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Nir Uriel, Sirtaz Adatya, Jiří Malý, Eric Kruse, Daniel Rodgers, Gerald Heatley, Aleš Herman, Poornima Sood, Dominik Berliner, Johann Bauersachs, Axel Haverich, Michael Želízko, Jan D Schmitto, Ivan Netuka
BACKGROUND: The HeartMate 3 (HM3) is a Conformiteé Européenne (CE) mark-approved left ventricular assist device (LVAD) with a fully magnetically levitated rotor with features consisting of a wide range of operational speeds, wide flow paths and an artificial pulse. We performed a hemodynamic and echocardiographic evaluation of patients implanted with the HM3 LVAD to assess the speed range for optimal hemodynamic support. METHODS: Sixteen HM3 patients underwent pump speed ramp tests with right heart catheterization (including central venous pressure [CVP], pulmonary artery pressure, pulmonary capillary wedge pressure [PCWP] and blood pressure [BP]) and 3-dimensional echocardiography (3DE)...
July 17, 2016: Journal of Heart and Lung Transplantation
M Buchi Suresh, P Biswas, V Mahender, Roy Johnson
Hydroxyapatite ceramics synthesized through sonochemical route were processed and densified through ramp & hold (R&H) and Spark Plasma Sintering (SPS) routes. The effect of processing route on the relative density and electrical conductivity were studied. Further, the samples were Hot Isostatically Pressed (HIP) under argon pressure at elevated temperature to further densify the sample. All these samples processed under different conditions were characterized by X-ray diffraction, Scanning Electron Microscopy and AC Conductivity...
January 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
Andrea Nicolò, Ilenia Bazzucchi, Massimo Sacchetti
PURPOSE: To verify the accuracy of predicting performance in the severe-intensity domain by means of the end-test power output (EP) and the work performed above EP (WEP) obtained from a 3-min all-out test in competitive cyclists. METHODS: Ten well-trained cyclists performed a ramp incremental test and a 3-min all-out familiarization test. Subsequently, they performed a 3-min all-out experimental test to obtain EP and WEP, and a 10-min time trial (TT). The actual 10-min TT mean power output was then compared with the power output predicted as: P = WEP/Tlim + EP, where Tlim corresponds to 600s...
September 26, 2016: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
Daryl C Yang, Jennifer R Deuis, Daniel Dashevsky, James Dobson, Timothy N W Jackson, Andreas Brust, Bing Xie, Ivan Koludarov, Jordan Debono, Iwan Hendrikx, Wayne C Hodgson, Peter Josh, Amanda Nouwens, Gregory J Baillie, Timothy J C Bruxner, Paul F Alewood, Kelvin Kok Peng Lim, Nathaniel Frank, Irina Vetter, Bryan G Fry
Millions of years of evolution have fine-tuned the ability of venom peptides to rapidly incapacitate both prey and potential predators. Toxicofera reptiles are characterized by serous-secreting mandibular or maxillary glands with heightened levels of protein expression. These glands are the core anatomical components of the toxicoferan venom system, which exists in myriad points along an evolutionary continuum. Neofunctionalisation of toxins is facilitated by positive selection at functional hotspots on the ancestral protein and venom proteins have undergone dynamic diversification in helodermatid and varanid lizards as well as advanced snakes...
October 18, 2016: Toxins
Chi-Fai Ng, Sylvia Luke, Chi-Hang Yee, Winnie Chu, Ka-Tak Wong, John Yuen
Objectives To perform a prospective study to evaluate the renal protective effects of ramping protocol and pause protocol for extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy in human subjects. Patients and Methods 320 patients with solitary renal stone <15mm, were randomized to receive one of four protocols: (1) 80% power from beginning until the end of treatment; (2) the first 100 SWs at 40% power, and then 80% power until the end of treatment; (3) the first 100 shocks at 40% power, followed by a 3-minute pause and then further SWs at 80% power until the end of treatment; and (4) the first 100 shocks at 80% power, followed by a 3-minute pause and then further SWs at 80% power until the end of treatment...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Endourology
Andrew N Gherlenda, Ben D Moore, Anthony M Haigh, Scott N Johnson, Markus Riegler
BACKGROUND: Climate change factors such as elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations (e[CO2]) and altered rainfall patterns can alter leaf composition and phenology. This may subsequently impact insect herbivory. In sclerophyllous forests insects have developed strategies, such as preferentially feeding on new leaf growth, to overcome physical or foliar nitrogen constraints, and this may shift under climate change. Few studies of insect herbivory at elevated [CO2] have occurred under field conditions and none on mature evergreen trees in a naturally established forest, yet estimates for leaf area loss due to herbivory are required in order to allow accurate predictions of plant productivity in future climates...
