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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212489/direct-single-enzyme-biomineralization-of-catalytically-active-ceria-and-ceria-zirconia-nanocrystals
#1
Christopher D Curran, Li Lu, Yue Jia, Christopher J Kiely, Bryan W Berger, Steven McIntosh
Biomineralization is an intriguing approach to the synthesis of functional inorganic materials for energy applications whereby biological systems are engineered to mineralize inorganic materials and control their structure over multiple length scales under mild reaction conditions. Herein we demonstrate a single enzyme mediated biomineralization route to synthesize crystalline, catalytically active, quantum confined ceria (CeO2-x) and ceria-zirconia (Ce1-yZryO2-x) nanocrystals for application as environmental catalysts...
February 17, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212443/recurrent-rearrangements-of-the-myb-sant-like-dna-binding-domain-containing-3-gene-msantd3-in-salivary-gland-acinic-cell-carcinoma
#2
Nicholas Barasch, Xue Gong, Kevin A Kwei, Sushama Varma, Jewison Biscocho, Kunbin Qu, Nan Xiao, Joseph S Lipsick, Robert J Pelham, Robert B West, Jonathan R Pollack
Pathogenic gene fusions have been identified in several histologic types of salivary gland neoplasia, but not previously in acinic cell carcinoma (AcCC). To discover novel gene fusions, we performed whole-transcriptome sequencing surveys of three AcCC archival cases. In one specimen we identified a novel HTN3-MSANTD3 gene fusion, and in another a novel PRB3-ZNF217 gene fusion. The structure of both fusions was consistent with the promoter of the 5' partner (HTN3 or PRB3), both highly expressed salivary gland genes, driving overexpression of full-length MSANTD3 or ZNF217...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212417/splitax-a-novel-method-to-assess-the-function-of-engineered-nucleases
#3
Richard A Axton, Sharmin S Haideri, Martha Lopez-Yrigoyen, Helen A Taylor, Lesley M Forrester
Engineered nucleases have been used to generate knockout or reporter cell lines and a range of animal models for human disease. These new technologies also hold great promise for therapeutic genome editing. Current methods to evaluate the activity of these nucleases are time consuming, require extensive optimization and are hampered by readouts with low signals and high background. We have developed a simple and easy to perform method (SplitAx) that largely addresses these issues and provides a readout of nuclease activity...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212026/isotope-tracers-to-study-the-environmental-fate-and-bioaccumulation-of-metal-containing-engineered-nanoparticles-techniques-and-applications
#4
Yongguang Yin, Zhiqiang Tan, Ligang Hu, Sujuan Yu, Jingfu Liu, Guibin Jiang
The rapidly growing applicability of metal-containing engineered nanoparticles (MENPs) has made their environmental fate, biouptake, and transformation important research topics. However, considering the relatively low concentration of MENPs and the high concentration of background metals in the environment and in organisms, tracking the fate of MENPs in environment-related scenarios remains a challenge. Intrinsic labeling of MENPs with radioactive or stable isotopes is a useful tool for the highly sensitive and selective detection of MENPs in the environment and organisms, thus enabling tracing of their transformation, uptake, distribution, and clearance...
February 17, 2017: Chemical Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211914/eco-evolutionary-feedbacks-can-rescue-cooperation-in-microbial-populations
#5
Clara Moreno-Fenoll, Matteo Cavaliere, Esteban Martínez-García, Juan F Poyatos
Bacterial populations whose growth depends on the cooperative production of public goods are usually threatened by the rise of cheaters that do not contribute but just consume the common resource. Minimizing cheater invasions appears then as a necessary mechanism to maintain these populations. However, that invasions result instead in the persistence of cooperation is a prospect that has yet remained largely unexplored. Here, we show that the demographic collapse induced by cheaters in the population can actually contribute to the rescue of cooperation, in a clear illustration of how ecology and evolution can influence each other...
February 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211911/three-dimensional-printing-of-calcium-sulfate-and-mesoporous-bioactive-glass-scaffolds-for-improving-bone-regeneration-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#6
Xin Qi, Peng Pei, Min Zhu, Xiaoyu Du, Chen Xin, Shichang Zhao, Xiaolin Li, Yufang Zhu
In the clinic, bone defects resulting from infections, trauma, surgical resection and genetic malformations remain a significant challenge. In the field of bone tissue engineering, three-dimensional (3D) scaffolds are promising for the treatment of bone defects. In this study, calcium sulfate hydrate (CSH)/mesoporous bioactive glass (MBG) scaffolds were successfully fabricated using a 3D printing technique, which had a regular and uniform square macroporous structure, high porosity and excellent apatite mineralization ability...
