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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166674/unpredictable-chronic-mild-stress-differentially-impairs-social-and-contextual-discrimination-learning-in-two-inbred-mouse-strains
#1
Michiel van Boxelaere, Jason Clements, Patrick Callaerts, Rudi D'Hooge, Zsuzsanna Callaerts-Vegh
Alterations in the social and cognitive domain are considered important indicators for increased disability in many stress-related disorders. Similar impairments have been observed in rodents chronically exposed to stress, mimicking potential endophenotypes of stress-related psychopathologies such as major depression disorder (MDD), anxiety, conduct disorder, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Data from numerous studies suggest that deficient plasticity mechanisms in hippocampus (HC) and prefrontal cortex (PFC) might underlie these social and cognitive deficits...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166226/the-origins-of-fears-of-compassion-shame-and-lack-of-safeness-memories-fears-of-compassion-and-psychopathology
#2
Marcela Matos, Joana Duarte, José Pinto-Gouveia
Empirical and clinical research suggests that some individuals find self-generating compassion and receiving compassion from others difficult and aversive. However, it is unclear how these fears of compassion are linked to early experiences and to psychopathological symptoms. This study explores the relationship between shame traumatic memories, centrality of shame memories, early memories of warmth and safeness, fears of compassion, and depression, anxiety and paranoid symptoms. Participants were 302 individuals from the general community population, who completed self-report measures of fears of compassion, shame memories, early affiliative memories, and psychopathology...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165348/emotion-regulation-in-binge-eating-disorder-a-review
#3
REVIEW
Alexandra Dingemans, Unna Danner, Melissa Parks
The purpose of the present review is to provide a summary of the research findings on emotion regulation in Binge Eating Disorder (BED). Negative emotions and maladaptive emotion regulation strategies play a role in the onset and maintenance of binge eating in BED. Anger and sadness, along with negative emotions related to interpersonal experiences (i.e., disappointment, being hurt or loneliness), seem to be particularly relevant. Individuals with BED have a tendency to suppress and ruminate on their unwanted emotions, which leads to increased psychopathological thoughts and symptoms...
November 22, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164495/the-clinical-trajectory-of-emerging-bipolar-disorder-among-the-high-risk-offspring-of-bipolar-parents-current-understanding-and-future-considerations
#4
REVIEW
A Duffy, C Vandeleur, N Heffer, M Preisig
BACKGROUND: Relatively little is known about the onset of bipolar disorder, yet the early illness course is already associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Therefore, characterizing the bipolar illness trajectory is key to risk prediction and early intervention advancement. MAIN BODY: In this narrative review, we discuss key findings from prospective longitudinal studies of the high-risk offspring of bipolar parents and related meta-analyses that inform us about the clinical trajectory of emerging bipolar disorder...
November 22, 2017: International Journal of Bipolar Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164477/genetic-variants-within-molecular-targets-of-antipsychotic-treatment-effects-on-treatment-response-schizophrenia-risk-and-psychopathological-features
#5
Marco Calabrò, Stefano Porcelli, Concetta Crisafulli, Sheng-Min Wang, Soo-Jung Lee, Changsu Han, Ashwin A Patkar, Prakash S Masand, Diego Albani, Ilaria Raimondi, Gianluigi Forloni, Sofia Bin, Carlotta Cristalli, Vilma Mantovani, Chi-Un Pae, Alessandro Serretti
Schizophrenia (SCZ) is a common and severe mental disorder. Genetic factors likely play a role in its pathophysiology as well as in treatment response. In the present study, we investigated the effects of several single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within 9 genes involved with antipsychotic (AP) mechanisms of action. Two independent samples were recruited. The Korean sample included 176 subjects diagnosed with SCZ and 326 healthy controls, while the Italian sample included 83 subjects and 194 controls. AP response as measured by the positive and negative syndrome scale (PANSS) was the primary outcome, while the secondary outcome was the SCZ risk...
