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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325033/user-intent-prediction-with-a-scaled-conjugate-gradient-trained-artificial-neural-network-for-lower-limb-amputees-using-a-powered-prosthesis
#1
Richard B Woodward, John A Spanias, Levi J Hargrove
Powered lower limb prostheses have the ability to provide greater mobility for amputee patients. Such prostheses often have pre-programmed modes which can allow activities such as climbing stairs and descending ramps, something which many amputees struggle with when using non-powered limbs. Previous literature has shown how pattern classification can allow seamless transitions between modes with a high accuracy and without any user interaction. Although accurate, training and testing each subject with their own dependent data is time consuming...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324949/muscle-synergy-analysis-in-transtibial-amputee-during-ramp-ascending-activity
#2
P Mehryar, M S Shourijeh, H F Maqbool, M Torabi, A A Dehghani-Sanij
In developed countries, the highest number of amputees are elderly with transtibial amputation. Walking on inclined surfaces is difficult for amputees due to loss of muscle volume and strength thereby transtibial amputees (TA) rely on the intact limb to maintain stability. The aim of this study was to use the concatenated non-negative matrix factorization (CNMF) technique to calculate muscle synergy components and compare the difference in muscle synergies and their associated activation profiles in the healthy and amputee groups during ramp ascending (RA) activity...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324211/comparison-of-in-vitro-osteogenic-potential-of-iliac-crest-and-degenerative-facet-joint-bone-autografts-for-intervertebral-fusion-in-lumbar-spinal-stenosis
#3
Jeroen Geurts, Daniela Ramp, Stefan Schären, Cordula Netzer
PURPOSE: The promotion of spinal fusion using bone autografts is largely mediated by the osteoinductive potential of progenitors/mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) that reside in the marrow spaces of cancellous bone. Iliac crest is the common autograft donor site, but its use presents an increased risk for donor site pain, morbidity and infection. Degenerative bone samples harvested during facetectomy might provide an alternative viable source of osteoinductive autografts. In this study, we conducted an intra-individual comparison of the osteogenic potential of isolated low passage MSC from both sources...
March 21, 2017: European Spine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317338/release-of-calcium-into-the-myofibrillar-space-in-response-to-active-shortening-of-striated-muscle
#4
K A P Edman, C Caputo
AIM: The study was undertaken to explore whether shortening of striated muscle during activity is associated with release of bound Ca(2+) into the myofibrillar space as has previously been proposed in order to explain the depressant effect of active shortening. METHODS: The experiments were carried out on single muscle fibres isolated from the anterior tibialis muscle of Rana temporaria. The fibres were loaded with the calcium sensitive indicator Fluo-3. The fibres, stimulated to produce a partially fused isometric tetanus, were subjected to a shortening ramp or, alternatively, to a stretch ramp during activity while force, fibre length, sarcomere length and the Fluo-3 signal were recorded...
March 19, 2017: Acta Physiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302456/association-between-modified-shuttle-walk-test-and-cardiorespiratory-fitness-in-overweight-obese-adults-with-primary-hypertension-exerdiet-hta-study
#5
Borja Jurio-Iriarte, Ilargi Gorostegi-Anduaga, G Rodrigo Aispuru, Javier Pérez-Asenjo, Peter H Brubaker, Sara Maldonado-Martín
The aims of the study were to evaluate the relationship between Modified Shuttle Walk Test (MSWT) with peak oxygen uptake (V˙O2peak) in overweight/obese people with primary hypertension (HTN) and to develop an equation for the MSWT to predict V˙O2peak. Participants (N = 256, 53.9 ± 8.1 years old) with HTN and overweight/obesity performed a cardiorespiratory exercise test to peak exertion on an upright bicycle ergometer using an incremental ramp protocol and the 15-level MSWT. The formula of Singh et al was used as a template to predict V˙O2peak, and a new equation was generated from the measured V˙O2peak-MSWT relationship in this investigation...
February 7, 2017: Journal of the American Society of Hypertension: JASH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300067/superfast-assembly-and-synthesis-of-gold-nanostructures-using-nanosecond-low-temperature-compression-via-magnetic-pulsed-power
#6
Binsong Li, Kaifu Bian, J Matthew D Lane, K Michael Salerno, Gary S Grest, Tommy Ao, Randy Hickman, Jack Wise, Zhongwu Wang, Hongyou Fan
Gold nanostructured materials exhibit important size- and shape-dependent properties that enable a wide variety of applications in photocatalysis, nanoelectronics and phototherapy. Here we show the use of superfast dynamic compression to synthesize extended gold nanostructures, such as nanorods, nanowires and nanosheets, with nanosecond coalescence times. Using a pulsed power generator, we ramp compress spherical gold nanoparticle arrays to pressures of tens of GPa, demonstrating pressure-driven assembly beyond the quasi-static regime of the diamond anvil cell...
