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neuro stem cell

Habiba Aurang Zeb, Ishaq Nasib Khan, Iqbal Munir, Wafaa Saadeldin Ramadan, Mian Afaq Ahmad, Deema Hussein, Mohammad Amjad Kamal, Saleh Al Karim
Injuries to the spinal cord often have devastating physiological impacts due to the organ's vital role in neuro-impulse communications between muscles and the brain. Spinal Cord Injuries (SCIs) have recently been estimated to affect up to 80,000 individuals per year worldwide, with most occurring following a traumatic event. Unfortunately, effective treatments standardised globally for patients with SCIs have not yet been established. For many years, inadequate understanding of the complexities of the Central and Peripheral Nervous Systems and Neurogenesis has limited progression towards effective cures...
October 4, 2016: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
Guanghui Tang, Guo-Yuan Yang
Aquaporin-4 (AQP4) is a family member of water-channel proteins and is dominantly expressed in the foot process of glial cells surrounding capillaries. The predominant expression at the boundaries between cerebral parenchyma and major fluid compartments suggests the function of aquaporin-4 in water transfer into and out of the brain parenchyma. Accumulating evidences have suggested that the dysregulation of aquaporin-4 relates to the brain edema resulting from a variety of neuro-disorders, such as ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke, trauma, etc...
2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Han-Kyu Lee, Clara Velazquez Sanchez, Mei Chen, Peter J Morin, John M Wells, Eugene B Hanlon, Weiming Xia
The testing of candidate drugs to slow progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD) requires clinical trials that are lengthy and expensive. Efforts to model the biochemical milieu of the AD brain may be greatly facilitated by combining two cutting edge technologies to generate three-dimensional (3D) human neuro-spheroid from induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC) derived from AD subjects. We created iPSC from blood cells of five AD patients and differentiated them into 3D human neuronal culture. We characterized neuronal markers of our 3D neurons by immunocytochemical staining to validate the differentiation status...
2016: PloS One
Susan Cohen, Xingrao Ke, Qiuli Liu, Qi Fu, Amber Majnik, Robert Lane
BACKGROUND: Adverse maternal lifestyle resulting in adverse early life environment (AELE) increases risks for neuropsychiatric disorders in offspring. Neuropsychiatric disorders are associated with impaired neurogenesis and neuro-inflammation in the hippocampus (HP). Microglia are neuro-inflammatory cells in the brain that regulate neurogenesis via toll-like receptors (TLR). TLR-9 is implicated in neurogenesis inhibition and is responsible for stress-related inflammatory responses. We hypothesized that AELE would increase microglia cell count and increase TLR-9 expression in juvenile mouse HP...
September 22, 2016: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience
Amanda Martin, Kira Becker, Martina Darragh, James Giordano
BACKGROUND: Neuroethics describes several interdisciplinary topics exploring the application and implications of engaging neuroscience in societal contexts. To explore this topic, we present Part 3 of a four-part bibliography of neuroethics' literature focusing on the "ethics of neuroscience." METHODS: To complete a systematic survey of the neuroethics literature, 19 databases and 4 individual open-access journals were employed. Searches were conducted using the indexing language of the U...
2016: Philosophy, Ethics, and Humanities in Medicine: PEHM
Maryam Nazm Bojnordi, Hossein Azizi, Thomas Skutella, Mansoureh Movahedin, Fereshteh Pourabdolhossein, Amir Shojaei, Hatef Ghasemi Hamidabadi
Transplantation of embryonic stem cells (ESCs) is a promising therapeutic approach for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. However, ESCs are not usable clinically due to immunological and ethical limitations. The identification of an alternative safe cell source opens novel options via autologous transplantation in neuro-regeneration circumventing these problems. Here, we examined the neurogenic capacity of embryonic stem-like cells (ES-like cells) derived from the testis using neural growth factor inducers and utilized them to generate functional mature neurons...
September 19, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
Hongyu Zhang, Christopher T Siegel, Jing Li, Jiejuan Lai, Ling Shuai, Xiangdong Lai, Yujun Zhang, Yan Jiang, Ping Bie, Lianhua Bai
Deaths due to end-stage liver diseases (ESLD) are increasingly registered annually in the world. Liver transplantation is the ultimate treatment for ESLD to date, which has been hampered by a critical shortage of organs. The potential of decellularized liver scaffolds (DLS) derived from solid organs as a three dimensional (3D) platform has been evolved as a promising approach in liver tissue engineering for translating functional liver organ replacements, but questions still exist regarding the optimal cell population for seeding in DLS and the preparation of the DLS themselves...
