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Alzheimer antidepressants

Orjan Skogar, Johan Lokk
This review focuses on the diagnosis and management of Parkinson-related pain which is one of the more frequently reported nonmotor symptoms in Parkinson's disease (PD), which is the second most common neurodegenerative disease after Alzheimer's disease. Pain is ranked high by patients as a troublesome symptom in all stages of the disease. In early-stage PD, pain is rated as the most bothersome symptom. Knowledge of the correct diagnosis of pain origin and possible methods of treatments for pain relief in PD is of great importance...
2016: Journal of Multidisciplinary Healthcare
Quentin Boucherie, Gaëtan Gentile, Coralie Chalançon, Vincent Sciortino, Olivier Blin, Joëlle Micallef, Sylvie Bonin-Guillaume
The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of long-term antipsychotic (AP) use in community-dwelling patients with dementia considering hospitalization periods as AP exposure or not. A retrospective study was carried out from 2009 to 2012 on a PACA-Alzheimer cohort (which included 31 963 patients in 2009 and 36 442 in 2012 from 5 million inhabitants). Three groups of patients were identified according to the longest exposure to APs without interruption: nonusers, short-term users (≤3 successive months without discontinuation), and long-term users...
October 12, 2016: International Clinical Psychopharmacology
Shelly L Gray, Joseph T Hanlon
Use of medications with anticholinergic activity is widespread in older adults. Several studies have highlighted that anticholinergic use may be associated with an increased risk of dementia. The objective of this narrative review is to describe and evaluate studies of anticholinergic medication use and dementia and provide practical suggestions for avoiding use of these medications in older adults. A comprehensive review of the literature, citations from recent reviews and the author's personal files was conducted...
October 2016: Therapeutic Advances in Drug Safety
Thomas Desmidt, Caroline Hommet, Vincent Camus
Behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) are frequent in Alzheimer's disease (AD). They are associated with disability and suffering for both the patients and their caregivers. Even if BPSD are now well diagnosed and characterized by standardized tools, their treatment remains often challenging in clinical setting because of the frequent and severe side effects of the psychotropic drugs when used in this indication. Evidence-based data confirm that antipsychotics and antidepressants are efficient for the treatment of BPSD but have a poor tolerance profile and their use is problematic...
September 1, 2016: Gériatrie et Psychologie Neuropsychiatrie du Vieillissement
Heidi Taipale, Marjaana Koponen, Antti Tanskanen, Anna-Maija Tolppanen, Jari Tiihonen, Sirpa Hartikainen
BACKGROUND: increasing number of persons reach very high age but few studies have investigated their drug use patterns. OBJECTIVE: to compare drug use among persons with Alzheimer's disease (AD) aged ≥90 years to persons without AD with similar age and to younger persons with AD. DESIGN: register-based data were from the MEDALZ cohort including all community-dwelling persons diagnosed with AD 2005-11 in Finland. They were identified from Special Reimbursement register...
September 8, 2016: Age and Ageing
Nataša Karas Kuželički
Preclinical Research S-adenosyl methionine (SAM) is a major methyl donor and as such exerts its influence on CNS function through methylation reactions, such as methylation of several catecholamine moiety-containing neurotransmitters, epigenetic changes through methylation of DNA, RNA, RNA-binding proteins and histones, and phospholipid methylation. Based on available evidence, SAM is currently recommended as a next-step (second-line) treatment option following inadequate treatment response to a first-line antidepressant...
September 4, 2016: Drug Development Research
D Enache, S-M Fereshtehnejad, I Kåreholt, P Cermakova, S Garcia-Ptacek, K Johnell, D Religa, V Jelic, B Winblad, C Ballard, D Aarsland, J Fastbom, M Eriksdotter
BACKGROUND: The association between mortality risk and use of antidepressants in people with dementia is unknown. OBJECTIVE: To describe the use of antidepressants in people with different dementia diagnoses and to explore mortality risk associated with use of antidepressants 3 years before a dementia diagnosis. METHODS: Study population included 20 050 memory clinic patients from the Swedish Dementia Registry (SveDem) diagnosed with incident dementia...
