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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133030/20-s-protopanaxadiol-ppd-alleviates-scopolamine-induced-memory-impairment-via-regulation-of-cholinergic-and-antioxidant-systems-and-expression-of-egr-1-c-fos-and-c-jun-in-mice
#1
Cong Lu, Liming Dong, Jingwei Lv, Yan Wang, Bei Fan, Fengzhong Wang, Xinmin Liu
20(S)-protopanaxadiol (PPD) possesses various biological properties, including anti-inflammatory, antitumor and anti-fatigue properties. Recent studies found that PPD functioned as a neurotrophic agent to ameliorate the sensory deficit caused by glutamate-induced excitotoxicity through its antioxidant effects and exhibited strong antidepressant-like effects in vivo. The objective of the present study was first to investigate the effect of PPD in scopolamine (SCOP)-induced memory deficit in mice and the potential mechanisms involved...
November 10, 2017: Chemico-biological Interactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102759/preclinical-profile-of-a-dopamine-d1-potentiator-suggests-therapeutic-utility-in-neurological-and-psychiatric-disorders
#2
Robert F Bruns, Stephen N Mitchell, Keith A Wafford, Alex J Harper, Elaine A Shanks, Guy Carter, Michael J O'Neill, Tracey K Murray, Brian J Eastwood, John M Schaus, James P Beck, Junliang Hao, Jeffrey M Witkin, Xia Li, Eyassu Chernet, Jason S Katner, Hong Wang, John W Ryder, Meghane E Masquelin, Linda K Thompson, Patrick L Love, Deanna L Maren, Julie F Falcone, Michelle M Menezes, Linli Zhang, Charles R Yang, Kjell A Svensson
DETQ, an allosteric potentiator of the dopamine D1 receptor, was tested in therapeutic models that were known to respond to D1 agonists. Because of a species difference in affinity for DETQ, all rodent experiments used transgenic mice expressing the human D1 receptor (hD1 mice). When given alone, DETQ reversed the locomotor depression caused by a low dose of reserpine. DETQ also acted synergistically with L-DOPA to reverse the strong hypokinesia seen with a higher dose of reserpine. These results indicate potential as both monotherapy and adjunct treatment in Parkinson's disease...
October 26, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29075638/citalopram-ameliorates-impairments-in-spatial-memory-and-synaptic-plasticity-in-female-3xtgad-mice
#3
Zhang Wei, Guo Junhong, Niu Xiaoyuan, Wang Jie, Wang Zhaojun, Wu Meina, Yang Wei, Zhang Jun, Qi Jinshun
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the primary cause of dementia. There is no effective treatment. Amyloid-β peptide (Aβ) plays an important role in the pathogenesis and thus strategies suppressing Aβ production and accumulation seem promising. Citalopram is an antidepressant drug and can decrease Aβ production and amyloid plaques in transgenic mice of AD and humans. Whether citalopram can ameliorate memory deficit was not known yet. We tested the effects of citalopram on behavioral performance and synaptic plasticity in female 3xTgAD mice, a well-characterized model of AD...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016795/leonurine-exerts-antidepressant-like-effects-in-the-chronic-mild-stress-induced-depression-model-in-mice-by-inhibiting-neuroinflammation
#4
Miaomiao Jia, Chenxin Li, Ying Zheng, Xiaojing Ding, Meng Chen, Jianhua Ding, Renhong Du, Ming Lu, Gang Hu
Background: Leonurine is an active alkaloid that is extracted from Traditional Chinese Medicine Herba leonuri. Emerging evidence indicates that leonurine produces neuroprotective effects in ischemic stroke, Parkinson's disease, and Alzheimer's disease. However, the effect of leonurine in neuropsychiatric disorders, especially in major depression, remains unknown. Methods: We used the chronic mild stress mouse model to explore the antidepressant effects of leonurine and the potential mechanisms...
November 1, 2017: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28994619/biological-evaluation-of-benzosuberones
#5
Haider Behbehani, Kamal M Dawood, Thoraya A Farghaly
Several natural products containing benzosuberone moiety are clinically reported as anti-tumor agents. Furthermore, several synthetic benzosuberones cited in this review exhibited wide range of theraputic activities such as bacteriostatic, anti-inflammatory, antidepressants and anti-tumor activities. Our recent review provides an overview of the different methods to synthesize the benzosuberones and their extensive biological activities. Areas covered: Thirty-two patents among 130 references are cited in this review that covered the recent inhibitory activities of the benzosuberone scaffolds and their broad area of biological applications up to the first quarter of 2017...
