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Thoracic manifold

D Ruan, T Dou, D Thomas, D Low
PURPOSE: Fusing information from multiple correlated realizations (e.g., 4DCT) can improve image quality. This process often involves ill-conditioned and asymmetric nonlinear registration and the proper selection of a reference image is important. This work proposes to examine post-registration variation indirectly for such selection, and develops further insights to reduce the number of cross-registrations needed. METHODS: We consider each individual scan as a noisy point in the vicinity of an image manifold, related by motion...
June 2015: Medical Physics
K E Schweer, C Bangard, K Hekmat, O A Cornely
Chronic pulmonary aspergillosis (CPA) is a group of consuming diseases usually presenting with prolonged and relapsing cough, dyspnoea and weight loss. Acute symptoms such as haemoptysis and bronchial or pulmonary haemorrhage may occasionally occur. CPA affects patients with underlying pulmonary conditions, for example, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease or mycobacteriosis or common immunosuppressive conditions such as diabetes. Precise epidemiology is unknown, and while prevalence is considered low the chronic and relapsing nature of the disease challenges the treating physician...
May 2014: Mycoses
Erich Hecker, Jan Volmerig
There is no universally valid definition of the extent of tracheal resections that would be considered "extended." Underlying disease, necessary length of resection, anatomic localization, and chosen surgical approach account for a manifold interdependency. Existing data suggest a "cutoff margin" of 4 cm or more, referring to the likelihood of complications and necessity of additional mobilization maneuvers. This overview outlines worldwide experiences and the surgical variety of possibilities, as well as their execution and appropriate use...
February 2014: Thoracic Surgery Clinics
Kanwal K Bhatia, Anil Rao, Anthony N Price, Robin Wolz, Joseph V Hajnal, Daniel Rueckert
We present a novel method of hierarchical manifold learning which aims to automatically discover regional properties of image datasets. While traditional manifold learning methods have become widely used for dimensionality reduction in medical imaging, they suffer from only being able to consider whole images as single data points. We extend conventional techniques by additionally examining local variations, in order to produce spatially-varying manifold embeddings that characterize a given dataset. This involves constructing manifolds in a hierarchy of image patches of increasing granularity, while ensuring consistency between hierarchy levels...
February 2014: IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging
F Baumann, V Makaloski, N Diehm
Aortic aneurysms and aortic dissection represent a significant health risk due to the demographic developments and current life styles. The mortality of ruptured aortic aneurysms is up to 80 % and the prevalence of aneurysms varies depending on the localization (thoracic or abdominal). Most commonly affected is the infrarenal abdominal aorta; however, there is evidence that the prevalence is diminishing but in contrast the incidence of thoracic aortic aneurysms is increasing. Aortic dissection is often fatal and is the most common acute aortic disease but the incidence is presumed to be underestimated...
May 2013: Der Internist
Ting Chen, Salma K Jabbour, Songbing Qin, Bruce G Haffty, Ning Yue
PURPOSE: The management of thoracic malignancies with radiation therapy is complicated by continuous target motion. In this study, a real time motion analysis approach is proposed to improve the accuracy of patient setup. METHODS: For 11 lung cancer patients a long training fluoroscopy was acquired before the first treatment, and multiple short testing fluoroscopies were acquired weekly at the pretreatment patient setup of image guided radiotherapy (IGRT). The data analysis consisted of three steps: first a 4D target motion model was constructed from 4DCT and projected to the training fluoroscopy through deformable registration...
April 2013: Medical Physics
Kanwal K Bhatia, Anil Rao, Anthony N Price, Robin Wolz, Jo Hajnal, Daniel Rueckert
We present a novel method of hierarchical manifold learning which aims to automatically discover regional variations within images. This involves constructing manifolds in a hierarchy of image patches of increasing granularity, while ensuring consistency between hierarchy levels. We demonstrate its utility in two very different settings: (1) to learn the regional correlations in motion within a sequence of time-resolved images of the thoracic cavity; (2) to find discriminative regions of 3D brain images in the classification of neurodegenerative disease,...
