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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882538/gene-therapy-with-mesenchymal-stem-cells-expressing-ifn%C3%A3-ameliorates-neuroinflammation-in-experimental-models-of-multiple-sclerosis
#1
C Marin-Bañasco, K Benabdellah, C Melero-Jerez, B Oliver, M J Pinto-Medel, I Hurtado-Guerrero, F de Castro, D Clemente, O Fernández, F Martin, L Leyva, M Suardíaz
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Recombinant IFNß is one of the first line treatments in multiple sclerosis (MS), despite its lack of efficiency in some patients. In this context, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) represent a promising therapeutic alternative due to their immunomodulatory properties and multipotency. Moreover, taking advantage of their pathotropism ability, these cells can be genetically modified to be used as carriers for delivering or secreting therapeutic drugs into injured tissues...
November 24, 2016: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27845244/the-role-of-morphine-on-rat-neural-stem-cells-viability-neuro-angiogenesis-and-neuro-steroidgenesis-properties
#2
Nima Abdyazdani, Alireza Nourazarian, Hojjatollah Nozad Charoudeh, Masoumeh Kazemi, Navid Feizy, Maryam Akbarzade, Amir Mehdizadeh, Jafar Rezaie, Reza Rahbarghazi
A lack of comprehensive data exists on the effect of morphine on neural stem cell neuro-steroidogenesis and neuro-angiogenesis properties. We, herein, investigated the effects of morphine (100μM), naloxone (100μM) and their combination on rat neural stem cells viability, clonogenicity and Ki-67 expression over a period of 72h. Any alterations in the total fatty acids profile under treatment protocols were elucidated by direct transesterification method. We also monitored the expression of p53, aromatase and 5-alpha reductase by real-time PCR assay...
November 11, 2016: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27844280/stem-cells-as-a-promising-tool-for-the-restoration-of-brain-neurovascular-unit-and-angiogenic-orientation
#3
REVIEW
Mohammad Hossein Geranmayeh, Alireza Nourazarian, Çığır Biray Avci, Reza Rahbarghazi, Mehdi Farhoudi
Establishing systemic therapeutics for neuro-inflammatory diseases is a main objective of regenerative medicine, certainly focusing on restoration of BBB dysfunction and neurovascular reconstitution. In this context, the regenerative capacity and therapeutic effects of different stem cells have been recently found to bring hopeful outcomes through trans-differentiation, paracrine interactions, and molecular cross-talk of transplanted stem cells with resident cells of blood-brain barrier. Here, we highlight some of the most recent scientific breakthroughs and discoveries by different authorities...
November 14, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833970/subsets-of-telocytes-the-progenitor-cells-in-the-human-endocardial-niche
#4
Florentina Grigoriu, Sorin Hostiuc, Alexandra Diana Vrapciu, Mugurel Constantin Rusu
: Telocytes (TCs) are cells defined by their long and moniliform processes termed telopodes. They were previously identified in the endocardium and express neural markers, such as nestin and neuron-specific enolase (NSE). Previous studies found a positive expression of neuro-filaments in endocardial endothelial cells, and a positive expression of nestin in cardiac side population (CSP) progenitor cells, which allowed us to hypothesize that TCs in the endocardial stem niche could be in fact progenitors that express nestin...
2016: Romanian Journal of Morphology and Embryology, Revue Roumaine de Morphologie et Embryologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27817105/neuro-regeneration-therapy-using-human-muse-cells-is-highly-effective-in-a-mouse-intracerebral-hemorrhage-model
#5
Norihito Shimamura, Kiyohide Kakuta, Liang Wang, Masato Naraoka, Hiroki Uchida, Shohei Wakao, Mari Dezawa, Hiroki Ohkuma
A novel type of non-tumorigenic pluripotent stem cell, the Muse cell (multi-lineage, differentiating stress enduring cell), resides in the connective tissue and in cultured mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and is reported to differentiate into multiple cell types according to the microenvironment to repair tissue damage. We examined the efficiency of Muse cells in a mouse intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) model. Seventy μl of cardiac blood was stereotactically injected into the left putamen of immunodeficient mice...
