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J D Rodgers, E Simpkin, R Lee, F A Clifton-Hadley, A B Vidal
Broiler chicken flocks are a significant source of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli that result in the major public health problem of campylobacteriosis. Accurate estimates of the prevalence of both C. coli and C. jejuni in flocks would enhance epidemiological understanding, risk assessment and control options. This study combined results from a panel of 10 detection tests (direct culture, enrichment and PCR) on caecal samples from flocks at slaughter. A parallel interpretation approach was used to determine the presence of Campylobacter spp...
October 22, 2016: Zoonoses and Public Health
Fatima Belkhadem, Adil A Othman
Four N- and S-glycosides 13-16 having nucleobases 7-12 binding to sugar molecules from one side and to 3,5-dinitrophenyl moieties from another side were synthesized from 3,5-dinitrobenzoic acid 2. The synthetic intermediates, hydrazide 5 and thiosemicarbazide 6 regarded as important key compounds for the synthesis of nucleobases 7-12, each was obtained by two approaches. Structures of synthesized compounds were determined spectroscopically. Antibacterial activities for synthetic intermediates and glycosides were assessed using the paper disk diffusion method against Gram-negative bacteria: Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Pseudomonas fluorescens, and Escherichia coli and Gram-positive bacteria: Bacillus cereus and Staphylococcus aureus...
October 19, 2016: Molecular Diversity
Hironobu Tsubouchi, Nobuhiro Matsumoto, Shigehisa Yanagi, Yasuji Arimura, Masamitsu Nakazato
Sepsis is a life-threatening condition caused by the inflammatory response to invading organisms. Polymyxin B-immobilized fiber column direct hemoperfusion (PMX-DHP) is used to reduce blood endotoxin levels and modulate circulating inflammatory cytokine levels in sepsis patients. Here we report that severe sepsis caused by an infection of the gram-negative bacterium Pantoea agglomerans in a patient with small cell lung carcinoma was treated successfully with antibiotics and PMX-DHP. The patient, a 49-year-old Japanese male smoker whose condition was complicated with hyponatremia due to SIADH (syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone), rapidly developed sepsis and disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) after the administration of cisplatin and irinotecan...
2016: Respiratory Medicine Case Reports
Konstantinos Z Vardakas, Konstantinos Rellos, Nikolaos A Triarides, Matthew E Falagas
Colistin (polymyxin E) has been widely used since the beginning of the century as a last-option antibiotic for the treatment of patients with multidrug-resistant and extensively-drug resistant bacterial infections. However, colistin dosing is troublesome because each batch of the drug contains a mixture of components and because it is administered as the inactive pro-drug colistimethate sodium (CMS), which has different pharmacokinetic (PK) properties from the active drug. Significant inter-individual and intra-individual variability in colistin plasma concentrations have been observed in all available studies...
September 28, 2016: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
Jinling Xue, Jinshan Zhang, Bi Xu, Jiani Xie, Wenzhao Wu, Yun Lu
Use of reclaimed water for non potable uses requires consideration of potential adverse health effects. Considering that inhalation can be a significant transmission route of microorganisms and inflammatory agents, this study used a mouse model to test the possible adverse effects of reclaimed water use during car washing where aerosols are generated. Intensive innate immune responses were found in the lungs after acute exposure, and lavage polymorphonuclear cell proportion was the most sensitive endpoint. Four types of evidence are presented to demonstrate that the main risk factor initiating innate inflammation is the free endotoxin: 1) Small molecules (<10KD) cannot induce inflammation; 2) The endotoxin levels of 11 water samples from 5 different plants showed positive correlations with inflammatory responses; 3) Actual water samples showed similar activities with free endotoxins other than bacteria-bound endotoxins; and 4) Specific removal of endotoxins with polymyxin B affinity chromatography further confirmed the role of free endotoxins...
October 6, 2016: Environmental Science & Technology
A A Carvalho, L L Cardoso, H S Nogueira, E V Menezes, M A S Xavier, N A P Barreto, L F Fernandes, A R E O Xavier
Acinetobacter sp isolates deserve special attention once they have emerged globally in healthcare institutions because they display numerous intrinsic and acquired drug-resistance mechanisms. This study assessed the antibiotic susceptibility profile, the presence of the genetic marker blaOXA-23, and the clonal relationship among 34 nosocomial isolates of Acinetobacter spp obtained at a hospital in southeastern Brazil. Antibiotic sensitivity analysis was performed by the standard disc-diffusion method. All isolates were found to be extensively resistant to several drugs, but sensitive to polymyxin B...
