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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711526/xpert-hiv-1-point-of-care-test-for-neonatal-diagnosis-of-hiv-in-the-birth-testing-programme-of-a-maternity-hospital-a-field-evaluation-study
#1
Karl-Günter Technau, Louise Kuhn, Ashraf Coovadia, Pamela M Murnane, Gayle Sherman
BACKGROUND: Point-of-care testing (POCT) among HIV-exposed infants might improve linkage to care relative to laboratory-based testing (LABT). We evaluated HIV-1 POCT at birth in the context of universal LABT in a maternity hospital and describe our implementation experience. METHODS: We did a field evaluation study between Oct 1, 2014, and April 30, 2016, at the urban Rahima Moosa Mother and Child Hospital (RMMCH), Johannesburg, South Africa. We aimed to sample consecutive neonates at birth with POCT (Cepheid Xpert HIV-1 Qualitative test) and compared results with those of LABT (Roche COBAS TaqMan HIV-1 Qualitative test) with respect to performance in terms of sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV), and Cohen's κ coefficient, result return, antiretroviral treatment (ART) initiation, and coverage...
July 12, 2017: Lancet HIV
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704202/the-integration-of-the-molecular-methods-in-the-diagnosis-algorithm-for-the-poliovirus-detection-in-the-sewage-water-comparing-concentration-and-detection-methods-a-pilot-study
#2
Anda Bãicuş
Introduction Two cases of circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus type 1(cVDPV1), from southwestern Ukraine, bordering Romania, were confirmed in 2015 and the environmental enterovirus surveillance was enhanced in our country. The molecular detection of human enteroviruses as a screening test followed by isolation on cell culture lines or sequencing could be proposed as a new diagnosis algorithm. Material and Methods The sensitivity of two molecular methods for the detection of enterovirus strains in 10 ml of sewage water (15 samples) was studied with Film Array ME panel BioFire (Biomerieux, France) and Xpert EV assay (Cepheid, USA)...
July 8, 2017: Romanian Journal of Internal Medicine, Revue Roumaine de Médecine Interne
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689228/impact-of-a-rapid-molecular-test-for-positive-blood-cultures-from-neonatal-intensive-care-patients-on-clinical-management-a-retrospective-audit
#3
L L Koh, S O'Rourke, M Brennan, L Clooney, M Cafferkey, N McCallion, R J Drew
BACKGROUND: Both Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase negative Staphylococci are common causes of late-onset neonatal sepsis in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU), usually relating to intravascular access device infections. AIMS: This project aimed to review the impact on antimicrobial treatment and clinical outcome in the NICU setting, of the introduction of the Xpert MRSA/SA BC test (Cepheid, USA) for the identification of staphylococci in blood cultures. METHODS: A retrospective audit was carried out of the pre- and post-intervention periods; the intervention was the introduction of the Xpert MRSA/SA BC test...
July 8, 2017: Irish Journal of Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28679521/use-of-nucleic-acid-amplification-testing-for-the-diagnosis-of-extragenital-sexually-transmitted-infections-naat-detection-of-stis-in-rectal-and-pharyngeal-swabs
#4
Lisa A Cosentino, Claire S Danby, Lorna K Rabe, Ingrid Macio, Leslie A Meyn, Harold C Wiesenfeld, Sharon L Hillier
Nucleic acid amplification testing (NAAT) is the preferred method to detect Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae, but no commercial tests are cleared by the US Food and Drug Administration for use with extragenital swab samples. This study evaluated the performance of Gen-Probe Aptima® Combo2 assay (Aptima) and the Cepheid Xpert® CT/NG assay (Xpert) to detect C.trachomatis and N. gonorrhoeae in rectal and pharyngeal samples from 224 men and 175 women reporting a history of anal receptive sexual intercourse...
July 5, 2017: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28669674/verification-of-the-cepheid-xpert-carba-r-assay-for-the-detection-of-carbapenemase-genes-in-bacterial-isolates-cultured-on-alternative-solid-culture-media
#5
Hannah Tanner
The Xpert Carba-R (Cepheid) is a PCR assay for detection and differentiation of five common carbapenemase genes. If used according to manufacturer's instructions, bacterial isolates tested must be cultured on blood or MacConkey agar. This study confirms that the assay performs well against a diverse panel of bacterial isolates with known carbapenemase genes. It also demonstrates that the assay performs well using three solid agar culture media that have not been recommended by the PCR assay's manufacturer: CLED, ChromID CARBA-SMART, and a nutrient slope...
