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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814050/segmental-contributions-to-sagittal-plane-whole-body-angular-momentum-when-using-powered-compared-to-passive-ankle-foot-prostheses-on-ramps
#1
Nathaniel T Pickle, Anne K Silverman, Jason M Wilken, Nicholas P Fey
Understanding the effects of an assistive device on dynamic balance is crucial, particularly for robotic leg prostheses. Analyses of dynamic balance commonly evaluate the range of whole-body angular momentum (H). However, the contributions of individual body segments to overall H throughout gait may yield futher insights, specifically for people with transtibial amputation using powered prostheses. We evaluated segment contributions to H using Statistical Parametric Mapping to assess the effects of prosthesis type (powered vs passive) and ramp angle on segmental coordination...
July 2017: IEEE ... International Conference on Rehabilitation Robotics: [proceedings]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813993/the-influence-of-a-user-adaptive-prosthetic-knee-on-planned-gait-termination
#2
Erik C Prinsen, Marc J Nederhand, Bart F Koopman, Johan S Rietman
The added value of user-adaptive prosthetic knees has been predominantly evaluated in level walking or ramp/stair negotiation. Previous studies indicate that the activity pattern of individuals with an amputation mainly consists of short periods of continuous walking, indicating that a high percentage of ambulatory activity involves gait termination. The potential added value of user-adaptive prosthetic knees in gait termination has not been studied yet. Ten individuals with an amputation were measured with their own non-microprocessor controlled prosthetic knee and with the Rheo Knee II (a user-adaptive prosthetic knee)...
July 2017: IEEE ... International Conference on Rehabilitation Robotics: [proceedings]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813992/review-of-the-actuators-of-active-knee-prostheses-and-their-target-design-outputs-for-activities-of-daily-living
#3
Dominik Simon Pieringer, Martin Grimmer, Michael Friedrich Russold, Robert Riener
Active prosthetic knees have the capability to provide net positive work, which is required in daily activities like stair and ramp negotiation or sit-to-stand transfers. Adding this capability might help to increase user mobility, safety, and independence. This article summarizes the biomechanical knee requirements for different activities of daily living and critically compares them with the actuator characteristics of state-of-the-art active prosthetic knee joints. As a result of a systematic literature research 22 active prosthetic knee joints were identified...
July 2017: IEEE ... International Conference on Rehabilitation Robotics: [proceedings]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813786/prediction-of-gait-events-in-walking-activities-with-a-bayesian-perception-system
#4
Uriel Martinez-Hernandez, Mohammed I Awad, Imran Mahmood, Abbas A Dehghani-Sanij
In this paper, a robust probabilistic formulation for prediction of gait events from human walking activities using wearable sensors is presented. This approach combines the output from a Bayesian perception system with observations from actions and decisions made over time. The perception system makes decisions about the current gait events, while observations from decisions and actions allow to predict the most probable gait event during walking activities. Furthermore, our proposed method is capable to evaluate the accuracy of its predictions, which permits to obtain a better performance and trade-off between accuracy and speed...
July 2017: IEEE ... International Conference on Rehabilitation Robotics: [proceedings]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811475/microsecond-pulse-i-v-approach-to-understanding-defects-in-high-mobility-bi-layer-oxide-semiconductor-transistor
#5
Hyunsuk Woo, Sanghun Jeon
The carrier transport and device instability of amorphous oxide semiconductor devices are influenced by defects that are exponentially distributed in energy, because of amorphous phase channels and front/back interfaces with a large number of sub-gap states. Thus, understanding defects and charge trapping in oxide semiconductor transistors is required for being core device element in reliable production lines. In this paper, we present the transient charging effect, the charge trapping mechanism, and the dynamic charge transport of high-mobility bilayer oxide semiconductor transistors...
August 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805922/use-of-a-complete-starter-feed-in-grain-adaptation-programs-for-feedlot-cattle
#6
C J Schneider, B L Nuttelman, A L Shreck, D B Burken, W A Griffin, J L Gramkow, R A Stock, T J Klopfenstein, G E Erickson
Four experiments evaluated the use of a complete starter feed (RAMP; Cargill Corn Milling, Blair, NE) for grain adaptation. In Exp. 1, 229 yearling steers (397 ± 28.4 kg BW) were used to compare a traditional adaptation program (CON) with adapting cattle with RAMP in either a 1- (RAMP-1RS) or 2- (RAMP-2RS) ration system. From d 23 to slaughter, cattle were fed a common finishing diet. In Exp. 2, 390 yearling steers (341 ± 14 kg BW) were used to compare accelerated grain adaptation programs with RAMP with 2 control treatments where RAMP was blended with a finishing diet containing either 25 (CON25) or 47...
August 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802791/difference-in-inspiratory-flow-between-volume-and-pressure-control-ventilation-in-patients-with-flow-dyssynchrony
#7
Juan B Figueroa-Casas, Ricardo Montoya
PURPOSE: Flow dyssynchrony is common during volume control ventilation but minimized during pressure control. Characterizing inspiratory flow during pressure control breaths can inform adjustments of the fixed flow of volume control to address flow dyssynchrony. This study compared inspiratory flow peak and pattern between volume control and adaptive pressure control breaths. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Subjects with or at risk for ARDS were ventilated with volume control decreasing ramp flow at different tidal volumes and subsequently with adaptive pressure control targeting those same tidal volumes...
