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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224244/a-histopathological-classification-system-of-tyr-nrasq61k-murine-melanocytic-lesions-a-reproducible-simplified-classification
#1
Pierre Sohier, Léa Legrand, Zackie Aktary, Christine Grill, Véronique Delmas, Florence Bernex, Edouard Reyes-Gomez, Lionel Larue, Béatrice Vergier
Genetically engineered mouse models offer essential opportunities to investigate the mechanisms of initiation and progression in melanoma. Here we report a new simplified histopathology classification of mouse melanocytic lesions in Tyr::NRASQ61K derived models, using an interactive decision tree that produces homogeneous categories. Reproducibility for this classification system was evaluated on a panel of representative cases of murine melanocytic lesions by pathologists and basic scientists. Reproducibility, measured as inter-rater agreement between evaluators using a modified Fleiss' kappa statistic revealed a very good agreement between observers...
December 10, 2017: Pigment Cell & Melanoma Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224136/a-summary-of-the-biological-processes-disease-associated-changes-and-clinical-applications-of-dna-methylation
#2
Gitte Brinch Andersen, Jörg Tost
DNA methylation at cytosines followed by guanines, CpGs, forms one of the multiple layers of epigenetic mechanisms controlling and modulating gene expression through chromatin structure. It closely interacts with histone modifications and chromatin remodeling complexes to form the local genomic and higher-order chromatin landscape. DNA methylation is essential for proper mammalian development, crucial for imprinting and plays a role in maintaining genomic stability. DNA methylation patterns are susceptible to change in response to environmental stimuli such as diet or toxins, whereby the epigenome seems to be most vulnerable during early life...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224082/generating-electric-current-by-bioartificial-photosynthesis
#3
Babu Halan, Jenny Tschörtner, Andreas Schmid
Abundant solar energy can be a sustainable source of energy. This chapter highlights recent advancements, challenges, and future scenarios in bioartificial photosynthesis, which is a new subset of bioelectrochemical systems (BESs) and technologies. BES technologies exploit the catalytic interactions between biological moieties and electrodes. At the nexus of BES and photovoltaics, this review focuses on light-harvesting technologies based on bioartificial photosynthesis. Such technologies are promising because electrical energy is generated from sunlight and water without the need for additional organic feedstock...
December 10, 2017: Advances in Biochemical Engineering/biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223890/gold-core-ceria-shell-based-redox-active-nanozyme-mimicking-the-biological-multienzyme-complex-phenomenon
#4
Stuti Bhagat, N V Srikanth Vallabani, Vaithiyalingam Shutthanandan, Mark Bowden, Ajay S Karakoti, Sanjay Singh
Catalytically active individual gold (Au) and cerium oxide (CeO2) nanoparticles (NPs) are well known to exhibit specific enzyme-like activities, such as natural catalase, oxidase, superoxide dismutase, and peroxidase enzymes. These activities have been maneuvered to design several biological applications such as immunoassays, glucose detection, radiation and free radical protection and tissue engineering. In biological systems, multienzyme complexes are involved in catalyzing important reactions of essential metabolic processes such as respiration, biomolecule synthesis, and photosynthesis...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223815/attenuation-of-bacterial-cytotoxicity-of-carbon-nanotubes-by-riverine-suspended-solids-in-water
#5
Baotong Zhu, Xinghui Xia, Sibo Zhang, Yuchen Tang
The impact of solid particles on ecotoxicity of nanomaterials in water environments is poorly understood. This study investigated the effect of natural riverine suspended solids (SPS) on the cytotoxicity of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) towards a bacterium, Ochrobactrum sp. in water. Compared with SWCNT suspension without SPS, the presence of SPS at different concentrations ranging from 20 to 400 mg L-1 markedly increased the survival rates of bacteria exposed to 50 mg L-1 SWCNTs and bacterial survival rates increased with SPS concentrations by a power law...
