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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920845/modified-use-of-real-time-pcr-detection-of-group-b-streptococcus-in-pregnancy
#1
Ali A Rabaan, Justin V Saunar, Ali M Bazzi, Joan L Soriano
The CDC recommends antenatal screening of vaginal/rectal samples for Streptococcus agalactiae at 35-37 weeks' gestation, with intra-partum antibiotic prophylaxis for positive cases. We tested a modified use of the Cepheid Xpert GBS real-time PCR kit on enrichment cultures from 554 vaginal/rectal swabs compared to the current subculturing gold standard method. Swabs were inoculated on polymyxin nalidixic acid agar plates, and Todd-Hewitt enrichment broth cultures were examined daily for growth. Todd-Hewitt broth culture was also used for Xpert GBS...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915395/effects-of-polymyxin-b-hemoperfusion-on-hemodynamics-and-prognosis-in-septic-shock-patients
#2
Chen-Tse Lee, Yu-Kang Tu, Yi-Chun Yeh, Tzu Chang, Po-Yuan Shih, Anne Chao, Hsing-Hao Huang, Ya-Jung Cheng, Yu-Chang Yeh
PURPOSE: We designed this study to examine the clinical effects of polymyxin B hemoperfusion (PMX-HP) in septic shock patients. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We retrospectively examined the effects of PMX-HP in septic shock patients with intra-abdominal or gram-negative bacterial infection during October 2013-May 2016. A one-to-one matching between the PMX-HP and conventional groups was performed, and 28-day mortality, and change in inotropic score, Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score, and Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II) score at 24h in the two groups were compared...
April 25, 2017: Journal of Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915357/a-i-yigp-i-mutant-strain-is-a-small-colony-variant-of-i-e-coli-i-and-shows-pleiotropic-antibiotic-resistance
#3
Hui Xia, Qiongwei Tang, Jie Song, Jiang Ye, Haizhen Wu, Huizhan Zhang
Small colony variants (SCVs) are a commonly observed subpopulation of bacteria that have a small colony size and distinctive biochemical characteristics. SCVs are more resistant to some antibiotics than the wild-type, and usually cause persistent infections in the clinic. SCV studies have been very active during the past two decades, especially of <i>Staphylococcus aureus</i>. However, fewer studies on <i>Escherichia coli </i>SCVs exist, so we studied an <i>E. coli </i>SCV during an experiment involving the deletion of the<i> yigP</i> locus...
September 15, 2017: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910166/prevalence-antimicrobial-resistance-and-relatedness-of-salmonella-isolated-from-chickens-and-pigs-on-farms-abattoirs-and-markets-in-sichuan-province-china
#4
Suzhen Ma, Changwei Lei, Linghan Kong, Wei Jiang, Bihui Liu, Shuai Men, Yanxian Yang, Guangyang Cheng, Yanpeng Chen, Hongning Wang
This study aims at investigating the distribution, antimicrobial resistance, and genetic relationship of Salmonella isolated from 18 farms, their downstream abattoirs, and markets of chickens and pigs in Sichuan province, China. A total of 193 Salmonella isolates were identified from 693 samples with an isolation rate of 26.27% (88/335) in chickens and 29.33% (105/358) in pigs. Salmonella was isolated more frequently in abattoirs and markets than from farms. Serotypes were determined according to the White-Kauffmann-Le Minor scheme and 16 different serotypes were identified, with Derby being the most common, followed by Typhimurium and Meleagridis...
September 14, 2017: Foodborne Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28906444/short-term-intake-of-a-fructose-fat-and-cholesterol-rich-diet-causes-hepatic-steatosis-in-mice-effect-of-antibiotic-treatment
#5
Annette Brandt, Cheng Jun Jin, Katja Nolte, Cathrin Sellmann, Anna Janina Engstler, Ina Bergheim
Intestinal microbiota and barrier functions seem to play an important role in the development of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). However, whether these changes are an early event in the development of NAFLD or are primarily associated with later stages of the disease, has not yet been clarified. Using a pair-feeding model, we determined the effects of a short-term intake of a fat-, fructose- and cholesterol-rich diet (FFC) on the development of early hepatic steatosis and markers of intestinal barrier function in mice treated with and without non-resorbable antibiotics (AB)...
