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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932945/monoaminergic-and-histaminergic-strategies-and-treatments-in-brain-diseases
#1
REVIEW
Giuseppe Di Giovanni, Dubravka Svob Strac, Montse Sole, Mercedes Unzeta, Keith F Tipton, Dorotea Mück-Šeler, Irene Bolea, Laura Della Corte, Matea Nikolac Perkovic, Nela Pivac, Ilse J Smolders, Anna Stasiak, Wieslawa A Fogel, Philippe De Deurwaerdère
The monoaminergic systems are the target of several drugs for the treatment of mood, motor and cognitive disorders as well as neurological conditions. In most cases, advances have occurred through serendipity, except for Parkinson's disease where the pathophysiology led almost immediately to the introduction of dopamine restoring agents. Extensive neuropharmacological studies first showed that the primary target of antipsychotics, antidepressants, and anxiolytic drugs were specific components of the monoaminergic systems...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908278/comparison-of-predictors-of-hip-fracture-and-mortality-after-hip-fracture-in-community-dwellers-with-and-without-alzheimer-s-disease-exposure-matched-cohort-study
#2
Anna-Maija Tolppanen, Heidi Taipale, Antti Tanskanen, Jari Tiihonen, Sirpa Hartikainen
BACKGROUND: Dementia, with Alzheimer's disease (AD) being the most common form, is a major hip fracture risk factor, but currently it is not known whether the same factors predict hip fracture among persons with and without dementia/AD. We compared the predictors of hip fracture and mortality after hip fracture in persons with and without AD. METHODS: An exposure-matched cohort of all community-dwellers of Finland who received a new clinically verified AD diagnosis in 2005-2011 and had no history of previous hip fracture (N = 67,072) and an age, sex, and region-matched cohort of persons without AD (N = 67,072)...
December 1, 2016: BMC Geriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900600/antidepressant-like-effect-of-isorhynchophylline-in-mice
#3
Yan-Fang Xian, Ding Fan, Siu-Po Ip, Qing-Qiu Mao, Zhi-Xiu Lin
Isorhynchophylline (IRN), an oxindole alkaloid, has been identified as the main active ingredient responsible for the biological activities of Uncaria rhynchophylla (Miq) Miq ex Havil. (Rubiaceae). Previous studies in our laboratory have revealed that IRN possesses potent neuroprotective effects in different models of Alzheimer's disease. However, the antidepressant-like effects of IRN are remained unclear. The present study aims to evaluate the antidepressant-like effects of IRN. The antidepressant-like effects of IRN was determined by using animal models of depression including forced swimming and tail suspension tests...
November 30, 2016: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896799/a-comparison-of-sex-differences-in-psychotropic-medication-use-in-older-people-with-alzheimer-s-disease-in-the-us-and-finland
#4
Daniela C Moga, Heidi Taipale, Anna-Maija Tolppanen, Antti Tanskanen, Jari Tiihonen, Sirpa Hartikainen, Qishan Wu, Gregory A Jicha, Danijela Gnjidic
AIMS: Given the high prevalence of psychotropic medication use in people with dementia and the potential for different prescribing practices in men and women, our study aimed to investigate sex differences in psychotropic medication use in older adults with Alzheimer's disease (AD) living in the US and Finland. METHODS: We used data collected between 2005 and 2011 as part of the National Alzheimer's Coordinating Center (NACC) in the US, and Medication use and Alzheimer's disease (MEDALZ) cohorts in Finland...
November 28, 2016: Drugs & Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876183/electroconvulsive-therapy-selectively-enhances-amyloid-%C3%AE-1-42-in-the-cerebrospinal-fluid-of-patients-with-major-depression-a-prospective-pilot-study
#5
Laura Kranaster, Suna Su Aksay, Jan Malte Bumb, Christoph Janke, Angelika Alonso, Carolin Hoyer, Inga Zerr, Matthias Schmitz, Lucrezia Hausner, Lutz Frölich, Alexander Sartorius
A complex interplay between β-amyloid (Aβ), Alzheimer׳s disease (AD) and major depression disorder (MDD) suggests that patients with MDD have an altered cerebral Aβ metabolism and an increased risk of developing AD. In order to elucidate the relationship between antidepressant treatment and Aβ metabolism in humans, we performed a study on Aβ peptides in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in patients with MDD during electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) as an effective antidepressant treatment. We measured the levels of Aβ1-42, Aβ1-40 and of tau proteins in the CSF in 12 patients with MDD before and after a course of ECT...