December 7, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223806/preventing-the-n-terminal-processing-of-human-interferon-%C3%AE-2b-and-its-chimeric-derivatives-expressed-in-escherichia-coli
#6
Fatima Ahsan, Qurratulann Afza Gardner, Naeem Rashid, Greg J Towers, Muhammad Akhtar
We have previously shown that human interferon α-2b (IFN) produced in Escherichia coli (E. coli) is heterogeneous at the N-terminal, with three major species (Ahsan et al., 2014). These are: (a) the direct translation product of the gene retaining the N-terminal methionine, (b) a species from which the methionyl residue has been removed by E. coli methionyl aminopeptidase to give the native interferon α-2b and (c) in which the N-terminal Cys residue of the latter contains an acetyl group. In this paper we overcome this heterogeneity, using engineered interferon derivatives with phenylalanine residue directly downstream of the N-terminal methionine (Met-Phe-IFN)...
November 23, 2017: Bioorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223755/in-situ-biomineralization-by-silkworm-feeding-with-ion-precursors-for-the-improved-mechanical-properties-of-silk-fiber
#7
Zhenhu Guo, Wensheng Xie, Qin Gao, Dan Wang, Fei Gao, Shengrong Li, Lingyun Zhao
Possessing excellent biocompatibility, biodegradability and good reactive activity, silk fiber has been attracting great attention in biomedicine including surgical suture, drug delivery and tissue engineering. So far, several protocols have been developed to further improve the mechanical properties of the silk fiber. In current study, a novel in suit biomineralization strategy was developed to produce nano-hydroxyapatite (HA) strengthened silk fiber based on the natural alkaline condition in the body of silkworm by feeding the silkworm with ion precursors of Ca2+ and PO43- ions...
December 6, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223730/characterization-of-a-new-decellularized-bovine-pericardial-biological-mesh-structural-and-mechanical-properties
#8
Alessandra Bielli, Roberta Bernardini, Dimitrios Varvaras, Piero Rossi, Giancarlo Di Blasi, Giuseppe Petrella, Oreste Claudio Buonomo, Maurizio Mattei, Augusto Orlandi
Implants made from naturally-derived biomaterials, also called biological meshes or biomeshes, typically derive from decellularized extracellular matrix of either animal or human tissue. Biomeshes have many biomedical applications such as ligament repair, bone and cartilage regeneration and soft tissue replacement. Bovine collagen is one of the most widely used and abundantly available xenogenic materials. In particular, bovine pericardium is widely used as extracellular matrix bioprosthetic tissue. The efficiency of a pericardial mesh to function as scaffold depends on the quality of the decellularization protocol used...
December 5, 2017: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223705/functional-hepatocyte-clusters-on-bioactive-blend-silk-matrices-towards-generating-bioartificial-liver-constructs
#9
Guru Janani, Samit K Nandi, Biman B Mandal
The creation of in vitro functional hepatic tissue simulating micro-environmental niche of native liver is a keen area of research due to its demand in bioartificial liver (BAL) and cell-based tissue engineering. Here, we investigated the potential of novel blend (BA) silk scaffold fabricated by blending mulberry (Bombyx mori, BM) silk fibroin with cell adhesion motif (RGD) rich non-mulberry (Antheraea assamensis, AA) silk fibroin in generating a functional liver construct. Three-dimensional (3D) porous silk scaffolds (BM, AA and BA) were physico-chemically characterized and functionally evaluated using human hepatocarcinoma cells (HepG2) and primary neonatal rat hepatocytes...
December 6, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223704/decellularized-heart-ecm-hydrogel-using-supercritical-carbon-dioxide-for-improved-angiogenesis
#10
Yoojin Seo, Youngmee Jung, Soo Hyun Kim
Initial angiogenesis within the first 3 days is critical for healing ischemic diseases such as myocardial infarction. Recently, decellularized extracellular matrix (dECM) has been reported to provide tissue-derived ECM components and can be used as a scaffold for cell delivery for angiogenesis in tissue engineering. Decellularization by various detergents such as sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and triton X-100 can remove the cell nuclei in tissue organs. However, this leads to ECM structure denaturation, decreased presence of various ECM proteins and cytokines, and loss of mechanical properties...
