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Psychopathology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644929/short-interpregnancy-intervals-maternal-folate-levels-and-infants-born-small-for-gestational-age-a-preliminary-study-in-a-canadian-supplement-using-population
#1
Buffy Chen, Prescilla Carrion, Ravneet Grewal, Angela Inglis, Catriona Hippman, Emily Morris, Heather J Andrighetti, Arianne Albert, Jehannine Austin
BACKGROUND: Short interpregnancy intervals (SIPI) have been associated with increased risks for adverse neonatal outcomes including preterm delivery and infants small for gestational age (SGA). It has been suggested that mechanistically, adverse neonatal outcomes after SIPI arise due to insufficient recovery of depleted maternal folate levels prior to the second pregnancy. However, empirical data are lacking regarding physiological folate levels in pregnant women with SIPI, and relationships between quantified physiological folate levels and outcomes like SGA...
June 23, 2017: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644856/estimating-psychopathological-networks-be-careful-what-you-wish-for
#2
Sacha Epskamp, Joost Kruis, Maarten Marsman
Network models, in which psychopathological disorders are conceptualized as a complex interplay of psychological and biological components, have become increasingly popular in the recent psychopathological literature (Borsboom, et. al., 2011). These network models often contain significant numbers of unknown parameters, yet the sample sizes available in psychological research are limited. As such, general assumptions about the true network are introduced to reduce the number of free parameters. Incorporating these assumptions, however, means that the resulting network will lead to reflect the particular structure assumed by the estimation method-a crucial and often ignored aspect of psychopathological networks...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644832/parent-child-discrepancies-in-the-report-of-adolescent-emotional-and-behavioral-problems-in-taiwan
#3
Ying-Yeh Chen, Suk-Yin Ho, Pei-Chen Lee, Chia-Kai Wu, Susan Shur-Fen Gau
The majority of studies on parent-child discrepancies in the assessment of adolescent emotional and behavioral problems have been conducted in Western countries. It is believed that parent-adolescent agreement would be higher in societies with a strong culture of familism. We examined whether parent-adolescent discrepancies in the rating of adolescent emotional and behavioral problems are related to parental and family factors in Taiwan. Participants included 1,421 child-parent pairs of 7th-grade students from 12 middle schools in Northern Taiwan and their parents...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644691/the-evolution-of-psychological-testing-at-the-austen-riggs-center-a-theoretical-analysis
#4
Jeremy M Ridenour, Brittany Zimmerman
Theoretical perspectives on personality and the development of psychopathology have shifted markedly over the last 7 decades. However, it remains unclear how those changes affect mental health practice. Comprehensive and conscientiously recorded reports of psychological testing provide a clear window on this process because they comprise distinctive records of how patients are assessed and understood. For this study, we conducted an exploratory, qualitative analysis of the narratives of the testing reports over the past 65 years at the Austen Riggs Center, a private psychiatric hospital and residential treatment center, to assess changes over time and to evaluate the influence that various factors had on the reports...
June 23, 2017: Journal of Personality Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644568/treatment-of-avoidant-restrictive-food-intake-disorder-in-a-cohort-of-young-patients-in-a-partial-hospitalization-program-for-eating-disorders
#5
Rollyn M Ornstein, Jamal H Essayli, Terri A Nicely, Emily Masciulli, Susan Lane-Loney
OBJECTIVE: Avoidant/restrictive food intake disorder (ARFID) is a recently named condition to classify patients who present with restricted nutritional intake without body image distortion or fear of weight gain. We sought to compare treatment outcomes of patients with ARFID in a family-centered partial hospital program (PHP) to those with other eating disorders (ED). METHODS: A retrospective chart review of 130 patients 7 to 17 years of age admitted to the program from 2008 to 2012 was performed...
