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Psychopathology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938151/elucidation-of-shared-and-specific-white-matter-findings-underlying-psychopathology-clusters-in-schizophrenia
#1
Jeanette Lim, Rowena Chin, New Fei Ho, Max Lam, Min Yi Sum, Simon Collinson, Lisa Phillips, Tih-Shih Lee, Balázs Zoltán Gulyás, Juan Zhou, Kang Sim
BACKGROUND: Schizophrenia is associated with diverse white matter (WM) brain abnormalities. In this study, we sought to examine the WM microstructural findings which underlie clinical psychopathology clusters in schizophrenia and hypothesized that these symptom clusters are associated with common and unique WM tracts. METHODS: Overall, 76 healthy controls (HC), and 148 patients with schizophrenia (SZ) were recruited and severity of symptomatology in schizophrenia was assessed using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale...
September 1, 2017: Asian Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937340/research-domain-criteria-as-psychiatric-nosology
#2
Faisal Akram, James Giordano
Diagnostic classification systems in psychiatry have continued to rely on clinical phenomenology, despite limitations inherent in that approach. In view of these limitations and recent progress in neuroscience, the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) has initiated the Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) project to develop a more neuroscientifically based system of characterizing and classifying psychiatric disorders. The RDoC initiative aims to transform psychiatry into an integrative science of psychopathology in which mental illnesses will be defined as involving putative dysfunctions in neural nodes and networks...
October 2017: Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics: CQ: the International Journal of Healthcare Ethics Committees
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936640/autism-spectrum-disorder-and-school-bullying-who-is-the-victim-who-is-the-perpetrator
#3
Soonjo Hwang, Young Shin Kim, Yun-Joo Koh, Bennett L Leventhal
While a growing number of studies indicate associations between experiences of bullying and autism spectrum disorder (ASD), it is not clear what roles comorbid behavioral problems may play. We investigated the experiences of children with ASD as victims and/or perpetrators of bullying. Children with ASD epidemiologically ascertained participated in a cross-sectional study. Although children with ASD showed significantly increased risk for bullying involvement compared to community children, after controlling for comorbid psychopathology and other demographic factors, increased risks for being perpetrators or victim-perpetrators disappeared while risk for being bullied/teased continued to be significantly elevated...
September 21, 2017: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936622/prevalence-of-psychopathology-in-bipolar-high-risk-offspring-and-siblings-a-meta-analysis
#4
REVIEW
Phoebe Lau, David J Hawes, Caroline Hunt, Andrew Frankland, Gloria Roberts, Philip B Mitchell
This meta-analysis aimed to update existing data on the comparison of prevalence rates of psychopathology primarily among offspring with at least one parent with bipolar disorder (BD) and offspring of parents without psychiatric illness. Seventeen studies were derived from a systematic search of PsychInfo, Medline, Scopus and Embase. Inclusion criteria were use of a control offspring group, standardized diagnostic procedures and reporting of clear frequency data. Risk of psychopathology was estimated by aggregating frequency data from selected studies...