September 14, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28906060/novel-coordination-of-lipopolysaccharide-modifications-in-vibrio-cholerae-promotes-camp-resistance
#6
Carmen M Herrera, Jeremy C Henderson, Alexander A Crofts, M Stephen Trent
In the environment and during infection, the human intestinal pathogen Vibrio cholerae must overcome noxious compounds that damage the bacterial outer membrane. The El Tor and classical biotypes of O1 V. cholerae show striking differences in their resistance to membrane disrupting cationic antimicrobial peptides (CAMPs), such as polymyxins. The classical biotype is susceptible to CAMPs, but current pandemic El Tor biotype isolates gain CAMP resistance by altering the net charge of their cell surface through glycine modification of lipid A...
September 14, 2017: Molecular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904326/intravenous-polymyxins-revival-with-puzzle
#7
Yun Yu, Aihua Fei, Zengbin Wu, Chengjin Gao, Shuming Pan
With the increasing incidence of multi-drug resistant strains, especially carbapenem resistant strains, polymyxsins (mainly colistin and polymyxin B) based regimens seem to be a revival as an effective treatment of last resort in these infections. Evidence from 47 clinical trials or case series we reviewed showed that polymyxins based regimens are effective and have less toxicity compared with previous trials. When used alone, the mortality of intravenous polymyxsins ranged from 0% to 74.3%, clinical response (cure and improvement) rate was 7-82...
2017: Bioscience Trends
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895051/polymyxin-resistance-in-gram-negative-pathogens
#8
REVIEW
Pavithra Srinivas, Kaitlyn Rivard
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The polymyxins are one of the last line antimicrobial classes to retain activity against multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacilli. However, with the increased use of polymyxins in recent years, reports of resistance have also been increasing. We aimed to describe the mechanisms and occurrence of polymyxin resistance in Gram-negative organisms and propose strategies to overcome resistance. RECENT FINDINGS: The most common mechanism of acquired resistance to the polymyxins is via modification of the bacterial outer membrane lipopolysaccharide...
September 11, 2017: Current Infectious Disease Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893788/genomic-and-molecular-characterization-of-clinical-isolates-of-enterobacteriaceae-harboring-mcr-1-in-colombia-2002-2016
#9
Sandra Yamile Saavedra, Lorena Diaz, Magdalena Wiesner, Adriana Correa, Stefany Alejandra Arévalo, Jinnethe Reyes, Andrea Melissa Hidalgo, Elsa de la Cadena, Marcela Perenguez, Lucy Angeline Montaño, Javier Ardila, Rafael Ríos, María Victoria Ovalle, Paula Díaz, Paola Porras, Maria V Villegas, Cesar A Arias, Mauricio Beltrán, Carolina Duarte
Polymyxins are last resort antimicrobial agents used to treat infections caused by carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae Due to the worldwide dissemination of polymyxin resistance in animal and human isolates, we aimed to characterize polymyxin resistance associated with the presence of mcr-1 in Enterobacteriaceae and nonfermenter Gram-negative bacilli, in isolates collected retrospectively in Colombia from 2002 to 2016. A total of 5,887 Gram-negative clinical isolates were studied and 513 were found to be resistant to the polymyxins...
September 11, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893690/new-agents-for-the-treatment-of-infections-with-gram-negative-bacteria-restoring-the-miracle-or-false-dawn
#10
REVIEW
Hugh Wright, Robert A Bonomo, David L Paterson
BACKGROUND: Antibiotic resistance in gram-negative resistance has developed without a commensurate response in the successful development of antibiotic agents, though recent progress has been made. AIMS: This review aims to provide a summary of the existing evidence on efficacy, spectrum of activity and the development of resistance of new agents that have been licensed or completed advanced clinical trials that possess activity against resistant gram-negative organisms...
September 8, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893646/whole-genome-sequence-of-a-carbapenem-resistant-hypermucoviscous-klebsiella-pneumoniae-isolate-swu01-with-capsular-serotype-k47-that-belongs-to-st11-from-a-patient-in-china
#11
Luhua Zhang, Ying Li, Wei Shen, Guangxi Wang, Yingshun Zhou
OBJECTIVES: In recent years, Klebsiella pneumoniae is emerging as a leading cause of nosocomial infection due to the rapid prevalence of multidrug resistant strains, particularly the carbapenem resistant isolates. In this study, we completed the genome sequence of a carbapenem-resistant K. pneumoniae SWU01. METHODS: Antimicrobial susceptibilities and hypermucoviscous phenotype were determined by the disk diffusion method and a positive string test, respectively...