August 19, 2016: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
Chikkamenahalli Lakshminarayana Lakshmikanth, Shancy Petsel Jacob, Avinash Kundadka Kudva, Calivarathan Latchoumycandane, Puttaraju Srikanta Murthy Yashaswini, Mosale Seetharam Sumanth, Cassiano F Goncalves-de-Albuquerque, Adriana R Silva, Sridevi Annapurna Singh, Hugo C Castro-Faria-Neto, Sandeep Kumble Prabhu, Thomas M McIntyre, Gopal Kedihithlu Marathe
The endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS) promotes sepsis, but bacterial peptides also promote inflammation leading to sepsis. We found, intraperitoneal administration of live or heat inactivated E. coli JE5505 lacking the abundant outer membrane protein, Braun lipoprotein (BLP), was less toxic than E. coli DH5α possessing BLP in Swiss albino mice. Injection of BLP free of LPS purified from E. coli DH5α induced massive infiltration of leukocytes in lungs and liver. BLP activated human polymorphonuclear cells (PMNs) ex vivo to adhere to denatured collagen in serum and polymyxin B independent fashion, a property distinct from LPS...
October 4, 2016: Scientific Reports
Pooja Manchandani, Yanina Dubrovskaya, Song Gao, Vincent H Tam
Polymyxin B is increasingly used as a treatment of last resort for multidrug-resistant Gram-negative infections. Despite available as a mixture of several structurally-related analogues, the properties are commonly reported as an aggregate of the individual components. We compared the pharmacokinetics of individual polymyxin B components in an animal model and in humans. There were no considerable differences observed in the pharmacokinetics among major components of polymyxin B. Combining different components for pharmacokinetic analysis appeared reasonable...
October 3, 2016: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Lívia Viganor, Orla Howe, Pauraic McCarron, Malachy McCann, Michael Devereux
The "antibiotic era", characterized by the overuse and misuse of antibiotics, over the last half-century has culminated in the present critical "era of resistance". The treatment of bacterial infections is challenging because of a decline in the current arsenal of useful antibiotics and the slow rate of new drug development. The discovery of a new gene (mcr-1) in 2015, which enables bacteria to be highly resistant to polymyxins (such as colistin), the last line of antibiotic defence left, heralds a new level of concern as this gene is susceptible to horizontal gene transfer, with alarming potential to be spread between different bacterial populations, suggesting that the progression from "extensive drug resistance" to "pan-drug resistance" may be inevitable...
October 3, 2016: Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry
Yoshihiro Ojima, Shota Nunogami, Masahito Taya
Enhancement of microbial biofilm formation by low antimicrobial doses is a critical problem in the medical field. The objective of this study was to propose a new drug candidate against the biofilm formation promoted by subinhibitory dose of antimicrobials. To determine the effect on biofilm formation of Escherichia coli, a subinhibitory concentration of lactoferrin (LF), a milk protein involved in a broad range of biological properties including antimicrobial action, or ampicillin (AMP), a typical antibiotic, was added to an E...
September 19, 2016: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
Konstantinos Z Vardakas, Matthew E Falagas
Colistin and polymyxin B (PMB) have different pharmacokinetic profiles and minor differences in antimicrobial activities that may result in discrepancies in mortality and nephrotoxicity. A systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted. PubMed, Scopus and Cochrane Library databases were searched. There was no significant difference in unadjusted mortality between patients treated with colistin and PMB [risk ratio (RR) = 0.71, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.45-1.13]. Adjusted data were not available. Unadjusted nephrotoxicity was more common in patients treated with colistin than PMB (RR = 1...
September 16, 2016: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
Kevin Bihan, Qin Lu, Manon Enjalbert, Maxime Apparuit, Olivier Langeron, Jean-Jacques Rouby, Christian Funck-Brentano, Noel Zahr
BACKGROUND: Colistin is a polypeptide antibiotic from the polymyxin E group used for the treatment of infections caused by multidrug resistant gram-negative bacteria. The main constituents, accounting for approximately 85% of this mixture, are colistinA (polymyxin E1) and colistin B (polymyxin E2). The aim of this study was to develop and validate new and fast methods of quantification of colistin A&B and its precursors (CMS A&B) by Liquid Chromatography-tandem Mass Spectrometry (UPLC-MS) in plasma and urine with short pre-treatment and run times...
September 27, 2016: Therapeutic Drug Monitoring
Jocelyn Qi Min Teo, Yiying Cai, Tze-Peng Lim, Thuan Tong Tan, Andrea Lay-Hoon Kwa
Singapore is an international travel and medical hub and faces a genuine threat for import and dissemination of bacteria with broad-spectrum resistance. In this review, we described the current landscape and management of carbapenem resistance in Gram-negative bacteria (GNB) in Singapore. Notably, the number of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae has exponentially increased in the past two years. Resistance is largely mediated by a variety of mechanisms. Polymyxin resistance has also emerged. Interestingly, two Escherichia coli isolates with plasmid-mediated mcr-1 genes have been detected...
