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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668075/a-comparison-of-debate-and-role-play-in-enhancing-critical-thinking-and-communication-skills-of-medical-students-during-problem-based-learning
#1
Rabia Latif, Sadaf Mumtaz, Rafia Mumtaz, Aamir Hussain
Debate and role play for learning critical thinking and communication skills are being increasingly used in various undergraduate medical schools worldwide. We aim to compare students' views about effectiveness of two teaching strategies; debate and role play to exercise critical thinking and communication skills during problem-based learning (PBL). This is a comparative, cross-sectional, and questionnaire-based study. Our subjects were second year undergraduate female medical students enrolled in Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University (IAU), College of Medicine from September 2014-2016, divided into 10 small PBL groups (10-13 students/group/year)...
April 18, 2018: Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667466/evaluation-of-a-modified-16-item-readiness-for-interprofessional-learning-scale-ripls-exploratory-and-confirmatory-factor-analyses
#2
Tzu-Chieh Yu, Tanisha Jowsey, Marcus Henning
The Readiness for Interprofessional Learning Scale (RIPLS) was developed to assess undergraduate readiness for engaging in interprofessional education (IPE). It has become an accepted and commonly used instrument. To determine utility of a modified 16-item RIPLS instrument, exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were performed. Data used were collected from a pre- and post-intervention study involving 360 New Zealand undergraduate students from one university. Just over half of the participants were enrolled in medicine (51%) while the remainder were in pharmacy (27%) and nursing (22%)...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Interprofessional Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667323/clades-a-classification-based-machine-learning-method-for-species-delimitation-from-population-genetic-data
#3
Jingwen Pei, Chong Chu, Xin Li, Bin Lu, Yufeng Wu
Species are considered to be the basic unit of ecological and evolutionary studies. Since multi-locus genomic data are increasingly available there has been considerable interests in the use of DNA sequence data to delimit species. In this paper, we show that machine learning can be used for species delimitation. Our method treats the species delimitation problem as a classification problem for identifying the category of a new observation on the basis of training data. Extensive simulation is first conducted over a broad range of evolutionary parameters for training purposes...
April 18, 2018: Molecular Ecology Resources
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665538/personalized-response-generation-by-dual-learning-based-domain-adaptation
#4
Min Yang, Wenting Tu, Qiang Qu, Zhou Zhao, Xiaojun Chen, Jia Zhu
Open-domain conversation is one of the most challenging artificial intelligence problems, which involves language understanding, reasoning, and the utilization of common sense knowledge. The goal of this paper is to further improve the response generation, using personalization criteria. We propose a novel method called PRGDDA (Personalized Response Generation by Dual-learning based Domain Adaptation) which is a personalized response generation model based on theories of domain adaptation and dual learning...
April 5, 2018: Neural Networks: the Official Journal of the International Neural Network Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664143/pathway-aggregation-for-survival-prediction-via-multiple-kernel-learning
#5
Jennifer A Sinnott, Tianxi Cai
Attempts to predict prognosis in cancer patients using high-dimensional genomic data such as gene expression in tumor tissue can be made difficult by the large number of features and the potential complexity of the relationship between features and the outcome. Integrating prior biological knowledge into risk prediction with such data by grouping genomic features into pathways and networks reduces the dimensionality of the problem and could improve prediction accuracy. Additionally, such knowledge-based models may be more biologically grounded and interpretable...
April 17, 2018: Statistics in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660377/apathy-following-traumatic-brain-injury-a-review
#6
Andrew Worthington, Rodger Ll Wood
Apathy is a common problem after traumatic brain injury (TBI) and can have a major impact on cognitive function, psychosocial outcome and engagement in rehabilitation. For scientists and clinicians it remains one of the least understood aspects of brain-behaviour relationships encompassing disturbances of cognition, motivation, emotion and action, and is variously an indication of organic brain disease or psychiatric disorder. Apathy can be both sign and symptom and has been proposed as a diagnosis in its own right as well as a secondary feature of other conditions...
April 13, 2018: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659916/human-gut-microbiota-predicts-susceptibility-to-vibrio-cholerae-infection
#7
Firas S Midani, Ana A Weil, Fahima Chowdhury, Yasmin A Begum, Ashraful I Khan, Meti D Debela, Heather K Durand, Aspen T Reese, Sai N Nimmagadda, Justin D Silverman, Crystal N Ellis, Edward T Ryan, Stephen B Calderwood, Jason B Harris, Firdausi Qadri, Lawrence A David, Regina C LaRocque
Background: Cholera is a public health problem worldwide and the risk factors for infection are only partially understood. Methods: We prospectively studied household contacts of cholera patients to compare those who were infected with those who were not. We constructed predictive machine learning models of susceptibility using baseline gut microbiota data. We identified bacterial taxa associated with susceptibility to Vibrio cholerae infection and tested these taxa for interactions with V...