September 21, 2017: European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936192/the-intricate-relationship-between-psychotic-like-experiences-and-associated-subclinical-symptoms-in-healthy-individuals
#5
Lui Unterrassner, Thomas A Wyss, Diana Wotruba, Helene Haker, Wulf Rössler
The interplay between subclinical psychotic, negative, and affective symptoms has gained increased attention regarding the etiology of psychosis spectrum and other mental disorders. Importantly, research has tended to not differentiate between different subtypes of psychotic-like experiences (PLE) although they may not have the same significance for mental health. In order to gain information on the subclinical interplay between specific PLE and other symptoms as well as the significance of PLE for mental health, we investigated their specific associations in 206 healthy individuals (20-60 years, 73 females) using correlational and linear regression analyses...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935660/childhood-adversities-and-post-traumatic-stress-disorder-evidence-for-stress-sensitisation-in-the-world-mental-health-surveys
#6
Katie A McLaughlin, Karestan C Koenen, Evelyn J Bromet, Elie G Karam, Howard Liu, Maria Petukhova, Ayelet Meron Ruscio, Nancy A Sampson, Dan J Stein, Sergio Aguilar-Gaxiola, Jordi Alonso, Guilherme Borges, Koen Demyttenaere, Rumyana V Dinolova, Finola Ferry, Silvia Florescu, Giovanni de Girolamo, Oye Gureje, Norito Kawakami, Sing Lee, Fernando Navarro-Mateu, Marina Piazza, Beth-Ellen Pennell, José Posada-Villa, Margreet Ten Have, Maria Carmen Viana, Ronald C Kessler
BackgroundAlthough childhood adversities are known to predict increased risk of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) after traumatic experiences, it is unclear whether this association varies by childhood adversity or traumatic experience types or by age.AimsTo examine variation in associations of childhood adversities with PTSD according to childhood adversity types, traumatic experience types and life-course stage.MethodEpidemiological data were analysed from the World Mental Health Surveys (n = 27 017)...
September 21, 2017: British Journal of Psychiatry: the Journal of Mental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935341/conduct-problems-in-youth-and-the-rdoc-approach-a-developmental-evolutionary-based-view
#7
REVIEW
Peter Fonagy, Patrick Luyten
Problems related to aggression in young people are traditionally subsumed under the header of conduct problems, which include conduct disorder and oppositional defiant disorder. Such problems in children and adolescents are an important societal and mental health problem. In this paper we present an evolutionarily informed developmental psychopathology view of conduct problems inspired by the NIMH Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) initiative. We assume that while there are many pathways to conduct problems, chronic or temporary impairments in the domain of social cognition or mentalizing are a common denominator...
September 8, 2017: Clinical Psychology Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934560/creativity-and-mood-disorder-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#8
Christa L Taylor
Although the belief that creativity is related to psychopathology is prevalent, empirical evidence is limited. Research findings relating to mood disorder in particular are mixed, possibly as a result of differing research approaches (e.g., assessing the creativity of individuals with versus without mood disorder opposed to the prevalence of mood disorder in creative versus noncreative individuals). Therefore, a systematic review and meta-analysis were conducted to investigate prior research examining the link between mood disorder and creativity from three distinct research approaches...
September 1, 2017: Perspectives on Psychological Science: a Journal of the Association for Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933254/the-efficacy-of-a-working-memory-training-in-substance-use-patients-a-randomized-double-blind-placebo-controlled-clinical-trial
#9
Sabine Wanmaker, Sophie Maaike Jorinde Leijdesdorff, Elke Geraerts, Ben J M van de Wetering, Peter J Renkema, Ingmar H A Franken
INTRODUCTION: Substance use disorder patients show impairments in working memory (WM) functioning. Previous findings indicate that a WM training results in improvements of working memory capacity (WMC) and in decreased clinical symptoms in a range of mental disorders, including alcohol use disorder. METHOD: The aim of the current study is to investigate the efficacy of a 24-session WM training in addition to treatment as usual on craving, WMC, substance use, impulsivity, attention bias, and psychopathology using a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial...
September 21, 2017: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932600/abnormal-n400-semantic-priming-effect-may-reflect-psychopathological-processes-in-schizophrenia-a-twin-study
#10
Anuradha Sharma, Heinrich Sauer, Holger Hill, Claudia Kaufmann, Stephan Bender, Matthias Weisbrod
OBJECTIVE: Activation of semantic networks is indexed by the N400 effect. We used a twin study design to investigate whether N400 effect abnormalities reflect genetic/trait liability or are related to psychopathological processes in schizophrenia. METHODS: We employed robust linear regression to compare N400 and behavioral priming effects across 36 monozygotic twin pairs (6 pairs concordant for schizophrenia/schizoaffective disorder, 11 discordant pairs, and 19 healthy control pairs) performing a lexical decision task...