December 2016: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27837334/mechanism-of-depression-as-a-risk-factor-in-the-development-of-alzheimer-s-disease-the-function-of-aqp4-and-the-glymphatic-system
#6
Maosheng Xia, Li Yang, Guangfeng Sun, Shuang Qi, Baoman Li
BACKGROUND: Many studies have indicated that a history of depression increases the risk of developing Alzheimer's disease (AD); however, the potential pathogenestic mechanism by which depression functions as a high risk factor for AD remains unknown. Recently, a "cerebral lymphatic system" referred to as "glymphatic system" has been demonstrated to be responsible for neuronal extracellular waste protein clearance via a paravascular pathway. However, the function of glymphatic pathway has not been determined in depressive disorders...
November 12, 2016: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27810788/anthriscus-nemorosa-essential-oil-inhalation-prevents-memory-impairment-anxiety-and-depression-in-scopolamine-treated-rats
#7
Eyup Bagci, Emel Aydin, Eugen Ungureanu, Lucian Hritcu
Anthriscus nemorosa (Bieb.) Sprengel is used for medicinal purposes in traditional medicine around the world, including Turkey. Ethnobotanical studies suggest that Anthriscus essential oil could improve memory in Alzheimer's disease. The current study was hypothesized to investigate the beneficial effects of inhaled Anthriscus nemorosa essential oil on memory, anxiety and depression in scopolamine-treated rats. Anthriscus nemorosa essential oil was administered by inhalation in the doses of 1% and 3% for 21 continuous days and scopolamine (0...
October 29, 2016: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27806704/vascular-depression-consensus-report-a-critical-update
#8
EDITORIAL
Howard J Aizenstein, Andrius Baskys, Maura Boldrini, Meryl A Butters, Breno S Diniz, Manoj Kumar Jaiswal, Kurt A Jellinger, Lev S Kruglov, Ivan A Meshandin, Milija D Mijajlovic, Guenter Niklewski, Sarah Pospos, Keerthy Raju, Kneginja Richter, David C Steffens, Warren D Taylor, Oren Tene
BACKGROUND: Vascular depression is regarded as a subtype of late-life depression characterized by a distinct clinical presentation and an association with cerebrovascular damage. Although the term is commonly used in research settings, widely accepted diagnostic criteria are lacking and vascular depression is absent from formal psychiatric manuals such as the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5(th) edition - a fact that limits its use in clinical settings. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques, showing a variety of cerebrovascular lesions, including extensive white matter hyperintensities, subcortical microvascular lesions, lacunes, and microinfarcts, in patients with late life depression, led to the introduction of the term "MRI-defined vascular depression"...
November 3, 2016: BMC Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27780330/enhancing-approaches-to-the-identification-and-management-of-pseudobulbar-affect
#9
David W Crumpacker
Pseudobulbar affect (PBA) is a socially debilitating condition that primarily affects people with neurologic diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease or multiple sclerosis. This condition is characterized by uncontrolled, exaggerated expressions of laughing or crying-often when the situation does not warrant this behavior. Although the true prevalence of PBA is surprisingly high, this condition remains widely misdiagnosed and underdiagnosed. While its exact etiology is unknown, PBA likely results from disruptions in the brain structures and/or neurotransmitters that regulate emotions...
September 2016: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27757037/pain-management-in-patients-with-parkinson-s-disease-challenges-and-solutions
#10
Orjan Skogar, Johan Lokk
This review focuses on the diagnosis and management of Parkinson-related pain which is one of the more frequently reported nonmotor symptoms in Parkinson's disease (PD), which is the second most common neurodegenerative disease after Alzheimer's disease. Pain is ranked high by patients as a troublesome symptom in all stages of the disease. In early-stage PD, pain is rated as the most bothersome symptom. Knowledge of the correct diagnosis of pain origin and possible methods of treatments for pain relief in PD is of great importance...
