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Psychopathology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230461/what-is-the-essence-of-hypnosis
#1
Paul F Dell
The author explores the nature of hypnosis, which he characterizes as a motivated mode of neural functioning that enables most humans to alter, to varying degrees, their experience of body, self, actions, and world. The essence of hypnosis is not to be found in hetero-hypnosis; instead, it lies in the spontaneous self-activation of that mode of neural functioning. The hypnosis field has substantially lost sight of spontaneous self-activation, because the word hypnosis is usually used to mean hetero-hypnosis...
April 2017: International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230406/test-retest-reliability-of-the-facial-expression-labeling-task
#2
Jennifer L Cecilione, Lance M Rappaport, Brad Verhulst, Dever M Carney, R J R Blair, Melissa A Brotman, Ellen Leibenluft, Daniel S Pine, Roxann Roberson-Nay, John M Hettema
Recognizing others' emotional expressions is vital for socioemotional development; impairments in this ability occur in several psychiatric disorders. Further study is needed to map the development of this ability and to evaluate its components as potential transdiagnostic endophenotypes. Before doing so, however, research is required to substantiate the test-retest reliability of scores of the face emotion identification tasks linked to developmental psychopathology. The current study estimated test-retest reliability of scores of one such task, the facial expression labeling task (FELT) among a sample of twin children (N = 157; ages 9-14)...
February 23, 2017: Psychological Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229356/symptoms-of-swallowing-anxiety-in-panic-disorder-patients-and-associated-psychopathologic-factors
#3
Ersin Budak, İbrahim Taymur, Sinay Önen, Bilgen Biçer Kanat, Önder Akdeniz, Hakan Demirci
AIM: The aim of this study was to investigate symptoms of swallowing difficulty in Panic Disorder (PD) patients and the factors associated with these symptoms. METHODS: In the pre-phase of the study, 22 PD patients who were treated in psychiatry outpatient clinics and who were found to have swallowing difficulty were evaluated. PD patients were asked to write about their thoughts, feelings and behaviors associated with swallowing difficulty. Later, these texts were examined and 41 expressions were identified in which patients described their swallowing difficulty...
February 22, 2017: Eating and Weight Disorders: EWD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228967/self-reported-patterns-of-impairments-in-mentalization-attachment-and-psychopathology-among-clinically-referred-adolescents-with-and-without-borderline-personality-pathology
#4
Sune Bo, Mickey Kongerslev
BACKGROUND: Previous research, which primarily focused on adult samples, suggests that individuals with borderline personality disorder (BPD) display high levels of psychopathology, dysfunctional mentalization and problematic attachment to others. The current study investigated whether impairments in mentalization, attachment, and psychopathology are more severe in outpatient adolescents with BPD than in a clinical comparison group. METHODS: Consecutive referrals to a child and adolescent psychiatric clinic were clinically assessed with a battery of self-report instruments to assess mentalization, attachment, and psychopathology...
2017: Borderline Personality Disorder and Emotion Dysregulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228081/the-neurobiology-and-psychiatric-perspective-of-vaginismus-linking-the-pharmacological-and-psycho-social-interventions
#5
Zuri Shahidii Kadir, Hatta Sidi, Jaya Kumar, Srijit Das, Marhani Midin, Najwa Baharuddin
Vaginismus is an involuntary muscle contraction of the outer third of vaginal barrel causing sexual penetration almost impossible. It is generally classified under sexual pain disorder (SPD). In Diagnostic and Statistical Manual, 5th edition, it is classified under the new rubric of Genito-Pelvic Pain/Sexual Penetration Disorder. This fear-avoidance condition poses an ongoing significant challenge to the medical and health professionals due to the very demanding needs in health care despite its unpredictable prognosis...
February 22, 2017: Current Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226304/positive-comments-negative-outcomes-the-potential-downsides-of-appearance-related-commentary-in-ethnically-diverse-women
#6
Sylvia Herbozo, Steven D Stevens, Christina P Moldovan, Holly E R Morrell
Although research has shown that appearance-related commentary influences body dissatisfaction and disordered eating, limited research has studied such commentary among ethnically diverse women. The current study examined ethnic group differences in the frequency and impact of appearance-related commentary and associations with body dissatisfaction and eating disorder psychopathology. Participants included 280 undergraduate women aged 18-25 (56.1% European American, 28.6% African American, and 15.3% Latina American)...
February 19, 2017: Body Image
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225844/-diminished-culpability
#7
Luis Ohman, Adrián P Fantini
One of the central matters in forensic psychiatry is its culpability. Day after day we, the mental health professionals, are subpoenaed in different courts of our country to assess the mental state of a given individual in order to endorse a judge so that he can issue their view pertaining the culpability and the responsibility of accused subjects. Our current National Criminal Code, dating from 1921, in Art. 34 sub 1 holds for culpability a dichotomous model in which an individual is responsible and must be accountable for his behavior or not responsible and in such case must no be held accountable in criminal courts...