February 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211890/local-melting-to-design-strong-and-plastically-deformable-bulk-metallic-glass-composites
#7
Yue-Sheng Qin, Xiao-Liang Han, Kai-Kai Song, Yu-Hao Tian, Chuan-Xiao Peng, Li Wang, Bao-An Sun, Gang Wang, Ivan Kaban, Jürgen Eckert
Recently, CuZr-based bulk metallic glass (BMG) composites reinforced by the TRIP (transformation-induced plasticity) effect have been explored in attempt to accomplish an optimal of trade-off between strength and ductility. However, the design of such BMG composites with advanced mechanical properties still remains a big challenge for materials engineering. In this work, we proposed a technique of instantaneously and locally arc-melting BMG plate to artificially induce the precipitation of B2 crystals in the glassy matrix and then to tune mechanical properties...
February 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211713/quantum-performance-of-thermal-machines-over-many-cycles
#8
Gentaro Watanabe, B Prasanna Venkatesh, Peter Talkner, Adolfo Del Campo
The performance of quantum heat engines is generally based on the analysis of a single cycle. We challenge this approach by showing that the total work performed by a quantum engine need not be proportional to the number of cycles. Furthermore, optimizing the engine over multiple cycles leads to the identification of scenarios with a quantum enhancement. We demonstrate our findings with a quantum Otto engine based on a two-level system as the working substance that supplies power to an external oscillator.
February 3, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211673/capillary-microfluidics-assembled-virus-like-particle-bio-nano-receptor-interfaces-for-label-free-biosensing
#9
Faheng Zang, Konstantinos Gerasopoulos, Adam D Brown, James N Culver, Reza Ghodssi
In this paper, a capillary microfluidics-integrated sensor system is developed for rapid assembly of bionanoreceptor interfaces on-chip and label-free biosensing. Genetically engineered Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) virus-like particle (VLP), displaying thousands copies of identical receptor peptides FLAG-tags, are utilized as nanoceptors for antibody sensing. Controlled and accelerated assembly of VLP receptor layer on impedance sensor has been achieved using capillary effect and surface evaporation from an open-channel capillary microfluidic system...
February 17, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211493/25-hydroxyvitamin-d3-induces-osteogenic-differentiation-of-human-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#10
Yan-Ru Lou, Tai Chong Toh, Yee Han Tee, Hanry Yu
25-Hydroxyvitamin D3 [25(OH)D3] has recently been found to be an active hormone. Its biological actions are demonstrated in various cell types. 25(OH)D3 deficiency results in failure in bone formation and skeletal deformation. Here, we investigated the effect of 25(OH)D3 on osteogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs). We also studied the effect of 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [1α,25-(OH)2D3], a metabolite of 25(OH)D3. One of the vitamin D responsive genes, 25(OH)D3-24-hydroxylase (cytochrome P450 family 24 subfamily A member 1) mRNA expression is up-regulated by 25(OH)D3 at 250-500 nM and by 1α,25-(OH)2D3 at 1-10 nM...
February 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211492/the-propensity-of-the-bacterial-rodlin-protein-rdlb-to-form-amyloid-fibrils-determines-its-function-in-streptomyces-coelicolor
#11
Wen Yang, Joost Willemse, Elizabeth B Sawyer, Fei Lou, Weibin Gong, Hong Zhang, Sally L Gras, Dennis Claessen, Sarah Perrett
Streptomyces bacteria form reproductive aerial hyphae that are covered with a pattern of pairwise aligned fibrils called rodlets. The presence of the rodlet layer requires two homologous rodlin proteins, RdlA and RdlB, and the functional amyloid chaplin proteins, ChpA-H. In contrast to the redundancy shared among the eight chaplins, both RdlA and RdlB are indispensable for the establishment of this rodlet structure. By using a comprehensive biophysical approach combined with in vivo characterization we found that RdlB, but not RdlA, readily assembles into amyloid fibrils...
February 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211466/local-self-uniformity-in-photonic-networks
#12
Steven R Sellers, Weining Man, Shervin Sahba, Marian Florescu
The interaction of a material with light is intimately related to its wavelength-scale structure. Simple connections between structure and optical response empower us with essential intuition to engineer complex optical functionalities. Here we develop local self-uniformity (LSU) as a measure of a random network's internal structural similarity, ranking networks on a continuous scale from crystalline, through glassy intermediate states, to chaotic configurations. We demonstrate that complete photonic bandgap structures possess substantial LSU and validate LSU's importance in gap formation through design of amorphous gyroid structures...
February 17, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211453/mechanism-of-partial-agonism-in-ampa-type-glutamate-receptors
#13
Hector Salazar, Clarissa Eibl, Miriam Chebli, Andrew Plested
Neurotransmitters trigger synaptic currents by activating ligand-gated ion channel receptors. Whereas most neurotransmitters are efficacious agonists, molecules that activate receptors more weakly-partial agonists-also exist. Whether these partial agonists have weak activity because they stabilize less active forms, sustain active states for a lesser fraction of the time or both, remains an open question. Here we describe the crystal structure of an α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionate receptor (AMPAR) ligand binding domain (LBD) tetramer in complex with the partial agonist 5-fluorowillardiine (FW)...