June 29, 2017: Journal of Hospital Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621047/clinical-value-of-polymerase-chain-reaction-in-detecting-group-b-streptococcus-during-labor
#6
Dorothea Maria Koppes, Antonius Arnoldus Cornelis Maria Vriends, Michiel van Rijn, Antonine Dimphne van Heesewijk
AIM: To reduce the intrapartum use of antibiotics in women with prolonged rupture of the membranes (PROM) by restriction of antibiotics to women who are colonized with group B streptococci (GBS), as identified with the Cepheid Gene Xpert polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for detecting GBS. METHODS: We conducted a randomized controlled trial among full-term delivering women with PROM. Fifty-four women were enrolled, based on a power calculation with a significance level of 5% and a power of 95%...
June 2017: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604481/comparative-evaluation-of-2-nucleic-acid-amplification-tests-for-the-detection-of-chlamydia-trachomatis-and-neisseria-gonorrhoeae-at-extragenital-sites
#7
Claire C Bristow, Mark R McGrath, Adam C Cohen, Laura J Anderson, Kristie K Gordon, Jeffrey D Klausner
Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) and Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) infections are frequently asymptomatic, requiring highly accurate diagnostic tests and proper management to prevent further transmission. We compared two nucleic acid tests, Xpert® CT/NG (Cepheid, Sunnyvale, CA) point-of-care platform and at an offsite clinical laboratory with Aptima Combo 2® (Hologic, Inc., San Diego, CA) assay, for the detection of extragenital infection in patients at an STI clinic in Hollywood, CA.We calculated concordance between the two assays and used the exact binomial method to calculate 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for each specimen type and pathogen...
July 2017: Sexually Transmitted Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592547/performance-of-the-abbott-realtime-mtb-and-mtb-rif-inh-assays-in-a-high-tb-and-hiv-coinfection-setting-in-south-africa
#8
Lesley Scott, Anura David, Lara Noble, Matilda Nduna, Pedro Da Silva, Andrew Black, Francois Venter, Wendy Stevens
Background: South Africa is a country with a high incidence of tuberculosis (TB), complicated by coinfection with HIV. The Xpert MTB/RIF (Cepheid, Sunnyvale, CA, USA) is used in South Africa as the test for initial diagnosis of TB, and other molecular platforms such as the m2000 (Abbott Molecular, Des Plaines, IL, USA) are widely used for molecular monitoring of HIV viral load. This latter platform is now also equipped with the RealTime MTB and RealTime MTB RIF/INH assays for TB and first line drug resistance screening, but has not been evaluated in settings of HIV and TB coinfection...
June 7, 2017: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504863/diagnostic-accuracy-of-polymerase-chain-reaction-for-intrapartum-detection-of-group-b-streptococcus-colonization
#9
Rikke Bek Helmig, Jan Berg Gertsen
Many pregnant women are treated with antibiotics during labor to prevent transmission of group B Streptococcus (GBS, Streptococcus agalactiae) to their baby during the passage of the birth canal, and thus reducing the risk of serious infection of the newborn. Methods for intrapartum testing for GBS has been introduced to select women for whom intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis should be offered. For such an intrapartum test to be useful in clinical practice, it has to be specific as well as sensitive. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the accuracy of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay compared to an optimized culture method for GBS MATERIAL AND METHODS: In the period from 12...
May 15, 2017: Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490486/meatal-swabs-contain-less-cellular-material-and-are-associated-with-a-decrease-in-gram-stain-smear-quality-compared-to-urethral-swabs-in-men
#10
Stephen J Jordan, Jane R Schwebke, Kristal J Aaron, Barbara Van Der Pol, Edward W Hook
Urethral swabs are the samples of choice for point-of-care Gram stain testing to diagnose Neisseria gonorrhoeae infection and nongonococcal urethritis (NGU) in men. As an alternative to urethral swabs, meatal swabs have been recommended for the collection of urethral discharge to diagnose N. gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis infection in certain populations by nucleic acid amplification testing (NAAT), as they involve a less invasive collection method. However, as meatal swabs could be sampling a reduced surface area and result in fewer collected epithelial cells compared to urethral swabs, the adequacy of meatal swab specimens to collect sufficient cellular material for Gram stain testing remains unknown...