May 2016: Vertex: Revista Argentina de Psiquiatriá
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225839/-conceptual-and-methodological-issues-involved-in-the-research-field-of-diagnostic-reasoning
#8
Francisco N Di Persia
The psychopathological field is crossed by dilemmas that put in question its methodological, conceptual and philosophical filiations. Since the early works of Ey and Jaspers until recent work of Berrios it has been in question the position psychopathology has in the field of medicine in general, and in the field of psychiatry in particular, especially if it should follow the principles of natural science or if it has an autonomous position between them. This debate has led to two opposing positions facing two different models of psychopathology: the biomedical model and the socio-constructionist model...
May 2016: Vertex: Revista Argentina de Psiquiatriá
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225508/suicidal-ideation-vs-suicide-attempts-clinical-and-psychosocial-profile-differences-among-depressed-patients-a-study-on-personality-traits-psychopathological-variables-and-sociodemographic-factors-in-228-patients
#9
Ute Lewitzka, Sina Spirling, Dirk Ritter, Michael Smolka, Sarah Goodday, Michael Bauer, Werner Felber, Tom Bschor
This study investigated whether personality traits, psychopathological characteristics, and sociodemographic factors in depressed patients differentiate patients with only suicidal thoughts from those who have attempted suicide. We investigated two groups of patients with an affective disorder: 198 patients with a suicide attempt within the last 3 months (sex ratio male to female, 1:1.3; mean age male to female, 44.8/44.7 years) and 30 patients without a suicide attempt but with suicidal thoughts (sex ratio male to female, 1:2; mean age male to female, 39...
February 20, 2017: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224881/avoidance-in-anxiety-and-depression-adaptation-of-the-cognitive-behavioral-avoidance-scale-in-a-spanish-sample
#10
Santiago Barajas, Luis Garra, Laura Ros
This study examines how cognitive, behavioral and experiential avoidance differs between clinical patients (N = 100), the general population (N = 100), and undergraduate students (N = 54). For this purpose, a Spanish adaptation of the Cognitive-Behavioral Avoidance Scale (CBAS; Ottenbreit & Dobson, 2004) was made. Confirmatory factor analysis supports the four factors structure similar to the original one, yet question the value of three of the items (CFI = .929, RMSEA = .057, SRMR = .051, χ2(333) = 603.28, p < ...
February 22, 2017: Spanish Journal of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224732/pathways-into-psychopathology-modeling-the-effects-of-trait-emotional-intelligence-mindfulness-and-irrational-beliefs-in-a-clinical-sample
#11
K V Petrides, María G Gómez, Juan-Carlos Pérez-González
: We investigated possible pathways into mental illness via the combined effects of trait emotional intelligence (trait EI), mindfulness, and irrational beliefs. The sample comprised 121 psychiatric outpatients (64.5% males, mean age = 38.8 years) with a variety of formal clinical diagnoses. Psychopathology was operationalized by means of 3 distinct indicators from the Millon Clinical Multi-Axial Inventory (mild pathology, severe pathology, and clinical symptomatology). A structural equation model confirmed significant direct trait EI and mindfulness effects on irrational beliefs and psychopathology...
February 21, 2017: Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223925/effects-of-intermittent-alcohol-exposure-on-emotion-and-cognition-a-potential-role-for-the-endogenous-cannabinoid-system-and-neuroinflammation
#12
Laura Sanchez-Marin, Francisco J Pavon, Juan Decara, Juan Suarez, Ana Gavito, Estela Castilla-Ortega, Fernando Rodriguez de Fonseca, Antonia Serrano
Intermittent alcohol exposure is a common pattern of adolescent alcohol use that can lead to binge drinking episodes. Alcohol use is known to modulate the endocannabinoid system (ECS), which is involved in neuronal communication, neuroplasticity, neuroinflammation and behavior. Adolescent male Wistar rats were exposed to 4-week intermittent alcohol intoxication (3 g/kg injections for 4 days/week) or saline (N = 12 per group). After alcohol deprivation, adult rats were assessed for emotionality and cognition and the gene expression of the ECS and other factors related to behavior and neuroinflammation was examined in the brain...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222820/the-cross-national-epidemiology-of-specific-phobia-in-the-world-mental-health-surveys
#13
K J Wardenaar, C C W Lim, A O Al-Hamzawi, J Alonso, L H Andrade, C Benjet, B Bunting, G de Girolamo, K Demyttenaere, S E Florescu, O Gureje, T Hisateru, C Hu, Y Huang, E Karam, A Kiejna, J P Lepine, F Navarro-Mateu, M Oakley Browne, M Piazza, J Posada-Villa, M L Ten Have, Y Torres, M Xavier, Z Zarkov, R C Kessler, K M Scott, P de Jonge
BACKGROUND: Although specific phobia is highly prevalent, associated with impairment, and an important risk factor for the development of other mental disorders, cross-national epidemiological data are scarce, especially from low- and middle-income countries. This paper presents epidemiological data from 22 low-, lower-middle-, upper-middle- and high-income countries. METHOD: Data came from 25 representative population-based surveys conducted in 22 countries (2001-2011) as part of the World Health Organization World Mental Health Surveys initiative (n = 124 902)...