October 10, 2017: Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Patents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931452/factors-associated-with-appropriate-psychotropic-drug-prescription-in-nursing-home-patients-with-severe-dementia
#6
Klaas van der Spek, Raymond Tcm Koopmans, Martin Smalbrugge, Marjorie Hjmg Nelissen-Vrancken, Roland B Wetzels, Claudia Hw Smeets, Steven Teerenstra, Sytse U Zuidema, Debby L Gerritsen
BACKGROUND: We studied the patient and non-patients factors of inappropriate psychotropic drug (PD) prescription for neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS) in nursing home patients with severe dementia. METHODS: In a cross-sectional study, the appropriateness of prescriptions was explored using the Appropriate Psychotropic drug use In Dementia (APID) index sum score. This index assesses information from medical records on indication, evaluation, dosage, drug-drug interactions, drug-disease interactions, duplications, and therapy duration...
September 21, 2017: International Psychogeriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911966/fluoxetine-administration-during-adolescence-attenuates-cognitive-and-synaptic-deficits-in-adult-3%C3%A3-tgad-mice
#7
Dong-Sheng Sun, Li-Feng Gao, Li Jin, Hao Wu, Qun Wang, You Zhou, Shuhao Fan, Xia Jiang, Dan Ke, Hao Lei, Jian-Zhi Wang, Gong-Ping Liu
Fluoxetine (FLX) has broad neurobiological functions and neuroprotective effects; however, the preventive effects of FLX on cognitive impairments in Alzheimer's disease (AD) have not been reported. Here, we studied whether adolescent administration of fluoxetine can prevent memory deficits in AD transgenic mice that harbour PS1m146v, APPswe and TauP301L mutations (3 × TgAD). FLX was applied through peritoneal injection to the mice at postnatal day 35 (p35) for 15 consecutive days, and the effects of FLX were observed at 6-month...
September 11, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899662/baseline-association-of-motoric-cognitive-risk-syndrome-with-sustained-attention-memory-and-global-cognition
#8
Fiachra J Maguire, Isabelle Killane, Andrew P Creagh, Orna Donoghue, Rose Anne Kenny, Richard B Reilly
OBJECTIVES: Slow gait has been shown to be a good predictor of declining cognitive function in healthy older adults. Motoric cognitive risk (MCR) syndrome is a new construct incorporating slow gait and subjective cognitive complaints in individuals without dementia who have preserved activities of daily living. This analysis investigated the prevalence of MCR and factors associated with MCR in a nationally representative population. In addition, cross-sectional associations between MCR and cognitive domains, an relationship yet to be fully elucidated in literature, was investigated...
September 9, 2017: Journal of the American Medical Directors Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28866356/associations-of-neuropsychiatric-symptoms-and-antidepressant-prescription-with-survival-in-alzheimer-disease
#9
Christoph Mueller, Jonathan Huntley, Brendon Stubbs, Andrew Sommerlad, André F Carvalho, Gayan Perera, Robert Stewart, Nicola Veronese
OBJECTIVE: Depression is associated with increased mortality in community samples. The use of antidepressant medication may also increase mortality, however, it is still unclear whether taking antidepressants before or after a diagnosis of dementia influences survival. DESIGN: Retrospective. SETTING: A cohort with a diagnosis of Alzheimer disease (AD) from a large mental health and dementia care database in South London, linked to hospitalization and mortality data...
August 30, 2017: Journal of the American Medical Directors Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28855875/therapeutic-potential-of-selectively-targeting-the-%C3%AE-2c-adrenoceptor-in-cognition-depression-and-schizophrenia-new-developments-and-future-perspective
#10
REVIEW
Madeleine Monique Uys, Mohammed Shahid, Brian Herbert Harvey
α2A- and α2C-adrenoceptors (ARs) are the primary α2-AR subtypes involved in central nervous system (CNS) function. These receptors are implicated in the pathophysiology of psychiatric illness, particularly those associated with affective, psychotic, and cognitive symptoms. Indeed, non-selective α2-AR blockade is proposed to contribute toward antidepressant (e.g., mirtazapine) and atypical antipsychotic (e.g., clozapine) drug action. Both α2C- and α2A-AR share autoreceptor functions to exert negative feedback control on noradrenaline (NA) release, with α2C-AR heteroreceptors regulating non-noradrenergic transmission (e...
