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Wenjia Lou, Hsiu-Chi Ting, Christian jA Reynolds, Yulia Y Tyurina, Vladimir A Tyurin, Yiran Li, Jiajia Ji, Wenxi Yu, Zhuqing Liang, Detcho A Stoyanovsky, Tamil S Anthonymuthu, Michael A Frasso, Peter Wipf, Joel S Greenberger, Hülya Bayir, Valerian E Kagan, Miriam L Greenberg
Cardiolipin (CL) is a unique phospholipid localized almost exclusively within the mitochondrial membranes where it is synthesized. Newly synthesized CL undergoes acyl remodeling to produce CL species enriched with unsaturated acyl groups. Cld1 is the only identified CL specific phospholipase in yeast and is required to initiate the CL remodeling pathway. In higher eukaryotes, peroxidation of CL, yielding CLOX , has been implicated in the cellular signaling events that initiate apoptosis. CLOX can undergo enzymatic hydrolysis, resulting in the release of lipid mediators with signaling properties...
June 20, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Kent Shilts, Christoph A Naumann
Most recent breakthroughs in understanding cell adhesion, cell migration, and cellular mechanosensitivity have been made possible by the development of engineered cell substrates of well-defined surface properties. Traditionally, these substrates mimic the extracellular matrix (ECM) environment by the use of ligand-functionalized polymeric gels of adjustable stiffness. However, such ECM mimetics are limited in their ability to replicate the rich dynamics found at cell-cell contacts. This review focuses on the application of cell surface mimetics, which are better suited for the analysis of cell adhesion, cell migration, and cellular mechanosensitivity across cell-cell interfaces...
June 20, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Yun Qian, Qixin Han, Xiaotian Zhao, Jialin Song, Yuan Cheng, Zhiwei Fang, Yuanming Ouyang, Wei-En Yuan, Cunyi Fan
Peripheral nerve defect is a common and severe kind of injury in traumatic accidents. Melatonin can improve peripheral nerve recovery by inhibiting oxidative stress and inflammation after traumatic insults. In addition, it triggers autophagy pathways to increase regenerated nerve proliferation and to reduce apoptosis. In this study, we fabricated a melatonin-controlled-release scaffold to cure long-range nerve defects for the first time. 3D manufacture of melatonin/polycaprolactone nerve guide conduit increased Schwann cell proliferation and neural expression in vitro and promoted functional, electrophysiological and morphological nerve regeneration in vivo...
June 23, 2018: Journal of Pineal Research
Milad Azami, G Holamreza Badfar, Akram Mansouri, Mohammad Hossein Yekta Kooshali, Wesam Kooti, Zeinab Tardeh, Ali Soleymani, S Hamsi Abbasalizadeh
Several studies have been conducted regarding the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis, Mycoplasma hominis, and Ureaplasma urealyticum in pregnant Iranian women. However, it is necessary to combine the previous results to present a general assessment. We conducted the present study based on systematic review and meta-analysis studies according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA). We searched the national and international online databases of MagIran, IranMedex, SID, MedLib, IranDoc, Scopus, PubMed, ISI Web of Knowledge, and Google Scholar search engine for certain MeSH keywords until June 16, 2017...
June 2018: International Journal of Fertility & Sterility
Lingqun Zeng, Biao Wan, Rixiang Huang, Yupeng Yan, Xiaoming Wang, Wenfeng Tan, Fan Liu, Xionghan Feng
Recently, the wide application of CuO nanoparticles (NPs) in engineering field inevitably leads to its release into various geologic settings, which has aroused great concern about the geochemical behaviors of CuO NPs due to its high surface reactivity and impact on the fate of co-existing contaminants. However, the redox transformation of pollutants mediated by CuO NPs and the underlying mechanism still remain poorly understood. Here, we studied the interaction of CuO NPs with As(III), and explored the reaction pathways using batch experiments and multiple spectroscopic techniques...
June 22, 2018: Geochemical Transactions
Koushik Ghosh, Katherine C Elbert, Eva Rose M Balog, Jennifer S Martinez, Reginaldo C Rocha
An optically active metallo-polymer assembly is demonstrated via conjugation of a genetically engineered elastin-like polypeptide (ELP) and a ruthenium(II) polypyridyl complex. By taking advantage of the phase transition of ELPs in water, photophysical properties of the resultant conjugate are investigated for both phases, below and above the critical transition temperature. Upon coacervation, the luminescence of the metallo-ELP is greatly enhanced as a consequence of local effects on the metal-ligand luminophore...
June 22, 2018: Journal of Biological Inorganic Chemistry: JBIC
Michael E Pyne, Lauren Narcross, Mindy Melgar, Kaspar Kevvai, Shoham Mookerjee, Gustavo B Leite, Vincent J J Martin
Muconic acid (MA) is a chemical building block and precursor to adipic and terephthalic acids used in the production of nylon and PET polymer families. Global demand for these important materials coupled to their dependence on petrochemical resources provides substantial motivation for the microbial synthesis of MA and its derivatives. In this context, the yeast shikimate pathway can be sourced as a precursor for the formation of MA. Here we report a novel strategy to balance MA pathway performance with aromatic amino acid prototrophy by destabilizing Aro1 through C-terminal degron-tagging...