February 22, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221367/transcriptomic-analyses-and-leukocyte-telomere-length-measurement-in-subjects-exposed-to-severe-recent-stressful-life-events
#14
N Lopizzo, S Tosato, V Begni, S Tomassi, N Cattane, M Barcella, G Turco, M Ruggeri, M A Riva, C M Pariante, A Cattaneo
Stressful life events occurring in adulthood have been found able to affect mood and behavior, thus increasing the vulnerability for several stress-related psychiatric disorders. However, although there is plenty of clinical data supporting an association between stressful life events in adulthood and an enhanced vulnerability for psychopathology, the underlying molecular mechanisms are still poorly investigated. Thus, in this study we performed peripheral/whole-genome transcriptomic analyses in blood samples obtained from 53 adult subjects characterized for recent stressful life events occurred within the previous 6 months...
February 21, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221073/irving-isadore-gottesman-1930-2016
#15
Thomas J Bouchard, Matt McGue
Presents an obituary for Irving Isadore Gottesman who passed away on June 29, 2016, at his home in Edina, Minnesota. Gottesman was a gifted writer and clnician who will be best remembered as a courageous psychologist who "swam against the current" and researched genetic influence on human behavior, especially psychopathology, at a time when it was considered heresy. (PsycINFO Database Record
February 2017: American Psychologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221066/the-power-and-the-pain-of-adolescents-digital-communication-cyber-victimization-and-the-perils-of-lurking
#16
Marion K Underwood, Samuel E Ehrenreich
Many adolescents are heavily engaged with social media and text messaging (George & Odgers, 2015; Lenhart, 2015), yet few psychologists have studied what digital communication means for adolescents' relationships and adjustment. This article proposes that psychologists should embrace the careful study of adolescents' digital communication. We discuss theoretical frameworks for understanding adolescents' involvement with social media, present less widely recognized perils of intense involvement with social media, and highlight positive features of digital communication...
February 2017: American Psychologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220955/profiles-of-adolescent-religiousness-using-latent-profile-analysis-implications-for-psychopathology
#17
Gregory S Longo, Bethany C Bray, Jungmeen Kim-Spoon
Prior research has documented robust associations between adolescent religiousness/spirituality (R/S) and psychopathology outcomes including externalizing and internalizing symptomatology, yet no previous studies have examined these associations with adolescent R/S profiles using a person-centred approach. We examined whether there are identifiable subgroups characterized by unique multidimensional patterns of R/S experiences and how these experiences may be related to externalizing and internalizing symptomatology...
March 2017: British Journal of Developmental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220082/synaptic-and-neuronal-autoantibody-associated-psychiatric-syndromes-controversies-and-hypotheses
#18
Adam Al-Diwani, Thomas A Pollak, Alexander E Langford, Belinda R Lennox
Autoimmune encephalitis (AE) mediated by antibodies against synaptic and neuronal surface targets frequently presents with a psychiatric syndrome. In these patients, removal of autoantibodies treats the disease and outcomes are closely linked to early intervention. The discovery of these autoantibodies in isolated psychiatric syndromes has raised the possibility that these patients may derive similar benefits from immunotherapy, a potentially transformational approach to the treatment of mental illness. Although open-label case series suggest impressive therapeutic outcomes, the pathological relevance of these autoantibodies outside of canonical presentations is debated...
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219827/the-intervening-role-of-urgency-on-the-association-between-childhood-maltreatment-ptsd-and-substance-related-problems
#19
Rebecca Mirhashem, Holley C Allen, Zachary W Adams, Katherine van Stolk-Cooke, Alison Legrand, Matthew Price
A range of risk factors lead to opioid use and substance-related problems (SRP) including childhood maltreatment, elevated impulsivity, and psychopathology. These constructs are highly interrelated such that childhood maltreatment is associated with elevated impulsivity and trauma-related psychopathology such as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and impulsivity-particularly urgency-and PTSD are related. Prior work has examined the association between these constructs and substance-related problems independently and it is unclear how these multi-faceted constructs (i...
February 10, 2017: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219813/an-adverse-early-life-environment-can-enhance-stress-resilience-in-adulthood
#20
Sara Santarelli, Christoph Zimmermann, Georgia Kalideris, Sylvie L Lesuis, Janine Arloth, Andrés Uribe, Carine Dournes, Georgia Balsevich, Jakob Hartmann, Mercè Masana, Elisabeth B Binder, Dietmar Spengler, Mathias V Schmidt
Chronic stress is a major risk factor for depression. Interestingly, not all individuals develop psychopathology after chronic stress exposure. In contrast to the prevailing view that stress effects are cumulative and increase stress vulnerability throughout life, the match/mismatch hypothesis of psychiatric disorders. The match/mismatch hypothesis proposes that individuals who experience moderate levels of early life psychosocial stress can acquire resilience to renewed stress exposure later in life. Here, we have tested this hypothesis by comparing the developmental effects of 2 opposite early life conditions, when followed by 2 opposite adult environments...
February 7, 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
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