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Non adherence

Jacob Louie, Amer Shalaby, Khandker Nurul Habib
Most investigations of incident-related delay duration in the transportation context are restricted to highway traffic, with little attention given to delays due to transit service disruptions. Studies of transit-based delay duration are also considerably less comprehensive than their highway counterparts with respect to examining the effects of non-causal variables on the delay duration. However, delays due to incidents in public transit service can have serious consequences on the overall urban transportation system due to the pivotal and vital role of public transit...
October 19, 2016: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
Lotta Walz, Anna K Jönsson, Brita Zilg, Carl Johan Östgren, Henrik Druid
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: The aim of this study was to identify risk factors associated with confirmed fatal hyperglycaemia, which could predispose potentially preventable deaths in individuals on glucose lowering drugs. METHODS: A retrospective register-based case-control study conducted on a nationwide cohort with individuals who died due to hyperglycaemia as determined by forensic postmortem examination, in Sweden August 2006 to December 2012. Vitreous glucose was used to diagnose hyperglycaemia postmortem...
2016: PloS One
Parisa Goldar, Mohammad Hadi Givianrad, Akbar Shams
Phenylketonuria (PKU) is a genetic disorder that has no cure and all patients with this disorder must adhere to a special diet to prevent the onset of symptoms and mental retardation in children. In this study, analog yoghurt with good and acceptable nutrition benefit for PKU patients was produced. Accordingly, ultrafiltered milk permeate was added at two different concentrations of 4 and 5 w/w % and non-dairy creamer at two different concentrations of 1.5 and 2 w/w %. Subsequently, pH, acidity, protein, fat, dry matter, humidity, syneresis and Phe of the yogurts were determined...
July 2016: Journal of Food Science and Technology
Beate Schwer, Fahad Khalid, Stewart Shuman
Saccharomyces cerevisiae Dbr1 is a manganese-dependent RNA debranching enzyme that cleaves the 2'-5' phosphodiester bond of the lariat introns formed during pre-mRNA splicing. Dbr1 is a member of the binuclear metallophosphoesterase enzyme superfamily. We showed previously via alanine scanning that RNA debranching in vivo and in vitro depends on conserved active site residues His13, Asp40, Asn85, His86, His179, His231, and His233. Here, by extending the alanine scan, we added Cys11 to the ensemble of essential active site components...
October 7, 2016: RNA
Mahlet Fikreyesus, Matiwos Soboka, Garumma Tolu Feyissa
BACKGROUND: Psychotic relapse leads to repeated hospitalization and negatively affects the clinical prognosis of the patients. Information on prevalence of relapse among patients with psychotic disorders in Ethiopian setting is scarce. This study aimed to assess the prevalence of relapse among patients with psychotic disorders attending services in Jimma University Specialized Hospital (JUSH). METHODS: Data were collected using interviewer administered questionnaire...
October 20, 2016: BMC Psychiatry
Verónica Poveda, Leonilde Amado, Madalena Filgueiras, Laetitia Teixeira, Vasco Miranda, Alice Santos-Silva, Constança Paúl, Elísio Costa
Non-adherence to medical plans is recognized as an important problem in dialysis patients, since it has been associated with increased morbidity and mortality, resulting in disproportionately high costs of care. The success of renal replacement therapy depends on the adherence of patients to the different aspects of the therapeutic strategy, which includes a complex drug regimen involving a wide variety of drugs and doses, several prescribed dialysis sessions with different durations, dietetic recommendations and restriction of fluid intake...
October 20, 2016: Renal Failure
Amy Y Tsou, Jonathan R Treadwell
BACKGROUND: Systematic review (SR) abstracts are important for disseminating evidence syntheses to inform medical decision making. We assess reporting quality in SR abstracts using PRISMA for Abstracts (PRISMA-A), Cochrane Handbook, and Agency for Healthcare Research & Quality guidance. METHODS: We evaluated a random sample of 200 SR abstracts (from 2014) comparing interventions in the general medical literature. We assessed adherence to PRISMA-A criteria, problematic wording in conclusions, and whether "positive" studies described clinical significance...