October 19, 2016: BMC Ecology
J F Cors, A Stucki, G V Kaigala
We present a new, general concept termed Hydrodynamic Thermal Confinement (HTC), and its implementation for the creation of microscale dynamic thermo-chemical microenvironments on biological surfaces. HTC is based on a scanning probe and operates under physiological conditions. The temperature can be regulated between 30° and 80 °C with ±0.2 °C precision and temperature ramps of 5 °C s(-1) over a footprint of ∼50 μm × 80 μm in a volume of ∼50 × 80 × 15 μm(3) (∼50 pl).
October 19, 2016: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
Andrey N Pravdivtsev, Alexey S Kiryutin, Alexandra V Yurkovskaya, Hans-Martin Vieth, Konstantin L Ivanov
We propose a robust and highly efficient NMR technique to create singlet spin order from longitudinal spin magnetization in coupled spin-½ pairs and to perform backward conversion (singlet order)→magnetization. In this method we exploit adiabatic ramping of an RF-field in order to drive transitions between the singlet state and the T± triplet states of a spin pair under study. We demonstrate that the method works perfectly for both strongly and weakly coupled spin pairs, providing a conversion efficiency between the singlet spin order and magnetization, which is equal to the theoretical maximum...
October 6, 2016: Journal of Magnetic Resonance
Robert P Fisher
How and when eukaryotic cells make the irrevocable commitment to divide remain central questions in the cell-cycle field. Parallel studies in yeast and mammalian cells seemed to suggest analogous control mechanisms operating during the G1 phase-at Start or the restriction (R) point, respectively-to integrate nutritional and developmental signals and decide between distinct cell fates: cell-cycle arrest or exit versus irreversible commitment to a round of division. Recent work has revealed molecular mechanisms underlying this decision-making process in both yeast and mammalian cells but also cast doubt on the nature and timing of cell-cycle commitment in multicellular organisms...
2016: F1000Research
Joseph A McQuillan, Deborah K Dulson, Paul B Laursen, Andrew E Kilding
PURPOSE: To determine the effect of dietary nitrate (NO3(-)) supplementation on physiology and performance in well-trained cyclists following six to eight-days of NO3(-) supplementation. METHODS: Eight competitive male cyclists (mean ± SD; age = 26 ± 8 y; body mass = 76.7 ± 6.9 kg; VO2peak = 63 ± 4 participated in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover-design study in which participants ingested 70 ml beetroot juice containing ~4 mmol NO3(-) (NIT) or a NO3(-) depleted placebo (PLA), each for 8-days...
October 13, 2016: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
Wentao Yao, Fei Long, Reza Shahbazian-Yassar
Controlling the transport of ions within electrodes is highly desirable for the operation of rechargeable ion batteries. Here, for the first time, we report the role of mechanical stress in controlling the redistribution of lithium ions in a layered LiCoO2 electrode at a resolution of ~100 nm. Under higher stress field, more active redistribution of lithium ions was observed along the grain boundaries than the interiors of the layered LiCoO2. The dynamic force ramping test proved the external stress field (<100 nN) is capable of inducing the resistive-switching effect of the layered LiCoO2...
October 13, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Panu Karjalainen, Leonidas Ntziachristos, Timo Murtonen, Hugo Wihersaari, Pauli Simonen, Fanni Myllari, Nils-Olof Nylund, Jorma Keskinen, Topi Rönkkö
This study reports high numbers of exhaust emissions particles during engine motoring. Such particles were observed in the exhaust of two heavy duty vehicles with no diesel particle filter (DPF), driven on speed ramp tests and transient cycles. A significant fraction of these particles was non-volatile in nature. The number-weighted size distribution peak was below 10 nm when a thermodenuder was used to remove semivolatile material, growing up to 40 nm after semivolatile species condensation. These particles were found to contribute to 9-13% of total particle number emitted over a complete driving cycle...
October 13, 2016: Environmental Science & Technology
Allison B Chambliss, Molly Resnick, Athena K Petrides, William A Clarke, Mark A Marzinke
BACKGROUND: Current methods for the detection of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with aberrant drug-metabolizing enzyme function are hindered by long turnaround times and specialized techniques and instrumentation. In this study, we describe the development and validation of a high-resolution melting (HRM) curve assay for the rapid screening of variant genotypes for targeted genetic polymorphisms in the cytochrome P450 enzymes CYP2C9, CYP2C19, and CYP3A5. METHODS: Sequence-specific primers were custom-designed to flank nine SNPs within the genetic regions of aforementioned drug metabolizing enzymes...
