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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724782/dissecting-patterns-of-preparatory-activity-in-the-frontal-eye-fields-during-pursuit-target-selection
#1
Ramanujan T Raghavan, Mati Joshua
We investigated the composition of preparatory activity of frontal eye field (FEF) neurons in monkeys performing a pursuit target selection task. In response to the orthogonal motion of a large and a small reward target, monkeys initiated pursuit biased towards the direction of large reward target motion. FEF neurons exhibited robust preparatory activity preceding movement initiation in this task. Preparatory activity consisted of two components, ramping activity that was constant across target selection conditions and a flat offset in firing rates that signaled the target selection condition...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724704/physiological-responses-to-short-term-thermal-stress-in-mayfly-neocloeon-triangulifer-larvae-in-relation-to-upper-thermal-limits
#2
Kyoung Sun Kim, Hsuan Chou, David H Funk, John K Jackson, Bernard W Sweeney, David B Buchwalter
Understanding species' thermal limits and their physiological determinants is critical in light of climate change and other human activities that warm freshwater ecosystems. Here, we ask whether oxygen limitation determines the chronic upper thermal limits in larvae of the mayfly Neocloeon triangulifer, an emerging model for ecological and physiological studies. Our experiments are based on a robust understanding of the upper acute (∼40°C) and chronic thermal limits of this species (>28°C, ≤30°C) derived from full life cycle rearing experiments across temperatures...
July 15, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718844/solvent-gradient-electrospray-for-laser-ablation-electrospray-ionization-mass-spectrometry
#3
Hang Li, Akos Vertes
Most electrospray based ambient ionization techniques, e.g., laser ablation electrospray ionization (LAESI), utilize a fixed spray solution composition. Complex samples often contain compounds of different polarity that exhibit a wide range of solubilities in the electrospray solvent. Thus, the fixed spray solution composition limits the molecular coverage of these approaches. Two-barrel theta glass capillaries have been used for the rapid mixing of two solutions for manipulating fast reactions including protein folding, unfolding, and charge state distributions...
July 18, 2017: Analyst
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713395/economic-and-environmental-assessment-of-seed-and-rhizome-propagated-miscanthus-in-the-uk
#4
Astley Hastings, Michal Mos, Jalil A Yesufu, Jon McCalmont, Kai Schwarz, Reza Shafei, Chris Ashman, Chris Nunn, Heinrich Schuele, Salvatore Cosentino, Giovanni Scalici, Danilo Scordia, Moritz Wagner, John Clifton-Brown
Growth in planted areas of Miscanthus for biomass in Europe has stagnated since 2010 due to technical challenges, economic barriers and environmental concerns. These limitations need to be overcome before biomass production from Miscanthus can expand to several million hectares. In this paper, we consider the economic and environmental effects of introducing seed based hybrids as an alternative to clonal M. x giganteus (Mxg). The impact of seed based propagation and novel agronomy was compared with current Mxg cultivation and used in 10 commercially relevant, field scale experiments planted between 2012 and 2014 in the United Kingdom, Germany, and Ukraine...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713326/the-glare-effect-test-and-the-impact-of-age-on-luminosity-thresholds
#5
Alessio Facchin, Roberta Daini, Daniele Zavagno
The glare effect (GE) is an illusion in which a white region appears self-luminous when surrounded by linearly decreasing luminance ramps. It has been shown that the magnitude of the luminosity effect can be modulated by manipulating the luminance range of the gradients. In the present study we tested the thresholds for the GE on two groups of adults: young (20-30 years old) and elderly (60-75 years old). Purpose of our perspective study was to test the possibility of transforming the GE into a test that could easily measure thresholds for luminosity and discomfort glare...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708542/an-ambulatory-gait-monitoring-system-with-activity-classification-and-gait-parameter-calculation-based-on-a-single-foot-inertial-sensor
#6
Minsu Song, Jonghyun Kim
GOAL: For healthcare and clinical use, ambulatory gait monitoring systems using inertial sensors have been developed to estimate the user gait parameters, such as walking speed, stride time, and stride length. However, to adapt the systems effectively to daily-life activities, they need to be able to classify the gait activities of daily-life to obtain the parameters for each activity. In this study, we propose a simple classification algorithm based on a single inertial sensor for ease of use, which classifies three major gait activities: leveled walk, ramp walk, and stair walk...
July 12, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Bio-medical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707733/a-new-equation%C3%A2-to-predict-peak-vo2-in-obese-patients-during-cardiopulmonary-exercise-testing
#7
Alan Carlos Brisola Barbosa, Evandro Fornias Sperandio, Bárbara de Barros Gonze, Giovanna Domingues Spina, Rodolfo Leite Arantes, Antônio Ricardo de Toledo Gagliardi, Marcello Romiti, Victor Zuniga Dourado
We aimed to develop an equation to predict peak VO2 in obese subjects undergoing CPET. In addition, we evaluated and compared three published equations. We randomized 346 obese subjects undergoing CPET into a group for developing the equation (n = 272) and a group for cross-validation (n = 74), compared through the Bland and Altman method. Height, sex and age were responsible for 85·5% of total variability of the peak VO2. Additional 1% and 0·7% of the variability were, respectively, explained by physical inactivity and diabetes...