November 21, 2017: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163871/grief-rumination-mediates-the-association-between-self-compassion-and-psychopathology-in-relatives-of-missing-persons
#6
Lonneke I M Lenferink, Maarten C Eisma, Jos de Keijser, Paul A Boelen
Background: The disappearance of a loved one is a unique type of loss, also termed 'ambiguous loss', which may heighten the risk for developing prolonged grief (PG), depression, and posttraumatic stress (PTS) symptoms. Little is known about protective and risk factors for psychopathology among relatives of missing persons. A potential protective factor is self-compassion, referring to openness toward and acceptance of one's own pain, failures, and inadequacies. One could reason that self-compassion is associated with lower levels of emotional distress following ambiguous loss, because it might serve as a buffer for getting entangled in ruminative thinking about the causes and consequences of the disappearance ('grief rumination')...
2017: European Journal of Psychotraumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163870/transdiagnostic-culturally-adapted-cbt-with-farsi-speaking-refugees-a-pilot-study
#7
Schahryar Kananian, Sarah Ayoughi, Arieja Farugie, Devon Hinton, Ulrich Stangier
Background: Approximately half of all asylum seekers suffer from trauma-related disorders requiring treatment, among them Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), depression, anxiety, and somatic symptoms. There is a lack of easily accessible, low-threshold treatments taking the cultural background into account. Culturally Adapted CBT (CA CBT) is a well evaluated, transdiagnostic group intervention for refugees, using psychoeducation, meditation, and Yoga-like exercises. Objective: An uncontrolled pilot study with male Farsi-speaking refugees from Afghanistan and Iran was conducted to investigate feasibility with this ethnic group; a group for which no previous CBT trials have been reported...
2017: European Journal of Psychotraumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163863/cognitive-therapy-and-eye-movement-desensitization-and-reprocessing-for-reducing-psychopathology-among-disaster-bereaved-individuals-study-protocol-for-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#8
Lonneke I M Lenferink, Eline Piersma, Jos de Keijser, Geert E Smid, Paul A Boelen
Background: Confrontation with a traumatic (e.g. disaster-related) loss is a risk factor for the development of psychopathology, including symptoms of prolonged grief (PG), posttraumatic stress (PTS), and depression. Although interventions have been developed for reducing post-loss psychopathology, more research into the effectiveness of treatment is needed to improve care for bereaved persons. Cognitive therapy (CT) and eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) have been shown to be effective in trauma-exposed populations...
2017: European Journal of Psychotraumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163857/italian-translation-and-cross-cultural-comparison-with-the-childhood-attachment-and-relational-trauma-screen-carts
#9
A Simonelli, C Sacchi, L Cantoni, M Brown, P Frewen
Background: The Childhood Attachment and Relational Trauma Screen (CARTS) is a computer-administered survey designed to assess retrospectively the socio-ecological context in which instances of child abuse may have occurred. To date, studies supporting the validity of the CARTS have only been undertaken in English-speaking North American populations. Validation projects in other countries and cross-cultural comparisons are therefore warranted. Objective: Develop and preliminarily evaluate the psychometric properties of an Italian version of the CARTS on college students and compare such observations to data acquired from Canadian students...
2017: European Journal of Psychotraumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163737/the-mechanisms-underlying-changes-in-broad-dimensions-of-psychopathology-during-cognitive-behavioral-therapy-for-social-anxiety-disorder
#10
Sei Ogawa, Risa Imai, Masako Suzuki, Toshi A Furukawa, Tatsuo Akechi
Background: Social anxiety disorder (SAD) patients commonly have broad dimensions of psychopathology. This study investigated the relationship between a wide range of psychopathology and attention or cognitions during cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for SAD. Methods: We treated 96 SAD patients with group CBT. Using multiple regression analysis, we examined the associations between the changes in broad dimensions of psychopathology and the changes in self-focused attention or maladaptive cognitions in the course of CBT...