November 5, 2016: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27719625/updates-on-therapeutics-in-clinical-trials-for-spinal-cord-injuries-key-translational-applications-of-human-embryonic-stem-cells-derived-neural-progenitors
#6
Habiba Aurang Zeb, Ishaq Nasib Khan, Iqbal Munir, Wafaa Saadeldin Ramadan, Mian Afaq Ahmad, Deema Hussein, Mohammad Amjad Kamal, Saleh Al Karim
Injuries to the spinal cord often have devastating physiological impacts due to the organ's vital role in neuro-impulse communications between muscles and the brain. Spinal Cord Injuries (SCIs) have recently been estimated to affect up to 80,000 individuals per year worldwide, with most occurring following a traumatic event. Unfortunately, effective treatments standardised globally for patients with SCIs have not yet been established. For many years, inadequate understanding of the complexities of the Central and Peripheral Nervous Systems and Neurogenesis has limited progression towards effective cures...
October 4, 2016: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27690011/aquaporin-4-a-potential-therapeutic-target-for-cerebral-edema
#7
Guanghui Tang, Guo-Yuan Yang
Aquaporin-4 (AQP4) is a family member of water-channel proteins and is dominantly expressed in the foot process of glial cells surrounding capillaries. The predominant expression at the boundaries between cerebral parenchyma and major fluid compartments suggests the function of aquaporin-4 in water transfer into and out of the brain parenchyma. Accumulating evidences have suggested that the dysregulation of aquaporin-4 relates to the brain edema resulting from a variety of neuro-disorders, such as ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke, trauma, etc...
2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27684569/three-dimensional-human-neuro-spheroid-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease-based-on-differentiated-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells
#8
Han-Kyu Lee, Clara Velazquez Sanchez, Mei Chen, Peter J Morin, John M Wells, Eugene B Hanlon, Weiming Xia
The testing of candidate drugs to slow progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD) requires clinical trials that are lengthy and expensive. Efforts to model the biochemical milieu of the AD brain may be greatly facilitated by combining two cutting edge technologies to generate three-dimensional (3D) human neuro-spheroid from induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC) derived from AD subjects. We created iPSC from blood cells of five AD patients and differentiated them into 3D human neuronal culture. We characterized neuronal markers of our 3D neurons by immunocytochemical staining to validate the differentiation status...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27666383/adverse-early-life-environment-increases-hippocampal-microglia-abundance-in-conjunction-with-decreased-neural-stem-cells-in-juvenile-mice
#9
Susan Cohen, Xingrao Ke, Qiuli Liu, Qi Fu, Amber Majnik, Robert Lane
BACKGROUND: Adverse maternal lifestyle resulting in adverse early life environment (AELE) increases risks for neuropsychiatric disorders in offspring. Neuropsychiatric disorders are associated with impaired neurogenesis and neuro-inflammation in the hippocampus (HP). Microglia are neuro-inflammatory cells in the brain that regulate neurogenesis via toll-like receptors (TLR). TLR-9 is implicated in neurogenesis inhibition and is responsible for stress-related inflammatory responses. We hypothesized that AELE would increase microglia cell count and increase TLR-9 expression in juvenile mouse HP...
September 22, 2016: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27646569/a-four-part-working-bibliography-of-neuroethics-part-3-second-tradition-neuroethics-ethical-issues-in-neuroscience
#10
EDITORIAL
Amanda Martin, Kira Becker, Martina Darragh, James Giordano
BACKGROUND: Neuroethics describes several interdisciplinary topics exploring the application and implications of engaging neuroscience in societal contexts. To explore this topic, we present Part 3 of a four-part bibliography of neuroethics' literature focusing on the "ethics of neuroscience." METHODS: To complete a systematic survey of the neuroethics literature, 19 databases and 4 individual open-access journals were employed. Searches were conducted using the indexing language of the U...