December 6, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223663/patch-esophagoplasty-using-an-in-body-tissue-engineered-collagenous-connective-tissue-membrane
#11
Hiroomi Okuyama, Satoshi Umeda, Yuichi Takama, Takeshi Terasawa, Yasuhide Nakayama
AIM: Although many approaches to esophageal replacement have been investigated, these efforts have thus far only met limited success. In-body-tissue-engineered connective tissue tubes have been reported to be effective as vascular replacement grafts. The aim of this study was to investigate the usefulness of an In-body-tissue-engineered collagenous connective tissue membrane, "Biosheet", as a novel esophageal scaffold in a beagle model. METHODS: We prepared Biosheets by embedding specially designed molds into subcutaneous pouches in beagles...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223537/rankl-signaling-sustains-primary-tumor-growth-in-genetically-engineered-mouse-models-of-lung-adenocarcinoma
#12
Julien Faget, Caroline Contat, Nadine Zangger, Solange Peters, Etienne Meylan
HYPOTHESIS: Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is the leading cause of cancer mortality. Recent retrospective clinical analyses suggest that blocking the receptor activator of NF-κB (RANK) signaling pathway inhibits the growth of NSCLC and might represent a new treatment strategy. METHODS: RANK and RANKL expression in human lung adenocarcinoma was interrogated from publicly available gene expression datasets. Several genetically engineered mouse models were used to evaluate treatment efficacy of RANK-Fc to block RANKL, with primary tumor growth measured longitudinally using micro-computed tomography...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Thoracic Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223464/data-journeys-identifying-social-and-technical-barriers-to-data-movement-in-large-complex-organisations
#13
Iliada Eleftheriou, Suzanne M Embury, Rebecca Moden, Peter Dobinson, Andrew Brass
Managers in complex organisations often have to make decisions on whether new software developments are worth undertaking or not. Such decisions are hard to make, especially at an enterprise level. Both costs and risks are regularly underestimated, despite the existence of a plethora of software and systems engineering methodologies aimed at predicting and controlling them. Our objective is to help managers and stakeholders of large, complex organisations (like the National Health Service in the UK) make better informed decisions on the costs and risks of planned new software systems that will reuse or extend their existing information infrastructure...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223341/genetic-resistance-against-viruses-in-phaseolus-vulgaris-l-state-of-the-art-and-future-prospects
#14
REVIEW
Chouaïb Meziadi, Sophie Blanchet, Valérie Geffroy, Stéphanie Pflieger
Viruses are obligate parasites that replicate intracellularly in many living organisms, including plants. Consequently, no chemicals are available that target only the virus without impacting host cells or vector organisms. The use of natural resistant varieties appears as the most reliable control strategy and remains the best and cheapest option in managing virus diseases, especially in the current ecological context of preserving biodiversity and environment in which the use of phytosanitary products becomes limited...
December 2017: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223312/bioprinting-for-neural-tissue-engineering
#15
REVIEW
Stephanie Knowlton, Shivesh Anand, Twisha Shah, Savas Tasoglu
Bioprinting is a method by which a cell-encapsulating bioink is patterned to create complex tissue architectures. Given the potential impact of this technology on neural research, we review the current state-of-the-art approaches for bioprinting neural tissues. While 2D neural cultures are ubiquitous for studying neural cells, 3D cultures can more accurately replicate the microenvironment of neural tissues. By bioprinting neuronal constructs, one can precisely control the microenvironment by specifically formulating the bioink for neural tissues, and by spatially patterning cell types and scaffold properties in three dimensions...
