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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094151/comparison-of-the-bd-max-mrsa-xt-to-the-cepheid%C3%A2-xpert%C3%A2-mrsa-assay-for-the-molecular-detection-of-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-from-nasal-swabs
#1
Sanjay R Mehta, Jasmine Estrada, Juan Ybarra, Joshua Fierer
INTRODUCTION: Variation in MRSA genotypes may affect the sensitivity of molecular assays to detect this organism. METHODS: We compared 2 commonly used screening assays, the Cepheid™ Xpert® MRSA and the BD MAX™ MRSA XT on consecutively obtained nasal swabs from 479 subjects. Specimens giving discordant results were subjected to additional microbiologic and molecular testing. RESULTS: Six hundred forty-two (97.6%) of the 658 test results were concordant...
December 16, 2016: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091937/ocular-mycobacteriosis-dual-infection-of-m-tuberculosis-complex-with-m-fortuitum-and-m-bovis
#2
Kusum Sharma, Natasha Gautam, Megha Sharma, Mohit Dogra, Priya Bajgai, Basavaraj Tigari, Aman Sharma, Vishali Gupta, Surya Prakash Sharma, Ramandeep Singh
BACKGROUND: We report unfavorable outcome in a patient with subretinal granuloma caused by dual infection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex with Mycobacterium fortuitum and Mycobacterium bovis in an immunosuppressed, non-HIV patient. We did a systematic review of literature on dual infection due to M. tuberculosis and M. fortuitum via MEDLINE and PUBMED and could not find any case reported of causing this kind of dual infection in the eye. RESULTS: A 38-year-old Indian male patient presented with decreased vision in the left eye for 3 months, diagnosed as tubercular choroidal granuloma with associated retinal angiomatosis proliferans (RAP) lesion...
December 2017: Journal of Ophthalmic Inflammation and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087944/laboratory-diagnosis-and-susceptibility-testing-for-mycobacterium-tuberculosis
#3
Gary W Procop
The laboratory, which utilizes some of the most sophisticated and rapidly changing technologies, plays a critical role in the diagnosis of tuberculosis. Some of these tools are being employed in resource-challenged countries for the rapid detection and characterization of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Foremost, the laboratory defines appropriate specimen criteria for optimal test performance. The direct detection of mycobacteria in the clinical specimen, predominantly done by acid-fast staining, may eventually be replaced by rapid-cycle PCR...
December 2016: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087170/clostridium-difficile-rates-in-asymptomatic-and-symptomatic-hospitalized-patients-using-nucleic-acid-testing
#4
Cynthia Truong, Lee F Schroeder, Rajiv Gaur, Victoria Emma Anikst, Ikuko Komo, Colleen Watters, Erin McCalley, Carole Kulik, David Pickham, Nancy J Lee, Niaz Banaei
BACKGROUND: The Clostridium difficile rate in symptomatic patients represents both those with C. difficile infection (CDI) and those with colonization. To predict the extent of CDI overdiagnosis, we compared the asymptomatic colonization rate to the symptomatic positivity rate in hospitalized patients using nucleic acid testing. METHODS: Between July 2014 and April 2015, formed stool samples were collected from asymptomatic patients after admission to 3 hospital wards at the Stanford Hospital...
January 3, 2017: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073895/evaluation-of-genotypic-and-phenotypic-methods-to-detect-carbapenemase-production-in-gram-negative-bacilli
#5
Allison R McMullen, Melanie L Yarbrough, Meghan A Wallace, Angela Shupe, Carey-Ann D Burnham
BACKGROUND: Carbapenemase-producing gram-negative bacteria (CP-GNB) are an urgent and expanding public health threat. Rapid and accurate identification of these organisms facilitates infection prevention efforts in healthcare facilities. The objective of our study was to evaluate methods to detect and identify CP-GNB. METHODS: We examined 189 carbapenem-resistant GNB (CR-GNB), including Enterobacteriaceae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Acinetobacter baumannii complex, using 3 different methods: 2 methods to screen isolates of GNB for carbapenemase production [the carbapenem inactivation method (CIM) and 2 chromogenic agars] and a molecular method (Cepheid GeneXpert Carba-R) to identify the mechanism of carbapenem resistance and the associated resistance genes (blaKPC, blaNDM, blaIMP, blaOXA-48-like, and blaVIM)...