December 2017: Journal of Clinical Medicine Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163289/network-approach-to-understanding-emotion-dynamics-in-relation-to-childhood-trauma-and-genetic-liability-to-psychopathology-replication-of-a-prospective-experience-sampling-analysis
#11
Laila Hasmi, Marjan Drukker, Sinan Guloksuz, Claudia Menne-Lothmann, Jeroen Decoster, Ruud van Winkel, Dina Collip, Philippe Delespaul, Marc De Hert, Catherine Derom, Evert Thiery, Nele Jacobs, Bart P F Rutten, Marieke Wichers, Jim van Os
Background: The network analysis of intensive time series data collected using the Experience Sampling Method (ESM) may provide vital information in gaining insight into the link between emotion regulation and vulnerability to psychopathology. The aim of this study was to apply the network approach to investigate whether genetic liability (GL) to psychopathology and childhood trauma (CT) are associated with the network structure of the emotions "cheerful," "insecure," "relaxed," "anxious," "irritated," and "down"-collected using the ESM method...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163235/electrophysiological-anomalies-in-face-name-memory-encoding-in-young-binge-drinkers
#12
Rocío Folgueira-Ares, Fernando Cadaveira, Socorro Rodríguez Holguín, Eduardo López-Caneda, Alberto Crego, Paula Pazo-Álvarez
A growing body of evidence indicates that the intake of large amounts of alcohol during one session may have structural and functional effects on the still-maturing brains of young people. These effects are particularly pronounced in prefrontal and hippocampal regions, which appear to be especially sensitive to the neurotoxic effects of alcohol. However, to date, few studies have used the event-related potentials (ERPs) technique to analyze the relationship between binge drinking (BD) and associative memory...
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163079/neural-correlates-of-rewarded-response-inhibition-in-youth-at-risk-for-problematic-alcohol-use
#13
Brenden Tervo-Clemmens, Alina Quach, Beatriz Luna, William Foran, Tammy Chung, Michael D De Bellis, Duncan B Clark
Risk for substance use disorder (SUD) is associated with poor response inhibition and heightened reward sensitivity. During adolescence, incentives improve performance on response inhibition tasks and increase recruitment of cortical control areas (Geier et al., 2010) associated with SUD (Chung et al., 2011). However, it is unknown whether incentives moderate the relationship between response inhibition and trait-level psychopathology and personality features of substance use risk. We examined these associations in the current project using a rewarded antisaccade (AS) task (Geier et al...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162352/-facing-a-serious-disease-during-adolescence-despite-a-defective-parental-support-the-experience-of-cancer
#14
G Marioni
Facing a serious somatic disease during adolescence without any parental support is a very difficult life event. In this paper, we discuss the situation of teenagers facing deep emotional deprivation that existed prior to the illness and is reinforced by the lack of parental support during treatment. After analyzing the psychopathological mechanisms involved in such situations - in parents, teenagers, and healthcare teams - we hypothesize that the absence of involvement of parents can sometimes represent, for those who are not able to meet their child's emotional needs, a paradoxical way to take care of him...
November 18, 2017: Archives de Pédiatrie: Organe Officiel de la Sociéte Française de Pédiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162195/assessing-the-interplay-between-multigenic-and-environmental-influences-on-adolescent-to-adult-pathways-of-antisocial-behaviors
#15
James J Li
The current investigation utilized a developmental psychopathology approach to test the hypothesis that multigenic (i.e., dopaminergic and serotonergic genes) and multienvironmental factors interactively contribute to developmental pathways of antisocial behavior (ASB). A sample of 8,834 Caucasian individuals from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (Add Health) were used to (a) examine the developmental pathways of ASB from age 13 to 32 using growth mixture modeling, (b) compute weighted multigenic risk scores (Add Health MRS) for ASB from six well-characterized polymorphisms in dopamine and serotonin genes, and (c) test the interaction between the Add Health MRS and a measures of support (incorporating indicators of both positive and negative support from parents and schools)...