December 6, 2017: Trends in Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223196/application-of-psychological-theories-in-agent-based-modeling-the-case-of-the-theory-of-planned-behavior
#16
Andrea Scalco, Andrea Ceschi, Riccardo Sartori
It is likely that computer simulations will assume a greater role in the next future to investigate and understand reality (Rand & Rust, 2011). Particularly, agent-based models (ABMs) represent a method of investigation of social phenomena that blend the knowledge of social sciences with the advantages of virtual simulations. Within this context, the development of algorithms able to recreate the reasoning engine of autonomous virtual agents represents one of the most fragile aspects and it is indeed crucial to establish such models on well-supported psychological theoretical frameworks...
January 2018: Nonlinear Dynamics, Psychology, and Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223160/cathelicidin-ll37-promotes-epithelial-and-smooth-muscle-like-differentiation-of-adipose-derived-stem-cells-through-the-wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-and-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-pathways
#17
Yongwei Li, Zhengfei Shan, Bin Yang, Diandong Yang, Changping Men, Yuanshan Cui, Jitao Wu
Ureter reconstruction is a difficult procedure in urology. Adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs), along with multipotency and self-renewal capacity, are a preferred choice for tissue engineering-based ureteral reconstruction. We explored the synergic role of cathelicidin LL37 (LL37) in epithelial and smooth-muscle-like differentiation. ADSCs were separated from adipose tissues of mouse and characterized by flow cytometry. The ADSCs were then stably transfected with pGC-FU-GFP (pGC) or pGC containing full-length LL37 (pGC-LL37), respectively...
November 2017: Biochemistry. Biokhimii︠a︡
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223138/plant-expressed-fc-fusion-protein-tetravalent-dengue-vaccine-with-inherent-adjuvant-properties
#18
Mi Young Kim, Alastair Copland, Kaustuv Nayak, Anmol Chandele, Muhammad Shamsher Ahmed, Qibo Zhang, Gil Reynolds Diogo, Matthew John Paul, Sven Hofmann, Moon-Sik Yang, Yong-Suk Jang, Julian K-C Ma, Rajko Reljic
Dengue is a major global disease requiring improved treatment and prevention strategies. The recently licensed Sanofi-Pasteur Denvaxia vaccine does not protect children under the age of nine and additional vaccine strategies are thus needed to halt this expanding global epidemic. Here, we employed a molecular engineering approach and plant-expression to produce a humanised and highly immunogenic Poly-Immunoglobulin G Scaffold (PIGS) fused to the consensus dengue envelope protein III domain (cEDIII). The immunogenicity of this IgG Fc receptor targeted vaccine candidate was demonstrated in transgenic mice expressing human FcγRI/CD64, by induction of neutralising antibodies and evidence of cell-mediated immunity...
December 9, 2017: Plant Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223122/a-comprehensive-review-of-spatial-allocation-of-lid-bmp-gi-practices-strategies-and-optimization-tools
#19
REVIEW
Kun Zhang, Ting Fong May Chui
Low-impact development (LID), best management practice (BMP), and green infrastructure (GI) are semi-engineered stormwater management practices that have been widely studied and implemented worldwide. Implemented in the complex environment of urban areas, LID-BMP-GI practices often intertwine with a very large number of hydro-environmental and socio-economic considerations and constraints. Therefore, they need to be carefully selected, designed, and allocated within an urban area. Both planning and optimization can lead to more systematic and strategic approaches to address this multi-scale, multi-parameter problem of practice allocation...
December 6, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223120/de-icing-salt-contamination-reduces-urban-tree-performance-in-structural-soil-cells
#20
Camilo Ordóñez-Barona, Vadim Sabetski, Andrew A Millward, James Steenberg
Salts used for de-icing roads and sidewalks in northern climates can have a significant impact on water quality and vegetation. Sub-surface engineering systems, such as structural soil cells, can regulate water runoff and pollutants, and provide the necessary soil volume and irrigation to grow trees. However, the ability of such systems to manage de-icing salt contamination, and the impact of this contamination on the trees growing in them, have not been evaluated. We report on an field investigation of de-icing salt contamination in structural cells in two street-revitalization projects in Toronto, Canada, and the impact of this contamination on tree performance...
December 6, 2017: Environmental Pollution
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