistance by broth microdilution and for the presence of the mcr-1 gene by PCR amplification...
January 27, 2017: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28138370/carbapenem-susceptibility-and-multidrug-resistance-in-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-isolates-in-egypt
#16
Hany Hashem, Amro Hanora, Salah Abdalla, Alaa Shawky, Alaa Saad
BACKGROUND: Resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a serious concern for antimicrobial therapy, as the common isolates exhibit variable grades of resistance, involving beta-lactamase enzymes, beside native defense mechanisms. OBJECTIVES: The present study was designed to determine the occurrence of Metallo-β- Lactamases (MBL) and Amp C harboring P. aeruginosa isolates from Suez Canal university hospital in Ismailia, Egypt. METHODS: A total of 147 P...
November 2016: Jundishapur Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28137807/inhibition-of-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-by-peptide-conjugated-phosphorodiamidate-morpholino-oligomers
#17
James J Howard, Carolyn R Sturge, Dina A Moustafa, Seth M Daly, Kimberly R Marshall-Batty, Christina F Felder, Danniel Zamora, Marium Yabe-Gill, Maria Labandeira-Rey, Stacey M Bailey, Michael Wong, Joanna B Goldberg, Bruce L Geller, David E Greenberg
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a highly virulent, multidrug-resistant pathogen that causes significant morbidity and mortality in hospitalized patients and is particularly devastating in those with cystic fibrosis (CF). Increasing antibiotic resistance coupled with decreasing numbers of antibiotics in the developmental pipeline demands novel antibacterial approaches. Here we tested peptide-conjugated phosphorodiamidate morpholino oligomers (PPMOs), which inhibit translation of complementary mRNA from specific, essential genes in P...
January 30, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28137796/evaluation-of-a-lamp-based-assay-for-the-rapid-detection-of-plasmid-encoded-colistin-resistance-gene-mcr-1-in-enterobacteriaceae-isolates
#18
Can Imirzalioglu, Linda Falgenhauer, Judith Schmiedel, Said-Elias Waezsada, Konrad Gwozdzinski, Nicole Roschanski, Uwe Roesler, Lothar Kreienbrock, Arthur P Schiffmann, Alexandra Irrgang, Annemarie Käsbohrer, Rolf Bauerfeind, Eugen Domann, Trinad Chakraborty
Colistin, which belongs to the class of polypeptide antibiotics known as polymyxins, is a 'last-resort' antibiotic often used for treatment of patients infected with extensively multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria such as carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae….
January 30, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28131882/in-vitro-flow-through-assay-for-rapid-detection-of-endotoxin-in-human-sera-a-proof-of-concept
#19
Prasanta Kalita, Lakshmi M Chaturvedula, Venkataraman Sritharan, Shalini Gupta
An increase in endotoxin concentration in the bloodstream can trigger activation of innate immune response leading to septic shock. There is currently no method available for rapid endotoxin detection at a patient's bedside. We demonstrate a simple, portable and cost-effective strategy to measure endotoxin levels in human serum within 5min using a flow-through assay. A drop of serum containing LPS was spotted on an endotoxin-affinity membrane placed over high-wicking absorbent pads. Subsequent addition of polymyxin B sulfate drug-conjugated gold nanoparticles allowed concentration-dependent visualization of spots by the naked eye in the clinically-relevant range of 10pg/mL to 10ng/mL...
January 25, 2017: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28120334/price-variation-in-the-most-commonly-prescribed-ear-drops-in-southern-california
#20
Omid Moshtaghi, Yarah M Haidar, Yaser Ghavami, Jeff Gu, Afsheen Moshtaghi, Ronald Sahyouni, Melissa Huang, Harrison W Lin, Hamid R Djalilian
OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: To evaluate the variability and discrepancies among the most commonly prescribed ear drops sold at pharmacies in southern California. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective study evaluating 11 commonly used ear drops to treat otologic disorders. METHODS: Randomly selected drug stores in three major counties in Southern California (Los Angeles, Orange, and San Diego) were included. Mean, range, minimum, and maximum prices for each drug were calculated and analyzed...
January 24, 2017: Laryngoscope
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