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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548581/modeling-crash-injury-severity-by-road-feature-to-improve-safety
#1
Praveena Penmetsa, Srinivas S Pulugurtha
Structured Abstract Objective: The objective of this research is two-fold; a) to model and identify critical road features (or locations) based on crash injury severity and compare it with crash frequency, and, b) to model and identify drivers who are more likely to contribute to crashes by road feature. METHOD: Crash data from 2011 to 2013 was obtained from the Highway Safety Information System (HSIS) for the state of North Carolina. Twenty-three different road features were considered, analyzed and compared with each other as well as no road feature...
May 26, 2017: Traffic Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544664/to-reproduce-or-work-insect-castes-emerge-from-socially-induced-changes-in-nutrition-related-genes
#2
Amy L Toth
In social species, there is a fundamental trade-off between 'me' and 'we'; that is, should I reproduce, or should I work to help others to reproduce? In this issue of Molecular Ecology, Okada et al. () delve into the evolution and genetic mechanisms of this core question, focusing on social caste formation in insects. The authors take advantage of a unique ant in the genus Diacamma, which has secondarily lost the classic, highly different queens and workers found in many other ants, bees and wasps. Instead, Diacamma ant castes are decided via aggressive dominance interactions among adult females, similar to dominance hierarchies seen in primitively social insects and many social vertebrates...
June 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538301/proposal-of-a-new-specific-cardiopulmonary-exercise-test-for-taekwondo-athletes
#3
Marcus P Araujo, Antônio C L Nóbrega, Gabriel Espinosa, Matheus R Hausen, Renata R T Castro, Pedro P Soares, Jonas L Gurgel
Araujo, MP, Nóbrega, ACL, Espinosa, G, Hausen, MR, Castro, RRT, Soares, PP, and Gurgel, JL. Proposal of a new specific cardiopulmonary exercise test for taekwondo athletes. J Strength Cond Res 31(6): 1525-1535, 2017-The objective of this study is to evaluate the cardiorespiratory variables of Taekwondo athletes while performing incremental exercise test on an ergometer using a ramp protocol and to propose a specific protocol for assessing these physiological variables during Taekwondo practice. Fourteen athletes participated in 2 incremental exercise tests: a treadmill exercise test (TREADtest) and a Taekwondo-specific exercise test (TKDtest)...
June 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535363/elite-status-maintained-a-12-year-physiological-and-performance-follow-up-of-two-olympic-champion-rowers
#4
Pavle Mikulic, Nikola Bralic
This case study reports the results of a 12-year (2005-2016) follow-up study of two Olympic champion rowers. The rowers were prospective athletes at the junior level when the study began, and we monitored their relevant physiological and performance data annually. Our findings indicated that their V̇O2max gradually increased up to about 22 years of age and leveled off at a value of approximately 7 l·min(-1) with minimal fluctuations thereafter. However, the variables that directly influence the V̇O2max changed...
May 23, 2017: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530476/time-trials-versus-time-to-exhaustion-tests-effects-on-critical-power-w-and-oxygen-uptake-kinetics
#5
Bettina Karsten, Jonathan Baker, Fernando Naclerio, Andreas Klose, Antonino Bianco, Alfred Nimmerichter
PURPOSE: To investigate single-day time-to-exhaustion (TTE) and time trial (TT) based laboratory tests values of critical power (CP), Wprime (W') and respective oxygen kinetics responses. METHODS: Twelve cyclists performed a maximal ramp test followed by three TTE and three TT efforts interspersed by a 60-min recovery between efforts. Oxygen uptake was measured during all trials. The mean response time (MRT) was calculated as a description of the overall V̇O2 kinetic response from the onset to 2 min of exercise...