February 16, 2016: Microorganisms
Bailey A Milne-Davies, Patrick J Antonelli, Nicklas C Orobello, Carolyn O Dirain
OBJECTIVE: To assess collagen and α-tubulin levels of mouse tympanic membrane fibroblasts treated with quinolone and aminoglycoside antibiotics at concentrations found in eardrops. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective controlled cell culture study. SETTING: Academic tertiary medical center. SUBJECTS: Mouse tympanic membrane fibroblasts. METHODS: In experiment 1, fibroblasts were treated with the following for 24 or 48 hours: phosphate-buffered saline (negative control), dilute hydrochloric acid (positive control), 0...
September 27, 2016: Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery
Gosia Malgorzata-Miller, Lena Heinbockel, Klaus Brandenburg, Jos W M van der Meer, Mihai G Netea, Leo A B Joosten
The pattern recognition receptor TLR4 is well known as a crucial receptor during infection and inflammation. Several TLR4 antagonists have been reported to inhibit the function of TLR4. Both natural occurring antagonists, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from Gram-negative bacteria as well as synthetic compounds based on the lipid A structure of LPS have been described as potent inhibitors of TLR4. Here, we have examined the characteristics of a natural TLR4 antagonist, isolated from Bartonella quintana bacterium by elucidating its chemical primary structure...
September 27, 2016: Scientific Reports
Anna Sidoti, Etrusca Brogi, Joshua Morse, Michele Collareta, Luigi Vetrugno, Francesco Giunta, Francesco Forfori
Direct hemoperfusion with polymyxin B (PMX-DHP) is an extracorporeal treatment to add to conventional therapy during unresponsive endotoxic septic shock. So far, only heparin has been used as an anticoagulant during polymyxin B therapy. We present a case report of a postsurgical septic patient treated with 2 cycles of PMX-DHP using citrate anticoagulation. Monitoring of serum calcium, postcartridge calcium, and acid-base balance was performed. The treatments were accomplished without complications. To our knowledge, this is the first published report on the use of citrate anticoagulation during PMX-DHP...
September 23, 2016: A & A Case Reports
Akinori Kato
Recombineering has been used to facilitate the development of in vivo cloning methods. However, the method relies heavily on PCR, which still generates a much higher error rate than DNA replication in vivo, even when amplifying large DNA inserts. Here, a precise technique is reported in Salmonella enterica that enables the cloning of up to at least 19 kb target chromosomal DNA segments that had been marked by FRTs, which were derived from two consecutive lambda Red-mediated recombination events. P22 phage was utilized to transduce the target DNA segments from donor strains to recipient strains harboring a derivative of bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) containing a FRT and a plasmid expressing Flp recombinase...
September 23, 2016: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology
Imen Zalila-Kolsi, Afif Ben Mahmoud, Hacina Ali, Sameh Sellami, Zina Nasfi, Slim Tounsi, Kaïs Jamoussi
Bacillus species are attractive due to their potential use in the biological control of fungal diseases. Bacillus amyloliquefaciens strain BLB369, Bacillus subtilis strain BLB277, and Paenibacillus polymyxa strain BLB267 were isolated and identified using biochemical and molecular (16S rDNA, gyrA, and rpoB) approaches. They could produce, respectively, (iturin and surfactin), (surfactin and fengycin), and (fusaricidin and polymyxin) exhibiting broad spectrum against several phytopathogenic fungi. In vivo examination of wheat seed germination, plant height, phenolic compounds, chlorophyll, and carotenoid contents proved the efficiency of the bacterial cells and the secreted antagonist activities to protect Tunisian durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L...
November 2016: Microbiological Research
Cheng Kao, Xiaoyan Lin, Guanghui Yi, Yunliang Zhang, Dean A Rowe-Magnus, Karen Bush
UNLABELLED: The world is at the precipice of a postantibiotic era in which medical procedures and minor injuries can result in bacterial infections that are no longer effectively treated by antibiotics. Cathelicidins are peptides produced by animals to combat bacterial infections and to regulate innate immune responses. However, cathelicidins are potent activators of the inflammatory response. Cathelicidins with reduced proinflammatory activity and potent bactericidal activity in the low micromolar range against Gram-negative bacteria have been identified...
2016: MBio
Polly Soo Xi Yap, Azanna Ahmad Kamar, Chun Wie Chong, Ivan Kok Seng Yap, Kwai Lin Thong, Yao Mun Choo, Mohd Yasim Md Yusof, Cindy Shuan Ju Teh
The prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility of intestinal carriage of Gram-negative bacteria among preterm infants admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) in a tertiary teaching hospital in Malaysia were determined. A total of 34 stool specimens were obtained from preterm infants upon admission and once weekly up to two weeks during hospitalization. The presumptive colonies of Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae were selected for identification, antibiotic susceptibility testing, and subtyping by using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE)...
September 2016: Pathogens and Global Health
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