July 14, 2017: Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705698/receptor-activity-modifying-protein-dependent-and-independent-activation-mechanisms-in-the-coupling-of-calcitonin-gene-related-peptide-and-adrenomedullin-receptors-to-gs
#8
Michael J Woolley, Christopher A Reynolds, John Simms, Christopher S Walker, Juan Carlos Mobarec, Michael L Garelja, Alex C Conner, David R Poyner, Debbie L Hay
Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) or adrenomedullin (AM) receptors are heteromers of the calcitonin receptor-like receptor (CLR), a class B G protein-coupled receptor, and one of three receptor activity-modifying proteins (RAMPs). How CGRP and AM activate CLR and how this process is modulated by RAMPs is unclear. We have defined how CGRP and AM induce Gs-coupling in CLR-RAMP heteromers by measuring the effect of targeted mutagenesis in the CLR transmembrane domain on cAMP production, modeling the active state conformations of CGRP and AM receptors in complex with the Gs C-terminus and conducting molecular dynamics simulations in an explicitly hydrated lipidic bilayer...
July 10, 2017: Biochemical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704487/assessment-of-peak-oxygen-uptake-during-handcycling-test-retest-reliability-and-comparison-of-a-ramp-incremented-and-perceptually-regulated-exercise-test
#9
Michael J Hutchinson, Thomas A W Paulson, Roger Eston, Victoria L Goosey-Tolfrey
PURPOSE: To examine the reliability of a perceptually-regulated maximal exercise test (PRETmax) to measure peak oxygen uptake ([Formula: see text]) during handcycle exercise and to compare peak responses to those derived from a ramp-incremented protocol (RAMP). METHODS: Twenty recreationally active individuals (14 male, 6 female) completed four trials across a 2-week period, using a randomised, counterbalanced design. Participants completed two RAMP protocols (20 W·min-1) in week 1, followed by two PRETmax in week 2, or vice versa...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704390/inter-rater-reliability-of-categorical-versus-continuous-scoring-of-fish-vitality-does-it-affect-the-utility-of-the-reflex-action-mortality-predictor-ramp-approach
#10
Pieter Meeremans, Noëlle Yochum, Marc Kochzius, Bart Ampe, Frank A M Tuyttens, Sven Sebastian Uhlmann
Scoring reflex responsiveness and injury of aquatic organisms has gained popularity as predictors of discard survival. Given this method relies upon the individual interpretation of scoring criteria, an evaluation of its robustness is done here to test whether protocol-instructed, multiple raters with diverse backgrounds (research scientist, technician, and student) are able to produce similar or the same reflex and injury score for one of the same flatfish (European plaice, Pleuronectes platessa) after experiencing commercial fishing stressors...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701550/the-influence-of-envelope-waveform-on-itd-sensitivity-of-neurons-in-the-auditory-midbrain
#11
David Greenberg, Jessica Josephine Margaret Monaghan, Mathias Dietz, Torsten Marquardt, David McAlpine
Interaural time differences (ITDs) conveyed by the modulated envelopes of high-frequency sounds can serve as a cue for localising a sound source. Klein-Hennig et al. (2011) demonstrated the envelope attack, the rate at which stimulus energy in the envelope increases, and the duration of the pause, the interval between successive envelope pulses, as important factors affecting sensitivity to envelope ITDs in human listeners. Modulated sounds with rapid attacks and long pauses produce the lowest ITD-discrimination thresholds...
July 12, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699120/valve-related-modes-of-pump-failure-in-collecting-lymphatics-numerical-and-experimental-investigation
#12
C D Bertram, C Macaskill, M J Davis, J E Moore
Lymph is transported along collecting lymphatic vessels by intrinsic and extrinsic pumping. The walls have muscle of a type intermediate between blood-vascular smooth muscle and myocardium; a contracting segment between two valves (a lymphangion) constitutes a pump. This intrinsic mechanism is investigated ex vivo in isolated, spontaneously contracting, perfused segments subjected to controlled external pressures. The reaction to varying afterload is probed by slowly ramping up the outlet pressure until pumping fails...
July 11, 2017: Biomechanics and Modeling in Mechanobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691574/enhancement-of-a-prosthetic-knee-with-a-microprocessor-controlled-gait-phase-switch-reduces-falls-and-improves-balance-confidence-and-gait-speed-in-community-ambulators-with-unilateral-transfemoral-amputation
#13
Sara Agueda Fuenzalida Squella, Andreas Kannenberg, Ângelo Brandão Benetti
BACKGROUND: Despite the evidence for improved safety and function of microprocessor stance and swing-controlled prosthetic knees, non-microprocessor-controlled prosthetic knees are still standard of care for persons with transfemoral amputations in most countries. Limited feature microprocessor-control enhancement of such knees could stand to significantly improve patient outcomes. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate gait speed, balance, and fall reduction benefits of the new 3E80 default stance hydraulic knee compared to standard non-microprocessor-controlled prosthetic knees...