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28842833/ceramide-and-its-related-neurochemical-networks-as-targets-for-some-brain-disorder-therapies
#11
REVIEW
Justyna Brodowicz, Edmund Przegaliński, Christian P Müller, Malgorzata Filip
Correlational and causal comparative research link ceramide (Cer), the precursor of complex sphingolipids, to some psychiatric (e.g., depression, schizophrenia (SZ), alcohol use disorder, and morphine antinociceptive tolerance) and neurological (e.g., Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson disease (PD)) disorders. Cer generation can occur through the de novo synthesis pathway, the sphingomyelinase pathways, and the salvage pathway. The discoveries that plasma Cer concentration increase during depressive episodes in patients and that tricyclic and tetracyclic antidepressants functionally inhibit acid sphingomyelinase (ASM), the enzyme that catalyzes the degradation of sphingomyelin to Cer, have initiated a series of studies on the role of the ASM-Cer system in depressive disorder...
August 25, 2017: Neurotoxicity Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28828994/computational-chemistry-study-of-natural-alkaloids-and-homemade-databank-to-predict-inhibitory-potential-against-key-enzymes-in-neurodegenerative-diseases
#12
Vitor Prates Lorenzo, Mateus Feitosa Alves, Luciana Scotti, Socrates Golzio Dos Santos, Margareth de Fatima Formiga Melo Diniz, Marcus Tullius Scotti
Cissampelos sympodialis Eichl is used in folk medicine for the treatment of various inflammatory diseases; several alkaloids have been isolated from this species and some of them have anti-allergic, immunomodulatory and spasmolytic activities. Treatment of rats with the total tertiary alkaloid fraction showed an antidepressant effect. One of the depression causes can be the deficiency of monoamines, which is a factor displayed in patients with Alzheimer's disease. Theoretical studies using in silico methods have aided in the process of drug discovery...
2017: Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815276/determination-of-89-drugs-and-other-micropollutants-in-unfiltered-wastewater-and-freshwater-by-lc-ms-ms-an-alternative-sample-preparation-approach
#13
Alexandros G Asimakopoulos, Pranav Kannan, Sean Higgins, Kurunthachalam Kannan
A liquid chromatography-triple quadrupole-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-qQq-MS/MS) method was developed for simultaneous determination of 89 legal neuropsychiatric pharmaceuticals and illicit drugs (both parent compounds and metabolites) and other micropollutants in unfiltered wastewater and freshwater. The target chemicals fall under the classes of amphetamine-type stimulants, cocaine compounds, opiates and opioids, benzodiazepines, lysergic compounds, antipsychotics, anesthetics, antiepileptics, antidepressants, sympathomimetics, cannabinoids, blood thinners, antihistamines, β-blockers, caffeine derivatives, nicotine derivatives, z-drugs, new designer drugs, and Alzheimer medications...
October 2017: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28764750/risk-of-head-and-traumatic-brain-injuries-associated-with-antidepressant-use-among-community-dwelling-persons-with-alzheimer-s-disease-a-nationwide-matched-cohort-study
#14
Heidi Taipale, Marjaana Koponen, Antti Tanskanen, Piia Lavikainen, Reijo Sund, Jari Tiihonen, Sirpa Hartikainen, Anna-Maija Tolppanen
BACKGROUND: Antidepressant use has been associated with an increased risk of falling, but no studies have been conducted on whether antidepressant use is associated with an increased risk of head injuries which often result from falling among older persons. The objective of this study was to investigate the risk of head and brain injuries associated with antidepressant use among community-dwelling persons with Alzheimer's disease. METHODS: A matched cohort study was conducted by comparing new antidepressant users (n = 10,910) with two matched nonusers (n = 21,820) in the MEDALZ study cohort...
August 1, 2017: Alzheimer's Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28762173/methylene-blue-and-its-analogues-as-antidepressant-compounds
#15
REVIEW
Anzelle Delport, Brian H Harvey, Anél Petzer, Jacobus P Petzer
Methylene Blue (MB) is considered to have diverse medical applications and is a well-described treatment for methemoglobinemias and ifosfamide-induced encephalopathy. In recent years the focus has shifted to MB as an antimalarial agent and as a potential treatment for neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease. Of interest are reports that MB possesses antidepressant and anxiolytic activity in pre-clinical models and has shown promise in clinical trials for schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. MB is a noteworthy inhibitor of monoamine oxidase A (MAO-A), which is a well-established target for antidepressant action...