September 17, 2016: Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
Hussein Gazalah, Sarah Mantash, Naify Ramadan, Sawsan Al Lafi, Sally El Sitt, Hala Darwish, Hassan Azari, Lama Fawaz, Noël Ghanem, Kazem Zibara, Rose-Mary Boustany, Firas Kobeissy, Jihane Soueid
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is one of the leading causes of death and disabilities worldwide. It affects approximately 1.5 million people each year and is associated with severe post-TBI symptoms such as sensory and motor deficits. Several neuro-therapeutic approaches ranging from cell therapy interventions such as the use of neural stem cells (NSCs) to drug-based therapies have been proposed for TBI management. Successful cell-based therapies are tightly dependent on reproducible preclinical animal models to ensure safety and optimal therapeutic benefits...
2016: Methods in Molecular Biology
B Vijayalakshmi Ayyar, M Zouhair Atassi
Binding behaviors of the HN and the HC domains of BoNT/A were investigated individually to identify if there exist any differences in their interaction with the cell membrane. Recombinant fragments corresponding to both BoNT/A HN and HC regions were prepared (HN519-845 and HC967-1296) and their binding to synaptic proteins was verified. The binding behaviors of these heavy-chain domains were analyzed by treating the Neuro 2a, a murine neuroblastoma cell line, with compounds known to alter membrane properties...
September 3, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Susanna Bacigaluppi, Elisabetta Donzelli, Valentina De Cristofaro, Nicola Luigi Bragazzi, Giovanna D'Amico, Arianna Scuteri, Giovanni Tredici
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Cerebral ischemia is characterized by both acute and delayed neuronal injuries. Neuro-protection is a major issue that should be properly addressed from a pharmacological point of view, and cell-based treatment approaches are of interest due to their potential pleiotropic effects. Endothelial progenitor cells have the advantage of being mobilized from the bone marrow into the circulation, but have been less studied than other stem cells, such as mesenchymal stem cells...
September 19, 2016: Neuroscience Letters
Meharban Singh
Pediatrics is a dynamic discipline and there is awareness and hope for actualizing outstanding achievements in the field of child health in 21(st) century and beyond. Improved lifestyle and quality of children's health is likely to reduce the burden of adult diseases and enhance longevity because seeds of most adult diseases are sown in childhood. Identification and decoding of human genome is expected to revolutionize the practice of pediatrics. The day is not far off when a patient will walk into doctor's chamber with an electronic or digital health history on a CD or palmtop and a decoded genomic constitution...
August 10, 2016: Indian Journal of Pediatrics
Ajay Gupta, Amit Kumar, Andaleeb Abrari, Rana Patir, Sandeep Vaishya
BACKGROUND: Medulloblastoma is the most common malignant brain tumor in children. Infants are in the high-risk category. Complete surgical resection is the single most important determinant of prognosis and survival in nonmetastatic disease. Infants with large primaries after incomplete resection/biopsy and poor general condition have bad prognosis. They are considered poor candidates for intensive chemotherapy involving high dose methotrexate/autologous stem cell transplantation as they are often unable to tolerate these aggressive regimens...
September 2016: World Neurosurgery
Alinda R Fernandes, Divya M Chari
Both neurotrophin-based therapy and neural stem cell (NSC)-based strategies have progressed to clinical trials for treatment of neurological diseases and injuries. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in particular can confer neuroprotective and neuro-regenerative effects in preclinical studies, complementing the cell replacement benefits of NSCs. Therefore, combining both approaches by genetically-engineering NSCs to express BDNF is an attractive approach to achieve combinatorial therapy for complex neural injuries...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
Cathryn L Haigh, Carolin Tumpach, Steven J Collins, Simon C Drew
Eight-hydroxyquinolines (8HQs) are a class of compounds that have been identified as potential therapeutics for a number of neurodegenerative diseases. Understanding the influence of structural modifications to the 8HQ scaffold on cellular behaviour will aid the identification of compounds that might be effective in treating dementias. In this study, we describe the action of 2-[(dimethylamino)methyl]-8-hydroxyquinoline (DMAMQ) on adult murine neural stem cells (NSCs) cultured in vitro. Treatment of NSCs with DMAMQ resulted in enhanced self-renewal and increased neurite outgrowth...