July 1, 2017: Prosthetics and Orthotics International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689932/analysis-of-real-time-crash-risk-for-expressway-ramps-using-traffic-geometric-trip-generation-and-socio-demographic-predictors
#14
Ling Wang, Mohamed Abdel-Aty, Jaeyoung Lee, Qi Shi
There have been numerous studies on real-time crash prediction seeking to link real-time crash likelihood with traffic and environmental predictors. Nevertheless, none has explored the impact of socio-demographic and trip generation parameters on real-time crash risk. This study analyzed the real-time crash risk for expressway ramps using traffic, geometric, socio-demographic, and trip generation predictors. Two Bayesian logistic regression models were utilized to identify crash precursors and their impact on ramp crash risk...
July 7, 2017: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687955/effects-of-recovery-interval-duration-on-the-parameters-of-the-critical-power-model-for-incremental-exercise
#15
Giovanni Vinetti, Nazzareno Fagoni, Anna Taboni, Stefano Camelio, Pietro Enrico di Prampero, Guido Ferretti
INTRODUCTION: We tested the linear critical power ([Formula: see text]) model for discrete incremental ramp exercise implying recovery intervals at the end of each step. METHODS: Seven subjects performed incremental (power increment 25 W) stepwise ramps to subject's exhaustion, with recovery intervals at the end of each step. Ramps' slopes (S) were 0.83, 0.42, 0.28, 0.21, and 0.08 W s(-1); recovery durations (t r) were 0 (continuous stepwise ramps), 60, and 180 s (discontinuous stepwise ramps)...
July 7, 2017: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685426/effects-of-8-weeks-training-on-systemic-and-muscle-oxygen-dynamics-in-university-rugby-players
#16
Shun Takagi, Ryotaro Kime, Masatsugu Niwayama, Kuniaki Hirayama, Shizuo Sakamoto
The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of 8 weeks of training on O2 dynamics in university rugby players. University rugby players (n = 15) participated in 5 strength training sessions and 4 field-based training sessions per week for 8 weeks. Before and after 8-weeks' training, the subjects performed ramp cycling exercise until exhaustion. Muscle O2 saturation (SmO2), relative changes from rest in deoxygenated hemoglobin concentration (∆Deoxy-Hb) and total hemoglobin concentration, cardiac output (CO), and pulmonary O2 uptake (VO2) were monitored continuously during exercise...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685425/multi-site-measurements-of-muscle-o2-dynamics-during-cycling-exercise-in-early-post-myocardial-infarction
#17
Shun Takagi, Ryotaro Kime, Norio Murase, Masatsugu Niwayama, Takuya Osada, Toshihito Katsumura
The aim of this study was to compare the muscle oxygen dynamics between early post-myocardial infarction (n = 12; MI) and age-matched elderly subjects without MI (n = 12; CON) in several leg muscles during ramp cycling exercise. Muscle oxygen saturation (SmO2), deoxygenated-hemoglobin concentration (∆deoxy-Hb), and total-hemoglobin concentration (∆total-Hb) were monitored continuously at the distal site of vastus lateralis (VLd), proximal site of the vastus lateralis (VLp), rectus femoris (RF), vastus medialis (VM), gastrocnemius medialis (GM), and tibialis anterior (TA) muscles by near infrared spatial resolved spectroscopy...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680933/thermophysiological-adaptations-to-passive-mild-heat-acclimation
#18
H Pallubinsky, L Schellen, B R M Kingma, B Dautzenberg, M A van Baak, W D van Marken Lichtenbelt
Passive mild heat acclimation (PMHA) reflects realistic temperature challenges encountered in everyday life. Active heat acclimation, combining heat exposure and exercise, influences several important thermophysiological parameters; for example, it decreases core temperature and enhances heat exchange via the skin. However, it is unclear whether PMHA elicits comparable adaptations. Therefore, this study investigated the effect of PMHA on thermophysiological parameters. Participants were exposed to slightly increased temperatures (∼33°C/22% RH) for 6 h/d over 7 consecutive days...
2017: Temperature: Multidisciplinary Biomedical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674489/multi-finger-interaction-and-synergies-in-finger-flexion-and-extension-force-production
#19
Jaebum Park, Dayuan Xu
The aim of this study was to discover finger interaction indices during single-finger ramp tasks and multi-finger coordination during a steady state force production in two directions, flexion, and extension. Furthermore, the indices of anticipatory adjustment of elemental variables (i.e., finger forces) prior to a quick pulse force production were quantified. It is currently unknown whether the organization and anticipatory modulation of stability properties are affected by force directions and strengths of in multi-finger actions...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28667969/direct-measurements-of-safety-factor-profiles-with-motional-stark-effect-for-kstar-tokamak-discharges-with-internal-transport-barriers
#20
J Ko, J Chung
The safety factor profile evolutions have been measured from the plasma discharges with the external current drive mechanism such as the multi-ion-source neutral beam injection for the Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research (KSTAR) for the first time. This measurement has been possible by the newly installed motional Stark effect (MSE) diagnostic system that utilizes the polarized Balmer-alpha emission from the energetic neutral deuterium atoms induced by the Stark effect under the Lorentz electric field...
June 2017: Review of Scientific Instruments
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