April 12, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659528/automated-quality-control-for-sensor-based-symptom-measurement-performed-outside-the-lab
#8
Reham Badawy, Yordan P Raykov, Luc J W Evers, Bastiaan R Bloem, Marjan J Faber, Andong Zhan, Kasper Claes, Max A Little
The use of wearable sensing technology for objective, non-invasive and remote clinimetric testing of symptoms has considerable potential. However, the accuracy achievable with such technology is highly reliant on separating the useful from irrelevant sensor data. Monitoring patient symptoms using digital sensors outside of controlled, clinical lab settings creates a variety of practical challenges, such as recording unexpected user behaviors. These behaviors often violate the assumptions of clinimetric testing protocols, where these protocols are designed to probe for specific symptoms...
April 16, 2018: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29658934/using-brain-activation-nir-heg-q-eeg-and-execution-measures-cpts-in-a-adhd-assessment-protocol
#9
Debora Areces, Marisol Cueli, Trinidad García, Paloma González-Castro, Celestino Rodríguez
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a problem that impacts academic performance and has serious consequences that result in difficulties in scholastic, social and familial contexts. One of the most common problems in the identification of this disorder relates to the apparent over diagnosis of the disorder due to the absence of global protocols for assessment. The research group of School Learning, Difficulties and Academic Performance (ADIR) from the University of Oviedo, has developed a complete protocol that suggests the existence of certain patterns of cortical activation and executive control for identifying ADHD more objectively...
April 1, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29658725/i-scan-therefore-i-decline-the-time-course-of-difficulty-monitoring-in-humans-homo-sapiens-and-macaques-macaca-mulatta
#10
J David Smith, Joseph Boomer, Barbara A Church, Alexandria C Zakrzewski, Michael J Beran, Michael L Baum
The study of nonhumans' metacognitive judgments about trial difficulty has grown into an important comparative literature. However, the potential for associative-learning confounds in this area has left room for behaviorist interpretations that are strongly asserted and hotly debated. This article considers how researchers may be able to observe animals' strategic cognitive processes more clearly by creating temporally extended problems within which associative cues are not always immediately available. We asked humans and rhesus macaques to commit to completing spatially extended mazes or to decline completing them through a trial-decline response...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Comparative Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656997/veterinary-parasitology-teaching-at-london-meeting-the-day-one-competency-needs-of-new-veterinarians
#11
Mark Fox, Damer Blake, Dennis Jacobs
Over the past four decades, there has been an exponential increase in veterinary parasitology knowledge, coinciding with the advent of molecular biology in research. Therefore, it is unrealistic for teachers to expect students to graduate with an encyclopaedic knowledge of the subject. As a result, a new curriculum was introduced at The Royal Veterinary College (University of London) in 2007, designed to meet the needs of our new graduates, i.e. RCVS Day-One Competences. The aims of this curriculum are, inter alia, to ensure that new graduates have an up-to-date body of core knowledge and are able to apply such knowledge and newly-acquired information to scientific and clinical problem-solving...
April 30, 2018: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655362/clustering-methods-for-the-optimization-of-atomic-cluster-structure
#12
Francesco Bagattini, Fabio Schoen, Luca Tigli
In this paper, we propose a revised global optimization method and apply it to large scale cluster conformation problems. In the 1990s, the so-called clustering methods were considered among the most efficient general purpose global optimization techniques; however, their usage has quickly declined in recent years, mainly due to the inherent difficulties of clustering approaches in large dimensional spaces. Inspired from the machine learning literature, we redesigned clustering methods in order to deal with molecular structures in a reduced feature space...
April 14, 2018: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29653395/learning-physical-parameters-from-dynamic-scenes
#13
Tomer D Ullman, Andreas Stuhlmüller, Noah D Goodman, Joshua B Tenenbaum
Humans acquire their most basic physical concepts early in development, and continue to enrich and expand their intuitive physics throughout life as they are exposed to more and varied dynamical environments. We introduce a hierarchical Bayesian framework to explain how people can learn physical parameters at multiple levels. In contrast to previous Bayesian models of theory acquisition (Tenenbaum, Kemp, Griffiths, & Goodman, 2011), we work with more expressive probabilistic program representations suitable for learning the forces and properties that govern how objects interact in dynamic scenes unfolding over time...