September 2016: Cell Biochemistry and Biophysics
Maja Adamska
The emergence of complex animal life forms remains poorly understood despite substantial interest and research in this area. To be informative, the ideal models to study transitions from single-cell organisms to the first animals and then to mammalian-level complexity should be phylogenetically strategically placed and retain ancestral characters. Sponges (Porifera) are likely to be the earliest branching animal phylum. When analysed from morphological, genomic and developmental perspectives, sponges appear to combine features of single-cell eukaryotic organisms and the complex multicellular animals (Eumetazoa)...
June 16, 2016: Current Opinion in Genetics & Development
Kai-Yen Peng, Yu-Wei Lee, Pei-Ju Hsu, Hsiu-Huan Wang, Yun Wang, Jun-Yang Liou, Shan-Hui Hsu, Kenneth K Wu, B Linju Yen
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are paraxial mesodermal progenitors with potent immunomodulatory properties. Reports also indicate that MSCs can undergo neural-like differentiation, offering hope for use in neurodegenerative diseases. However, ex vivo expansion of these rare somatic stem cells for clinical use leads to cellular senescence. A newer source of MSCs derived from human pluripotent stem cells (PSC) can offer the 'best-of-both-worlds' scenario, abrogating the concern of teratoma formation while preserving PSC proliferative capacity...
June 11, 2016: Oncotarget
Fábio G Teixeira, Krishna M Panchalingam, Rita Assunção-Silva, Sofia C Serra, Bárbara Mendes-Pinheiro, Patrícia Patrício, Sunghoon Jung, Sandra I Anjo, Bruno Manadas, Luísa Pinto, Nuno Sousa, Leo A Behie, António J Salgado
In recent years it has been shown that the therapeutic benefits of human mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (hMSCs) in the Central Nervous System (CNS) are mainly attributed to their secretome. The implementation of computer-controlled suspension bioreactors has shown to be a viable route for the expansion of these cells to large numbers. As hMSCs actively respond to their culture environment, there is the hypothesis that one can modulate its secretome through their use. Herein, we present data indicating that the use of computer-controlled suspension bioreactors enhanced the neuroregulatory profile of hMSCs secretome...
2016: Scientific Reports
R Geoffrey Burwell, Emma M Clark, Peter H Dangerfield, Alan Moulton
This paper formulates a novel multifactorial Cascade Concept for the pathogenesis of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS). This Concept stems from the longitudinal findings of Clark et al. (J Bone Miner Res 29(8):1729-36, 2014) who identified leptin body composition factors at 10 years of age associated with a scoliosis deformity found at 15 years. We interpret these findings in the light of some concepts for AIS pathogenesis. In particular, we speculate that the leptin body composition effect is linked to central nervous system development and the initiation of the asynchronous neuro-osseous growth mechanism that involves the creation of a neuraxis tether of relative anterior vertebral overgrowth...
2016: Scoliosis and Spinal Disorders
Ana O Pires, Barbara Mendes-Pinheiro, Fábio G Teixeira, Sandra I Anjo, Silvina Ribeiro-Samy, Eduardo D Gomes, Sofia C Serra, Nuno A Silva, Bruno Manadas, Nuno Sousa, Antonio J Salgado
The use of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) has emerged as a possible therapeutic strategy for CNS-related conditions. Research in the last decade strongly suggests that MSC-mediated benefits are closely related with their secretome. Studies published in recent years have shown that the secretome of hMSCs isolated from different tissue sources may present significant variation. With this in mind, the present work performed a comparative proteomic-based analysis through mass spectrometry on the secretome of hMSCs derived from bone marrow (BMSCs), adipose tissue (ASCs), and human umbilical cord perivascular cells (HUCPVCs)...
July 15, 2016: Stem Cells and Development
Zhi-Bin Tong, Helena Hogberg, David Kuo, Srilatha Sakamuru, Menghang Xia, Lena Smirnova, Thomas Hartung, David Gerhold
More than 75 000 man-made chemicals contaminate the environment; many of these have not been tested for toxicities. These chemicals demand quantitative high-throughput screening assays to assess them for causative roles in neurotoxicities, including Parkinson's disease and other neurodegenerative disorders. To facilitate high throughput screening for cytotoxicity to neurons, three human neuronal cellular models were compared: SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells, LUHMES conditionally-immortalized dopaminergic neurons, and Neural Stem Cells (NSC) derived from human fetal brain...
May 3, 2016: Journal of Applied Toxicology: JAT
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