January 10, 2017: Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059955/diagnosis-of-opportunistic-infections-hiv-co-infections-tuberculosis
#6
Lesley Scott, Pedro da Silva, Catharina C Boehme, Wendy Stevens, Chris Gilpin
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Tuberculosis (TB) incidence has declined ∼1.5% annually since 2000, but continued to affect 10.4 million individuals in 2015, with 1/3 remaining undiagnosed or underreported. The diagnosis of TB among those co-infected with HIV is challenging as TB remains the leading cause of death in such individuals. Accurate and rapid diagnosis of active TB will avert mortality in both adults and children, reduce transmission, and assist in timeous decisions for antiretroviral therapy initiation...
January 5, 2017: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043620/implementation-of-new-tools-for-multidrug-resistant-tuberculosis-detection-and-control
#7
Robin M Warren
Contrary to classical dogma, molecular epidemiological studies and mathematical modeling clearly show that the global drug-resistant tuberculosis (TB) epidemic is driven by transmission. Furthermore, there is mounting evidence demonstrating that amplification of resistance occurs during treatment, possibly as a result of insufficient active drugs being administered. To control the drug-resistant TB epidemic, it will be essential to implement new, rapid, and highly sensitive and specific diagnostic methods to decrease the diagnostic delay associated with culture-based testing...
December 2016: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043600/benefits-and-challenges-of-molecular-diagnostics-for-childhood-tuberculosis
#8
Cristina Gutierrez
Expanding tuberculosis (TB)-diagnostic services, including access to rapid tests, is a World Health Organization (WHO) strategy to accelerate progress toward ending TB. Faster and more sensitive molecular tests capable of diagnosing TB and drug-resistant TB have the technical capacity to address limitations associated with smears and cultures by increasing accuracy and shortening turnaround times as compared with those of these conventional laboratory methods. Nucleic acid amplification assays used to detect and analyze Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB)-complex nucleic acids can be used directly on specimens from patients suspected of having TB...
December 2016: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043528/childhood-tuberculosis-in-qatar
#9
Jay P N Singh, Reem Mohammed, Thanveer Thayyullathil, Abdullatif Al-Khal, Zubaida Al-Suwaidi
Childhood tuberculosis (TB) has been long neglected but has gained attention in recent years. In 2012, the World Health Organization annual report included an estimate for childhood TB for the first time, and in the following year, the TB Alliance received a grant from UNITAID (International Drug Purchase Facility) to develop pediatric TB formulations. Qatar is a low-incidence country. In this observational study, laboratory-confirmed cases of TB were analyzed from 2013 to 2015 and included patients aged ⩽14years...
December 2016: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043515/evaluation-of-rifampicin-resistance-and-81-bp-rifampicin-resistant-determinant-region-of-rpob-gene-mutations-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-detected-with-xpertmtb-rif-in-cross-river-state-nigeria
#10
Ernest A Ochang, Ubong A Udoh, Ubleni E Emanghe, Gerald O Tiku, Jonah B Offor, Micheal Odo, Emmanuel Nkombe, Oju E Owuna, Sunday M Obeten, Martin M Meremikwu
OBJECTIVE/BACKGROUND: World Health Organization tuberculosis (TB) indices from 2014 to 2016 showed that Nigeria had the 6th highest prevalence, 4th highest incidence, and the highest mortality rate globally. In efforts to improve TB care, the XpertMTB/Rif (GeneXpert) technology, Cepheid, Sunnyvale, California, USA, which has revolutionized TB detection with concomitant rifampicin-resistance molecular detection, was introduced in Cross River State, South-South Nigeria, in 2014. The GeneXpert uses molecular beacons to detect five overlapping 81-bp regions in the rpoB gene known as the Rifampicin Resistant Determinant Region (RRDR)...
December 2016: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011966/performance-of-real-time-pcr-xpert-%C3%A2-mtb-rif-in-diagnosing-extrapulmonary-tuberculosis
#11
Ester Mazzola, Marco Arosio, Alice Nava, Diana Fanti, Giovanni Gesu, Claudio Farina
The real time PCR Xpert ® MTB/RIF is fundamental for rapid diagnosis in paucibacillary respiratory samples and for the detection of multidrug-resistant TB cases. This paper aimed to determine its performance on different extrapulmonary samples. We determined sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value on respiratory and non-respiratory samples collected from January 2010 to June 2014. The protocol for the Xpert ® MTB/RIF PCR suggested by Cepheid was strictly followed for all specimens...
