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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29748664/nanovesicles-from-adipose-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-inhibit-t-lymphocyte-trafficking-and-ameliorate-chronic-experimental-autoimmune-encephalomyelitis
#1
Alessia Farinazzo, Stefano Angiari, Ermanna Turano, Edoardo Bistaffa, Silvia Dusi, Serena Ruggieri, Roberta Bonafede, Raffaella Mariotti, Gabriela Constantin, Bruno Bonetti
Cell based-therapies represent promising strategies for the treatment of neurological diseases. We have previously shown that adipose stem cells (ASC) ameliorate chronic experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Recent evidence indicates that most ASC paracrine effects are mediated by extracellular vesicles, i.e. micro- and nanovesicles (MVs and NVs). We show that preventive intravenous administration of NVs isolated from ASC (ASC-NVs) before disease onset significantly reduces the severity of EAE and decreases spinal cord inflammation and demyelination, whereas therapeutic treatment with ASC-NVs does not ameliorate established EAE...
May 10, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29709615/common-proteomic-profiles-of-induced-pluripotent-stem-cell-derived-three-dimensional-neurons-and-brain-tissue-from-alzheimer-patients
#2
Mei Chen, Han-Kyu Lee, Lauren Moo, Eugene Hanlon, Thor Stein, Weiming Xia
We established a unique platform for proteomic analysis of cultured three-dimensional (3D) neurons and brain tissue from Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients. We collected peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), converted PBMC to induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) lines, and differentiated the iPSC into human 3D neuro-spheroids. The postmortem brain tissue from the superior frontal cortex, inferior frontal cortex and cerebellum area of the AD patients was compared to the same regions from the control subjects...
April 27, 2018: Journal of Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29700345/3d-bio-printed-scaffold-free-nerve-constructs-with-human-gingiva-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-promote-rat-facial-nerve-regeneration
#3
Qunzhou Zhang, Phuong D Nguyen, Shihong Shi, Justin C Burrell, D Kacy Cullen, Anh D Le
Despite the promising neuro-regenerative capacities of stem cells, there is currently no licensed stem cell-based product in the repair and regeneration of peripheral nerve injuries. Here, we explored the potential use of human gingiva-derived mesenchymal stem cells (GMSCs) as the only cellular component in 3D bio-printed scaffold-free neural constructs that were transplantable to bridge facial nerve defects in rats. We showed that GMSCs have the propensity to aggregate into compact 3D-spheroids that could produce their own matrix...
April 26, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29680669/exposing-mesenchymal-stem-cells-to-chondroitin-sulphated-proteoglycans-reduces-their-angiogenic-and-neuro-adhesive-paracrine-activity
#4
Chelsea R Wood, Ibtesam R T Al Delfi, John F Innes, Peter Myint, William E B Johnson
The multifactorial complexity of spinal cord injuries includes the formation of a glial scar, of which chondroitin sulphated proteoglycans (CSPG) are an integral component. Previous studies have shown CSPG to have inhibitory effects on endothelial and neuronal cell growth, highlighting the difficulty of spinal cord regeneration. Mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSC) are widely used a cell therapy, and there is mounting evidence for their angiogenic and neurotrophic paracrine properties. However, in vivo studies have observed poor engraftment and survival of MSC when injected into SCI...