July 2017: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442271/evaluation-of-the-xpert-hcv-viral-load-point-of-care-assay-from-venepuncture-collected-and-finger-stick-capillary-whole-blood-samples-a-cohort-study
#11
Jason Grebely, Francois M J Lamoury, Behzad Hajarizadeh, Yasmin Mowat, Alison D Marshall, Sahar Bajis, Philippa Marks, Janaki Amin, Julie Smith, Michael Edwards, Carla Gorton, Nadine Ezard, David Persing, Marika Kleman, Philip Cunningham, Beth Catlett, Gregory J Dore, Tanya L Applegate
BACKGROUND: Point-of-care hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA testing offers an advantage over antibody testing (which only indicates previous exposure), enabling diagnosis of active infection in a single visit. In this study, we evaluated the performance of the Xpert HCV Viral Load assay with venepuncture and finger-stick capillary whole-blood samples. METHODS: Plasma and finger-stick capillary whole-blood samples were collected from participants in an observational cohort enrolled at five sites in Australia (three drug and alcohol clinics, one homelessness service, and one needle and syringe programme)...
April 21, 2017: Lancet. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430807/diagnosis-of-smear-negative-tuberculosis-is-greatly-improved-by-xpert-mtb-rif
#12
Giulia Lombardi, Valentina Di Gregori, Nicolò Girometti, Marina Tadolini, Francesco Bisognin, Paola Dal Monte
BACKGROUND: Diagnosis of pulmonary (PTB) and extra-pulmonary tuberculosis (EPTB) in smear-negative patients can be difficult. We assessed retrospectively the performance of Xpert MTB/RIF system (Xpert, Cepheid) in diagnosing smear-negative tuberculosis (TB), which represents the most common form of TB in a low incidence setting. METHODS: Performance of Xpert was compared to acid-fast microscopic examination using Ziehl-Neelsen (ZN) stain in patients with culture-confirmed TB...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411078/performance-of-the-xpert-%C3%A2-carba-r-v2-in-the-daily-workflow-of-a-hygiene-unit-in-a-country-with-a-low-prevalence-of-carbapenemase-producing-enterobacteriaceae
#13
Yannick Hoyos-Mallecot, Souad Ouzani, Laurent Dortet, Nicolas Fortineau, Thierry Naas
Early detection of patients colonised with carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) is crucial for implementing proper infection control measures. Here we evaluated the biological performance of the Xpert(®) Carba-R v2 (Cepheid) in the daily workflow of a hygiene unit in a country with a low CPE prevalence. Patients repatriated from countries known for high CPE prevalence or contact patients of a known CPE carrier were targeted as being 'high-risk patients' for CPE carriage. Between September 2015 and March 2016, 241 'high-risk patients' for CPE carriage were screened using the Xpert(®) Carba-R v2 and by plating on chromID(®) CARBA Smart medium (bioMérieux) with and without ertapenem-containing enrichment culture for 24 h...
June 2017: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28358797/evaluation-of-automated-molecular-testing-rollout-for-tuberculosis-diagnosis-using-routinely-collected-surveillance-data-uganda-2012-2015
#14
Colleen Scott, Simon Walusimbi, Bruce Kirenga, Moses Joloba, Muttamba Winters, Nyombi Abdunoor, Rommel Bain, Heather Alexander, Tom Shinnick, Sean Toney, Rosemary Odeke, Christine Mwangi, Estella Birabwa, Seyoum Dejene, Frank Mugabe, Mukadi YaDiul, J Sean Cavanaugh
In 2012, Uganda introduced the use of GeneXpert MTB/RIF (Cepheid, Sunnyvale CA), a sensitive, automated, real-time polymerase chain reaction-based platform for tuberculosis (TB) diagnosis, for programmatic use among children, adults with presumptive human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated TB, and symptomatic persons at risk for rifampicin (RIF)-resistant TB. The effect of using the platform's Xpert MTB/RIF assay on TB care and control was assessed using routinely collected programmatic data; in addition, a retrospective review of district quarterly summaries using abstracted TB register data from purposively selected facilities in the capital city of Kampala was conducted...
March 31, 2017: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350554/brief-report-high-sensitivity-and-specificity-of-the-cepheid-xpert-hiv-1-qualitative-point-of-care-test-among-newborns-in-botswana
#15
Maryanne Ibrahim, Sikhulile Moyo, Terence Mohammed, Lucy Mupfumi, Simani Gaseitsiwe, Kenneth Maswabi, Gbolahan Ajibola, Rebecca Gelman, Oganne Batlang, Maureen Sakoi, Chloe Auletta-Young, Joseph Makhema, Shahin Lockman, Roger L Shapiro
BACKGROUND: HIV point-of-care (POC) testing allows for early infant HIV diagnosis and treatment, but POC accuracy at birth and in the setting of antiretroviral prophylaxis for the prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission is unknown. METHODS: We evaluated the Cepheid Xpert HIV-1 Qual POC test against the Roche Taqman HIV-1 DNA polymerase chain reaction (PCR) platform using dried blood spots from 15 HIV-infected and 75 HIV-exposed uninfected newborns. These infants were screened for HIV at <96 hours of life at 5 hospital maternity wards in Botswana; all infants received postexposure antiretroviral prophylaxis with single-dose nevirapine and zidovudine, and most mothers received 3-drug antiretroviral therapy in pregnancy and at delivery...