June 22, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Amiram Sananes, Itay Cohen, Anat Shahar, Alexandra Hockla, Elena De Vita, Aubry K Miller, Evette S Radisky, Niv Papo
Human tissue kallikrein (KLK) proteases are hormone-like signaling molecules with important functions in cancer pathophysiology. KLK-related peptidase 6 (KLK6), specifically, is highly up-regulated in several types of cancer, where its increased activity promotes cancer invasion and metastasis. This characteristic suggests KLK6 as an attractive target for therapeutic interventions. However, inhibitors that specifically target KLK6 have not yet been reported, possibly because KLK6 shares a high sequence homology and structural similarity with other serine proteases and resists inhibition by many polypeptide inhibitors...
June 22, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Ines Teto Carqueijeiro, Stephanie Brown, Khoa Chung, Thu-Thuy T Dang, Manish Walia, Sebastien Besseau, Thomas Dugé de Bernonville, Audrey Oudin, Arnaud Lanoue, Kevin Billet, Thibaut Munsch, Konstantinos Koudounas, Céline Melin, Charlotte Godon, Bienvenue Razafimandimby, Johan-Owen de Craene, Gaelle Glévarec, Jillian Marc, Nathalie Giglioli-Guivarc'h, Marc Clastre, Benoit St-Pierre, Nicolas Papon, Rodrigo B Andrade, Sarah O'Connor, Vincent Courdavault
Lochnericine is a major monoterpene indole alkaloid (MIA) in the roots of Madagascar periwinkle (Catharanthus roseus). Lochnericine is derived from stereoselective C6, C7 epoxidation of tabersonine and can be further metabolized to generate other complex MIAs. While the enzymes responsible for its downstream modifications have been characterized, those involved in lochnericine biosynthesis remain unknown. By combining gene correlation studies, functional assays, and transient gene inactivation, we identified two highly conserved P450s that efficiently catalyze the epoxidation of tabersonine: tabersonine 6,7-epoxidase isoforms 1 and 2 (TEX1 and TEX2)...
June 22, 2018: Plant Physiology
Feihui Zheng, Zhongheng Wu, Christopher K S Leung
PURPOSE: To determine the proportions of eyes with indiscernible Bruch's membrane opening (BMO) in glaucoma patients and healthy individuals with and without high myopia and to investigate factors contributing to indiscernible BMO. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. PARTICIPANTS: Five hundred eyes from 315 participants, including 212 high myopic eyes (axial length [AL], ≥26 mm) from 80 glaucoma patients and 60 healthy individuals and 288 non-high myopic eyes (AL, <26 mm) from 96 glaucoma patients and 88 healthy individuals...
June 19, 2018: Ophthalmology
Sean Agbor-Enoh, Joshua L Chan, Avneesh Singh, Ilker Tunc, Sasha Gorham, Jun Zhu, Mehdi Pirooznia, Philip C Corcoran, Marvin L Thomas, Billeta G T Lewis, Moon Kyoo Jang, David L Ayares, Keith A Horvath, Muhammad M Mohiuddin, Hannah Valantine
BACKGROUND: Observational studies suggest that cell-free DNA (cfDNA) is a biomarker of tissue injury in a range of conditions including organ transplantation. However, the lack of model systems to study cfDNA and its relevance to tissue injury has limited the advancements in this field. We hypothesized that the predictable course of acute humoral xenograft rejection (AHXR) in organ transplants from genetically engineered donors provides an ideal system for assessing circulating cfDNA as a marker of tissue injury...
April 26, 2018: Journal of Heart and Lung Transplantation
Tom T Chatkupt, Nicole L Libal, Sarah L Mader, Stephanie J Murphy, Kim E Saunders
Some performance standards for continuous trio breeding in 'shoebox' cages for inbred stocks and outbred strains ofmice challenge the minimum floor space recommendations in the 8th edition of the Guide for the Care and Use of LaboratoryAnimals. In our study, we evaluated whether continuous trio breeding could be successfully applied to a breeding colonyof genetically engineered mice housed in shoebox cages with a floor area of 67.6 in2. Mice heterozygous for genetically engineered mutations to estrogen receptors and their wildtype counterparts were continuously bred as trios or pairs...
June 22, 2018: Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science: JAALAS
Stefan J Eder, Ulrike Cihak-Bayr, Carsten Gachot, Manel Rodriguez Ripoll
We performed large-scale molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to study the transient softening stage that has been observed experimentally in sliding interfaces subject to strain path changes. The occurrence of this effect can be of crucial importance for the energy efficiency and wear resistance of systems that experience changes in sliding direction, such as bearings or gears in wind parks, piston rings in combustion engines, or wheel--rail contacts for portal cranes. We therefore modeled the sliding of a rough counterbody against two polycrystalline substrates of fcc copper and bcc iron with initial near-surface grain sizes of 40 nm...