April 19, 2018: Biochimie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674963/a-bivalent-securinine-compound-sn3-l6-induces-neuronal-differentiation-via-translational-upregulation-of-neurogenic-transcription-factors
#5
Yumei Liao, Xiaoji Zhuang, Xiaojie Huang, Yinghui Peng, Xuanyue Ma, Zhi-Xing Huang, Feng Liu, Junyu Xu, Ying Wang, Wei-Min Chen, Wen-Cai Ye, Lei Shi
Developing therapeutic approaches that target neuronal differentiation will be greatly beneficial for the regeneration of neurons and synaptic networks in neurological diseases. Protein synthesis (mRNA translation) has recently been shown to regulate neurogenesis of neural stem/progenitor cells (NSPCs). However, it has remained unknown whether engineering translational machinery is a valid approach for manipulating neuronal differentiation. The present study identifies that a bivalent securinine compound SN3-L6, previously designed and synthesized by our group, induces potent neuronal differentiation through a novel translation-dependent mechanism...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669557/discovery-biology-of-neuropsychiatric-syndromes-dbns-a-center-for-integrating-clinical-medicine-and-basic-science
#6
Biju Viswanath, Naren P Rao, Janardhanan C Narayanaswamy, Palanimuthu T Sivakumar, Arun Kandasamy, Muralidharan Kesavan, Urvakhsh Meherwan Mehta, Ganesan Venkatasubramanian, John P John, Odity Mukherjee, Meera Purushottam, Ramakrishnan Kannan, Bhupesh Mehta, Thennarasu Kandavel, B Binukumar, Jitender Saini, Deepak Jayarajan, A Shyamsundar, Sydney Moirangthem, K G Vijay Kumar, Jagadisha Thirthalli, Prabha S Chandra, Bangalore N Gangadhar, Pratima Murthy, Mitradas M Panicker, Upinder S Bhalla, Sumantra Chattarji, Vivek Benegal, Mathew Varghese, Janardhan Y C Reddy, Padinjat Raghu, Mahendra Rao, Sanjeev Jain
BACKGROUND: There is emerging evidence that there are shared genetic, environmental and developmental risk factors in psychiatry, that cut across traditional diagnostic boundaries. With this background, the Discovery biology of neuropsychiatric syndromes (DBNS) proposes to recruit patients from five different syndromes (schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, obsessive compulsive disorder, Alzheimer's dementia and substance use disorders), identify those with multiple affected relatives, and invite these families to participate in this study...
April 18, 2018: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29642503/migration-invasion-of-malignant-gliomas-and-implications-for-therapeutic-treatment
#7
REVIEW
Ching-Ann Liu, Chia-Yu Chang, Kuo-Wei Hsueh, Hong-Lin Su, Tzyy-Wen Chiou, Shinn-Zong Lin, Horng-Jyh Harn
Malignant tumors of the central nervous system (CNS) are among cancers with the poorest prognosis, indicated by their association with tumors of high-level morbidity and mortality. Gliomas, the most common primary CNS tumors that arise from neuroglial stem or progenitor cells, have estimated annual incidence of 6.6 per 100,000 individuals in the USA, and 3.5 per 100,000 individuals in Taiwan. Tumor invasion and metastasis are the major contributors to the deaths in cancer patients. Therapeutic goals including cancer stem cells (CSC), phenotypic shifts, EZH2/AXL/TGF-β axis activation, miRNAs and exosomes are relevant to GBM metastasis to develop novel targeted therapeutics for GBM and other brain cancers...
April 8, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29581463/engineered-3d-vascular-and-neuronal-networks-in-a-microfluidic-platform
#8
Tatsuya Osaki, Vivek Sivathanu, Roger D Kamm
Neurovascular coupling plays a key role in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disorders including motor neuron disease (MND). In vitro models provide an opportunity to understand the pathogenesis of MND, and offer the potential for drug screening. Here, we describe a new 3D microvascular and neuronal network model in a microfluidic platform to investigate interactions between these two systems. Both 3D networks were established by co-culturing human embryonic stem (ES)-derived MN spheroids and endothelial cells (ECs) in microfluidic devices...
March 26, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29570423/current-and-future-trends-in-adipose-stem-cell-differentiation-into-neuroglia
#9
Sajan George, Michael R Hamblin, Heidi Abrahamse
BACKGROUND: Neurological diseases and disorders pose a challenge for treatment and rehabilitation due to the limited capacity of the nervous system to repair itself. Adipose stem cells (ASCs) are more pliable than any adult stem cells and are capable of differentiating into non-mesodermal tissues, including neurons. Transdifferentiating ASCs to specific neuronal lineage cells enables us to deliver the right type of cells required for a replacement therapy into the nervous system. METHODS: Several methodologies are being explored and tested to differentiate ASCs to functional neurons and glia with cellular factors and chemical compounds...
March 23, 2018: Photomedicine and Laser Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29569030/author-correction-stem-cells-from-human-apical-papilla-decrease-neuro%C3%A2-inflammation-and-stimulate-oligodendrocyte-progenitor-differentiation-via-activin%C3%A2-a-secretion
#10
Pauline De Berdt, Pauline Bottemanne, John Bianco, Mireille Alhouayek, Anibal Diogenes, Amy Lloyd, Jose Gerardo-Nava, Gary A Brook, Véronique Miron, Giulio G Muccioli, Anne des Rieux
In the original publication, sixth author's surname was incorrectly published as "Llyod" instead of "Lloyd". The correct name should read as "Amy Lloyd".