March 16, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300033/-current-status-of-extracorporeal-shock-wave-lithotripsy-in-urinary-lithiasis
#7
Jose Gregorio Pereira-Arias, Mikel Gamarra-Quintanilla, Luis Felipe Urdaneta-Salegui, Jorge Alberto Mora-Christian, Andrea Sánchez-Vazquez, Ander Astobieta-Odriozola, Gaspar Ibarluzea-González
Over the last decade, urinary lithiasis' prevalence has dramatically increased due to diet and lifestyle changes, growing 10.6% and 7.1% in men and women respectively. Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy has lost relevance in current practice due to endoscopic device development and unpredictability of results. Instrument miniaturization is leading to an increase of the percutaneous approach of increasingly smaller stones, while most flexible ureteroscopes durability and digitalization has allowed urologists to address larger stones...
March 2017: Archivos Españoles de Urología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298120/spontaneous-polarization-of-vapor-deposited-1-butanol-films-and-its-dependence-on-temperature
#8
Irini K Gavra, Alexandra N Pilidi, Athanassios A Tsekouras
Films of 1-butanol were vapor deposited under vacuum conditions at cryogenic temperatures on a polycrystalline platinum foil. Kelvin probe measurements showed the generation of a large negative voltage on the vacuum side of the film relative to its back side in contact with the platinum foil. Voltages across vapor deposited films, which are known to require molecules with an electric dipole moment, were confirmed to be proportional to the amount of gas deposited at a given temperature. Voltages of several hundreds of volts were recorded for films that were a few thousand monolayers thick...
March 14, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28297429/method-and-phantom-to-study-combined-effects-of-in-plane-x-y-and-z-axis-resolution-for-3d-ct-imaging
#9
David Goodenough, Josh Levy, Smari Kristinsson, Jesper Fredriksson, Hildur Olafsdottir, Austin Healy
Increasingly, the advent of multislice CT scanners, volume CT scanners, and total body spiral acquisition modes has led to the use of Multi Planar Reconstruction and 3D datasets. In considering 3D resolution properties of a CT system it is important to note that both the in-plane (x,y) and z-axis (slice thickness) influence the visualization and detection of objects within the scanned volume. This study investigates ways to consider both the in-plane resolution and the z-axis resolution in a single phantom wherein analytic or visualized analysis can yield information on these combined effects...
September 2016: Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288866/distinct-response-properties-of-rat-prepositus-hypoglossi-nucleus-neurons-classified-on-the-basis-of-firing-patterns
#10
Yasuhiko Saito, Yuchio Yanagawa
Neurons in the prepositus hypoglossi nucleus (PHN), which is involved in controlling horizontal gaze, show distinct firing patterns in response to depolarizing current pulses. Although the firing patterns are commonly used to classify neuron types, whether the classified PHN neurons show differences in voltage response properties when stimulated with various types of current inputs remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the response properties of PHN neurons to various current stimuli using whole-cell recordings in rat brainstem slices...
March 10, 2017: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287369/analyzing-the-effects-of-different-signs-to-increase-the-availability-of-designated-van-accessible-parking-spaces
#11
E Zhang, Glen W White
Often, designated van accessible parking spaces are occupied by non-ramp or lift equipped vehicles (NRLEV) with accessible parking permits. This causes inconvenience, safety concerns, and reduced availability of parking spaces for ramp or lift equipped vehicles (RLEV). The researchers conducted a single subject design study with two settings to examine a differential comparison between the standard van sign versus intervention signs (pictorial representation of a ramp-equipped van plus messages) to determine which is more effective to signal NRLEV users not to park in designated van accessible spaces...
April 2017: Journal of Prevention & Intervention in the Community
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283993/development-and-validity-of-the-rating-of-fatigue-scale
#12
D Micklewright, A St Clair Gibson, V Gladwell, A Al Salman
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of these experiments was to develop a rating-of-fatigue (ROF) scale capable of tracking the intensity of perceived fatigue in a variety of contexts. METHODS: Four experiments were carried out. The first provided the evidential basis for the construction of the ROF scale. The second tested the face validity of the ROF, and the third tested the convergent and divergent validity of the ROF scale during ramped cycling to exhaustion and 30 min of resting recovery...
March 10, 2017: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283422/importance-of-compensatory-heart-rate-increase-during-myocardial-ischemia-to-preserve-appropriate-oxygen-kinetics
#13
Sadamitsu Yoshida, Hitoshi Adachi, Makoto Murata, Junichi Tomono, Shigeru Oshima, Masahiko Kurabayashi
BACKGROUND: Myocardial ischemia induces cardiac dysfunction, resulting in insufficient oxygen supply to peripheral tissues and mismatched energy production during exercise. To relieve the insufficient oxygen supply, heart rate (HR) response is augmented; however, beta-adrenergic receptor blockers (BB) restrict HR response. Although BB are essential drugs for angina pectoris, the effect of BB on exercise tolerance in patients with angina has not been studied. The aim of this study was to clarify the importance of HR augmentation to preserve exercise tolerance in patients with angina pectoris...
