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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128535/branched-peptides-integrate-into-self-assembled-nanostructures-and-enhance-biomechanics-of-peptidic-hydrogels
#1
Raffaele Pugliese, Federico Fontana, Amanda Marchini, Fabrizio Gelain
Self-assembling peptides (SAP) have drawn an increasing interest in the tissue engineering community. They display unquestionable biomimetic properties, tailorability and promising biocompatibility. However their use has been hampered by poor mechanical properties making them fragile soft scaffolds. To increase SAP hydrogel stiffness we introduced a novel strategy based on multiple ramifications of (LDLK)3, a well-known linear SAP, connected with one or multiple "lysine knots". Differently branched SAPs were tested by increasing the number of (LDLK)3-like branches and by adding the neuro-regenerative functional motif BMHP1 as a single branch...
November 8, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116017/regenerative-potential-of-primary-adult-human-neural-stem-cells-on-micropatterned-bio-implants-boosts-motor-recovery
#2
Carole Davoust, Benjamin Plas, Amélie Béduer, Boris Demain, Anne-Sophie Salabert, Jean Christophe Sol, Christophe Vieu, Laurence Vaysse, Isabelle Loubinoux
BACKGROUND: The adult brain is unable to regenerate itself sufficiently after large injuries. Therefore, hopes rely on therapies using neural stem cell or biomaterial transplantation to sustain brain reconstruction. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the improvement in sensorimotor recovery brought about by human primary adult neural stem cells (hNSCs) in combination with bio-implants. METHODS: hNSCs were pre-seeded on implants micropatterned for neurite guidance and inserted intracerebrally 2 weeks after a primary motor cortex lesion in rats...
November 7, 2017: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29082445/effects-of-over-expression-of-sod2-in-bone-marrow-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-on-traumatic-brain-injury
#3
Xiaodong Shi, Yunan Bai, Guodong Zhang, Yuguang Liu, Hang Xiao, Xiaogang Liu, Wei Zhang
Intravenous administration of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) has been shown to promote nerve cell regeneration following traumatic brain injury (TBI). As the anti-oxidant defense systems in neuronal tissue including superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD2) are crucial to defend cell against oxidative stress. We proposed a new stratege to increase the therapeutic effect of MSCs by preventing cells death from oxidative stress. We overexpressed SOD2 in BM-MSCs, transplanted these MSCs into TBI model mice, assessed the protective effect of SOD2 against oxidation-induced apoptosis in BM-MSCs both in vitro and in vivo, evaluated brain functional recovery by the rotarod behavioral test, and tested the oxidation status of TBI mice brain after BM-MSCs transplantation by monitoring the superoxide dismutase, glutathione and malonaldehyde level...
October 30, 2017: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28952128/indole-alkaloids-inhibiting-neural-stem-cell-from-uncaria-rhynchophylla
#4
Xin Wei, Li-Ping Jiang, Ying Guo, Afsar Khan, Ya-Ping Liu, Hao-Fei Yu, Bei Wang, Cai-Feng Ding, Pei-Feng Zhu, Ying-Ying Chen, Yun-Li Zhao, Yong-Bing Chen, Yi-Fen Wang, Xiao-Dong Luo
Uncaria rhynchophylla is commonly recognized as a traditional treatment for dizziness, cerebrovascular diseases, and nervous disorders in China. Previously, the neuro-protective activities of the alkaloids from U. rhynchophylla were intensively reported. In current work, three new indole alkaloids (1-3), identified as geissoschizic acid (1), geissoschizic acid N 4-oxide (2), and 3β-sitsirikine N 4-oxide (3), as well as 26 known analogues were isolated from U. rhynchophylla. However, in the neural stem cells (NSCs) proliferation assay for all isolated compounds, geissoschizic acid (1), geissoschizic acid N 4-oxide (2), isocorynoxeine (6), isorhynchophylline (7), (4S)-akuammigine N-oxide (8), and (4S)-rhynchophylline N-oxide (10) showed unexpected inhibitory activities at 10 μM...
