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Titir Guha, K V G Ravikumar, Amitava Mukherjee, Anita Mukherjee, Rita Kundu
Engineered nanoparticles are utilized in agriculture for various purposes. They can be used as fertilizer, carrier for macro/micro nutrients or priming agents. Various nanoparticles are reported to have toxicity at very high doses, but at optimum concentration, they can be beneficial for plant growth and development. In the present study, low concentrations of nZVI nanoparticles were evaluated for their growth enhancement potential as seed priming agent in an aromatic rice cultivar, Oryza sativa cv. Gobindabhog...
April 12, 2018: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
Afaf H Al-Nadaf, Sajeda A Salah, Mutasem O Taha
Gyrase B is an essential enzyme in the prokaryotes which became an attractive target for antibacterial agents. In our study, we implemented a wide range of docking configurations to dock 120 inhibitors into the in the ATP- binding pocket of Gyrase B enzyme (PDB code: 4GEE). LigandFit docking engines and six scoring functions were utilized in the study. Furthermore, the ligands were docked in their ionized and unionized forms into the hydrous and anhydrous binding pocket. We used docking-based Comparative Intermolecular Contacts Analysis (db-CICA) which is a novel methodology to validate and identify the optimal docking configurations...
March 19, 2018: Computational Biology and Chemistry
Claudia Mazio, Costantino Casale, Giorgia Imparato, Francesco Urciuolo, Paolo Antonio Netti
Tumor and microenvironmental heterogeneity hinders the study of breast cancer biology and the assessment of therapeutic strategies, being associated with high variability and drug resistance. In this context, it is mandatory to develop three-dimensional breast tumor models able to reproduce this heterogeneity and the dynamic interaction occurring between tumor cells and microenvironment. Here we show a new breast cancer microtissue model (T-µTP) uniquely able to present intra-tumor morphological heterogeneity in a dynamic and responsive endogenous matrix...
April 18, 2018: Acta Biomaterialia
Yanhua Liu, Dongjuan Yuan, Zexin Zhao, Dongming Lan, Bo Yang, Yonghua Wang
Penicillium camembertii (PCL), a mono- and di-acylglycerol lipase (DGL), has the vital potential in the oil chemistry for food industry. However, known DGLs are mesophilic enzymes which restricts its application in the industry. To improve thermostability of PCL, we used amino acid substitution by comparison of amino acids compositions of PCL and protein sequences from typical thermophilic bacteria. Then, some conservative residues around active center were avoided to mutate according to homologous alignment analyses...
April 18, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Kristopher K Abney, Susan J Ramos-Hunter, Ian M Romaine, J Shawn Godwin, Gary A Sulikowski, Charles David Weaver
This study reports the synthesis and testing of a family of rhodamine pro-fluorophores and an enzyme capable of converting pro-fluorophores to Rhodamine 110. We prepared a library of simple N,N'-diacyl rhodamines and investigated Porcine Liver Esterase (PLE) as an enzyme to activate rhodamine-based pro-fluorophores. A PLE-expressing cell line generated an increase in fluorescence rapidly upon pro-fluorophore addition demonstrating the rhodamine pro-fluorophores are readily taken up and fluorescent upon PLE-mediated release...
April 21, 2018: Chemistry: a European Journal
Kuljeet Kaur, Yun Qian, John B Matson
Hydrogels are materials composed mostly of water that have found use in a wide variety of applications, including tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. Aromatic peptide amphiphiles can be designed to self-assemble in aqueous solution into one-dimensional aggregates that entangle to form hydrogels with very high water content (>99 wt. %). Here, we describe the synthesis of an aromatic peptide amphiphile designed to release hydrogen sulfide (H2 S), a vital biological signaling gas with significant therapeutic potential...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Claire E Witherel, Pamela L Graney, Kara L Spiller
Tissue engineering and regenerative medicine, facilitated by biomaterial-based therapies, hold promise for the repair, replacement, or regeneration of damaged tissue. The success or failure of all implanted biomaterials, ranging from stainless steel total joint replacements to naturally or synthetically derived skin grafts, is predominantly mediated by macrophages, the primary cell of the innate immune system. In an effort to better assess safety and efficacy of novel biomaterials, evaluating and understanding macrophage-biomaterial interactions is a necessary first step...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Pen-Hsiu Grace Chao
Collagen fibers exist in many parts of the body as parallel bundles with a wavy morphology, known as crimp. This crimp structure contributes to the nonlinear mechanical properties of the tissue, such as ligament, blood vessels, and intestine, which provide elasticity and prevent injury. To recapitulate the native collagen crimp structure, we report a robust method using electrospinning and post-processing to generate parallel polymeric fibers with crimp that simulate the structure-function relationship of native tissue mechanics...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Charlotte E Vorwald, Steve S Ho, Jacklyn Whitehead, J Kent Leach
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are a promising cell source for tissue repair and regeneration due to their multilineage capacity, potential for autologous use, and secretion of potent bioactive factors to catalyze the endogenous repair program. However, a major limitation to current cell-based tissue engineering approaches is the drastic loss of cells upon transplantation. The causation of this loss, whether due to apoptosis following a dramatic change in the microenvironment or migration away from the defect site, has yet to be determined...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Qi Gu, Eva Tomaskovic-Crook, Gordon G Wallace, Jeremy M Crook
Bioprinting provides an opportunity to produce three-dimensional (3D) tissues for biomedical research and translational drug discovery, toxicology, and tissue replacement. Here we describe a method for fabricating human neural tissue by 3D printing human neural stem cells with a bioink, and subsequent gelation of the bioink for cell encapsulation, support, and differentiation to functional neurons and supporting neuroglia. The bioink uniquely comprises the polysaccharides alginate, water-soluble carboxymethyl-chitosan, and agarose...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Uziel Mendez, Hong Zhou, Ariella Shikanov