1, 2016: Le Infezioni in Medicina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28004323/rapid-mrsa-pcr-on-respiratory-specimens-from-ventilated-patients-with-suspected-pneumonia-a-tool-to-facilitate-antimicrobial-stewardship
#12
S E Trevino, M A Pence, J Marschall, M H Kollef, H M Babcock, C-A D Burnham
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is an important cause of pneumonia in ventilated patients. Our objective was to evaluate the GeneXpert MRSA/SA SSTI Assay (Xpert MRSA/SA) (Cepheid, Sunnyvale, CA) for use in lower respiratory tract (LRT) specimens for rapid MRSA detection and to determine the potentially saved antibiotic-days if a culture-based identification method was replaced by this assay. Remnant LRT samples from ventilated patients submitted to the microbiology laboratory for routine culture were tested using conventional culture and Xpert MRSA/SA...
December 21, 2016: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27999030/prevalence-and-correlates-of-mrsa-and-mssa-nasal-carriage-at-a-ugandan-regional-referral-hospital
#13
Lisa M Bebell, Arnold Ayebare, Yap Boum, Mark J Siedner, Joel Bazira, Steven J Schiff, Joshua P Metlay, David R Bangsberg, Stephen Ttendo, Paul G Firth
BACKGROUND: Despite increasing antimicrobial resistance globally, data are lacking on prevalence and factors associated with Staphylococcus aureus (SA) and MRSA carriage in resource-limited settings. OBJECTIVES: To determine the prevalence of SA and MRSA nasal carriage and factors associated with carriage among Ugandan regional referral hospital patients. METHODS: We enrolled a cross-section of 500 adults, sampling anterior nares for SA and MRSA carriage using Cepheid Xpert SA Nasal Complete...
December 20, 2016: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27992521/evaluation-of-the-xpert-carba-r-cepheid-assay-using-contrived-bronchial-specimens-from-patients-with-suspicion-of-ventilator-associated-pneumonia-for-the-detection-of-prevalent-carbapenemases
#14
Almudena Burillo, Mercedes Marín, Emilia Cercenado, Guillermo Ruiz-Carrascoso, María Jesús Pérez-Granda, Jesús Oteo, Emilio Bouza
There is a critical need for rapid diagnostic methods for multidrug-resistant (MDR) pathogens in patients with a suspicion of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP). The Xpert Carba-R detects 5 targets for carbapenemase-producing organisms (blaKPC, blaNDM, blaVIM, blaOXA-48, and blaIMP-1). Our objective was to evaluate the performance of this assay directly on bronchial aspirates and to correlate the cycle number for a positive result (Ct) with the bacterial count. Bronchial aspirates from patients with a suspicion of VAP were spiked with a dilution of 1 of 4 MDR organisms carrying the resistance genes detected by the test prepared to a final concentration of 102-105 cfu/mL...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27992495/options-to-expand-hiv-viral-load-testing-in-south-africa-evaluation-of-the-genexpert%C3%A2-hiv-1-viral-load-assay
#15
Natasha Gous, Lesley Scott, Leigh Berrie, Wendy Stevens
BACKGROUND: Expansion of HIV viral load (VL) testing services are required to meet increased targets for monitoring patients on antiretroviral treatment. South Africa currently tests >4million VLs per annum in 16 highly centralised, automated high-throughput laboratories. The Xpert HIV-1 VL assay (Cepheid) was evaluated against in-country predicates, the Roche Cobas Taqmanv2 and Abbott HIV-1RT, to investigate options for expanding VL testing using GeneXpert's random access, polyvalent capabilities and already established footprint in South Africa with the Xpert MTB/RIF assay (207 sites)...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27984765/hpv-prevalence-in-women-attending-cervical-screening-in-rural-malawi-using-the-cartridge-based-xpert-%C3%A2-hpv-assay
#16
Heather A Cubie, David Morton, Edson Kawonga, Mike Mautanga, Ipyana Mwenitete, Ngari Teakle, Bagrey Ngwira, Hilary Walker, Graeme Walker, Savel Kafwafwa, Beatrice Kabota, Reynier Ter Haar, Christine Campbell
