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Psychopathology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735169/aberrant-link-between-empathy-and-social-attribution-style-in-borderline-personality-disorder
#1
Philipp Homan, Marianne C Reddan, Tobias Brosch, Harold W Koenigsberg, Daniela Schiller
In social interactions, we often need to quickly infer why other people do what they do. More often than not, we infer that behavior is a result of personality rather than circumstances. It is unclear how the tendency itself may contribute to psychopathology and interpersonal dysfunction. Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is characterized by severe interpersonal dysfunction. Here, we investigated if this dysfunction is related to the tendency to over-attribute behaviors to personality traits. Healthy controls and patients with BPD judged positive and negative behaviors presented within a situational constraint during functional magnetic resonance imaging...
July 14, 2017: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735149/smoking-relapse-situations-among-a-community-recruited-sample-of-spanish-daily-smokers
#2
Bárbara Piñeiro, Ana López-Durán, Carmela Martínez-Vispo, Elena Fernández Del Río, Úrsula Martínez, Rubén Rodríguez-Cano, M Carmen Míguez, Elisardo Becoña
INTRODUCTION: Relapse is a common factor within the behavior change process. However, there is scarce and limited knowledge of smoking relapse situations in population-based samples. The aim of this study was to identify smoking relapse situations among a sample of Spanish relapsers from the general population. METHODS: A sample of 775 relapsers was recruited among the general population using a snowball method. Participants completed a survey including sociodemographic, smoking-related and psychopathology variables...
July 14, 2017: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734184/an-empirical-review-of-potential-mediators-and-mechanisms-of-prolonged-exposure-therapy
#3
REVIEW
Andrew A Cooper, Erin G Clifton, Norah C Feeny
Prolonged exposure (PE) is an empirically-supported treatment for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), but the precise mechanism(s) by which PE promotes symptom change are not well established. Understanding how PE works is critical to improving clinical outcomes, advancing dissemination efforts, and enhancing transdiagnostic models of psychopathology. However, mechanisms research conducted in clinical treatment settings is complex, and findings may be difficult to interpret without appropriate context. This is the first review of potential mechanisms of PE to provide such context, by rigorously evaluating empirical findings in line with essential criteria for effective research on mechanisms (or mediators)...
July 11, 2017: Clinical Psychology Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731214/from-positive-psychology-to-psychopathology-the-continuum-of-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#4
Corina U Greven, Jan K Buitelaar, Giovanni A Salum
BACKGROUND: Integration of positive psychology into clinical research and treatment has been slow. This integration can be facilitated by the conceptualisation of mental disorders as the high, symptomatic extreme of continuous normal variation. This assumes that there is also a low, positive extreme, which is, however, unchartered territory. This study aims to examine how well current measures capture the low extreme of mental disorder continua, using attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) as an example...
July 21, 2017: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729845/negative-affect-and-excessive-alcohol-intake-incubate-during-protracted-withdrawal-from-binge-drinking-in-adolescent-but-not-adult-mice
#5
Kaziya M Lee, Michal A Coehlo, Noah R Solton, Karen K Szumlinski
Binge-drinking is common in underage alcohol users, yet we know little regarding the biopsychological impact of binge-drinking during early periods of development. Prior work indicated that adolescent male C57BL6/J mice with a 2-week history of binge-drinking (PND28-41) are resilient to the anxiogenic effects of early alcohol withdrawal. Herein, we employed a comparable Drinking-in-the-Dark model to determine how a prior history of binge-drinking during adolescence (EtOH(adolescents)) influences emotionality (assayed with the light-dark box, marble burying test, and the forced swim test) and the propensity to consume alcohol in later life, compared to animals without prior drinking experience...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729357/association-between-maternal-childhood-trauma-and-offspring-childhood-psychopathology-mediation-analysis-from-the-alspac-cohort
#6
Dominic T Plant, Fergal W Jones, Carmine M Pariante, Susan Pawlby
BackgroundStudies have shown that a mother's history of child maltreatment is associated with her child's experience of internalising and externalising difficulties.AimsTo characterise the mediating pathways that underpin this association.MethodData on a mother's history of child maltreatment, depression during pregnancy, postnatal depression, maladaptive parenting practices and her child's experience of maltreatment and internalising and externalising difficulties were analysed in an Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) sample of 9397 mother-child dyads followed prospectively from pregnancy to age 13...