2016: Journal of Multidisciplinary Healthcare
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27741029/long-term-use-of-antipsychotics-in-community-dwelling-dementia-patients-prevalence-and-profile-accounting-for-unobservable-time-bias-because-of-hospitalization
#11
Quentin Boucherie, Gaëtan Gentile, Coralie Chalançon, Vincent Sciortino, Olivier Blin, Joëlle Micallef, Sylvie Bonin-Guillaume
The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of long-term antipsychotic (AP) use in community-dwelling patients with dementia considering hospitalization periods as AP exposure or not. A retrospective study was carried out from 2009 to 2012 on a PACA-Alzheimer cohort (which included 31 963 patients in 2009 and 36 442 in 2012 from 5 million inhabitants). Three groups of patients were identified according to the longest exposure to APs without interruption: nonusers, short-term users (≤3 successive months without discontinuation), and long-term users...
January 2017: International Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27695623/anticholinergic-medication-use-and-dementia-latest-evidence-and-clinical-implications
#12
REVIEW
Shelly L Gray, Joseph T Hanlon
Use of medications with anticholinergic activity is widespread in older adults. Several studies have highlighted that anticholinergic use may be associated with an increased risk of dementia. The objective of this narrative review is to describe and evaluate studies of anticholinergic medication use and dementia and provide practical suggestions for avoiding use of these medications in older adults. A comprehensive review of the literature, citations from recent reviews and the author's personal files was conducted...
October 2016: Therapeutic Advances in Drug Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27651011/pharmacological-treatments-of-behavioral-and-psychological-symptoms-of-dementia-in-alzheimer-s-disease-role-of-acetylcholinesterase-inhibitors-and-memantine
#13
Thomas Desmidt, Caroline Hommet, Vincent Camus
Behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) are frequent in Alzheimer's disease (AD). They are associated with disability and suffering for both the patients and their caregivers. Even if BPSD are now well diagnosed and characterized by standardized tools, their treatment remains often challenging in clinical setting because of the frequent and severe side effects of the psychotropic drugs when used in this indication. Evidence-based data confirm that antipsychotics and antidepressants are efficient for the treatment of BPSD but have a poor tolerance profile and their use is problematic...
September 1, 2016: Gériatrie et Psychologie Neuropsychiatrie du Vieillissement
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27609205/drug-use-in-persons-with-and-without-alzheimer-s-disease-aged-90-years-or-more
#14
Heidi Taipale, Marjaana Koponen, Antti Tanskanen, Anna-Maija Tolppanen, Jari Tiihonen, Sirpa Hartikainen
BACKGROUND: increasing number of persons reach very high age but few studies have investigated their drug use patterns. OBJECTIVE: to compare drug use among persons with Alzheimer's disease (AD) aged ≥90 years to persons without AD with similar age and to younger persons with AD. DESIGN: register-based data were from the MEDALZ cohort including all community-dwelling persons diagnosed with AD 2005-11 in Finland. They were identified from Special Reimbursement register...
November 2016: Age and Ageing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27594595/s-adenosyl-methionine-in-the-therapy-of-depression-and-other-psychiatric-disorders
#15
Nataša Karas Kuželički
Preclinical Research S-adenosyl methionine (SAM) is a major methyl donor and as such exerts its influence on CNS function through methylation reactions, such as methylation of several catecholamine moiety-containing neurotransmitters, epigenetic changes through methylation of DNA, RNA, RNA-binding proteins and histones, and phospholipid methylation. Based on available evidence, SAM is currently recommended as a next-step (second-line) treatment option following inadequate treatment response to a first-line antidepressant...