February 17, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211365/converging-biofabrication-and-organoid-technologies-the-next-frontier-in-hepatic-and-intestinal-tissue-engineering
#14
Kerstin Schneeberger, Bart Spee, Pedro Costa, Norman Sachs, Hans Clevers, Jos Malda
Adult tissue stem cells can form self-organizing 3D organoids in vitro. Organoids resemble small units of their organ of origin and have great potential for tissue engineering, as well as models of disease. However, current culture technology limits the size, architecture and complexity of organoids. Here, we review the establishment of intestinal and hepatic organoids and discuss how the convergence of organoids and biofabrication technologies can help overcome current limitations, and thereby further advance the translational application of organoids in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine...
February 17, 2017: Biofabrication
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211334/adsorption-capacity-of-multiple-dna-sources-to-clay-minerals-and-environmental-soil-matrices-less-than-previously-estimated
#15
Courtney M Gardner, Claudia K Gunsch
The cultivation and consumption of transgenic crops continues to be a widely debated topic, as the potential ecological impacts are not fully understood. In particular, because antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) have historically been used as selectable markers in the genetic engineering of transgenic crops, it is important to determine if the genetic constructs found in decomposing transgenic crops persist long enough in the environment and if they can be transferred horizontally to indigenous microorganisms...
February 5, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211226/supramolecularly-engineered-amphiphilic-macromolecules-molecular-interaction-overrules-packing-parameters
#16
Prithankar Pramanik, Debes Ray, Vinod K Aswal, Suhrit Ghosh
We report molecular interaction-driven self-assembly of supramolecularly engineered amphiphilic macromolecules (SEAM) containing a single supramolecular structure-directing unit (SSDU) consisting of an H-bonding group connected to a naphthalene diimide chromophore. Two such SEAMs, P1-50 and P2-50, having the identical chemical structure and hydrophobic/hydrophilic balance, exhibit distinct self-assembled structures (polymersome and cylindrical micelle, respectively) due to a difference in the H-bonding group (hydrazide or amide, respectively) of the single SSDU...
February 17, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211068/dentine-matrix-proteins-isolation-and-effects-on-human-pulp-cells
#17
M Widbiller, A Eidt, S R Lindner, K-A Hiller, H Schweikl, W Buchalla, K M Galler
AIM: To establish a simplified and efficient protocol for the isolation and concentration of matrix proteins from human dentine, and to assess the effects of extracted dentine matrix proteins (eDMP) on the behavior of human pulp cells. METHODOLOGY: Matrix proteins were isolated from human dentine, purified, concentrated and characterized with protein and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Culture media were supplemented with eDMP in different concentrations, referred to as eDMP 1 to 10,000, to assess viability and proliferation of human pulp cells by DNA and MTT assays; apoptotic events were quantified by flow cytometry...
February 17, 2017: International Endodontic Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211005/resequencing-and-annotation-of-the-nostoc-punctiforme-attc-29133-genome-facilitating-biofuel-and-high-value-chemical-production
#18
Luis E Moraes, Matthew J Blow, Erik R Hawley, Hailan Piao, Rita Kuo, Jennifer Chiniquy, Nicole Shapiro, Tanja Woyke, James G Fadel, Matthias Hess
Cyanobacteria have the potential to produce bulk and fine chemicals and members belonging to Nostoc sp. have received particular attention due to their relatively fast growth rate and the relative ease with which they can be harvested. Nostoc punctiforme is an aerobic, motile, Gram-negative, filamentous cyanobacterium that has been studied intensively to enhance our understanding of microbial carbon and nitrogen fixation. The genome of the type strain N. punctiforme ATCC 29133 was sequenced in 2001 and the scientific community has used these genome data extensively since then...
December 2017: AMB Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210971/scaffold-free-approach-produces-neocartilage-tissue-of-similar-quality-as-the-use-of-hystem%C3%A2-and-hydromatrix%C3%A2-scaffolds
#19
Janne H Ylärinne, Chengjuan Qu, Mikko J Lammi
Numerous biomaterials are being considered for cartilage tissue engineering, while scaffold-free systems have also been introduced. Thus, it is important to know do the scaffolds improve the formation of manufactured neocartilages. This study compares scaffold-free cultures to two scaffold-containing ones. Six million bovine primary chondrocytes were embedded in HyStem™ or HydroMatrix™ scaffolds, or suspended in scaffold-free chondrocyte culture medium, and then loaded into agarose gel supported culture well pockets...
April 2017: Journal of Materials Science. Materials in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210970/a-suspended-carbon-fiber-culture-to-model-myelination-by-human-schwann-cells
#20
Antonio Merolli, Yong Mao, Joachim Kohn
Understanding of myelination/remyelination process is essential to guide tissue engineering for nerve regeneration. In vitro models currently used are limited to cell population studies and cannot easily identify individual cell contribution to the process. We established a novel model to study the contribution of human Schwann cells to the myelination process. The model avoids the presence of neurons in culture; Schwann cells respond solely to the biophysical properties of an artificial axon. The model uses a single carbon fiber suspended in culture media far from the floor of the well...
April 2017: Journal of Materials Science. Materials in Medicine
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