July 20, 2017: British Journal of Psychiatry: the Journal of Mental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729233/dynamo-a-modular-platform-for-monitoring-process-outcome-and-algorithm-based-treatment-planning-in-psychotherapy
#7
Tim Kaiser, Anton Rupert Laireiter
BACKGROUND: In recent years, the assessment of mental disorders has become more and more personalized. Modern advancements such as Internet-enabled mobile phones and increased computing capacity make it possible to tap sources of information that have long been unavailable to mental health practitioners. OBJECTIVE: Software packages that combine algorithm-based treatment planning, process monitoring, and outcome monitoring are scarce. The objective of this study was to assess whether the DynAMo Web application can fill this gap by providing a software solution that can be used by both researchers to conduct state-of-the-art psychotherapy process research and clinicians to plan treatments and monitor psychotherapeutic processes...
July 20, 2017: JMIR Medical Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729221/sensitivity-to-cocaine-in-adult-mice-is-due-to-interplay-between-genetic-makeup-early-environment-and-later-experience
#8
Matteo Di Segni, Diego Andolina, Alessandra Coassin, Alessandra Accoto, Alessandra Luchetti, Tiziana Pascucci, Carla Luzi, Anna Rita Lizzi, Francesca R D'Amato, Rossella Ventura
Although early aversive postnatal events are known to increase the risk to develop psychiatric disorders later in life, rarely they determine alone the nature and outcome of the psychopathology, indicating that interaction with genetic factors is crucial for expression of psychopathologies in adulthood. Moreover, it has been suggested that early life experiences could have negative consequences or confer adaptive value in different individuals. Here we suggest that resilience or vulnerability to adult cocaine sensitivity depends on a "triple interaction" between genetic makeup x early environment x later experience...
July 17, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728796/-lifetime-psychiatric-disorders-a-comparision-study-between-offspring-of-parents-with-bipolar-disorder-type-i-versus-the-offspring-of-community-controls-parents
#9
Juan David Palacio-Ortiz, Cristian Esteban Peña-Quintero, María Alejandra Gómez-Valero, Paula Andrea Bustamante-Gómez, Pilar Helena Arroyave-Sierra, Cristian David Vargas-Upeguí, Carlos López-Jaramillo
INTRODUCTION: Literature reports show that Bipolar Offspring (BO) present with a wide range of psychiatric disorders. Comparison between BO and Control Parent Offspring (CPO) may help to identify which psychopathological findings are specific to this high-risk group. OBJECTIVE: To compare the psychopathological characteristics between a group of BO type-I and a group of CPO, by identifying the presence of psychiatric disorders according the DSM-IV-TR. METHODS: A descriptive-correlational, cross-sectional and comparative study was conducted with 127 offspring of parents with bipolar disorder type-I from the multimodal intervention program (PRISMA) and with 150 CPO between 6 and 30 years of age...
July 2017: Revista Colombiana de Psiquiatría
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728644/differential-associations-of-upps-p-impulsivity-traits-with-alcohol-problems
#10
Kayleigh N McCarty, David H Morris, Laura E Hatz, Denis M McCarthy
OBJECTIVE: The UPPS-P model posits that impulsivity comprises five factors: positive urgency, negative urgency, lack of planning, lack of perseverance, and sensation seeking. Negative and positive urgency are the traits most consistently associated with alcohol problems. However, previous work has examined alcohol problems either individually or in the aggregate, rather than examining multiple problem domains simultaneously. Recent work has also questioned the utility of distinguishing between positive and negative urgency, as this distinction did not meaningfully differ in predicting domains of psychopathology...