October 2017: Natural Products and Bioprospecting
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934891/quality-of-life-among-boys-with-adrenoleukodystrophy-following-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplant
#5
Nicole B Beckmann, Weston P Miller, Mary S Dietrich, Paul J Orchard
Hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) is the only accepted treatment capable of halting the progression of X-linked cerebral adrenoleukodystrophy (CALD). While survival and neurological outcomes have been described, there is little information regarding the quality of life (QoL) of transplanted patients with CALD. This analysis is a cross-sectional study of QoL in 16 males diagnosed with CALD who underwent HSCT at a single institution. Each child or parent proxy completed subscales from the Neuro-QoL and the PROMIS Pediatric Profile Instrument representing physical, mental, and social health domains...
September 21, 2017: Child Neuropsychology: a Journal on Normal and Abnormal Development in Childhood and Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931666/trpa1-activation-in-a-human-sensory-neuronal-model-relevance-to-cough-hypersensitivity
#6
Rebecca Clarke, Kevin Monaghan, Imad About, Caoimhin S Griffin, Gerard P Sergeant, Ikhlas El Karim, J Graham McGeown, S Louise Cosby, Timothy M Curtis, Lorcan P McGarvey, Fionnuala T Lundy
The cough reflex becomes hyperresponsive in acute and chronic respiratory diseases, but understanding the underlying mechanism is hampered by difficulty accessing human tissue containing both nerve endings and neuronal cell bodies. We refined an adult stem cell sensory neuronal model to overcome the limited availability of human neurones and applied the model to study transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) channel expression and activation.Human dental pulp stem cells (hDPSCs) were differentiated towards a neuronal phenotype, termed peripheral neuronal equivalents (PNEs)...
September 2017: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928910/phase-i-ii-randomized-controlled-trial-of-autologous-bone-marrow-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cell-therapy-for-chronic-stroke
#7
Kam Sze Tsang, Chi Ping Stephanie Ng, Xian Lun Zhu, George Kwok Chu Wong, Gang Lu, Anil Tejbhan Ahuja, Ka Sing Lawrence Wong, Ho Keung Ng, Wai Sang Poon
AIM: To examine the safety and efficacy of mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) therapy for intracerebral haemorrhage with neurological dysfunctions for a year. METHODS: MSC were ex vivo expanded from 29 mL (17-42 mL) autologous bone marrow. Patients were randomized to have two intravenous injections of autologous MSC or placebos in four weeks apart. Neurological functions and clinical outcomes were monitored before treatment and at 12(th), 16(th), 24(th), 36(th) and 60(th) week upon completion of the treatment...
August 26, 2017: World Journal of Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895591/development-of-drug-loaded-polymer-microcapsules-for-treatment-of-epilepsy
#8
Yu Chen, Qi Gu, Zhilian Yue, Jeremy M Crook, Simon E Moulton, Mark J Cook, Gordon G Wallace
Despite significant progress in developing new drugs for seizure control, epilepsy still affects 1% of the global population and is drug-resistant in more than 30% of cases. To improve the therapeutic efficacy of epilepsy medication, a promising approach is to deliver anti-epilepsy drugs directly to affected brain areas using local drug delivery systems. The drug delivery systems must meet a number of criteria, including high drug loading efficiency, biodegradability, neuro-cytocompatibility and predictable drug release profiles...
September 26, 2017: Biomaterials Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887978/neuro-differentiated-ntera2-cancer-stem-cells-encapsulated-in-alginate-beads-first-evidence-of-biological-functionality
#9
Ilaria Cacciotti, Claudia Ceci, Alessandra Bianco, Giuseppa Pistritto
The present communication investigates an application of alginate encapsulation technology to the differentiation of the embryonic cancer stem NTera2 cells (NT2) into dopamine-producing cells. The encapsulation of cells in polymeric beads allows their immune isolation and makes them eligible for transplantation, thus representing a promising biotech tool for the delivery of biologically active compounds to the brain. The polysaccharide alginate is one of the most commonly used material for this procedure since it is well tolerated by various tissues, including the brain...