2012: Medical Image Computing and Computer-assisted Intervention: MICCAI ..
Wei-Li Hsu, Li-Shan Chou, Marjorie Woollacott
Falls represent a significant health risk in the elderly and often result in injuries that require medical attention. Reduced ability to control motion of the whole-body center of mass (COM) has been shown to identify elderly people at risk of falling. To explore effective preventive strategies and interventions, we studied adult age-related differences in multijoint coordination to control the COM during balance recovery. We used the uncontrolled manifold (UCM) analysis, which can decompose movement variability of joints into good movement variability (motor equivalent) and bad movement variability (nonmotor equivalent)...
August 2013: Age (2005-)
Sandy Karl, Gilles Dupré
The involvement of the greater omentum in reconstructive, abdominal and thoracic surgery is based on its manifold qualities, which include immunological support, lymphatic drainage, angiogenesis, adhesion, haemostasis and fat storage. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the greater omentum could be extended to the head. In addition, we evaluated the surgical procedures necessary for this extension. Our study reveals that specific surgical lengthening techniques of the greater omentum, such as dorsal extension and inverted L-shape elongation, are necessary to successfully transpose the omentum to the head in cats...
April 2012: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery
Christian Wachinger, Mehmet Yigitsoy, Erik-Jan Rijkhorst, Nassir Navab
Respiratory motion is a challenging factor for image acquisition and image-guided procedures in the abdominal and thoracic region. In order to address the issues arising from respiratory motion, it is often necessary to detect the respiratory signal. In this article, we propose a novel, purely image-based retrospective respiratory gating method for ultrasound and MRI. Further, we apply this technique to acquire breathing-affected 4D ultrasound with a wobbler probe and, similarly, to create 4D MR with a slice stacking approach...
May 2012: Medical Image Analysis
Samuel Kadoury, Hubert Labelle
PURPOSE: Understanding how to classify and quantify three-dimensional (3D) spinal deformities remains an open question in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. The objective of this study was to perform a 3D manifold characterization of scoliotic spines demonstrating thoracic deformations using a novel geometric and intuitive statistical tool to determine patterns in pathological cases. METHODS: Personalized 3D reconstructions of thoracic (T)/lumbar (L) spines from a cohort of 170 Lenke Type-1 patients were analyzed with a non-linear manifold embedding algorithm in order to reduce the high-dimensionality of the data, using statistical properties of neighbouring spine models...
January 2012: European Spine Journal
V Fendrich, D K Bartsch, P Langer, A Zielke, M Rothmund
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Most insulinomas are solitary, benign and functional neuroendocrine pancreatic tumors which give rise to manifold symptoms. Their preoperative localization is often unclear, but the cure rate after their excision is very high. It was the aim of this study to analyse and evaluate our group of patients with regard to preoperative tumor localization and overall surgical results. METHODS: Data were collected as part of prospective observations and retrospective evaluation of all patients treated for insulinoma between 1987 and 2003 at the department of visceral- thoracic- and vascular surgery at the Philipps University of Marburg...
April 23, 2004: Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift
1. The "indirect" thoracic muscles of adult dipterous and hymenopterous insects consist of a unique type of muscle characterized by the presence of numerous spherical, intracytoplasmic bodies termed "sarcosomes." 2. When the muscle is teased or ground, the sarcosomes are liberated as a turbid suspension of bodies ranging from 1 to 4 micro in diameter. A method is described for the isolation of sarcosomes by a simple differential centrifugation. 3. The cytochemical, chemical, and enzymatic properties of sarcosomes were examined for the purpose of appraising their relation to the cytoplasmic bodies of other tissues...