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Early experience with Cepheid Xpert(®) HPV assay (Xpert(®) HPV) suggests that its quick turnaround time and ease of application might make it a relevant contender for routine use in low and middle income countries (LMICs). In the context of a cervical screening service in rural Malawi, we aimed to assess practicalities of local laboratory testing with Xpert(®) HPV and provide preliminary high-risk HPV (HR-HPV) prevalence data. STUDY DESIGN: Liquid-based cytology (LBC) specimens were collected from women attending cervical screening clinics in Nkhoma, Malawi...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Clinical Virology: the Official Publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932614/validation-of-the-cepheid-genexpert-for-detecting-ebola-virus-in-semen
#17
Amy James Loftis, Saturday Quellie, Kelly Chason, Emmanuel Sumo, Mason Toukolon, Yonnie Otieno, Heinzfried Ellerbrok, Marcia M Hobbs, David Hoover, Karine Dube, David A Wohl, William A Fischer
BACKGROUND: Ebola virus (EBOV) RNA persistence in semen, reported sexual transmission, and sporadic clusters at the end of the 2013-2016 epidemic have prompted recommendations that male survivors refrain from unprotected sex unless their semen is confirmed to be EBOV-free. However, there is no fully validated assay for EBOV detection in fluids other than blood. METHODS: The Cepheid Xpert Ebola assay for EBOV RNA detection was validated for whole semen and blood using samples obtained from uninfected donors and spiked with inactivated EBOV...
December 8, 2016: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919639/-evaluation-of-an-xpert-ev-cepheid-%C3%A2-molecular-diagnostic-technique-for-enteroviral-meningitis
#18
Natalia Alonso Pérez, Belén Sagastizabal Cardelus, Luis Manuel Prieto Tato, Sara Guillén Martín, Ana González Torralba, Isabel García Bermejo, José Tomás Ramos Amador
INTRODUCTION: Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays have shown to be useful and quick for the diagnosis of enterovirus in aseptic meningitis. The aim of our study was to analyse the changes in clinical practice after the introduction of a real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) technique using the Xpert EV (Cepheid(®)) assay for the qualitative detection of enterovirus RNA in cerebrospinal fluid specimens from children with suspected viral meningitis. METHODS: A retrospective study was performed in children older than 1year, diagnosed with enterovirus meningitis in a third level hospital from November 2006 to February 2013...
December 2, 2016: Anales de Pediatría: Publicación Oficial de la Asociación Española de Pediatría (A.E.P.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898567/utilization-of-the-cepheid-xpert%C3%A2-ct-ng-sample-adequacy-control-to-determine-the-influence-of-the-urethral-swab-on-cellular-content-in-post-swab-versus-pre-swab-urine
#19
Stephen J Jordan, Barbara Van Der Pol, Edward W Hook
Chlamydia trachomatis/Neisseria gonorrhoeae assay performance in males is typically determined using post-swab urine, though pre-swab urine is used in practice. We collected swabs and urine from men and used the Cepheid Xpert® CT/NG sample adequacy control to determine the effect of swab collection on urine cellular content. No difference was observed.
January 2017: Sexually Transmitted Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891336/mycobacterium-tuberculosis-beijing-genotype-in-western-iran-distribution-and-drug-resistance
#20
Parviz Mohajeri, Sakineh Moradi, Sara Atashi, Abbas Farahani
INTRODUCTION: Mycobacterium tuberculosis Beijing genotype is gaining importance all over the world because this genotype is highly prevalent in several areas and is also frequently associated with drug resistance. AIM: To identify and determine the frequency of Beijing genotype and mix infection with Beijing and non-Beijing in west of Iran and analyse the association between Beijing genotype and drug resistance. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 146 Tuberculosis (TB) samples collected at the TB reference laboratory in Kermanshah west of Iran from January 2014 to February 2015, Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates from sputum samples, detected by microcopy, biochemical tests and solid culture were included and then the confirmed samples with Cepheid Xpert MTB/RIF assay were subjected to drug susceptibility tests for rifampicin, isoniazid, ethambutol using proportional method...
October 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
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