June 22, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Fan Yang, Liang Yang, Changzhi Ai, Pengcheng Xie, Shiwei Lin, Cai-Zhuang Wang, Xihong Lu
The physical and chemical properties of V-M&Prime; and Nb-M&Prime; (M&Prime; is 3d or 4d transition metal) co-doped BaTiO₃ were studied by first-principles calculation based on density functional theory. Our calculation results show that V-M&Prime; co-doping is more favorable than Nb-M&Prime; co-doping in terms of narrowing the bandgap and increasing the visible-light absorption. In pure BaTiO₃, the bandgap depends on the energy levels of the Ti 3d and O 2p states. The appropriate co-doping can effectively manipulate the bandgap by introducing new energy levels interacting with those of the pure BaTiO₃...
June 21, 2018: Nanomaterials
Krysta Biniek, Ali Tfayli, Raoul Vyumvuhore, Alessia Quatela, Marie-Florence Galliano, Alexandre Delalleau, Arlette Baillet-Guffroy, Reinhold H Dauskardt, Helene Duplan
An important aspect of the biomechanical behavior of the stratum corneum (SC) is the drying stresses that develop with water loss. These stresses act as a driving force for damage in the form of chapping and cracking. Betasitosterol is a plant sterol with a structure similar to cholesterol, a key component in the intercellular lipids of the outermost layer of human skin, the SC. Cholesterol plays an important role in stabilizing the SC lipid structure, and altered levels of cholesterol have been linked with SC barrier abnormalities...
June 22, 2018: Experimental Dermatology
Hirra Hussain, David I Fisher, Robert G Roth, W Mark Abbott, Manuel Alejandro Carballo-Amador, Jim Warwicker, Alan J Dickson
Due in part to the needs of the biopharmaceutical industry, there has been an increased drive to generate high quality recombinant proteins in large amounts. However, achieving high yields can be a challenge as the novelty and increased complexity of new targets often makes them 'difficult-to-express'. This study aimed to define the molecular features that restrict the production of a model 'difficult-to-express' recombinant protein, Tissue Inhibitor Metalloproteinase-3 (TIMP-3). Building from experimental data, computational approaches were used to rationalise the re-design of this recombinant target to generate a chimera with enhanced secretion...
June 22, 2018: FEBS Letters
Liqiu Zhang, Hee-Jeong Jang, Sung Jae Yoo, Sanghyun Cho, Ji Hye Won, Lichun Liu, Sungho Park
Site-selective synthesis of nanostructures is an important topic in the nanoscience community. Normally, the difference between seeds and deposition atoms in terms of crystallinity triggers the deposition atoms to grow initially at the specific site of nucleation. It is more challenging to control the deposition site of atoms that have the same composition as the seeds because the atoms tend to grow epitaxially, covering the whole surface of the seed nanoparticles. Gold (Au) nano-octahedrons used as seeds in this study possess obvious hierarchical surface energies depending on whether they are at vertices, edges, or terraces...
June 22, 2018: Nanotechnology
Enza Fazio, Antonio Speciale, Salvatore Spadaro, Martina Bonsignore, Francesco Cimino, Mariateresa Cristani, Domenico Trombetta, Antonella Saija, Fortunato Neri
Tailored colloids of uniformly sized and engineered molybdenum oxide nanoparticles were produced, for the first time, by pulsed laser ablation in water. This green technique ensures the formation of contaminant-free nanostructures and the absence of by-products, very useful issues in biological applications. A selective tuning of MoO chemical bonding configurations and a suitable control of nanoparticles size distributions were achieved during the ablation processes by varying the water temperature and by applying an external electric field...
June 18, 2018: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
Lukas Kain, Orestis G Andriotis, Peter Gruber, Martin Frank, Marica Markovic, David Grech, Vedran Nedelkovski, Martin Stolz, Aleksandr Ovsianikov, Philipp J Thurner
Mechanical assessment of biological materials and tissue-engineered scaffolds is increasingly focusing at lower length scale levels. Amongst other techniques, atomic force microscopy (AFM) has gained popularity as an instrument to interrogate material properties, such as the indentation modulus, at the microscale via cantilever-based indentation tests equipped with colloidal probes. Current analysis approaches of the indentation modulus from such tests require the size and shape of the colloidal probe as well as the spring constant of the cantilever...
May 17, 2018: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
Friederike Bothe, Benedict Lotz, Elisabeth Seebach, Jennifer Fischer, Eliane Hesse, Solvig Diederichs, Wiltrud Richter
Bioactive functional scaffolds are essential for support of cell-based strategies to improve bone regeneration. Adipose-tissue-derived-stromal cells (ASC) are more accessible multipotent cells with faster proliferation than bone-marrow-derived-stromal-cells (BMSC) having potential to replace BMSC for therapeutic stimulation of bone-defect healing. Their osteogenic potential is, however lower compared to BMSC, a deficit that may be overcome in growth factor-rich orthotopic bone defects with enhanced bone-conductive scaffolds...
June 19, 2018: Acta Biomaterialia
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