October 20, 2016: Research Synthesis Methods
Emilie Venables, Jeffrey K Edwards, Saar Baert, William Etienne, Kelly Khabala, Helen Bygrave
INTRODUCTION: The number of people on antiretroviral therapy (ART) for the long-term management of HIV in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) is continuing to increase, along with the prevalence of Non-Communicable Diseases (NCDs). The need to provide large volumes of HIV patients with ART has led to significant adaptations in how medication is delivered, but access to NCD care remains limited in many contexts. Medication Adherence Clubs (MACs) were established in Kibera, Kenya to address the large numbers of patients requiring chronic HIV and/or NCD care...
2016: PloS One
Audrey H Calderwood, Paul C Schroy, Matthew A Kluge, Howard J Cabral, James F Burgess
OBJECTIVE: To identify predictors of adherence with surveillance colonoscopy at a safety-net hospital. METHODS: We evaluated average-risk patients aged 50-75 with adenomas diagnosed at screening colonoscopy between 1/1/05-12/31/07. The primary outcome was on-time follow-up defined as attendance at surveillance colonoscopy within 5.5 years of screening colonoscopy. RESULTS: Among 881 patients, of whom 38% were English-speaking non-Hispanic Blacks, 38...
2016: Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved
Tim Mitchell, Hannah Gooding, Cathy Mews, Leon Adams, Gerry MacQuillan, George Garas, Madhur Ravikumara, Ainslie Lopez, Megan Collins, Gary Jeffrey
Transition to adult care is a vulnerable period for pediatric transplant recipients and is associated with reduced medication compliance, graft loss, and increased mortality. Psychosocial outcomes in young adults differ between pediatric transplant recipients and their healthy peers. We conducted a single-center, retrospective cohort study of all pediatric liver transplant recipients who were transitioned through our center. This study aimed to assess the outcomes of transitioned pediatric liver transplant recipients at an Australian center, including mortality, adherence, and psychosocial morbidity...
October 20, 2016: Pediatric Transplantation
Denise Dion Hallfors, Bonita J Iritani, Lei Zhang, Shane Hartman, Winnie K Luseno, Elias Mpofu, Simbarashe Rusakaniko
This study examines the association between religious affiliation and reasons for marriage, perceived church attitudes, and reproductive health-seeking behaviors, including HIV testing, among young women in eastern rural Zimbabwe. The sample comprised women (N = 35) who had married by 2012 while participating in a larger randomized controlled trial (RCT) to test the effects of school support on HIV-related risk. The RCT sample was identified in 2007 as all female sixth graders in 25 rural eastern Zimbabwe primary schools whose parents, one or both, had died (N = 328)...
December 2016: SAHARA J: Journal of Social Aspects of HIV/AIDS Research Alliance
Tamsin Phillips, Annibale Cois, Robert H Remien, Claude A Mellins, James A McIntyre, Greg Petro, Elaine J Abrams, Landon Myer
BACKGROUND: Antiretroviral therapy (ART) regimens containing efavirenz (EFV) are recommended as part of universal ART for pregnant and breastfeeding women. EFV may have appreciable side effects (SE), and ART adherence in pregnancy is a major concern, but little is known about ART SE and associations with adherence in pregnancy. METHODS: We investigated the distribution of patient-reported SE (based on Division of AIDS categories) and the association of SE with missed ART doses in a cohort of 517 women starting EFV+3TC/FTC+TDF during pregnancy...
2016: PloS One
Nicola Mackintosh, Marius Terblanche, Ritesh Maharaj, Andreas Xyrichis, Karen Franklin, Jamie Keddie, Emily Larkins, Anna Maslen, James Skinner, Samuel Newman, Joana Hiew De Sousa Magalhaes, Jane Sandall
BACKGROUND: Telemedicine applications aim to address variance in clinical outcomes and increase access to specialist expertise. Despite widespread implementation, there is little robust evidence about cost-effectiveness, clinical benefits, and impact on quality and safety of critical care telemedicine. The primary objective was to determine the impact of critical care telemedicine (with clinical decision support available 24/7) on intensive care unit (ICU) and hospital mortality and length of stay in adults and children...