May 22, 2017: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530471/structure-function-relationships-of-temporomandibular-retrodiscal-tissue
#6
M C Coombs, J M Petersen, G J Wright, S H Lu, B J Damon, H Yao
It is estimated that 2% to 4% of the US population will seek treatment for temporomandibular joint (TMJ) symptoms, typically occurring with anterior disc displacement. The temporomandibular retrodiscal tissue (RDT) has been postulated to restrict pathologic disc displacement. To elucidate RDT function, understanding regional RDT biomechanics and ultrastructure is required. No prior biomechanical analysis has determined regional variations in RDT properties or associated biomechanical outcomes with regional variations in collagen and elastin organization...
June 2017: Journal of Dental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529384/the-pelskin-project-part-v-towards-the-control-of-the-flow-around-aerofoils-at-high-angle-of-attack-using-a-self-activated-deployable-flap
#7
Marco E Rosti, Laura Kamps, Christoph Bruecker, Mohammad Omidyeganeh, Alfredo Pinelli
During the flight of birds, it is often possible to notice that some of the primaries and covert feathers on the upper side of the wing pop-up under critical flight conditions, such as the landing approach or when stalking their prey (see Fig. 1) . It is often conjectured that the feathers pop up plays an aerodynamic role by limiting the spread of flow separation . A combined experimental and numerical study was conducted to shed some light on the physical mechanism determining the feathers self actuation and their effective role in controlling the flow field in nominally stalled conditions...
2017: Meccanica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522581/conformational-dynamics-of-the-frameshift-stimulatory-structure-in-hiv-1
#8
Dustin B Ritchie, Tonia R Cappellano, Collin Tittle, Negar Rezajooei, Logan Rouleau, William Ka Sikkema, Michael T Woodside
Programmed ribosomal frameshifting (PRF) in HIV-1 is thought to be stimulated by a hairpin in the mRNA, although a pseudoknot-like triplex has also been proposed. Because the conformational dynamics of the stimulatory structure under tension applied by the ribosomal helicase during translation may play an important role in PRF, we used optical tweezers to apply tension to the HIV stimulatory structure and monitor its unfolding and refolding dynamics. The folding and unfolding kinetics and energy landscape of the hairpin were measured by ramping the force on the hairpin up and down, providing a detailed biophysical characterisation...
May 18, 2017: RNA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513302/controlled-release-of-1-methylcyclopropene-from-its-functionalized-electrospun-fibers-under-constant-and-linearly-ramped-humidity
#9
Tze Loon Neoh, Hermawan Dwi Ariyanto, Patricia Menendez Galvan, Hidefumi Yoshii
The methodology to electrospin polystyrene (PS) fibers functionalized with the inclusion complex between 1-methylcyclopropene and α-cyclodextrin (α-CD) has been developed successfully. Due to limited availability, α-CD crystals instead of 1-MCP/α-CD complex were suspended in the electrospinning (ES) solutions to investigate the electrospinning process. The ES solutions were characterized in terms of viscosity, conductivity and surface tension. Meanwhile the fibers were subjected to scanning electron microscopy...
May 17, 2017: Food Additives & Contaminants. Part A, Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure & Risk Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511642/impact-of-a-workplace-sit-less-move-more-program-on-efficiency-related-outcomes-of-office-employees
#10
Anna Puig-Ribera, Judit Bort-Roig, Maria Giné-Garriga, Angel M González-Suárez, Iván Martínez-Lemos, Jesús Fortuño, Joan C Martori, Laura Muñoz-Ortiz, Raimon Milà, Nicholas D Gilson, Jim McKenna
BACKGROUND: Few studies have examined the impact of 'sit less, move more' interventions on workplace performance. This study assessed the short and mid-term impacts of and patterns of change within, a 19-week workplace web-based intervention (Walk@WorkSpain; W@WS; 2010-11) on employees´ presenteeism, mental well-being and lost work performance. METHODS: A site randomised control trial recruited employees at six Spanish university campuses (n = 264; 42 ± 10 years; 171 female), assigned by worksite and campus to an Intervention (IG; used W@WS; n = 129; 87 female) or an active Comparison group (A-CG; pedometer, paper diary and self-reported sitting time; n = 135; 84 female)...