March 22, 2018: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29534309/bone-marrow-transplantation-stimulates-neural-repair-in-friedreich-s-ataxia-mice
#11
Kevin C Kemp, Kelly Hares, Juliana Redondo, Amelia J Cook, Harry R Haynes, Bronwen R Burton, Mark A Pook, Claire M Rice, Neil J Scolding, Alastair Wilkins
OBJECTIVES: Friedreich's ataxia is an incurable inherited neurological disease caused by frataxin deficiency. Here we report the neuro-reparative effects of myeloablative allogeneic bone marrow transplantation in a humanised murine model of the disease. METHODS: Mice received a transplant of fluorescently-tagged sex mis-matched bone marrow cells expressing wild-type frataxin and were assessed at monthly intervals using a range of behavioural motor performance tests...
March 13, 2018: Annals of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29530027/inhibition-of-lipopolysaccharide-lps-induced-neuroinflammatory-response-by-polysaccharide-fractions-of-khaya-grandifoliola-c-d-c-stem-bark-cryptolepis-sanguinolenta-lindl-schltr-and-cymbopogon-citratus-stapf-leaves-in-raw-264-7-macrophages-and-u87-glioblastoma
#12
Francine Kengne Mediesse, Thaddée Boudjeko, Anantharaju Hasitha, Matharasala Gangadhar, Wilfred Fon Mbacham, Perumal Yogeeswari
BACKGROUND: Khaya grandifoliola (C.D.C.) stem bark, Cymbopogon citratus (Stapf) and Cryptolepis sanguinolenta (Lindl.) Schltr leaves are used in Cameroonian traditional medicine for the treatment of inflammatory diseases. Several studies have been performed on the biological activities of secondary metabolites extracted from these plants. However, to the best of our knowledge, the anti-neuro inflammatory and protective roles of the polysaccharides of these three plants have not yet been elucidated...
March 12, 2018: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29489501/prenatal-transplantation-of-human-amniotic-fluid-stem-cells-for-spinal-muscular-atrophy
#13
Shao-Yu Peng, Sheng-Wen S Shaw
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To review the current medical and stem-cell therapy for spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) and prenatal transplantation of amniotic fluid stem cells in the future. RECENT FINDINGS: SMA is an autosomal recessive inheritance of neurodegenerative disease, which is caused of the mutation in survival motor neuron. The severe-type SMA patients usually die from the respiratory failure within 2 years after birth. Recently, researchers had found that 3-methyladenine could inhibit the autophagy and had the capacity to reduce death of the neurons...
April 2018: Current Opinion in Obstetrics & Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29467462/hipsc-derived-neural-stem-cells-from-patients-with-schizophrenia-induce-an-impaired-angiogenesis
#14
Bárbara S Casas, Gabriela Vitória, Marcelo N do Costa, Rodrigo Madeiro da Costa, Pablo Trindade, Renata Maciel, Nelson Navarrete, Stevens K Rehen, Verónica Palma
Schizophrenia is a neurodevelopmental disease characterized by cerebral connectivity impairment and loss of gray matter. It was described in adult schizophrenia patients (SZP) that concentration of VEGFA, a master angiogenic factor, is decreased. Recent evidence suggests cerebral hypoperfusion related to a dysfunctional Blood Brain Barrier (BBB) in SZP. Since neurogenesis and blood-vessel formation occur in a coincident and coordinated fashion, a defect in neurovascular development could result in increased vascular permeability and, therefore, in poor functionality of the SZP's neurons...
February 22, 2018: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29428267/disseminated-cerebral-toxoplasmosis-in-a-patient-with-chronic-lymphocytic-leukemia
#15
Jordan Xu, Rod J Nault, Andres Maldonado-Naranjo, Leonardo A Frizon, Kuruvilla John, Katherine Holman, Sean J Nagel
Infections are one of the most common causes of mortality in immunocompromised patients. In patients diagnosed with hematologic malignancies, treatment with stem cell transplants (SCT) or T-cell suppressing chemotherapy increases the risk of central nervous system (CNS) infections, of which toxoplasmosis is the most common. We report the case of a 63 year-old woman with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) that presented with gait instability and visual changes. Intracranial lesions were noted on initial neuro-imaging...