August 5, 2017: Journal of Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802462/driver-performance-and-attention-allocation-in-use-of-logo-signs-on-freeway-exit-ramps
#8
Maryam Zahabi, Patricia Machado, Mei Ying Lau, Yulin Deng, Carl Pankok, Joseph Hummer, William Rasdorf, David B Kaber
The objective of this research was to quantify the effects of driver age, ramp signage configuration, including number of panels, logo format and sign familiarity, on driver performance and attention allocation when exiting freeways. Sixty drivers participated in a simulator study and analysis of variance models were used to assess response effects of the controlled manipulations. Results revealed elderly drivers to demonstrate worse performance and conservative control strategies as compared to middle-aged and young drivers...
November 2017: Applied Ergonomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801518/effects-of-plyometric-and-isometric-training-on-muscle-and-tendon-stiffness-in%C3%A2-vivo
#9
Keitaro Kubo, Tomonobu Ishigaki, Toshihiro Ikebukuro
The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of plyometric and isometric training on tendon properties during ramp and ballistic contractions and muscle stiffness under passive and active conditions. Eleven subjects completed 12 weeks (3 days/week) of a unilateral training program for the plantar flexors. They performed plyometric training on one side (PLY) and isometric training on the other side (ISO). Active muscle stiffness in the medial gastrocnemius muscle was calculated according to changes in estimated muscle force and fascicle length during fast stretching after submaximal isometric contractions...
August 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801070/methodological-considerations-for-the-temporal-summation-of-second-pain
#10
Nathanial R Eckert, Charles J Vierck, Corey B Simon, Sachell Calderon, Yenisel Cruz-Almeida, Roland Staud, Roger B Fillingim, Joseph L Riley
Temporal summation of second pain (TSSP) is a psychophysical indication of a central pain encoding mechanism, potentially enhanced in pathological pain conditions. Low frequency repetitive stimulation of unmyelinated (C) nociceptors results in a progressive increase of pain intensity when thermal stimulation intensity remains constant. However, when using different methods of nociceptive delivery to the skin, both regularity and rate of pain enhancement with repetition varies between experiments. Specifically, repetitive ramping up and down from a neutral to a painful temperature has produced weak and inconsistent pain summation...
August 8, 2017: Journal of Pain: Official Journal of the American Pain Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799747/evaluation-of-migration-time-and-variance-for-accurate-kinetic-studies-based-on-affinity-capillary-electrophoresis
#11
Nozomu Suzuki, Kanji Miyabe
Affinity capillary electrophoresis (ACE) has been widely applied to evaluate binding constants of various systems. Recently, moment equations were derived based on the moment analysis (MA) theory for describing the influence of reaction kinetics and longitudinal diffusion on the elution peak profiles measured by ACE (MA-ACE). The equations enable to obtain not only the binding constants but also the reaction rate constants from the migration time and variance of elution peaks. However, it is necessary to consider other factors (e...
August 11, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797479/paralysis-and-heart-failure-precede-ion-balance-disruption-in-heat-stressed-european-green-crabs
#12
Lisa B Jørgensen, Johannes Overgaard, Heath A MacMillan
Acute exposure of ectotherms to critically high temperatures causes injury and death, and this mortality has been associated with a number of physiological perturbations including impaired oxygen transport, loss of ion and water homeostasis, and neuronal failure. It is difficult to discern which of these factors, if any, is the proximate cause of heat injury because, for example, loss of ion homeostasis can impair neuromuscular function (including cardiac function), and conversely impaired oxygen transport reduces ATP supply and can thus reduce ion transport capacity...
August 2017: Journal of Thermal Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796722/accuracy-and-repeatability-of-automated-injector-versus-manual-administration-of-an-mri-contrast-agent-results-of-a-laboratory-study
#13
Jan Endrikat, Ron Barbati, Marcella Scarpa, Gregor Jost, Arthur E Ned Uber
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to compare flow rates over time and the deviations from the target flow rate of a magnetic resonance imaging contrast agent achieved by an automated injector versus manual injection. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this laboratory study, the magnetic resonance contrast agent gadobutrol was repeatedly injected by an injector and by 10 experienced technologists. Six scenarios with 2 different target flow rates (1 and 5 mL/s), 2 different contrast volumes (10 and 20 mL), and 2 different intravenous (IV) catheters (22 gauge and 20 gauge) were tested...
August 7, 2017: Investigative Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795864/development-and-evaluation-of-ramp-i-a-practitioner-s-tool-for-screening-of-musculoskeletal-disorder-risk-factors-in-manual-handling
#14
Carl Mikael Lind, Mikael Forsman, Linda Maria Rose
RAMP I is a screening tool developed to support practitioners in screening for work-related musculoskeletal disorder risk factors related to manual handling. RAMP I, which is part of the RAMP tool, is based on research based studies combined with expert group judgments. More than 80 practitioners participated in the development of RAMP I. The tool consists of dichotomous assessment items grouped in seven categories. Acceptable reliability was found for a majority of the assessment items for 15 practitioners who were given 1 h training...