2017: Schizophrenia Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931447/psychopathology-of-terrorists
#11
Armando Piccinni, Donatella Marazziti, Antonello Veltri
Terrorist behavior represents a subtype of human aggression probably determined by a combination of biological, psychological, and social factors, as well as by peculiar environmental influences and group dynamics. As regards terrorists' psychological characteristics, the available studies (mostly carried out with no sound scientific design) have failed to identify the common or typical pathological personality traits of modern terrorists. The popular opinion that terrorists must be insane or psychopathic is still widespread; however, no evidence exists that terrorist behavior may be caused either by prior or current psychiatric disorders or psychopathy...
September 21, 2017: CNS Spectrums
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931400/conduct-disorders-and-psychopathy-in-children-and-adolescents-aetiology-clinical-presentation-and-treatment-strategies-of-callous-unemotional-traits
#12
REVIEW
Simone Pisano, Pietro Muratori, Chiara Gorga, Valentina Levantini, Raffaella Iuliano, Gennaro Catone, Giangennaro Coppola, Annarita Milone, Gabriele Masi
Conduct Disorder (CD) is a psychiatric diagnosis characterized by a repetitive and persistent pattern of behaviour in which the basic rights of others and major age-appropriate social norms or rules are violated. Callous Unemotional (CU) traits are a meaningful specifier in subtyping CD for more severe antisocial and aggressive behaviours in adult psychopathology; they represent the affective dimension of adult psychopathy, but they can be also detected in childhood and adolescence. The CU traits include lack of empathy, sense of guilt and shallow emotion, and their characterization in youth can improve our diagnostic, prognostic and therapeutic abilities...
September 20, 2017: Italian Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931092/the-genome-wide-associated-candidate-gene-znf804a-and-psychosis-proneness-evidence-of-sex-modulated-association
#13
Marta de Castro-Catala, Aurea Mora-Solano, Thomas R Kwapil, Paula Cristóbal-Narváez, Tamara Sheinbaum, Anna Racioppi, Neus Barrantes-Vidal, Araceli Rosa
BACKGROUND: The Zinc finger protein 804A (ZNF804A) is a promising candidate gene for schizophrenia and the broader psychosis phenotype that emerged from genome-wide association studies. It is related to neurodevelopment and associated to severe symptoms of schizophrenia and alterations in brain structure, as well as positive schizotypal personality traits in non-clinical samples. Moreover, a female-specific association has been observed between ZNF804A and schizophrenia. AIM: The present study examined the association of two ZNF804A polymorphisms (rs1344706 and rs7597593) with the positive dimension of schizotypy and psychotic-like experiences in a sample of 808 non-clinical subjects...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931086/re-evaluation-of-the-interrelationships-among-the-behavioral-tests-in-rats-exposed-to-chronic-unpredictable-mild-stress
#14
Congli Hu, Ying Luo, Hong Wang, Shengnan Kuang, Guojuan Liang, Yang Yang, Shaoshan Mai, Junqing Yang
The chronic unpredictable mild stress model of depression has been widely used as an experimental tool to investigate human psychopathology. Our objective was to provide an update on the validity and reliability of the chronic unpredictable mild stress model, by analyzing the interrelationships among the indexes using stepwise discriminant analysis and Pearson correlation coefficient to examine the possible combinations. We evaluated the depressive rats in both the presence and the absence of chronic unpredictable mild stress, using weight change, percentage of sucrose preference, coat state, splash test, open-field test, elevated plus-maze test, forced swimming test, and Morris water maze test...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929989/measuring-orthorexia-nervosa-psychometric-limitations-of-the-orto-15
#15
María Roncero, Juan Ramón Barrada, Conxa Perpiñá
Orthorexia nervosa has recently been defined as excessive preoccupation with healthy eating, causing significant nutritional deficiencies and social and personal impairments. The ORTO-15 is the most widely used instrument to evaluate orthorexia nervosa, although previous studies obtained inconsistent results about its psychometric properties, and there are no data on the Spanish version. Thus, the main objective of the present study was to analyze the psychometric properties of the Spanish adaptation of the ORTO-15...