September 8, 2017: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887199/temporal-evolution-of-polymyxin-b-resistant-klebsiella-pneumoniae-clones-recovered-from-blood-cultures-in-a-teaching-hospital-during-a-7-year-period
#12
Graziela Braun, Rodrigo Cayô, Adriana Pereira Matos, Juliane de Mello Fonseca, Ana Cristina Gales
The polymyxins have become one of the last resorts to treat serious infections caused by KPC-2-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae worldwide. However, the increase of polymyxin consumption has favored the emergence of resistance to these compounds. In this study we observed an increase in the polymyxin B resistance rates from 0 to 30.6% among 224 K. pneumoniae isolates recovered from blood cultures between 2009 and 2015. Only gentamicin, tigecycline and fosfomycin remained active against the polymyxin B-resistant K...
September 5, 2017: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28883503/differential-impact-of-lipopolysaccharide-defects-caused-by-loss-of-rfah-in-yersinia-pseudotuberculosis-and-yersinia-pestis
#13
Jared M Hoffman, Shea Sullivan, Erin Wu, Eric Wilson, David L Erickson
RfaH enhances transcription of a select group of operons controlling bacterial surface features such as lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Previous studies have suggested that rfaH may be required for Yersinia pseudotuberculosis resistance to antimicrobial chemokines and survival during mouse infections. In order to further investigate the role of RfaH in LPS synthesis, resistance to host defense peptides, and virulence of Yersinia, we constructed ΔrfaH mutants of Y. pseudotuberculosis IP32953 and Y. pestis KIM6+. Loss of rfaH affected LPS synthesis in both species, resulting in a shorter core oligosaccharide...
September 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878761/effect-of-different-antibiotic-chemotherapies-on-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-infection-in-vitro-of-primary-human-corneal-fibroblast-cells
#14
Maria Del Mar Cendra, Myron Christodoulides, Parwez Hossain
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a major cause of bacterial keratitis (BK) worldwide. Inappropriate or non-optimal antibiotic chemotherapy can lead to corneal perforation and rapid sight loss. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that P. aeruginosa strain PAO1 invades primary human corneal fibroblasts (hCFs) in vitro and persists intracellularly, despite chemotherapy with antibiotics used commonly to treat BK. In rank order, ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin and polymyxin B showed the highest activity against planktonic PAO1 growth (100% inhibitory concentration ≤10 μg/mL; 50% inhibitory concentration ≤1 μg/mL), followed by gentamicin and ofloxacin (100% inhibitory concentration ≤50 μg/mL; 50% inhibitory concentration ≤10 μg/mL)...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28874470/inhibition-of-the-atp-synthase-eliminates-the-intrinsic-resistance-of-staphylococcus-aureus-towards-polymyxins
#15
Martin Vestergaard, Katrine Nøhr-Meldgaard, Martin Saxtorph Bojer, Christina Krogsgård Nielsen, Rikke Louise Meyer, Christoph Slavetinsky, Andreas Peschel, Hanne Ingmer
Staphylococcus aureus is intrinsically resistant to polymyxins (polymyxin B and colistin), an important class of cationic antimicrobial peptides used in treatment of Gram-negative bacterial infections. To understand the mechanisms underlying intrinsic polymyxin resistance in S. aureus, we screened the Nebraska Transposon Mutant Library established in S. aureus strain JE2 for increased susceptibility to polymyxin B. Nineteen mutants displayed at least 2-fold reductions in MIC, while the greatest reductions (8-fold) were observed for mutants with inactivation of either graS, graR, vraF, or vraG or the subunits of the ATP synthase (atpA, atpB, atpG, or atpH), which during respiration is the main source of energy...