April 10, 2018: Cognitive Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652587/superspike-supervised-learning-in-multilayer-spiking-neural-networks
#14
Friedemann Zenke, Surya Ganguli
A vast majority of computation in the brain is performed by spiking neural networks. Despite the ubiquity of such spiking, we currently lack an understanding of how biological spiking neural circuits learn and compute in vivo, as well as how we can instantiate such capabilities in artificial spiking circuits in silico. Here we revisit the problem of supervised learning in temporally coding multilayer spiking neural networks. First, by using a surrogate gradient approach, we derive SuperSpike, a nonlinear voltage-based three-factor learning rule capable of training multilayer networks of deterministic integrate-and-fire neurons to perform nonlinear computations on spatiotemporal spike patterns...
April 13, 2018: Neural Computation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651529/application-of-problem-based-learning-in-instrumental-analysis-teaching-at-northeast-agricultural-university
#15
Shuang Gao, Yuxin Wang, Bin Jiang, Ying Fu
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 13, 2018: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29650871/-a-discussion-of-involvement-of-pharmacists-in-home-medical-care-in-foreign-countries-and-international-comparison-of-medical-care-system
#16
Tokuko Okuda
In an aging society, the sustainability of the public medical system is the most important factor. I surveyed leading cases in Japan, as well as corresponding cases overseas. I also conducted interviews in Britain, North America, and Europe, and these indicated the current trends and issues. The UK has a universal insurance system and, facing a declining birthrate and an aging population, they have adopted a policy of immigration, which has various problems. However, the GP system is highly regarded by the OECD...
March 2018: Gan to Kagaku Ryoho. Cancer & Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29650810/-artificial-intelligence-in-drug-discovery
#17
Takeshi Fujiwara, Mayumi Kamada, Yasushi Okuno
According to the increase of data generated from analytical instruments, application of artificial intelligence(AI)technology in medical field is indispensable. In particular, practical application of AI technology is strongly required in "genomic medicine" and "genomic drug discovery" that conduct medical practice and novel drug development based on individual genomic information. In our laboratory, we have been developing a database to integrate genome data and clinical information obtained by clinical genome analysis and a computational support system for clinical interpretation of variants using AI...
April 2018: Gan to Kagaku Ryoho. Cancer & Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29650698/credit-assignment-in-a-motor-decision-making-task-is-influenced-by-agency-and-not-sensorimotor-prediction-errors
#18
Darius E Parvin, Samuel D McDougle, Jordan A Taylor, Richard B Ivry
Failures to obtain reward can occur from errors in action selection or action execution. Recently, we observed marked differences in choice behavior when the failure to obtain a reward was attributed to errors in action execution compared to errors in action selection (McDougle et al. , 2016). Specifically, participants appeared to solve this credit assignment problem by discounting outcomes in which the absence of reward was attributed to errors in action execution. Building on recent evidence indicating relatively direct communication between the cerebellum and basal ganglia, we hypothesized that cerebellar-dependent sensory-prediction errors (SPEs), a signal indicating execution failure, could attenuate value updating within a basal-ganglia dependent reinforcement learning system...
April 12, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29650076/digital-tools-to-enhance-clinical-reasoning
#19
REVIEW
Reza Manesh, Gurpreet Dhaliwal
Physicians can improve their diagnostic acumen by adopting a simulation-based approach to analyzing published cases. The tight coupling of clinical problems and their solutions affords physicians the opportunity to efficiently upgrade their illness scripts (structured knowledge of a specific disease) and schemas (structured frameworks for common problems). The more times clinicians practice accessing and applying those knowledge structures through published cases, the greater the odds that they will have an enhanced approach to similar patient-cases in the future...
May 2018: Medical Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649302/identifying-tumor-in-pancreatic-neuroendocrine-neoplasms-from-ki67-images-using-transfer-learning
#20
Muhammad Khalid Khan Niazi, Thomas Erol Tavolara, Vidya Arole, Douglas J Hartman, Liron Pantanowitz, Metin N Gurcan
The World Health Organization (WHO) has clear guidelines regarding the use of Ki67 index in defining the proliferative rate and assigning grade for pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor (NET). WHO mandates the quantification of Ki67 index by counting at least 500 positive tumor cells in a hotspot. Unfortunately, Ki67 antibody may stain both tumor and non-tumor cells as positive depending on the phase of the cell cycle. Likewise, the counter stain labels both tumor and non-tumor as negative. This non-specific nature of Ki67 stain and counter stain therefore hinders the exact quantification of Ki67 index...
2018: PloS One
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