July 2017: Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727532/evacuation-of-pets-during-disasters-a-public-health-intervention-to-increase-resilience
#11
Robin Chadwin
During a disaster, many pet owners want to evacuate their pets with them, only to find that evacuation and sheltering options are limited or nonexistent. This disregard for companion animal welfare during a disaster can have public health consequences. Pet owners may be stranded at home, unwilling to leave their pets behind. Others refuse evacuation orders or attempt to reenter evacuation sites illegally to rescue their animals. Psychopathologies such as grief, depression, and posttraumatic stress disorder are associated with pet abandonment during an evacuation...
July 20, 2017: American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723266/age-of-initiation-psychopathology-and-other-substance-use-are-associated-with-time-to-use-disorder-diagnosis-in-persons-using-opioids-nonmedically
#12
Ty S Schepis, Jahn K Hakes
BACKGROUND: Nonmedical use of prescription opioids (NMUPO) is an ongoing public health challenge, as NMUPO is associated with psychopathology, other drug use and fatal overdose. These concomitant risks are greatest in those with opioid use disorder (OUD), but the development of NMUPO-related use disorder is poorly understood. The primary aim of this study was to establish factors associated with the development of and time to OUD among persons engaged in NMUPO. METHODS: Data were from Wave 1 of the National Epidemiologic Study on Alcohol and Related Conditions, with 1,755 participants endorsing lifetime NMUPO...
July 19, 2017: Substance Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721740/clinical-features-and-subjective-physiological-responses-to-emotional-stimuli-in-the-presence-of-emotion-dysregulation-in-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#13
Candan Taskiran, Serkan Karaismailoglu, Halime Tuna Cak Esen, Zeynep Tuzun, Aysen Erdem, Zeynep Dicle Balkanci, Anil Barak Dolgun, Sadriye Ebru Cengel Kultur
INTRODUCTION: Emotion dysregulation (ED) has long been recognized in clinical descriptions of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), but a renewed interest in ED has advanced research on the overlap between the two entities. Autonomic reactivity (AR) is a neurobiological correlate of emotion regulation; however, the association between ADHD and AR remains unclear. Our aim was to explore the clinical differences, AR, and subjective emotional responses to visual emotional stimuli in ADHD children with and without ED...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720486/loss-of-synaptic-zinc-transport-in-progranulin-deficient-mice-may-contribute-to-progranulin-associated-psychopathology-and-chronic-pain
#14
Stefanie Hardt, Juliana Heidler, Boris Albuquerque, Lucie Valek, Christine Altmann, Annett Wilken-Schmitz, Michael K E Schäfer, Ilka Wittig, Irmgard Tegeder
Affective and cognitive processing of nociception contributes to the development of chronic pain and vice versa, pain may precipitate psychopathologic symptoms. We hypothesized a higher risk for the latter with immanent neurologic diseases and studied this potential interrelationship in progranulin-deficient mice, which are a model for frontotemporal dementia, a disease dominated by behavioral abnormalities in humans. Young naïve progranulin deficient mice behaved normal in tests of short-term memory, anxiety, depression and nociception, but after peripheral nerve injury, they showed attention-deficit and depression-like behavior, over-activity, loss of shelter-seeking, reduced impulse control and compulsive feeding behavior, which did not occur in equally injured controls...
July 15, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720317/dcc-receptors-drive-prefrontal-cortex-maturation-by-determining-dopamine-axon%C3%A2-targeting-in-adolescence
#15
Lauren M Reynolds, Matthew Pokinko, Angélica Torres-Berrío, Santiago Cuesta, Laura C Lambert, Esther Del Cid Pellitero, Michael Wodzinski, Colleen Manitt, Paul Krimpenfort, Bryan Kolb, Cecilia Flores
BACKGROUND: Dopaminergic input to the prefrontal cortex (PFC) increases throughout adolescence and, by establishing precisely localized synapses, calibrates cognitive function. However, why and how mesocortical dopamine axon density increases across adolescence remains unknown. METHODS: We used a developmental application of axon-initiated recombination to label and track the growth of dopamine axons across adolescence in mice. We then paired this recombination with cell-specific knockdown of the netrin-1 receptor DCC to determine its role in adolescent dopamine axon growth...