The functional unit within the ovary is the ovarian follicle, which is also a morphological unit composed of three basic cell types: the oocyte, granulosa, and theca cells. Similar to human ovarian follicles, mouse follicles can be isolated from their ovarian environment and cultured in vitro to study folliculogenesis, or follicle development for days or weeks. Over the course of the last decade, follicle culture in a three-dimensional (3D) environment exponentially improved the outcomes of in vitro folliculogenesis...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Julieta I Paez, Aleeza Farrukh, Oya Ustahüseyin, Aránzazu Del Campo
Engineering novel biomaterials that mimic closer in vivo scenarios requires the simple and quantitative incorporation of multiple instructive signals to gain a higher level of control and complexity at the cell-matrix interface. Poly(acrylamide) (PAAm) gels are very popular among biology labs as 2D model substrates with defined biochemical and mechanical properties. These gels are cost effective, easy to prepare, reproducible, and available in a wide range of stiffness. However, their functionalization with bioactive ligands (cell adhesive proteins or peptides, growth factors, etc...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Rona Chandrawati
Polymer capsules fabricated via layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly have emerged as promising carriers for therapeutic delivery. The versatile assembly technique allows an extensive choice of materials to be incorporated as constituents of the multilayers, which therefore endow capsules with specific properties and functionalities. This chapter describes protocols for fabrication of LbL-engineered poly(methacrylic acid) (PMA) capsules for applications in gene delivery, including (1) synthesis of building blocks, (2) cargo encapsulation, (3) multilayer film formation, (4) surface modification, and (5) cross-linking of multilayer films and dissolution of particle templates...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
E Papastavrou, P Breedon, D Fairhurst
Low-temperature deposition modeling (LDM), otherwise termed freeze-form extrusion fabrication or rapid freeze prototyping, involves dispensing an aqueous-based ceramic paste or polymeric hydrogel along predefined paths in subzero ambient temperatures, followed by freeze-drying. The solidification of the material after the deposition of each layer enables large parts to be built without the need for organic binders, which can often have cytotoxic effects. Freeze-dried parts obtained from LDM typically exhibit pores with openings that range in average between 1 and 40 μm...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Lesley W Chow
Electrospinning polymers is a versatile technique to generate fibrous, three-dimensional scaffolds for tissue engineering applications. Modifying polymers with functional groups prior to electrospinning offers the opportunity to control the spatial presentation of functional groups within the scaffold as well as incorporate multiple bioactive cues. This chapter describes methods to modify poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) with peptides and electrospin these peptide-PCL conjugates to functionalize a scaffold surface in a single step...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Jacqueline J Masehi-Lano, Eun Ji Chung
Tissue engineering aims to develop scaffolds that are biocompatible and mimic the mechanical and biological properties of the target tissue as closely as possible. Here, we describe the fabrication and characterization of a biodegradable, elastomeric porous scaffold: poly(1,8-octanediol-co-citric acid) (POC) incorporated with nanoscale hydroxyapatite (HA). While this chapter focuses on the scaffold's potential for bone regeneration, POC can also be used in other tissue engineering applications requiring an elastomeric implant...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Basheer Y Khassawneh, Loiy L Alkhatib, Ali M Ibnian, Yousef S Khader
STUDY OBJECTIVES: Subjects with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) have neurocognitive dysfunction. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of symptoms and risk of OSA among university students and the association with academic performance. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted at Jordan University of Science and Technology. Students from faculties of engineering, medicine, nursing, pharmacy, and dentistry were asked to participate in this study...
April 20, 2018: Sleep & Breathing, Schlaf & Atmung
Farzad Davardoost, Davood Kahforoushan
One of the important agents menacing buildings' employees and residents' health is the emission of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) into the indoor environment. The present research studied the VOC emission to evaluate indoor air quality (IAQ) through studying in-laboratory processes and tasks. On account of that, three different pollutants (acetone, benzene, and toluene) were chosen as candidate VOCs, and Environmental Engineering Research Center at Sahand University of Technology was selected as a sample laboratory for each VOC...
April 21, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Jin Qian, Kun Li, Peifang Wang, Chao Wang, Jingjing Liu, Xin Tian, Bianhe Lu, Wenyi Guan
Engineered nano-TiO2 (Enano-TiO2 ) have inevitably discharged into aquatic sediments that resulted from their widespread use. The physicochemical characteristics of sediments might be changed because of remarkable properties of Enano-TiO2 and affected by the aging of sediments, thereby altering the environmental behavior and bioavailability of other pollutants such as perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) in sediments. Here, adsorption behavior and mechanism of PFOS on aging aquatic sediments spiked with Enano-TiO2 at a weight ratio of 5...
April 20, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Artur Jaworski, Hubert Kuszewski, Adam Ustrzycki, Krzysztof Balawender, Kazimierz Lejda, Paweł Woś
Measurement of car engines exhaust pollutants emissions is very important because of their harmful effects on the environment. This article presents the assessment of repeatability of the passenger car engine exhaust pollutants emission research results obtained in the conditions of a chassis dynamometer. The research was conducted in a climate chamber, enabling the temperature conditions to be determined from - 20 to + 30 °C. The emission of CO, CH4 , CO2 , NOX , THC, and NMHC was subjected to the analysis...
April 20, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
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