November 2016: Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica
Gert Luurtsema, Philip Elsinga, Rudi Dierckx, Ronald Boellaard, Aren van Waarde
ABC transporters at the human blood-brain barrier protect the brain against the entry of harmful compounds but may also limit (or prevent) the cerebral entry of therapeutic drugs (e.g. anti-epileptics, antidepressants and antipsychotics). The efflux function of these transporters may be impaired in neurodegenerative disorders like Alzheimer and Parkinson disease. For such reasons, there is much interest in modulation of the efflux function of ABC transporters and in the monitoring of this function with positron emission tomography (PET)...
August 10, 2016: Current Pharmaceutical Design
Andrea Milelli, Eleonora Turrini, Elena Catanzaro, Francesca Maffei, Carmela Fimognari
Preclinical Research A novel and promising approach to overcome the limits of single-target therapy is represented by the multitarget approach. This strategy aims to simultaneously modulate several targets involved in the pathophysiology of a multifactorial disease, with the potential to enhance therapeutic effectiveness and improve drug safety. Although there has been a marked growth in the design of multitarget drugs (MTDs) in the last years in the context of anti-Alzheimer and anti-cancer drug discovery, a parallel expansion was not observed in antipsychotic drugs, even that for psychiatric disorders there is a cogent medical need for new treatments...
August 19, 2016: Drug Development Research
Jun Ku Chung, Shinichiro Nakajima, Shunichiro Shinagawa, Eric Plitman, M Mallar Chakravarty, Yusuke Iwata, Fernando Caravaggio, Bruce G Pollock, Philip Gerretsen, Ariel Graff-Guerrero
OBJECTIVE: It is inconclusive as to whether benzodiazepines (BZDs) are related to cognitive deterioration in the elderly populations. Animal studies suggest that γ-aminobutyric acid A receptor agonists, such as BZDs, may prevent Aβ-neurotoxicity and reduce β-amyloid (Aβ). However, no studies have investigated the effects of BZD use on Aβ in humans. METHODS: This cross-sectional, prospective study using Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative sites in the United States and Canada on nondemented elderly adults between 55 and 90 years of age assessed cortical Aβ levels by positron emission tomography radiotracer F(18)-Florbetapir...
November 2016: American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry
Ruth Lamb, Jonathan D Rohrer, Andrew J Lees, Huw R Morris
There are currently no disease-modifying treatments for progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) or corticobasal degeneration (CBD), and no approved pharmacological or therapeutic treatments that are effective in controlling their symptoms. The use of most pharmacological treatment options are based on experience in other disorders or from non-randomized historical controls, case series, or expert opinion. Levodopa may provide some improvement in symptoms of Parkinsonism (specifically bradykinesia and rigidity) in PSP and CBD; however, evidence is conflicting and where present, benefits are often negligible and short lived...
September 2016: Current Treatment Options in Neurology
Robert Vianello, Carmen Domene, Janez Mavri
HIGHLIGHTS Computational techniques provide accurate descriptions of the structure and dynamics of biological systems, contributing to their understanding at an atomic level.Classical MD simulations are a precious computational tool for the processes where no chemical reactions take place.QM calculations provide valuable information about the enzyme activity, being able to distinguish among several mechanistic pathways, provided a carefully selected cluster model of the enzyme is considered.Multiscale QM/MM simulation is the method of choice for the computational treatment of enzyme reactions offering quantitative agreement with experimentally determined reaction parameters...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Atsushi Takeda, Haruna Tamano, Ryusuke Nishio, Taku Murakami
Dietary zinc deficiency increases glucocorticoid secretion from the adrenal cortex via enhanced hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis activity and induces neuropsychological symptoms, i.e., behavioral abnormality. Behavioral abnormality is due to the increase in glucocorticoid secretion rather than disturbance of brain zinc homeostasis, which occurs after the increase in glucocorticoid secretion. A major target of glucocorticoids is the hippocampus and their actions are often associated with disturbance of glutamatergic neurotransmission, which may be linked to behavioral abnormality, such as depressive symptoms and aggressive behavior under zinc deficiency...
2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Anna-Maija Tolppanen, Heidi Taipale, Marjaana Koponen, Piia Lavikainen, Antti Tanskanen, Jari Tiihonen, Sirpa Hartikainen
PURPOSE: The aim of the Medicine use and Alzheimer's disease (MEDALZ) study is to investigate the changes in medication and healthcare service use among persons with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of medications in this group. This is important, because the number of persons with AD is rapidly growing and even though they are a particularly vulnerable patient group, the number of representative, large-scale studies with adequate follow-up time is limited...