April 2018: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29417177/stem-cells-from-human-apical-papilla-decrease-neuro-inflammation-and-stimulate-oligodendrocyte-progenitor-differentiation-via-activin-a-secretion
#16
Pauline De Berdt, Pauline Bottemanne, John Bianco, Mireille Alhouayek, Anibal Diogenes, Amy Llyod, Jose Gerardo-Nava, Gary A Brook, Véronique Miron, Giulio G Muccioli, Anne des Rieux
Secondary damage following spinal cord injury leads to non-reversible lesions and hampering of the reparative process. The local production of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as TNF-α can exacerbate these events. Oligodendrocyte death also occurs, followed by progressive demyelination leading to significant tissue degeneration. Dental stem cells from human apical papilla (SCAP) can be easily obtained at the removal of an adult immature tooth. This offers a minimally invasive approach to re-use this tissue as a source of stem cells, as compared to biopsying neural tissue from a patient with a spinal cord injury...
February 7, 2018: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29402914/neuroprotection-of-the-hypoxic-ischemic-mouse-brain-by-human-cd117-cd90-cd105-amniotic-fluid-stem-cells
#17
Michelangelo Corcelli, Kate Hawkins, Filipa Vlahova, Avina Hunjan, Kate Dowding, Paolo De Coppi, Anna L David, Donald Peebles, Pierre Gressens, Henrik Hagberg, Mariya Hristova, Pascale V Guillot
Human amniotic fluid contains two morphologically-distinct sub-populations of stem cells with regenerative potential, spindle-shaped (SS-hAFSCs) and round-shaped human amniotic fluid stem cells (RS-hAFSCs). However, it is unclear whether morphological differences correlate with functionality, and this lack of knowledge limits their translational applications. Here, we show that SS-hAFSCs and RS-hAFSCs differ in their neuro-protective ability, demonstrating that a single contralateral injection of SS-hAFSCs into hypoxic-ischemic P7 mice conferred a 47% reduction in hippocampal tissue loss and 43-45% reduction in TUNEL-positive cells in the hippocampus and striatum 48 hours after the insult, decreased microglial activation and TGFβ1 levels, and prevented demyelination...
February 5, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29402798/transplanted-dental-pulp-stem-cells-migrate-to-injured-area-and-express-neural-markers-in-a-rat-model-of-cerebral-ischemia
#18
Xuemei Zhang, Yinglian Zhou, Hulun Li, Rui Wang, Dan Yang, Bing Li, Xiaofang Cao, Jin Fu
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Ischemic stroke is a major cause of disability and mortality worldwide, while effective restorative treatments are limited at present. Stem cell transplantation holds therapeutic potential for ischemic vascular diseases and may provide an opportunity for neural regeneration. Dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) origin from neural crest and have neuro-ectodermal features including proliferation and multilineage differentiation potentials. METHODS: The rat model of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) was used to evaluate whether intravenous administration of DPSCs can reduce infarct size and to estimate the migration and trans-differentiation into neuron-like cells in focal cerebral ischemia models...
2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29357739/grafts-of-olfactory-stem-cells-restore-breathing-and-motor-functions-after-a-rat-spinal-cord-injury
#19
Jean-Claude Stamegna, Kevin Sadelli, Guy Escoffier, Stéphane D Girard, Antoine D Veron, Amandine Bonnet, Michel Khrestchatisky, Patrick Gauthier, Francois Roman
The transplantation of Olfactory Ecto-Mesenchymal Stem Cells (OEMSCs) could be a helpful therapeutic strategy for spinal cord repair. Using an acute rat model of high cervical contusion that provokes a persistent hemi-diaphragmatic and foreleg paralysis, we evaluated the therapeutic effect of a delayed syngeneic transplantation (two days post-contusion) of OEMSCs within the injured spinal cord. Respiratory function was assessed using diaphragmatic electromyography and neuro-electrophysiological recordings of phrenic nerves (innervating the diaphragm)...
January 22, 2018: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317311/concomitant-use-of-mesenchymal-stem-cells-and-neural-stem-cells-for-treatment-of-spinal-cord-injury-a-combo-cell-therapy-approach
#20
Seyed Mojtaba Hosseini, Mahsa Sani, Kh Husnanin Haider, Mohammadreza Dorvash, Seyyed Mohyeddin Ziaee, Aliasghar Karimi, Mohmmad Reza Namavar
with neural stem cells (NSCs) provides a hope to recover the neural damage and compensate for the lost neural structures for restoration of interrupted neural communications above and below the site of injury. However, cell-based therapy approach suffers from many biological barriers and technical caveats which severely hamper the prognosis. The biochemically-rich microenvironment at the site of spinal cord injury (SCI), the continuing neuro-degenerative process and infiltrating immune cells offer a serious barrier to the donor cells...
March 6, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
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