May 16, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510504/cardiopulmonary-exercise-testing-basics-of-methodology-and-measurements
#11
Alessandro Mezzani
Cardiopulmonary exercise testing adds measurement of ventilation and volume of oxygen uptake and exhaled carbon dioxide to routine physiological and performance parameters obtainable from conventional exercise testing, furnishing an all-round vision of the systems involved in both oxygen transport from air to mitochondria and its utilization during exercise. Peculiarities of cardiopulmonary exercise testing methodology are the use of ramp protocols and calibration procedures for flow meters and gas analyzers...
May 16, 2017: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507165/reliability-and-validity-of-an-agility-like-incremental-exercise-test-with-multidirectional-change-of-direction-movements-in-response-to-a-visual-stimulus
#12
Dennis-Peter Born, Philipp Kunz, Billy Sperlich
The aim of the study was to evaluate the reliability and validity of cardiorespiratory and metabolic variables, that is, peak oxygen uptake (V'O2peak) and heart rate (HRpeak), obtained from an agility-like incremental exercise test for team sport athletes. To investigate the test-retest reliability, 25 team sport athletes (age: 22 ± 3 years, body mass: 75 ± 7 kg, height: 182 ± 6 cm) performed an agility-like incremental exercise test on the SpeedCourt (SC) system incorporating multidirectional change-of-direction (COD) movements twice...
May 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499198/a-point-of-need-infrared-mediated-pcr-platform-with-compatible-lateral-flow-strip-for-hpv-detection
#13
Wenjia Liu, Mingfang Zhang, Xiaoyan Liu, Alok Sharma, Xianting Ding
With the increasing need of monitoring the epidemiology of serious infectious diseases, food hygiene, food additives and pesticide residues, it is urgent to develop portable, easy-to-use, inexpensive and rapid molecular diagnostic tools. Herein, we demonstrate a prototype of IR mediated Conducting Oil and CarbOn Nanotube circUlaTing PCR (IR-COCONUT PCR) platform for nucleic acid amplification. The presented platform offers a new solution for miniaturized PCR instruments with non-contact heaters by using conducting oil and carbon nanotube as a medium in IR mediated PCR...
April 29, 2017: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28496403/hysteresis-in-center-of-mass-velocity-control-during-the-stance-phase-of-treadmill-walking
#14
Kyoung-Hyun Lee, Raymond K Chong
Achieving a soft landing during walking can be quantified by analyzing changes in the vertical velocity of the body center of mass (CoM) just prior to the landing of the swing limb. Previous research suggests that walking speed and step length may predictably influence the extent of this CoM control. Here we ask how stable this control is. We altered treadmill walking speed by systematically increasing or decreasing it at fixed intervals. We then reversed direction. We hypothesized that the control of the CoM vertical velocity during the late stance of the walking gait may serve as an order parameter which has an attribute of hysteresis...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28492339/venetoclax-for-the-treatment-of-patients-with-chronic-lymphocytic-leukemia
#15
Jennifer Crombie, Matthew S Davids
Venetoclax is a potent, selective inhibitor of BCL-2, a key regulator of the intrinsic pathway of apoptosis. In preclinical studies, venetoclax bound to BCL-2 with high affinity and rapidly induced apoptosis in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) cells. In early-phase clinical trials in CLL, venetoclax treatment led to tumor lysis syndrome in some patients with a large tumor burden, but this risk was subsequently mitigated by a revised study design that included lower initial dosing with intrapatient dose ramp-up and close tumor lysis syndrome monitoring and prophylaxis...