2016: BMJ Open
Yanwei Li, Lin Li, Christian Hölscher
Central neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Parkinson's disease (PD), are one of the biggest health problems worldwide. Currently, there is no cure for these diseases. The Gardenia jasminoides fruit is a common herbal medicine in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), and a variety of preparations are used as treatments for central nervous system (CNS) diseases. Pharmacokinetic studies suggest genipin is one of the main effective ingredients of G. jasminoides fruit extract (GFE). Accumulated research data show that genipin possesses a range of key pharmacological properties, such as anti-inflammatory, neuroprotective, neurogenic, antidiabetic, and antidepressant effects...
October 2016: CNS Drugs
Renaud David, Valeria Manera, Roxane Fabre, Christian Pradier, Philippe Robert, Karim Tifratene
BACKGROUND: Safety warnings from health authorities are currently intended to limit the use of psychotropic agents in dementia-related conditions. Evidence concerning the use of antidepressants in dementia is, however, scarce and contradictory. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate antidepressant use among individuals with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and related disorders in the French population between 2010 and 2014. METHOD: Antidepressant prescriptions in individuals with AD, mixed dementia (MD), and vascular dementia (VaD) in the French National Alzheimer Database between 2010 and 2014 were analyzed (N = 199,544)...
July 2, 2016: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Dan-Dan Wang, Jia Li, Li-Peng Yu, Mei-Na Wu, Li-Na Sun, Jin-Shun Qi
Aggregation of amyloid [Formula: see text] protein (A[Formula: see text] and progressive loss of memory are the main characteristics of Alzheimer's disease (AD). It is noteworthy that approximately 40% of AD patients have depressive symptom. The close correlation between cognitive deficits and mental depression suggests a possibility that antidepression treatment might be beneficial to cognitive improvement in AD. The present study, by using tail-suspension test (TST), forced swimming, alternative electro-stimulus Y maze test and immunohistochemistry, examined the neuroprotective effects of desipramine, a newer generation tricyclic antidepressants (TCA), and investigated its possible molecular mechanism...
June 2016: Journal of Integrative Neuroscience
Li Jin, Li-Feng Gao, Dong-Sheng Sun, Hao Wu, Qun Wang, Dan Ke, Hao Lei, Jian-Zhi Wang, Gong-Ping Liu
Fluoxetine, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, is neuroprotective; therefore, it has been applied to treat some neurodegenerative disorders. For instance, chronic fluoxetine exposure has short-term effects on Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, the long-term ameliorative effects of fluoxetine exposure on AD have not been reported. In the present study, 6-month-old 3 × TgAD mice were treated with fluoxetine for 15 days, and then the influence of fluoxetine was detected at 20 days after the drug withdrawal...
June 21, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
Yu-Jung Wei, Linda Simoni-Wastila, Judith A Lucas, Nicole Brandt
BACKGROUND: Both antidepressants and antipsychotics are used in older adults with behavioral symptoms of Alzheimer's disease and related dementias. Despite the prevalent use of these agents, little is known about their comparative risks for falls and fractures. METHODS: Using 2007-2009 Medicare claims data linked to Minimum Data Set 2.0, we identified new users of antidepressants and antipsychotics among nursing home residents with Alzheimer's disease and related dementias who had moderate-to-severe behavioral symptoms...
May 31, 2016: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
Tingxu Yan, Mengjie Xu, Bo Wu, Zhengzheng Liao, Zhi Liu, Xu Zhao, Kaishun Bi, Ying Jia
Schisandra chinensis (Turcz.) Baill., as a Chinese functional food, has been widely used in neurological disorders including insomnia and Alzheimer's disease. The treatment of classical neuropsychiatric disorder depression is to be developed from Schisandra chinensis. The antidepressant-like effects of the Schisandra chinensis extracts (SCE), and their probable involvement in the serotonergic, noradrenergic, dopaminergic, GABAergic and glutamatergic systems were investigated by the forced swim test (FST). Acute administration of SCE (600 mg kg(-1), i...
June 15, 2016: Food & Function
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