December 2017: Development and Psychopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162193/childhood-quality-influences-genetic-sensitivity-to-environmental-influences-across-adulthood-a-life-course-gene-%C3%A3-environment-interaction-study
#16
Robert Keers, Michael Pluess
While environmental adversity has been shown to increase risk for psychopathology, individuals differ in their sensitivity to these effects. Both genes and childhood experiences are thought to influence sensitivity to the environment, and these factors may operate synergistically such that the effects of childhood experiences on later sensitivity are greater in individuals who are more genetically sensitive. In line with this hypothesis, several recent studies have reported a significant three-way interaction (Gene × Environment × Environment) between two candidate genes and childhood and adult environment on adult psychopathology...
December 2017: Development and Psychopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162187/methylation-of-the-glucocorticoid-receptor-gene-nuclear-receptor-subfamily-3-group-c-member-1-nr3c1-in-maltreated-and-nonmaltreated-children-associations-with-behavioral-undercontrol-emotional-lability-negativity-and-externalizing-and-internalizing-symptoms
#17
Dante Cicchetti, Elizabeth D Handley
The present study examined the effect of various dimensions of child maltreatment (i.e., developmental timing of maltreatment, number of maltreatment subtypes, and chronicity of maltreatment) on methylation of the glucocorticoid receptor gene, nuclear receptor subfamily 3, group C, member 1 (NR3C1), and investigated the associations between NR3C1 methylation and child outcomes. Participants included 534 children who attended a research summer camp program for school-aged maltreated (53.4%) and nonmaltreated (46...
December 2017: Development and Psychopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162184/in-the-eye-of-the-beholder-perceptions-of-neighborhood-adversity-and-psychotic-experiences-in-adolescence
#18
Joanne B Newbury, Louise Arseneault, Avshalom Caspi, Terrie E Moffitt, Candice L Odgers, Jessie R Baldwin, Helena M S Zavos, Helen L Fisher
Adolescent psychotic experiences increase risk for schizophrenia and other severe psychopathology in adulthood. Converging evidence implicates urban and adverse neighborhood conditions in the etiology of adolescent psychotic experiences, but the role of young people's personal perceptions of disorder (i.e., physical and social signs of threat) in their neighborhood is unknown. This was examined using data from the Environmental Risk Longitudinal Twin Study, a nationally representative birth cohort of 2,232 British twins...
December 2017: Development and Psychopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162183/dimensions-of-childhood-adversity-have-distinct-associations-with-neural-systems-underlying-executive-functioning
#19
Margaret A Sheridan, Matthew Peverill, Amy S Finn, Katie A McLaughlin
Childhood adversity is associated with increased risk for psychopathology. Neurodevelopmental pathways underlying this risk remain poorly understood. A recent conceptual model posits that childhood adversity can be deconstructed into at least two underlying dimensions, deprivation and threat, that are associated with distinct neurocognitive consequences. This model argues that deprivation (i.e., a lack of cognitive stimulation and learning opportunities) is associated with poor executive function (EF), whereas threat is not...
December 2017: Development and Psychopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162179/variation-in-dna-methylation-of-the-oxytocin-receptor-gene-predicts-children-s-resilience-to-prenatal-stress
#20
Izabela Milaniak, Charlotte A M Cecil, Edward D Barker, Caroline L Relton, Tom R Gaunt, Wendy McArdle, Sara R Jaffee
Emerging research in epigenetics has shown that there is variability in how environmental exposures "get under the skin" through mechanisms like DNA methylation to influence gene expression that may lead to differential adaptations to stress. This is the first study to examine prospectively the relationship between DNA methylation at birth and resilience to prenatal environmental stressors in several domains (conduct, hyperactivity, emotional problems, and global symptomatology) in middle childhood. We focused on DNA methylation in the vicinity of the oxytocin receptor (OXTR) gene as it has been previously associated with impairments in social-cognitive processes that may underlie a wide range of childhood psychopathology...
December 2017: Development and Psychopathology
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