June 23, 2017: International Journal of Eating Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644530/long-term-outcome-of-anorexia-nervosa-results-from-a-large-clinical-longitudinal-study
#6
Manfred Maximilian Fichter, Norbert Quadflieg, Ross D Crosby, Sonja Koch
OBJECTIVE: Assessment of the long-term outcome of anorexia nervosa (AN) in a very large sample of inpatients (N = 1,693) and identification of predictors for poor outcome. METHOD: Over 25 years (mean 10 years), consecutively admitted inpatients of a specialized hospital were followed. A subsample of 112 patients with 20-year follow-up was defined. Bivariate comparisons and logistic regression analysis identified risk factors of poor outcome. RESULTS: Body mass index (BMI) increased during the follow-up period...
June 23, 2017: International Journal of Eating Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643290/does-the-eating-disorder-examination-questionnaire-global-subscale-adequately-predict-eating-disorder-psychopathology-in-the-daily-life-of-obese-adults
#7
Tyler B Mason, Kathryn E Smith, Ross D Crosby, Stephen A Wonderlich, Scott J Crow, Scott G Engel, Carol B Peterson
The eating disorder examination questionnaire (EDE-Q) Global score is a self-report measure of global eating disorder (ED) psychopathology. This study used ecological momentary assessment (EMA) to evaluate the ecological validity of EDE-Q Global scores among obese adults. Fifty obese adults completed the EDE-Q and 2 weeks of EMA ratings prior to initiating eating episodes and subsequently after eating episodes. EMA items assessed behavioral symptoms [i.e., loss of control (LOC) eating and overeating] and cognitive symptoms (i...
June 22, 2017: Eating and Weight Disorders: EWD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642983/-hebephrenia-a%C3%A2-viable-psychopathological-construct
#8
REVIEW
M Jäger, T Becker, M E Wigand
Ewald Hecker was the first psychiatrist to describe the disease entity of hebephrenia in some detail, focusing mainly on disturbances of affect. Later Emil Kraepelin and Eugen Bleuler saw hebephrenia as a subtype of dementia praecox or schizophrenia. Willy Mayer-Gross and Karl Leonhard characterized hebephrenia with highly differentiated psychopathological descriptions, whereas this construct only played a minor role in the works of Klaus Conrad and Kurt Schneider. The International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10) lists hebephrenia as a subtype of schizophrenia but in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) no subtypes of schizophrenia are mentioned and the concept of hebephrenia is thus lost...
June 22, 2017: Der Nervenarzt
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642080/impact-of-juvenile-chronic-stress-on-adult-cortico-accumbal-function-implications-for-cognition-and-addiction
#9
REVIEW
Michael J Watt, Matthew A Weber, Shaydel R Davies, Gina L Forster
Repeated exposure to stress during childhood is associated with increased risk for neuropsychiatric illness, substance use disorders and other behavioral problems in adulthood. However, it is not clear how chronic childhood stress can lead to emergence of such a wide range of symptoms and disorders in later life. One possible explanation lies in stress-induced disruption to the development of specific brain regions associated with executive function and reward processing, deficits in which are common to the disorders promoted by childhood stress...
June 19, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639845/between-the-pew-and-the-pulpit-can-personality-measures-help-identify-sexually-abusive-clergy
#10
Aria Amrom, Cynthia Calkins, Jamison Fargo
There has been limited conclusive research examining the personality characteristics of clergy who perpetrate abuse. To address this dearth of research, the current study aimed to develop a personality profile that distinguishes clergy members who sexually abuse children from other clergy. Personality and psychopathology were assessed using the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2) and the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-III (MCMI-III). Data were analyzed from a sample of clergy members, who comprised four comparison groups: clergy members referred to treatment for (a) child sexual abuse, (b) sexual misconduct with adults, (c) general clinical problems, or (d) routine employment evaluations with no previously identified clinical or sexual issues...