May 1951: Journal of General Physiology
Melissa L Givens, Karen Ayotte, Craig Manifold
OBJECTIVES: To determine the length of catheter required to perform a needle thoracostomy, as determined by chest wall thickness, to treat the majority of patients presenting to the emergency department (ED) with a potential tension pneumothorax. METHODS: A convenience sample of 111 computed tomography (CT) scans of the chest in trauma and medical resuscitation patients at a military Level 1 trauma center in San Antonio, Texas, was pooled, and the chest wall thickness was measured at the second intercostal space, midclavicular line, to the nearest 0...
February 2004: Academic Emergency Medicine: Official Journal of the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine
L Toledo, D Gossot, S Fritsch, Y Revillon, C Reboulet
UNLABELLED: The instruments currently used in endoscopic surgery are limited by several factors, in particular their reduced working space. In order to develop instruments with manifold degrees of freedom (DOF), the elementary actions performed by the existing instruments must be defined. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We have broken down into elementary movements the actions performed by the currently used instruments and analyzed them by measuring the strain on the instruments and on their working volume...
1999: Annales de Chirurgie
J Kaye, D Metaxas, N Badler, J Clarke, B Webber
We present an integrated 3D virtual environment for the quantitative modeling of the anatomy and the physiology of the pulmonary system. Our approach formally integrates 3D deformable object modeling with conventional models of respiratory mechanics. We demonstrate quantitatively, aspects of the behavior of the respiratory system qualitatively known to clinicians, such as normal quiet breathing and an open sucking chest wound. Our methodology is general and can be used to model both the anatomy and the physiology at many levels of detail...
1996: Studies in Health Technology and Informatics
P M Connor, K Yamaguchi, S G Manifold, R G Pollock, E L Flatow, L U Bigliani
The results of split pectoralis major tendon transfer (sternal head) for symptomatic scapular winging because of palsy of the serratus anterior muscle were reviewed. Eleven consecutive patients, whose average age was 34 years, had a duration of preoperative symptoms ranging from 12 to 60 months. Ten patients had electromyograms documenting a long thoracic nerve injury. Using an inferior axillary incision, the tendon of the sternal head of the pectoralis major is mobilized and transferred to the inferior angle of the scapula...
August 1997: Clinical Orthopaedics and related Research
E Lang, P Kupfer
Physiology of pain is a manifold and very complex phenomenon that is far from being understood. It cannot be explained without reference to psychosocial conditions. Pain has the function of a warning system, but the system is far from perfect, because a number of chronic diseases (e.g., arterial hypertension or malignant neoplasms) begin slowly and nearly painless. The role of pain in internal medicine will be exemplified by thoracic and abdominal pain. With regard to diagnoses both types of pain represent ambiguous symptoms...
September 1995: Zeitschrift Für Gerontologie und Geriatrie
R E Shadwick, J M Gosline
An analysis of the dimensions of the aortic tree and the mechanical properties of arterial wall tissues in the fin whale (Balaenoptera physalus) is presented. The aortic arch is greatly expanded, having an internal radius at an estimated mean blood pressure (13 kPa) that is 2.5 times greater than that of the descending thoracic aorta. At this pressure, the elastic modulus of the arch wall (0.4 MPa) is 30 times less than that of the descending aorta (12 MPa). Consequently, even though some capacitance is provided anteriorly by the relatively compliant innominate and carotid arteries, > 90% of the arterial capacitance resides in the arch...
September 1994: American Journal of Physiology
L E Thibault, D L Fry
Experimental and analytical methods are presented which enable one to examine the local rheological properties of biological tissues which can be captured as flat sheets between matching pressure manifolds and deformed under experimentally prescribed hydrostatic loading conditions. In spite of the fact that most biological tissues, including arteries, are nonlinearly elastic when considered over wide ranges of strain, it was found that the deformation of swine and canine arterial wall specimens in the physiological range of wall strain can be approximated by an isotropic, linearily elastic membrane model...
February 1983: Journal of Biomechanical Engineering
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