September 19, 2016: Philosophy, Ethics, and Humanities in Medicine: PEHM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27644129/differentiation-of-spermatogonia-stem-cells-into-functional-mature-neurons-characterized-with-differential-gene-expression
#11
Maryam Nazm Bojnordi, Hossein Azizi, Thomas Skutella, Mansoureh Movahedin, Fereshteh Pourabdolhossein, Amir Shojaei, Hatef Ghasemi Hamidabadi
Transplantation of embryonic stem cells (ESCs) is a promising therapeutic approach for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. However, ESCs are not usable clinically due to immunological and ethical limitations. The identification of an alternative safe cell source opens novel options via autologous transplantation in neuro-regeneration circumventing these problems. Here, we examined the neurogenic capacity of embryonic stem-like cells (ES-like cells) derived from the testis using neural growth factor inducers and utilized them to generate functional mature neurons...
September 19, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27638002/functional-liver-tissue-engineering-by-an-adult-mouse-liver-derived-neuro-glia-antigen-2-expressing-stem-progenitor-population
#12
Hongyu Zhang, Christopher T Siegel, Jing Li, Jiejuan Lai, Ling Shuai, Xiangdong Lai, Yujun Zhang, Yan Jiang, Ping Bie, Lianhua Bai
Deaths due to end-stage liver diseases (ESLD) are increasingly registered annually in the world. Liver transplantation is the ultimate treatment for ESLD to date, which has been hampered by a critical shortage of organs. The potential of decellularized liver scaffolds (DLS) derived from solid organs as a three dimensional (3D) platform has been evolved as a promising approach in liver tissue engineering for translating functional liver organ replacements, but questions still exist regarding the optimal cell population for seeding in DLS and the preparation of the DLS themselves...
September 17, 2016: Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27604746/postnatal-neural-stem-cells-in-treating-traumatic-brain-injury
#13
Hussein Gazalah, Sarah Mantash, Naify Ramadan, Sawsan Al Lafi, Sally El Sitt, Hala Darwish, Hassan Azari, Lama Fawaz, Noël Ghanem, Kazem Zibara, Rose-Mary Boustany, Firas Kobeissy, Jihane Soueid
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is one of the leading causes of death and disabilities worldwide. It affects approximately 1.5 million people each year and is associated with severe post-TBI symptoms such as sensory and motor deficits. Several neuro-therapeutic approaches ranging from cell therapy interventions such as the use of neural stem cells (NSCs) to drug-based therapies have been proposed for TBI management. Successful cell-based therapies are tightly dependent on reproducible preclinical animal models to ensure safety and optimal therapeutic benefits...
2016: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27596061/effects-of-membrane-properties-on-the-binding-activities-of-the-hn-and-hc-heavy-chain-domains-of-botulinum-neurotoxin-a
#14
B Vijayalakshmi Ayyar, M Zouhair Atassi
Binding behaviors of the HN and the HC domains of BoNT/A were investigated individually to identify if there exist any differences in their interaction with the cell membrane. Recombinant fragments corresponding to both BoNT/A HN and HC regions were prepared (HN519-845 and HC967-1296) and their binding to synaptic proteins was verified. The binding behaviors of these heavy-chain domains were analyzed by treating the Neuro 2a, a murine neuroblastoma cell line, with compounds known to alter membrane properties...
December 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27521752/human-endothelial-progenitor-cells-rescue-cortical-neurons-from-oxygen-glucose-deprivation-induced-death
#15
Susanna Bacigaluppi, Elisabetta Donzelli, Valentina De Cristofaro, Nicola Luigi Bragazzi, Giovanna D'Amico, Arianna Scuteri, Giovanni Tredici
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Cerebral ischemia is characterized by both acute and delayed neuronal injuries. Neuro-protection is a major issue that should be properly addressed from a pharmacological point of view, and cell-based treatment approaches are of interest due to their potential pleiotropic effects. Endothelial progenitor cells have the advantage of being mobilized from the bone marrow into the circulation, but have been less studied than other stem cells, such as mesenchymal stem cells...