December 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28866732/gene-delivery-in-neuro-oncology
#10
REVIEW
Karan Dixit, Priya Kumthekar
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common primary malignant brain tumor in adults with a dismal prognosis despite aggressive multimodal management thus novel treatments are urgently needed. Gene therapy is a versatile treatment strategy being investigated in multiple cancers including GBM. In gene therapy, a variety of vectors or "carriers" are used to deliver genes designed for different anti-tumoral effects. Gene delivery vehicles and approaches to treatment will be addressed in this review...
September 2, 2017: Current Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28860590/distinct-clinical-features-between-acute-and-chronic-progressive-parenchymal-neuro-beh%C3%A3-et-disease-meta-analysis
#11
Mizuho Ishido, Nobuyuki Horita, Masaki Takeuchi, Etsuko Shibuya, Takahiro Yamane, Tatsukata Kawagoe, Takehito Ishido, Kaoru Minegishi, Ryusuke Yoshimi, Yohei Kirino, Shunsei Hirohata, Yoshiaki Ishigatsubo, Mitsuhiro Takeno, Takeshi Kaneko, Nobuhisa Mizuki
Neuro-Behçet's disease (NBD) is subcategorized into parenchymal-NBD (P-NBD) and non-parenchymal-NBD types. Recently, P-NBD has been further subdivided into acute P-NBD (A-P-NBD) and chronic progressive P-NBD (CP-P-NBD). Although an increasing number of studies have reported the various clinical features of A-P-NBD and CP-P-NBD over the last two decades, there was a considerable inconsistency. Two investigators systematically searched four electrical databases to detect studies that provided sufficient data to assess the specific characteristics of A-P-NBD and CP-P-NBD...
August 31, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801108/breaching-barriers-in-glioblastoma-part-ii-targeted-drug-delivery-and-lipid-nanoparticles
#12
REVIEW
Ana Miranda, María J Blanco-Prieto, João Sousa, Alberto Pais, Carla Vitorino
Tailored nanocarriers have gained huge research focus for brain drug delivery, aimed at combating several neuro-oncological conditions, such as the glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). The progress of knowledge on the pathogenesis of GBM has allowed identifying the major hurdles for efficient treatment, encompassing biological interfaces (blood-brain barrier and blood-brain tumour barrier), specificities of tumour microenvironment, as well as both bulk and glioma stem cell subpopulations. These findings provided new insights into the molecular basis of GBM, being a strong driving force behind development of targeted nanomedicines in this area...
August 9, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790895/brain-metal-distribution-and-neuro-inflammatory-profiles-after-chronic-vanadium-administration-and-withdrawal-in-mice
#13
Oluwabusayo R Folarin, Amanda M Snyder, Douglas G Peters, Funmilayo Olopade, James R Connor, James O Olopade
Vanadium is a potentially toxic environmental pollutant and induces oxidative damage in biological systems including the central nervous system (CNS). Its deposition in brain tissue may be involved in the pathogenesis of certain neurological disorders which after prolonged exposure can culminate into more severe pathology. Most studies on vanadium neurotoxicity have been done after acute exposure but in reality some populations are exposed for a lifetime. This work was designed to ascertain neurodegenerative consequences of chronic vanadium administration and to investigate the progressive changes in the brain after withdrawal from vanadium treatment...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774835/current-and-emerging-biomarkers-in-tumors-of-the-central-nervous-system-possible-diagnostic-prognostic-and-therapeutic-applications
#14
REVIEW
Ishaq N Khan, Najeeb Ullah, Deema Hussein, Kulvinder S Saini
Recent investments in research associated with the discovery of specific tumor biomarkers important for efficient diagnosis and prognosis are beginning to bear fruit. Key biomarkers could potentially outweigh traditional radiological or pathological methods by enabling specificity of early detection, when coupled with tumor molecular profiling and clinical associations. Only few biomarkers are approved by regulatory authorities for Central Nervous System Tumors (CNSTs), despite the evaluation of a large number of CNST related markers during clinical trials...