October 18, 2016: Systematic Reviews
Rahul Pal, Saif Hameed, Sharda Sharma, Zeeshan Fatima
Novel strategies to combat the ever increasing burden of drug resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) causing tuberculosis (TB) remains a global concern. The ability of MTB to sense and adapt to restricted iron conditions in the hostile environment is essential for their survival and confers the basis of their success as dreadful pathogen. The striking and clinically relevant virulence trait of MTB is its ability to form biofilms and adhere to the host cells. The present study elucidated the effect of iron deprivation on biofilm formation and cell adherence of Mycobacterium smegmatis, a non-pathogenic surrogate of MTB...
October 15, 2016: Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases
Svetlana Villevalde, Zhanna Kobalava
OBJECTIVE: Antihypertensive medication nonadherence is significant contributor to poor BP control. Patient-related factors (lack of motivation or risk understanding) are important. The aim of PRISMA study was to determine the impact of integrated approach with therapy based on perindopril arginine in the improvement of motivation, adherence to antihypertensive treatment and BP control. DESIGN AND METHOD: 906 (315 male, 56.0 ± 10.6 years) non-adherent (score < 4 in Morisky and Green Test for Measure of Adherence to Therapy) hypertensive patients with planning or action stages of behavior changes (Prochaska and DiClemente model) with uncontrolled hypertension (BP > 140/90 mmHg) were randomly assigned to 2 strategies: integrated approach with therapy based on perindopril arginine with added-on therapy if necessary (G1, n = 755) or routine practice (G2, n = 151)...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
George Bakris
Renal denervation started out as a very promising approach to treat resistant hypertension with a very strong conceptual and basic science frame work from Gerald DiBona's lab and extending into the early non shame clinical studies demonstrating proof of concept in SYMPLICITY HTN-1 and 2. SYMPLICITY-HTN 3 a properly done, sham control trial failed to show a benefit on further reduction of BP compared to the sham group. The conclusion the procedure doesn't work. How could this be-it was clearly effective in animal models but why not in man...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Yutaka Imai
It has been confirmed that clinical significance of home blood pressure measurements (HBPM) is higher than clinic BP measurements and ambulatory BP monitoring. However, several drawbacks of HBPM have also been mentioned, e.g. selection and reporting biases, difficulties of calculation of multiple measurements, difficulties of onsite judgement of numerous recordings, etc. Recent devices for HBPM incorporate memory function. This function can overcome such drawbacks of HBPM. These memorized data can transmit, storage, retrieve, be arithmetic and control, be judged based on algorithm and be got feedback...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
David John Webb
Treatment-resistant hypertension (TRH) is defined as the failure to achieve an office BP target of <140/90 mmHg (<130/80 mmHg in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) or diabetes) in patients with hypertension (HT), despite adherence to at least 3 antihypertensive medications at optimal tolerated doses, ideally including a diuretic (Calhoun et al., Circulation 2008). TRH identifies patients with hard-to-treat HT, who might benefit from specialist investigation and treatment. Although some studies put the prevalence of TRH as >10%, these levels may be inflated by white-coat hypertension and poor adherence...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Maciej Tomaszewski
Non-adherence to antihypertensive treatment is a common cause of poor blood pressure control and pseudo-resistant hypertension. The lecture will provide an overview of the current diagnostic and therapeutic applications of HPLC-MS/MS-based urine analysis in management of hypertensive patients.
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Dorairaj Prabhakaran
Among individuals with established CVD, multiple medications (aspirin, blood pressure lowering drugs and statins) are required to manage CVD and it is well established that non adherence to prescribed treatments is substantial in the long term. Such discontinuation of CV-preventive medications and low adherence rates has been shown to affect the success of CVD prevention efforts. In low- and middle income countries only less than 20% patients receive recommended therapy for CVD prevention, but even in high-income countries treatment coverage in the community is only about 50% in those with heart disease and 35% in those with stroke...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
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