August 15, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321579/performance-of-three-generations-of-xpert-mrsa-in-routine-practice-approaching-the-aim
#16
H Jacqmin, A Schuermans, S Desmet, J Verhaegen, V Saegeman
The aim of this study was to evaluate retrospectively the performance of the Xpert MRSA assay in routine practice and its current use in the intensive care unit (ICU) setting of our hospital, since a pre-emptive isolation strategy has been applied. A total of 6473 patients were routinely screened with ESwab for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) using three generations of rapid real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) (Cepheid GeneXpert) over three consecutive periods of time. Performance was evaluated using broth enrichment culture as the reference method...
March 20, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318702/antibiotic-associated-diarrhea-clinical-characteristics-and-the-presence-of-clostridium-difficile
#17
A Rodríguez-Varón, O M Muñoz, J Pulido-Arenas, S B Amado, M Tobón-Trujillo
INTRODUCTION AND AIMS: Evidence in Colombia and Latin America has been insufficient for establishing the clinical characteristics of patients with antibiotic-associated diarrhea (AAD). The present study attempts to describe the clinical characteristics of patients with AAD and to determine the presence of Clostridium difficile, utilizing the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty-three patients with AAD, managed at the Hospital Universitario San Ignacio in Bogotá, Colombia, were evaluated...
March 18, 2017: Revista de Gastroenterología de México
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317812/evaluation-of-pulmonary-tuberculosis-case-detection-improvement-with-the-deployment-of-xpertmtb-rif-in-the-tuberculosis-control-program-of-cross-river-state-nigeria
#18
Ernest Afu Ochang, Ubleni E Emanghe, Atana Ewa, Akaninyene Otu, Jonah B Offor, Micheal Odo, Aniekan Etokidem, Barinadaa Afirima, Oju Eni Owuna, Sunday M Obeten, Martin M Meremikwu
OBJECTIVE/BACKGROUND: Global indices show that Nigeria has the highest tuberculosis (TB)-related mortality rate. Overdependence on Ziehl-Neelsen (ZN) smear microscopy for diagnosis and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/AIDS has limited control efforts. The new polymerase chain reaction-based XpertMTB/Rif (Cepheid Inc., CA, USA), which detects Mycobacterium tuberculosis and rifampicin resistance, was introduced in Cross River State in 2014. We evaluated the increment in pulmonary TB case detection following introduction of XpertMTB/Rif into the Cross River State TB control program...
January 2017: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317811/performance-of-the-xpert-mtb-rif-assay-in-the-diagnosis-of-tuberculosis-in-formalin-fixed-paraffin-embedded-tissues
#19
Pascal Polepole, Mwila Kabwe, Mpanga Kasonde, John Tembo, Aaron Shibemba, Justin O'Grady, Nathan Kapata, Alimuddin Zumla, Matthew Bates
OBJECTIVE/BACKGROUND: Extrapulmonary tuberculosis (EPTB), which accounts for 10%-40% of the global burden of TB, with the highest incidence in Sub-Saharan Africa, is strongly associated with human immunodeficiency virus infection. Diagnosing EPTB is challenging, and recently, there has been a concerted effort to evaluate the latest molecular diagnostics for diagnosing TB in a range of specimen types. The Xpert MTB/RIF assay (Cepheid, Sunnyvale, CA, USA) is one such technology, which simultaneously detects Mycobacterium tuberculosis and rifampicin resistance...
January 2017: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285563/impact-of-introduction-of-xpert-flu-assay-for-influenza-pcr-testing-on-obstetric-patients-a-quality-improvement-project
#20
Eimear Linehan, Marian Brennan, Sadhbh O'Rourke, Suzie Coughlan, Lisa Clooney, David LeBlanc, Joanna Griffin, Maeve Eogan, Richard J Drew
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this project was to assess the implementation of a quality improvement project regarding the introduction of on-site influenza PCR testing in a stand-alone obstetric hospital. METHODS: As part of a quality improvement project on the management of influenza in obstetric patients, the Xpert Flu assay (Cepheid Inc., Sunnyvale, CA) was introduced on-site and it replaced the previous method of PCR testing which was off-site. The main outcome measures were duration of antimicrobials, rate of admission and administration of oseltamavir in the emergency department...
April 2, 2017: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
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