June 1, 2017: Sexual Abuse: a Journal of Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639407/factorial-structure-and-construct-validity-of-an-italian-version-of-the-fears-of-compassion-scales-a%C3%A2-study-on-non-clinical-subjects
#11
Francesco Dentale, Nicola Petrocchi, Michele Vecchione, Claudia Biagioli, Accursio Gennaro, Cristiano Violani
OBJECTIVES: This study was aimed at investigating the factorial structure and the construct validity of the Italian translation of the Fears of Compassion (FC) Scales in a non-clinical sample (i.e., Fear of Compassion From Others [FCFO], Fear of Compassion Towards Others [FCTO] and Fear of Self-Compassion [FSC]). An exploratory factor analysis was conducted on all the items to investigate the dimensionality of the FC scales. To assess construct validity, correlations between the FC scales and a series of construct-related measures were analysed...
June 22, 2017: Psychology and Psychotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639383/longitudinal-associations-between-low-morning-cortisol-in-infancy-and-anger-dysregulation-in-early-childhood-in-a-cps-referred-sample
#12
Allison Frost, Caitlin Jelinek, Kristin Bernard, Teresa Lind, Mary Dozier
Children who experience early adversity are at increased risk for developing psychopathology, and dysfunction of the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis is a possible mechanism conferring this risk. This study sought to characterize the association between morning cortisol during different developmental periods and deficits in children's emotion regulation, a core feature of many psychological disorders. Morning cortisol was collected at two time points (i.e., during infancy, M = 13.0 months old, and during early childhood, M = 36...
June 21, 2017: Developmental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639321/association-of-the-5-ht2a-receptor-gene-promoter-polymorphism-1438g-a-with-anorexia-nervosa-and-psychopathological-traits-in-the-chinese-han-population-a-preliminary-study
#13
Qing Kang, Jue Chen, Shunying Yu, Aihua Yuan, Yanxia Zhang, Ran Zhang, Wenhui Jiang, Chen Zhang, Haiyin Zhang, Mingdao Zhang, Zeping Xiao
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to explore the possible role of the 5-HT2A -1438G/A polymorphism in the susceptibility to anorexia nervosa (AN) in the Chinese Han population. METHODS: The -1438G/A polymorphism of 249 female AN patients, 228 matched healthy controls, and 198 trios was genotyped using SNaP shot assay. Psychopathological traits of eating-disordered behaviors in AN subjects were examined using the Chinese version of the Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire...
June 22, 2017: Asia-Pacific Psychiatry: Official Journal of the Pacific Rim College of Psychiatrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639313/change-in-attachment-states-of-mind-of-women-with-binge-eating-disorder
#14
Hilary Maxwell, Giorgio A Tasca, Renee Grenon, Kerri Ritchie, Hany Bissada, Louise Balfour
Insecure and unresolved/disorganized attachment states of mind may impact affect regulation and interpersonal functioning that contribute to binge eating in women with binge-eating disorder (BED). Group psychological treatment may facilitate changes from insecure to secure and from unresolved-disorganized to non-unresolved/disorganized attachment states of mind. This study used attachment theory to understand better the psychopathology of BED and co-morbid overweight status and to understand better the treatment response of patients with BED who receive group psychotherapy...
June 21, 2017: Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638703/childhood-trauma-and-negative-memory-bias-as-shared-risk-factors-for-psychopathology-and-comorbidity-in-a-naturalistic-psychiatric-patient-sample
#15
Janna N Vrijsen, Camiel T van Amen, Bauke Koekkoek, Iris van Oostrom, Aart H Schene, Indira Tendolkar
BACKGROUND: Both childhood trauma and negative memory bias are associated with the onset and severity level of several psychiatric disorders, such as depression and anxiety disorders. Studies on these risk factors, however, generally use homogeneous noncomorbid samples. Hence, studies in naturalistic psychiatric samples are lacking. Moreover, we know little about the quantitative relationship between the frequency of traumatic childhood events, strength of memory bias and number of comorbid psychiatric disorders; the latter being an index of severity...