June 16, 2017: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719083/subtypes-of-personality-and-locus-of-control-in-bariatric-patients-and-their-effect-on-weight-loss-eating-disorder-and-depressive-symptoms-and-quality-of-life
#16
Carolin Peterhänsel, Katja Linde, Birgit Wagner, Arne Dietrich, Anette Kersting
The present study subdivided personality types in a bariatric sample and investigated their impact on weight loss and psychopathology 6 and 12 months after surgery. One hundred thirty participants answered questionnaires on personality (NEO-FFI), 'locus of control' (IPC), depression severity (BDI-II), eating disorder psychopathology (EDE-Q), and health-related quality of life (HRQoL; SF-12). K-means cluster analyses were used to identify subtypes. Two subtypes emerged: an 'emotionally dysregulated/undercontrolled' cluster defined by high neuroticism and external orientation and a 'resilient/high functioning' cluster with the reverse pattern...
July 18, 2017: European Eating Disorders Review: the Journal of the Eating Disorders Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718870/-motivational-goals-and-couple-relationship-quality-in-a-sample-of-individuals-with-infertility
#17
Misa Yamanaka-Altenstein, Emanuel Henrich, Nina Heinrichs
3,5-16,6% of couples worldwide with childwish suffer from infertility, and about 20% thereof show clinically relevant psychological symptoms. Until now it remained unclear, up to which extent motivational factors are associated with psychological distress when suffering from infertility. The goal of this study was to assess individual motivational factors in a sample of infertile people, and to explore their effect on psychological distress. Additionally, the role of couple relationship quality as a dyadic predictor was to be examined...
June 29, 2017: Psychotherapie, Psychosomatik, Medizinische Psychologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717972/characteristics-of-patients-in-an-eating-disorder-sample-who-dropped-out-2-year-follow-up
#18
Andrés Gómez Del Barrio, María Yolanda Vellisca Gonzalez, Jana González Gómez, José Ignacio Latorre Marín, Laura Carral-Fernández, Santos Orejudo Hernandez, Inés Madrazo Río-Hortega, Laura Moreno Malfaz
OBJECTIVE: This manuscript explores the characteristics of individuals diagnosed with an eating disorder who dropped out of treatment, compared with those who completed it. METHOD: The participants were 196 patients diagnosed with eating disorders (according to DSM-IV-TR criteria) who consecutively began treatment for the first time in an eating disorders unit. They were assessed at baseline with a set of questionnaires evaluating eating habits, temperament, and general psychopathology...
July 17, 2017: Eating and Weight Disorders: EWD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717512/trauma-related-emotions-and-radical-acceptance-in-dialectical-behavior-therapy-for-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-after-childhood-sexual-abuse
#19
Nora Görg, Kathlen Priebe, Jan R Böhnke, Regina Steil, Anne S Dyer, Nikolaus Kleindienst
BACKGROUND: Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) related to childhood sexual abuse (CSA) is often associated with a wide range of trauma-related aversive emotions such as fear, disgust, sadness, shame, guilt, and anger. Intense experience of aversive emotions in particular has been linked to higher psychopathology in trauma survivors. Most established psychosocial treatments aim to reduce avoidance of trauma-related memories and associated emotions. Interventions based on Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT) also foster radical acceptance of the traumatic event...
2017: Borderline Personality Disorder and Emotion Dysregulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716937/altered-metabotropic-glutamate-receptor-5-markers-in-ptsd-in-vivo-and-postmortem-evidence
#20
Sophie E Holmes, Matthew J Girgenti, Margaret T Davis, Robert H Pietrzak, Nicole DellaGioia, Nabeel Nabulsi, David Matuskey, Steven Southwick, Ronald S Duman, Richard E Carson, John H Krystal, Irina Esterlis
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a prevalent and highly disabling disorder, but there is currently no targeted pharmacological treatment for it. Dysfunction of the glutamate system has been implicated in trauma and stress psychopathology, resulting in a growing interest in modulation of the glutamate system for the treatment of PTSD. Specifically, the metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5) represents a promising treatment target. We used [(18)F]FPEB, a radioligand that binds to the mGluR5, and positron emission tomography (PET) to quantify in vivo mGluR5 availability in human PTSD vs...
July 17, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
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