November 2016: Drug Development Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27586958/antidepressants-and-mortality-risk-in-a-dementia-cohort-data-from-svedem-the-swedish-dementia-registry
#16
D Enache, S-M Fereshtehnejad, I Kåreholt, P Cermakova, S Garcia-Ptacek, K Johnell, D Religa, V Jelic, B Winblad, C Ballard, D Aarsland, J Fastbom, M Eriksdotter
BACKGROUND: The association between mortality risk and use of antidepressants in people with dementia is unknown. OBJECTIVE: To describe the use of antidepressants in people with different dementia diagnoses and to explore mortality risk associated with use of antidepressants 3 years before a dementia diagnosis. METHODS: Study population included 20 050 memory clinic patients from the Swedish Dementia Registry (SveDem) diagnosed with incident dementia...
November 2016: Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27568733/pet-tracers-for-imaging-of-abc-transporters-at-the-blood-brain-barrier-principles-and-strategies
#17
Gert Luurtsema, Philip Elsinga, Rudi Dierckx, Ronald Boellaard, Aren van Waarde
ABC transporters at the human blood-brain barrier protect the brain against the entry of harmful compounds but may also limit (or prevent) the cerebral entry of therapeutic drugs (e.g. anti-epileptics, antidepressants and antipsychotics). The efflux function of these transporters may be impaired in neurodegenerative disorders like Alzheimer and Parkinson disease. For such reasons, there is much interest in modulation of the efflux function of ABC transporters and in the monitoring of this function with positron emission tomography (PET)...
August 10, 2016: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27539712/perspectives-in-designing-multifunctional-molecules-in-antipsychotic-drug-discovery
#18
Andrea Milelli, Eleonora Turrini, Elena Catanzaro, Francesca Maffei, Carmela Fimognari
Preclinical Research A novel and promising approach to overcome the limits of single-target therapy is represented by the multitarget approach. This strategy aims to simultaneously modulate several targets involved in the pathophysiology of a multifactorial disease, with the potential to enhance therapeutic effectiveness and improve drug safety. Although there has been a marked growth in the design of multitarget drugs (MTDs) in the last years in the context of anti-Alzheimer and anti-cancer drug discovery, a parallel expansion was not observed in antipsychotic drugs, even that for psychiatric disorders there is a cogent medical need for new treatments...
August 19, 2016: Drug Development Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27538351/benzodiazepine-use-attenuates-cortical-%C3%AE-amyloid-and-is-not-associated-with-progressive-cognitive-decline-in-nondemented-elderly-adults-a-pilot-study-using-f-18-florbetapir-positron-emission-tomography
#19
Jun Ku Chung, Shinichiro Nakajima, Shunichiro Shinagawa, Eric Plitman, M Mallar Chakravarty, Yusuke Iwata, Fernando Caravaggio, Bruce G Pollock, Philip Gerretsen, Ariel Graff-Guerrero
OBJECTIVE: It is inconclusive as to whether benzodiazepines (BZDs) are related to cognitive deterioration in the elderly populations. Animal studies suggest that γ-aminobutyric acid A receptor agonists, such as BZDs, may prevent Aβ-neurotoxicity and reduce β-amyloid (Aβ). However, no studies have investigated the effects of BZD use on Aβ in humans. METHODS: This cross-sectional, prospective study using Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative sites in the United States and Canada on nondemented elderly adults between 55 and 90 years of age assessed cortical Aβ levels by positron emission tomography radiotracer F(18)-Florbetapir...
November 2016: American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27526039/progressive-supranuclear-palsy-and-corticobasal-degeneration-pathophysiology-and-treatment-options
#20
REVIEW
Ruth Lamb, Jonathan D Rohrer, Andrew J Lees, Huw R Morris
There are currently no disease-modifying treatments for progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) or corticobasal degeneration (CBD), and no approved pharmacological or therapeutic treatments that are effective in controlling their symptoms. The use of most pharmacological treatment options are based on experience in other disorders or from non-randomized historical controls, case series, or expert opinion. Levodopa may provide some improvement in symptoms of Parkinsonism (specifically bradykinesia and rigidity) in PSP and CBD; however, evidence is conflicting and where present, benefits are often negligible and short lived...
September 2016: Current Treatment Options in Neurology
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