June 2017: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638202/characteristics-of-aggressive-behavior-among-male-inpatients-with-schizophrenia
#16
Xiaomin Zhu, Wen Li, Xiaoping Wang
BACKGROUND: The incidence of the aggressive behavior is higher among the patients with severe mental disorder such as schizophrenia than the general population. The study of factors related to aggressive behavior has great meaning in designing prevention and intervention methods with this population of patients. AIMS: To understand the characteristics of assaultive behavior of male patients with schizophrenia who have been hospitalized. METHODS: Using a continuous sampling method, data from 75 male inpatients with a diagnosis of schizophrenia was collected at the psychiatric unit of Central South University Second Xiangya Hospital (Changsha, China) from August 2015 to February 2016...
October 25, 2016: Shanghai Archives of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638200/brain-gamma-aminobutyric-acid-gaba-concentration-of-the-prefrontal-lobe-in-unmedicated-patients-with-obsessive-compulsive-disorder-a-research-of-magnetic-resonance-spectroscopy
#17
Zongfeng Zhang, Qing Fan, Yanle Bai, Zhen Wang, Haiyin Zhang, Zeping Xiao
BACKGROUND: In recent years, a large number of neuroimaging studies found that the Cortico-Striato- Thalamo-Cortical circuit (CSTC), including the prefrontal lobe, a significant part of CSTC, has disturbance metabolically in patients with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD). AIM: Explore the correlation between the neuro-metabolic features and clinical characteristics of OCD patients using magnetic resonance spectroscopy technology. METHODS: 88 patients with OCD who were not received medication and outpatient treatment for 8 weeks and 76 health controls were enrolled, there was no significant difference in gender, age or education level between the two groups...
October 25, 2016: Shanghai Archives of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638196/primary-delusion-and-the-sociopolitical-milieu-in-india-a-case-report-short-review
#18
Rahul Saha, Aastha Sharma
Delusion has always been a central topic for psychiatric research with regard to its etiology, pathogenesis, diagnosis, treatment, and forensic relevance. Among these, primary delusion seems to be the interest of many psychiatrists. Content of delusion has always been the area of interest of cultural psychiatry. We have tried to discuss the various aspects of primary delusion and also tried to explain how cultural and sociopolitical environment in a country like India can shape the formation of primary delusion and influence its psychopathology...
August 25, 2016: Shanghai Archives of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638192/treatment-effect-of-antipsychotics-in-combination-with-horticultural-therapy-on-patients-with-schizophrenia-a-randomized-double-blind-placebo-controlled-study
#19
Shunhong Zhu, Hengjing Wan, Zhide Lu, Huiping Wu, Qun Zhang, Xiaoqiong Qian, Chenyu Ye
BACKGROUND: As a newly developed treatment method for schizophrenia, horticultural therapy is gaining more attention. However, there is as of now little research investigating this topic as well as a general lack of studies adopting into standard treatment plans. AIMS: Investigate treatment effect of horticultural therapy on patients with schizophrenia and its possibility of standardized application in psychiatric hospitals. METHODS: 110 patients with schizophrenia who met the inclusion criteria and provided informed consent were selected from the rehabilitation ward of the Minhang District Mental Health Center from September 2015 to December 2015...
August 25, 2016: Shanghai Archives of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638035/-the-abnomal-personalities-in-the-conception-of-h-gruhle
#20
N Yu Pyatnitsky
Understanding of psychopathic personality in the conception of H. Gruhle, a famous German psychiatrist, is analyzed. The issue that the psychopathic personality is accidentally combined with mental illness, psychosis is contradictory to the conception of 'general degenerative constitution'; psychopathology can be isolated and transient. There is absence of age criteria in the diagnosis of psychopathy as well. The initial attempt of H. Gruhle to systematically consider all types of psychopathy was not well substantiated, therefore the author returned to Kraepelin's systematics of psychopathic personality according to prominent traid...
2017: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
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