March 7, 2017: Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28280973/determinants-of-curvature-constant-w-of-the-power-duration-relationship-under-normoxia-and-hypoxia-the-effect-of-pre-exercise-alkalosis
#14
Sanjoy K Deb, Lewis A Gough, S Andy Sparks, Lars R McNaughton
PURPOSE: This study investigated the effect of induced alkalosis on the curvature constant (W') of the power-duration relationship under normoxic and hypoxic conditions. METHODS: Eleven trained cyclists (mean ± SD) Age: 32 ± 7.2 years; body mass (bm): 77.0 ± 9.2 kg; VO2peak: 59.2 ± 6.8 ml·kg(-1)·min(-1) completed seven laboratory visits which involved the determination of individual time to peak alkalosis following sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) ingestion, an environment specific ramp test (e...
March 9, 2017: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273956/control-of-fault-plane-geometry-on-the-formation-of-a-normal-fault-related-anticline-an-experimental-approach
#15
Wei Long, Zhongquan Li, Ying Li, Junliang Chen, Hongkui Li, Shuangshuang Wan
In one of the largest oil-gas fields in Daqing, China, the anticlines are important structures that hold natural gas. The origin of the symmetric anticlines, which have bends on both the limbs, remains under debate. This is especially true in the case of the anticline in Xujiaweizi (XJWZ), which has recently been the focus of gas exploration. A compressive force introduced by a ramp/flat fault was suggested as its origin of formation; however, this is inconsistent with the reconstruction of the regional stress fields, which show an extensive environment...
December 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273101/classical-and-adaptive-control-of-ex-vivo-skeletal-muscle-contractions-using-functional-electrical-stimulation-fes
#16
Paola Jaramillo Cienfuegos, Adam Shoemaker, Robert W Grange, Nicole Abaid, Alexander Leonessa
Functional Electrical Stimulation is a promising approach to treat patients by stimulating the peripheral nerves and their corresponding motor neurons using electrical current. This technique helps maintain muscle mass and promote blood flow in the absence of a functioning nervous system. The goal of this work is to control muscle contractions from FES via three different algorithms and assess the most appropriate controller providing effective stimulation of the muscle. An open-loop system and a closed-loop system with three types of model-free feedback controllers were assessed for tracking control of skeletal muscle contractions: a Proportional-Integral (PI) controller, a Model Reference Adaptive Control algorithm, and an Adaptive Augmented PI system...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28271006/vcsel-based-swept-source-for-low-cost-optical-coherence-tomography
#17
Sucbei Moon, Eun Seo Choi
We present a novel wavelength-swept laser source for optical coherence tomography (OCT) which is based on the conventional laser diode technology of the vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL). In our self-heating sweep VCSEL (SS-VCSEL), a VCSEL device is simply driven by ramped pulses of currents in direct intensity modulation. The intrinsic property of VCSEL produces a frequency-swept output through the self-heating effect. By the injected current, the temperature of the active region is gradually increased in this effect...
February 1, 2017: Biomedical Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270770/maximal-oxygen-uptake-is-achieved-in-hypoxia-but-not-normoxia-during-an-exhaustive-severe-intensity-run
#18
Matthew I Black, Christopher R Potter, Jo Corbett, Cain C T Clark, Stephen B Draper
Highly aerobically trained individuals are unable to achieve maximal oxygen uptake ([Formula: see text]) during exhaustive running lasting ~2 min, instead [Formula: see text] plateaus below [Formula: see text] after ~1 min. Hypoxia offers the opportunity to study the ([Formula: see text]) response to an exhaustive run relative to a hypoxia induced reduction in [Formula: see text]. The aim of this study was to explore whether there is a difference in the percentage of [Formula: see text] achieved (during a 2 min exhaustive run) in normoxia and hypoxia...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28269659/evaluation-of-shoulder-joint-kinematics-and-muscle-activity-during-geared-and-standard-manual-wheelchair-mobility
#19
Omid Jahanian, Alyssa J Schnorenberg, Brooke A Slavens
Manual wheelchairs often lead to reduced independent function and an increase in shoulder pain and injuries. Geared manual wheelchairs may be a promising alternative that reduces the biomechanical demands of the shoulder needed for tasks such as propulsion on ramps and carpeted floors, while maximizing function and participation. To investigate the effects of geared manual wheelchair mobility during demanding tasks such as ramp ascent, six able-bodied subjects were evaluated in this study. Subjects were asked to propel both standard and geared manual wheelchairs on a tiled level floor and on a wheelchair ADA ramp...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28269410/delaying-ambulation-mode-transitions-in-a-powered-knee-ankle-prosthesis
#20
Ann M Simon, John A Spanias, Kimberly A Ingraham, Levi J Hargrove
Powered knee and ankle prostheses have the potential to improve the mobility of individuals with a lower limb amputation. As the number of different ambulation modes the prosthesis can be configured for increases, so too does the challenge of how to best transition the prosthesis between these modes. Pattern recognition systems have been suggested as a means to provide seamless and natural transitions, although error rates need to be reduced for these systems to be clinical viable. Delaying mode transitions by a small window may be one way to reduce error rates and improve reliability...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
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