July 31, 2017: Metabolic Brain Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28756557/effects-of-central-nervous-system-drugs-on-recovery-after-stroke-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-randomized-controlled-trials
#16
REVIEW
See-Hwee Yeo, Zheng-Jie Ian Lim, Jia Mao, Wai-Ping Yau
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Pilot trials have suggested that pharmacotherapy may aid stroke recovery. The aim of this study was to systematically review the effects of antidepressants, anti-Alzheimer drugs, anti-Parkinson drugs, central nervous system (CNS) stimulants and piracetam on gross motor function, cognition, disability, dependency and quality of life (QOL) after stroke. METHODS: PubMed, EMBASE and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials databases were searched, and 44 randomized controlled trials that compared outcomes of interest between drug treatment and placebo or no treatment were included...
October 2017: Clinical Drug Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732807/pharmacology-and-toxicology-of-%C3%AE-and-%C3%AE-asarone-a-review-of-preclinical-evidence
#17
REVIEW
Ranjithkumar Chellian, Vijayapandi Pandy, Zahurin Mohamed
BACKGROUND: Asarone is one of the most researched phytochemicals and is mainly present in the Acorus species and Guatteria gaumeri Greenman. In preclinical studies, both α- and β-asarone have been reported to have numerous pharmacological activities and at the same time, many studies have also revealed the toxicity of α- and β-asarone. PURPOSE: The purpose of this comprehensive review is to compile and analyze the information related to the pharmacokinetic, pharmacological, and toxicological studies reported on α- and β-asarone using preclinical in vitro and in vivo models...
August 15, 2017: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731429/severity-of-depression-impacts-imminent-conversion-from-mild-cognitive-impairment-to-alzheimer-s-disease
#18
Michaela Defrancesco, Josef Marksteiner, Georg Kemmler, Walter Wolfgang Fleischhacker, Imrich Blasko, Eberhard A Deisenhammer
BACKGROUND: Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) has been suggested to represent a prodromal stage of dementia and to confer a high risk for conversion to dementia Alzheimer's type (DAT). OBJECTIVES: In this study, we examined the predictive value of depressive symptoms and neuropsychological variables on conversion of MCI to DAT. METHODS: Neuropsychological and clinical follow-up data of 260 MCI patients seen at the Psychiatric Memory Clinic of the Medical University of Innsbruck between 2005 and 2015 were analyzed retrospectively...
2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705430/effect-of-long-term-exposure-to-air-pollution-on-anxiety-and-depression-in-adults-a-cross-sectional-study
#19
Cristina Vert, Gonzalo Sánchez-Benavides, David Martínez, Xavier Gotsens, Nina Gramunt, Marta Cirach, José Luis Molinuevo, Jordi Sunyer, Mark J Nieuwenhuijsen, Marta Crous-Bou, Mireia Gascon
BACKGROUND: The association between exposure to air pollutants and mental disorders among adults has been suggested, although results are not consistent. OBJECTIVE: To analyze the association between long-term exposure to air pollution and history of anxiety and depression disorders and of medication use (benzodiazepines and antidepressants) in adults living in Barcelona. METHODS: A total of 958 adults (45-74 years old) residents in Barcelona, most of them having at least one of their parents diagnosed with dementia (86%), and participating in the ALFA (Alzheimer and Families) study, were included...
August 2017: International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699511/striatal-enriched-tyrosine-protein-phosphatase-step-in-the-mechanisms-of-depressive-disorders
#20
REVIEW
Elizabeth Kulikova, Alexander Kulikov
Striatal-enriched tyrosine protein phosphatase (STEP) is expressed mainly in the brain. Its dysregulation is associated with Alzheimer's and Huntington's diseases, schizophrenia, fragile X syndrome, drug abuse and stroke/ischemia. However, an association between STEP and depressive disorders is still obscure. The review discusses the theoretical foundations and experimental facts concerning possible relationship between STEP dysregulation and depression risk. STEP dephosphorylates and inactivates several key neuronal signaling proteins such as extracellular signal-regulating kinase 1 and 2 (ERK1/2), stress activated protein kinases p38, the Src family tyrosine kinases Fyn, Pyk2, NMDA and AMPA glutamate receptors...
August 30, 2017: Current Protein & Peptide Science
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