July 31, 2017: Seminars in Cancer Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732247/repairing-sciatic-nerve-injury-with-an-epo-loaded-nerve-conduit-and-sandwiched-in-strategy-of-transplanting-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#15
Wei Zhang, Lihai Zhang, Jianheng Liu, Licheng Zhang, Jian Zhang, Peifu Tang
Transplantation of a biosynthetic nerve conduit carrying neuro-protective cytokines is promising for treating peripheral nerve injury. Here we developed a novel strategy for repairing sciatic nerve injury by EPO-loaded Chitosan nerve conduit (EPO/Chi) and sandwiched-in transplantation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Then, the beneficial effect of EPO/Chi + MSCs on nerve regeneration was also further investigated by in vitro cellular experiments. In vivo experiment showed that combination of EPO-loaded Chitosan nerve conduit with MSCs could significantly accelerate nerve healing and improve morphological repair...
October 2017: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719644/isolation-of-putative-stem-cells-present-in-human-adult-olfactory-mucosa
#16
Tamara Tanos, Alberto Maria Saibene, Carlotta Pipolo, Paolo Battaglia, Giovanni Felisati, Alicia Rubio
The olfactory mucosa (OM) has the unique characteristic of performing an almost continuous and lifelong neurogenesis in response to external injuries, due to the presence of olfactory stem cells that guarantee the maintenance of the olfactory function. The easy accessibility of the OM in humans makes these stem cells feasible candidates for the development of regenerative therapies. In this report we present a detailed characterization of a patient-derived OM, together with a description of cell cultures obtained from the OM...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718304/the-role-of-surgery-in-low-grade-gliomas-do-timing-and-extent-of-resection-matter
#17
Hugues Duffau
Hugues Duffau is a Professor and Chairman of the Neurosurgery Department in the Montpellier University Medical Center and Head of the INSERM 1051 Team "plasticity of the central nervous system, human stem cells and glial tumors" at the Institute for Neurosciences of Montpellier (France). He is an expert in the awake cognitive neurosurgery of slow-growing brain tumors, such as low-grade gliomas, a routine which he has developed since 20 years. His fundamental approach is centered on the concepts of the brain connectomics and neuroplasticity, breaking with the traditional localizationist view of cerebral processing...
July 18, 2017: CNS Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699524/biohybrid-membrane-systems-for-testing-molecules-and-stem-cell-therapy-in-neuronal-tissue-engineering
#18
Sabrina Morelli, Antonella Piscioneri, Simona Salerno, Enrico Drioli, Loredana De Bartolo
Current research in neural tissue-engineering is focused on the development of advanced biomaterials for the creation of sophisticated neuro-tissue analogues, showing that mimicking the in vivo tissue disposition and functions is a useful tool for the study of brain-related issues in normal and pathological states. In addition, the most common approach for developing new drug therapies is to carry out in vitro investigation before in vivo test, thus, it is increasingly important to develop valuable models that can predict the results of in vivo studies...
July 10, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694020/transdifferentiation-of-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-bdnf-secreting-mesenchymal-stem-cells-significantly-enhance-bdnf-secretion-and-schwann-cell-marker-proteins
#19
Metzere Bierlein De la Rosa, Anup D Sharma, Surya K Mallapragada, Donald S Sakaguchi
The use of genetically modified mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) is a rapidly growing area of research targeting delivery of therapeutic factors for neuro-repair. Cells can be programmed to hypersecrete various growth/trophic factors such as brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), and nerve growth factor (NGF) to promote regenerative neurite outgrowth. In addition to genetic modifications, MSCs can be subjected to transdifferentiation protocols to generate neural cell types to physically and biologically support nerve regeneration...
November 2017: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645779/schizophrenia-and-neurogenesis-a-stem-cell-approach
#20
REVIEW
Angela Iannitelli, Adele Quartini, Paola Tirassa, Giuseppe Bersani
Several recent research findings indicate that schizophrenia (SCZ) may begin with an abnormal neuro-genesis from embryonic Neural Stem Cells (NSCs) and that this process may be particularly vulnerable to a number of genetic and/or environmental disturbances of early brain development. Since it is now well known that neurogenesis is not confined to the womb, but is a protracted process continuing in postnatal life well into adolescence and beyond, and since in the majority of subjects diagnosed with SCZ the first psychotic break occurs in late adolescence or early adulthood, the aim of our paper is to summarize the main findings supporting a possible link between changes in developmental postnatal neurogenesis and SCZ, with a specific focus on the critical period of adolescence and associated environmental risk factors...
June 20, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
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