September 19, 2016: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27510612/pediatrics-in-21-st-century-and-beyond
#16
Meharban Singh
Pediatrics is a dynamic discipline and there is awareness and hope for actualizing outstanding achievements in the field of child health in 21(st) century and beyond. Improved lifestyle and quality of children's health is likely to reduce the burden of adult diseases and enhance longevity because seeds of most adult diseases are sown in childhood. Identification and decoding of human genome is expected to revolutionize the practice of pediatrics. The day is not far off when a patient will walk into doctor's chamber with an electronic or digital health history on a CD or palmtop and a decoded genomic constitution...
November 2016: Indian Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27450977/successful-use-of-dose-dense-neoadjuvant-chemotherapy-and-sodium-valproate-with-minimal-toxicity-in-an-infant-with-medulloblastoma-in-extremely-poor-general-condition
#17
Ajay Gupta, Amit Kumar, Andaleeb Abrari, Rana Patir, Sandeep Vaishya
BACKGROUND: Medulloblastoma is the most common malignant brain tumor in children. Infants are in the high-risk category. Complete surgical resection is the single most important determinant of prognosis and survival in nonmetastatic disease. Infants with large primaries after incomplete resection/biopsy and poor general condition have bad prognosis. They are considered poor candidates for intensive chemotherapy involving high dose methotrexate/autologous stem cell transplantation as they are often unable to tolerate these aggressive regimens...
September 2016: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27369863/part-ii-functional-delivery-of-a-neurotherapeutic-gene-to-neural-stem-cells-using-minicircle-dna-and-nanoparticles-translational-advantages-for-regenerative-neurology
#18
Alinda R Fernandes, Divya M Chari
Both neurotrophin-based therapy and neural stem cell (NSC)-based strategies have progressed to clinical trials for treatment of neurological diseases and injuries. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in particular can confer neuroprotective and neuro-regenerative effects in preclinical studies, complementing the cell replacement benefits of NSCs. Therefore, combining both approaches by genetically-engineering NSCs to express BDNF is an attractive approach to achieve combinatorial therapy for complex neural injuries...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27329646/a-2-substituted-8-hydroxyquinoline-stimulates-neural-stem-cell-proliferation-by-modulating-ros-signalling
#19
Cathryn L Haigh, Carolin Tumpach, Steven J Collins, Simon C Drew
Eight-hydroxyquinolines (8HQs) are a class of compounds that have been identified as potential therapeutics for a number of neurodegenerative diseases. Understanding the influence of structural modifications to the 8HQ scaffold on cellular behaviour will aid the identification of compounds that might be effective in treating dementias. In this study, we describe the action of 2-[(dimethylamino)methyl]-8-hydroxyquinoline (DMAMQ) on adult murine neural stem cells (NSCs) cultured in vitro. Treatment of NSCs with DMAMQ resulted in enhanced self-renewal and increased neurite outgrowth...
September 2016: Cell Biochemistry and Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27318691/sponges-as-models-to-study-emergence-of-complex-animals
#20
Maja Adamska
The emergence of complex animal life forms remains poorly understood despite substantial interest and research in this area. To be informative, the ideal models to study transitions from single-cell organisms to the first animals and then to mammalian-level complexity should be phylogenetically strategically placed and retain ancestral characters. Sponges (Porifera) are likely to be the earliest branching animal phylum. When analysed from morphological, genomic and developmental perspectives, sponges appear to combine features of single-cell eukaryotic organisms and the complex multicellular animals (Eumetazoa)...
June 16, 2016: Current Opinion in Genetics & Development
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