May 11, 2017: Future Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487139/a-multicenter-randomized-trial-of-ramped-position-versus-sniffing-position-during-endotracheal-intubation-of-critically-ill-adults
#16
Matthew W Semler, David R Janz, Derek W Russell, Jonathan D Casey, Robert J Lentz, Aline N Zouk, Bennett P deBoisblanc, Jairo I Santanilla, Yasin A Khan, Aaron M Joffe, William S Stigler, Todd W Rice
BACKGROUND: Hypoxemia is the most common complication during endotracheal intubation of critically ill adults. Intubation in the ramped position has been hypothesized to prevent hypoxemia by increasing functional residual capacity and decreasing the duration of intubation, but has never been studied outside of the operating room. METHODS: Multicenter, randomized trial comparing ramped position (head of the bed elevated to 25 degrees) to sniffing position (torso supine, neck flexed, head extended) among 260 adults undergoing endotracheal intubation by Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine fellows in four intensive care units between July 22, 2015 and July 19, 2016...
May 6, 2017: Chest
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28473648/activity-clamp-provides-insights-into-paradoxical-effects-of-the-anti-seizure-drug-carbamazepine
#17
G Morris, M Leite, D M Kullmann, I Pavlov, S Schorge, G Lignani
A major challenge in experimental epilepsy research is to reconcile the effects of anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs) on individual neurons with their network-level actions. Highlighting this difficulty, it is unclear why carbamazepine (CBZ), a front-line AED with a known molecular mechanism, has been reported to increase epileptiform activity in several clinical and experimental studies. We confirmed in an in vitro mouse model (both sexes) that the frequency of interictal bursts increased following CBZ perfusion...
May 4, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28473334/the-efficacy-of-rotational-control-designs-in-promoting-torsional-stability-of-hip-fracture-fixation
#18
J D Gosiewski, T P Holsgrove, H S Gill
OBJECTIVES: Fractures of the proximal femur are a common clinical problem, and a number of orthopaedic devices are available for the treatment of such fractures. The objective of this study was to assess the rotational stability, a common failure predictor, of three different rotational control design philosophies: a screw, a helical blade and a deployable crucifix. METHODS: Devices were compared in terms of the mechanical work (W) required to rotate the implant by 6° in a bone substitute material...
May 2017: Bone & Joint Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28471653/variable-velocity-traveling-wave-ion-mobility-separation-enhancing-peak-capacity-for-data-independent-acquisition-proteomics
#19
Sarah E Haynes, Daniel A Polasky, Sugyan M Dixit, Jaimeen D Majmudar, Kieran Neeson, Brandon T Ruotolo, Brent R Martin
High mass accuracy, data-dependent acquisition is the current standard method in mass spectrometry-based peptide annotation and quantification. In high complexity samples, limited instrument scan speeds often result in under-sampling. In contrast, all-ion data-independent acquisition methods bypass precursor selection, alternating high and low collision energies to analyze product and precursor ions across wide mass ranges. Despite capturing data for all events, peptide annotation is limited by inadequate alignment algorithms or overlapping ions...
May 9, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28470046/in-situ-high-temperature-synthesis-of-single-component-metallic-nanoparticles
#20
Yonggang Yao, Fengjuan Chen, Anmin Nie, Steven D Lacey, Rohit Jiji Jacob, Shaomao Xu, Zhennan Huang, Kun Fu, Jiaqi Dai, Lourdes Salamanca-Riba, Michael R Zachariah, Reza Shahbazian-Yassar, Liangbing Hu
Nanoparticles (NPs) dispersed within a conductive host are essential for a range of applications including electrochemical energy storage, catalysis, and energetic devices. However, manufacturing high quality NPs in an efficient manner remains a challenge, especially due to agglomeration during assembly processes. Here we report a rapid thermal shock method to in situ synthesize well-dispersed NPs on a conductive fiber matrix using metal precursor salts. The temperature of the carbon nanofibers (CNFs) coated with metal salts was ramped from room temperature to ∼2000 K in 5 ms, which corresponds to a rate of 400,000 K/s...
April 26, 2017: ACS Central Science
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