September 20, 2017: Spanish Journal of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929975/trait-and-facet-level-predictors-of-first-onset-depressive-and-anxiety-disorders-in-a-community-sample-of-adolescent-girls
#16
Brandon L Goldstein, Roman Kotov, Greg Perlman, David Watson, Daniel N Klein
BACKGROUND: Individual differences in neuroticism, extraversion, and conscientiousness are associated with, and may predict onset of, internalizing disorders. These general traits can be parsed into facets, but there is a surprising paucity of research on facet risk for internalizing disorders. We examined general traits and facets of neuroticism, extraversion, and conscientiousness in predicting first onsets of depressive and anxiety disorders. METHODS: A community sample of 550 adolescent females completed general and facet-level personality measures and diagnostic interviews...
September 20, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927864/anorexia-nervosa-and-childhood-sexual-abuse-treatment-outcomes-of-intensive-enhanced-cognitive-behavioural-therapy
#17
Simona Calugi, Cecilia Franchini, Silvia Pivari, Maddalena Conti, Marwan El Ghoch, Riccardo Dalle Grave
Sexual abuse has been widely studied as a risk factor in anorexia nervosa, but data on its influence on treatment outcomes are scarce. Hence, we compared short- and long-term outcomes of inpatient enhanced cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT-E) in patients with anorexia nervosa who had and had not suffered sexual abuse. Eighty-one patients were recruited, and body mass index (BMI), Eating Disorder Examination, Brief Symptom Inventory, and Work and Social Adjustment Scale scores were recorded before and after treatment, and at 6- and 12-month follow-ups...
September 12, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927773/-school-refusal-psychopathological-profiles-of-adolescents-followed-in-a-day-hospital-setting
#18
J Romani, S Campredon, D Da Fonseca
INTRODUCTION: School refusal appeared when formal education became compulsory in 1882, with the Jules Ferry laws. In international psychiatric classifications, school refusal does not appear as a diagnosis by itself, but it co-exists and is inherent to the symptoms of other psychiatric conditions, in particular of anxiety and depressive disorders. The main goal of this study was to describe psychopathological disorders in teenagers presenting school refusal followed in a day hospital setting...
September 15, 2017: Archives de Pédiatrie: Organe Officiel de la Sociéte Française de Pédiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926761/the-cortisol-awakening-response-and-anterior-cingulate-cortex-function-in-maltreated-depressed-versus-non-maltreated-depressed-youth
#19
Karina Quevedo, Jennifer Doty, Leslie Roos, Justin J Anker
Symptomatology of depression among children who have (vs. have not) experienced maltreatment is greater in severity, more resistant to conventional treatment, and associated with elevated risk for suicide. Recent evidence implicates perturbations in stress regulatory systems and heightened negative self-appraisals as factors that increase the severity of psychopathology experienced by depressed maltreated (vs. non-maltreated) youth. Likely explanatory mechanisms for these differences are disturbances in the function of the hypothalamic-pituitary axis (HPA) and persistent negative self-referential biases supported by prefrontal cortex function including the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC)...
September 5, 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926307/predictive-utility-of-personality-disorder-in-depression-comparison-of-outcomes-and-taxonomic-approach
#20
Giles Newton-Howes, Roger Mulder, Pete M Ellis, Joseph M Boden, Peter Joyce
There is debate around the best model for diagnosing personality disorder, both in terms of its relationship to the empirical data and clinical utility. Four randomized controlled trials examining various treatments for depression were analyzed at an individual patient level. Three different approaches to the diagnosis of personality disorder were analyzed in these patients. A total of 578 depressed patients were included in the analysis. Personality disorder, however measured, was of little predictive utility in the short term but added significantly to predictive modelling of medium-term outcomes, accounting for more than twice as much of the variance in social functioning outcome as depression psychopathology...
September 19, 2017: Journal of Personality Disorders
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