August 10, 2017: International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics: JOSE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795140/resting-and-exercise-energy-metabolism-after-liver-transplantation-for-nonalcoholic-steatohepatitis
#15
Josh Levitsky, Ajay Singhvi, H Steven Sadowsky, Ayelet Cohen, Alysen Demzik, Lisa VanWagner, Mary Rinella
BACKGROUND: Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is a leading indication for liver transplantation (LT). We hypothesized that weight gain after LT may be exacerbated by reduced metabolic rates due to the LT procedure, particularly during exercise. We aimed to compare resting and exercise energy expenditure between patients transplanted for NASH and nontransplant nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) subjects. METHODS: NASH LT recipients (>1-year post, n = 14) and NAFLD controls (n = 13) underwent analysis of body composition, resting energy expenditure (REE), and exercise energy expenditure (VO2max), the latter using a ramped-Bruce protocol assessed by expired gas analysis and peak heart rate...
August 2017: Transplantation Direct
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791208/novel-microsatellite-development-and-characterization-for-phacelia-formosula-hydrophyllaceae
#16
James P Riser, Anna L Schwabe, Jennifer Ramp Neale
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Microsatellite primers were developed to characterize genetic diversity and structuring in the genus Phacelia (Hydrophyllaceae) and to further conservation efforts for P. formosula. METHODS AND RESULTS: Fifteen novel microsatellite primers were developed for P. formosula. These were characterized for genetic variation in three separate P. formosula populations. Two to nine alleles were found per locus. Overall observed heterozygosity and expected heterozygosity ranged from 0...
July 2017: Applications in Plant Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782872/the-role-of-vascular-resistance-in-bold-responses-to-progressive-hypercapnia
#17
James Duffin, Olivia Sobczyk, Adrian Crawley, Julien Poublanc, Lashmi Venkatraghavan, Kevin Sam, Alan Mutch, David Mikulis, Joseph Fisher
The ability of the cerebral vasculature to regulate vascular diameter, hence resistance and cerebral blood flow (CBF), in response to metabolic demands (neurovascular coupling), and perfusion pressure changes (autoregulation) may be assessed by measuring the CBF response to carbon dioxide (CO2 ). In healthy individuals, the CBF response to a ramp CO2 stimulus from hypocapnia to hypercapnia is assumed sigmoidal or linear. However, other response patterns commonly occur, especially in individuals with cerebrovascular disease, and these remain unexplained...
August 7, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28775065/effect-of-hypoxia-and-hyperoxia-on-exercise-performance-in-healthy-individuals-and-in-patients-with-pulmonary-hypertension-a-systematic-review
#18
Silvia Ulrich, Simon Raphael Schneider, Konrad E Bloch
Exercise performance is determined by oxygen supply to working muscles and vital organs. In healthy individuals, exercise performance is limited in the hypoxic environment at altitude, when oxygen delivery is diminished due to the reduced alveolar and arterial oxygen partial pressures. In patients with pulmonary hypertension, exercise performance is already reduced near sea level due to impairments of the pulmonary circulation and gas exchange and, presumably, these limitations are more pronounced at altitude...
August 3, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774140/viscoelastic-properties-of-the-chinese-fir-cunninghamia-lanceolata-during-moisture-sorption-processes-determined-by-harmonic-tests
#19
Tianyi Zhan, Jianxiong Lu, Jiali Jiang, Hui Peng, Anxin Li, Jianmin Chang
Measured by harmonic tests, the viscoelastic properties of Chinese fir during moisture sorption processes were examined under three relative humidity (RH) modes: RHramp, RHisohume, and RHstep. The stiffness decreased and damping increased as a function of the moisture content (MC), which is presumed to be the effect of plasticization and an unstable state. The increasing damping was associated with the breaking of hydrogen bonds and the formation of free volume within polymer networks. The changes of loss modulus ratio at 1 and 20 Hz, E″1Hz/E″20Hz, proved the changing trend of the unstable state...
December 17, 2016: Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771236/the-cubicon-method-for-concentrating-membrane-proteins-in-the-cubic-mesophase
#20
Pikyee Ma, Dietmar Weichert, Luba A Aleksandrov, Timothy J Jensen, John R Riordan, Xiangyu Liu, Brian K Kobilka, Martin Caffrey
The lipid cubic phase (in meso) method is an important approach for generating crystals and high-resolution X-ray structures of integral membrane proteins. However, as a consequence of instability, it can be impossible-using traditional methods-to concentrate certain membrane proteins and complexes to values suitable for in meso crystallization and structure determination. The cubicon method described here exploits the amphiphilic nature of membrane proteins and their natural tendency to partition preferentially into lipid bilayers from aqueous solution...
September 2017: Nature Protocols
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