October 12, 2016: Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine: CCLM
Shanming Ke, Chang Chen, Nian-Qing Fu, Hua Zhou, Mao Ye, Peng Lin, Wen-Xiang Yuan, Xierong Zeng, Lang Chen, Haitao Huang
Sn-doped In2O3 (ITO) electrodes were deposited on transparent and flexible muscovite mica. The use of mica substrate makes a high-temperature annealing process (up to 500 °C) possible. ITO/mica retains its low electric resistivity even after continuous bending of 1000 times on account of the unique layered structure of mica. When used as a transparent flexible heater, ITO/mica shows an extremely fast ramping (< 15 s) up to a high temperature of over 438 °C. When used as a transparent electrode, ITO/mica permits a high temperature annealing (450 °C) approach to fabricate flexible perovskite solar cells (PSCs) with high efficiency...
October 11, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Nicholas A Early, John J Elias, Steven B Lippitt, Danielle E Filipkowski, Robert A Pedowitz, William J Ciccone
BACKGROUND: This in vitro study evaluated the biomechanical benefit of adding spanning sutures to single-row rotator cuff repair. METHODS: Mechanical testing was performed to evaluate 9 pairs of cadaveric shoulders with complete rotator cuff repairs, with a single-row technique used on one side and the suture spanning technique on the other. The spanning technique included sutures from 2 lateral anchors securing tendon near the musculotendinous junction, spanning the same anchor placement from single-row repair...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery
Eric A Kirk, Colin W Moore, Eric J Chater-Diehl, Shiva M Singh, Charles L Rice
PURPOSE: Polymorphisms of the collagen type V alpha 1 chain (COL5A1) gene are purported to influence mechanical properties of collagenous tissues. Our purpose was to assess musculo-tendinous contractile properties of the quadriceps in relation to the genetic influence of mechanical stiffness.. METHODS: Eighty, recreationally active males (ages 19-31 y) were assessed for the presence of three genetic polymorphisms associated with COL5A1 stability (rs4919510, rs1536482 and rs12722)...
September 26, 2016: Experimental Physiology
Afrid A Sarker, Rajesh Paleti, Sabyasachee Mishra, Mihalis M Golias, Philip B Freeze
Secondary crash (SC) occurrences are major contributors to traffic delay and reduced safety, particularly in urban areas. National, state, and local agencies are investing substantial amount of resources to identify and mitigate secondary crashes to reduce congestion, related fatalities, injuries, and property damages. Though a relatively small portion of all crashes are secondary, determining the primary contributing factors for their occurrence is crucial. The non-recurring nature of SCs makes it imperative to predict their occurrences for effective incident management...
October 4, 2016: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
Adnan Hassan Tahir, Juan Wan, Manoj Kumar Shah, Habibullah Janyaro, Xiao-Jing Li, Ming-Xing Ding
BACKGROUND: Visceral hypersensitivity (VH) is a common condition in many gastrointestinal disorders such as inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) in human and animals. Most studies often induce Crohn's disease/colitis to investigate VH in small experimental animals. Although farm animals commonly suffer from IBDs, their VH has not been investigated so far. Because goats can suffer from Johne's disease, a naturally occurring Crohn's-like disease, they may be suitable to be used for studying the mechanism underlying VH in common intestinal disorders of large animals...
October 6, 2016: Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica
Seiji Ono, Tomohiro Kizuka
Smooth pursuit (SP) is one of the precise oculomotor behaviors when tracking a moving object. Adaptation of SP is based on a visual-error driven motor learning process associated with predictable changes in the visual environment. Proper timing of a sensory signal is an important factor for adaptation of fine motor control. In this study, we investigated whether visual error timing affects SP gain adaptation. An adaptive change in SP gain is produced experimentally by repeated trials of a step-ramp tracking with 2 different velocities (double-velocity paradigm)...
August 11, 2016: Journal of Motor Behavior
Kristof Vandekerckhove, Ilse Coomans, Annelies Moerman, Daniel De Wolf, Jan Boone
AIMS: To characterize the oxygenation responses at cerebral and locomotor muscle level to incremental exercise in children and to assess the interrelationship with the pulmonary gas exchange responses. METHODS: Eighteen children (9 boys, 9 girls) (mean age 10.9 ± 1.0 years) performed incremental cycle ramp exercise to exhaustion. The concentration of cerebral and muscle oxygenated (O2Hb) and deoxygenated (HHb) hemoglobin (by means of near-infrared spectroscopy) and pulmonary gas exchange was recorded...
October 6, 2016: European Journal of Applied Physiology
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