September 5, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28873428/evaluation-of-robenidine-analog-ncl195-as-a-novel-broad-spectrum-antibacterial-agent
#16
Abiodun D Ogunniyi, Manouchehr Khazandi, Andrew J Stevens, Sarah K Sims, Stephen W Page, Sanjay Garg, Henrietta Venter, Andrew Powell, Karen White, Kiro R Petrovski, Geraldine Laven-Law, Eliane G Tótoli, Hérida R Salgado, Hongfei Pi, Geoffrey W Coombs, Dean L Shinabarger, John D Turnidge, James C Paton, Adam McCluskey, Darren J Trott
The spread of multidrug resistance among bacterial pathogens poses a serious threat to public health worldwide. Recent approaches towards combating antimicrobial resistance include repurposing old compounds with known safety and development pathways as new antibacterial classes with novel mechanisms of action. Here we show that an analog of the anticoccidial drug robenidine (4,6-bis(2-((E)-4-methylbenzylidene)hydrazinyl)pyrimidin-2-amine; NCL195) displays potent bactericidal activity against Streptococcus pneumoniae and Staphylococcus aureus by disrupting the cell membrane potential...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28870091/high-prevalence-of-oxa-type-carbapenemases-among-acinetobacter-baumannii-strains-in-a-teaching-hospital-of-tehran
#17
Mandana Zafari, Mohamad Mehdi Feizabadi, Sirous Jafari, Alireza Abdollahi, Azar Sabokbar
Nosocomial infection caused by carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (CRAB) has created a public health concern all around the world. In this study, 100 isolates of CRAB from hospitalized patients during 2015-2016 at Imam Khomeini Hospital were investigated to determine the rates of multidrug-resistant (MDR) and extensively drug-resistant (XDR) strains using Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of six antibiotics were determined by broth microdilution method...
September 5, 2017: Acta Microbiologica et Immunologica Hungarica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28864654/exogenous-polyunsaturated-fatty-acids-pufas-impact-membrane-remodeling-and-affect-virulence-phenotypes-among-pathogenic-vibrio-species
#18
Anna R Moravec, Andrew W Siv, Chelsea R Hobby, Emily N Lindsay, Layla V Norbash, Daniel J Shults, Steven J K Symes, David K Giles
The pathogenic Vibrio species (cholerae, parahaemolyticus and vulnificus) represent a constant threat to human health, causing food-borne and skin wound infections as a result of ingestion or exposure to contaminated water and seafood. Recent studies have highlighted Vibrio's ability to acquire fatty acids from environmental sources and assimilate them into cell membranes. The possession and conservation of such machinery provokes consideration of fatty acids as important factors in the pathogenic lifestyle of Vibrio species...
September 1, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28860708/onychomadesis-associated-with-chemotherapy-case-report-and-mini-literature-review
#19
Ang Li, Yanqiong Li, Lingzhi Ge, Ping Li, Wenfei Li
The side effects of chemotherapy drugs have increased in recent years, and some side effects can lead to onychomadesis. A 72-year-old woman who was diagnosed with an invasive ductal carcinoma of the right breast underwent a modified radical mastectomy in April 2015, followed by chemotherapy with capecitabine and nanoparticle albumin-bound paclitaxel (nab-paclitaxel). Subsequently, the patient experienced palmoplantar redness, pain, onycholysis, a transparent serous exudate, and onychomadesis. The chemotherapy was discontinued, and the patient was treated with oral vitamin B6, a polymyxin ointment, and a high-energy red light...
2017: Drug Design, Development and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28859441/baicalein-acts-as-a-nephroprotectant-that-ameliorates-colistin-induced-nephrotoxicity-by-activating-the-antioxidant-defence-mechanism-of-the-kidneys-and-down-regulating-the-inflammatory-response
#20
Chongshan Dai, Shusheng Tang, Yang Wang, Tony Velkov, Xilong Xiao
Background: Nephrotoxicity is the major adverse effect patients experience during colistin therapy. The development of effective nephroprotective agents that can be co-administered during polymyxin therapy remains a priority area in antimicrobial chemotherapy. Objectives: To investigate the nephroprotective effect of baicalein, a component of the root of Scutellaria baicalensis, against colistin-induced nephrotoxicity using a mouse model. Methods: C57BL/6 mice were randomly divided into the following groups: control, baicalein 100 mg/kg/day (administered orally), colistin (18 mg/kg/day administered intraperitoneally) and colistin (18 mg/kg/day) plus baicalein (25, 50 and 100 mg/kg/day)...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
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