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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28584089/dynamic-regulation-of-nanog-and-stem-cell-signaling-pathways-by-hoxa1-during-early-neuro-ectodermal-differentiation-of-es-cells
#1
Bony De Kumar, Hugo J Parker, Mark E Parrish, Jeffrey J Lange, Brian D Slaughter, Jay R Unruh, Ariel Paulson, Robb Krumlauf
Homeobox a1 (Hoxa1) is one of the most rapidly induced genes in ES cell differentiation and it is the earliest expressed Hox gene in the mouse embryo. In this study, we used genomic approaches to identify Hoxa1-bound regions during early stages of ES cell differentiation into the neuro-ectoderm. Within 2 h of retinoic acid treatment, Hoxa1 is rapidly recruited to target sites that are associated with genes involved in regulation of pluripotency, and these genes display early changes in expression. The pattern of occupancy of Hoxa1 is dynamic and changes over time...
June 6, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578413/dna-methylation-in-schizophrenia-in-different-patient-derived-cell-types
#2
Alejandra M Vitale, Nicholas A Matigian, Alexandre S Cristino, Katia Nones, Sugandha Ravishankar, Bernadette Bellette, Yongjun Fan, Stephen A Wood, Ernst Wolvetang, Alan Mackay-Sim
DNA methylation of gene promoter regions represses transcription and is a mechanism via which environmental risk factors could affect cells during development in individuals at risk for schizophrenia. We investigated DNA methylation in patient-derived cells that might shed light on early development in schizophrenia. Induced pluripotent stem cells may reflect a "ground state" upon which developmental and environmental influences would be minimal. Olfactory neurosphere-derived cells are an adult-derived neuro-ectodermal stem cell modified by developmental and environmental influences...
January 23, 2017: NPJ Schizophrenia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28560252/dna-methylation-in-schizophrenia-in-different-patient-derived-cell-types
#3
Alejandra M Vitale, Nicholas A Matigian, Alexandre S Cristino, Katia Nones, Sugandha Ravishankar, Bernadette Bellette, Yongjun Fan, Stephen A Wood, Ernst Wolvetang, Alan Mackay-Sim
DNA methylation of gene promoter regions represses transcription and is a mechanism via which environmental risk factors could affect cells during development in individuals at risk for schizophrenia. We investigated DNA methylation in patient-derived cells that might shed light on early development in schizophrenia. Induced pluripotent stem cells may reflect a "ground state" upon which developmental and environmental influences would be minimal. Olfactory neurosphere-derived cells are an adult-derived neuro-ectodermal stem cell modified by developmental and environmental influences...
2017: NPJ Schizophrenia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534946/differentiation-of-nestin%C3%A2-negative-human-hair-follicle-outer-root-sheath-cells-into-neurons-in%C3%A2-vitro
#4
Wei Wu, Xiao-Li Wu, Yu-Qing Ji, Zhen Gao
A specialized quiescent population of hair follicle stem cells, residing in the hair follicle outer root sheath cells (ORSCs), has previously demonstrated pluripotency for differentiation into neural stem cells (NSCs). A previous study indicated that nestin‑positive hair follicle ORSCs are able to differentiate into neurons. However, little has been reported on the isolation of nestin‑negative human ORSCs and whether they can successfully differentiate into neurons in vitro. In the present study, nestin‑positive ORSCs were significantly reduced with a prolonged incubation time in vitro...
July 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28465161/assessment-of-elisa-as-endpoint-in-neuronal-cell-based-assay-for-bont-detection-using-hipsc-derived-neurons
#5
Sabine Pellett, William H Tepp, Eric A Johnson, Dorothea Sesardic
INTRODUCTION: Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs), the causative agents of botulism, are widely used as powerful bio-pharmaceuticals to treat neuro-muscular disorders. Due to the high potency and potential lethality of BoNTs, careful monitoring of the biologic activity of BoNT-based pharmaceuticals is required to ensure safe usage. For decades, the only approved method for potency determination of pharmaceutical BoNTs was the mouse bioassay (MBA), but in recent years improvements in cell-assay technologies have enabled MBA replacement by cell-based assays for specific product evaluations...
April 29, 2017: Journal of Pharmacological and Toxicological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420969/acquisition-maintenance-and-relapse-like-alcohol-drinking-lessons-from-the-uchb-rat-line
#6
REVIEW
Yedy Israel, Eduardo Karahanian, Fernando Ezquer, Paola Morales, Marcelo Ezquer, Mario Rivera-Meza, Mario Herrera-Marschitz, María E Quintanilla
This review article addresses the biological factors that influence: (i) the acquisition of alcohol intake; (ii) the maintenance of chronic alcohol intake; and (iii) alcohol relapse-like drinking behavior in animals bred for their high-ethanol intake. Data from several rat strains/lines strongly suggest that catalase-mediated brain oxidation of ethanol into acetaldehyde is an absolute requirement (up 80%-95%) for rats to display ethanol's reinforcing effects and to initiate chronic ethanol intake. Acetaldehyde binds non-enzymatically to dopamine forming salsolinol, a compound that is self-administered...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417344/biotherapy-in-inflammatory-diseases-of-the-cns-current-knowledge-and-applications
#7
REVIEW
Nicolas Collongues, Laure Michel, Jérôme de Seze
Biotherapy represents an innovative therapeutic approach that includes immunotherapy (vaccines, apheresis, and antibodies); gene therapy; and stem cell transplants. Their development helps to cross the bridge from bench to bedside and brings new hope of a cure for severe diseases in different fields of medicine. In neurology, a growing range of applications is being developed for these medications. Valuable results are now available in the field of autoimmunity, neuro-oncology, paraneoplastic manifestations, and neurodegenerative disorders...
May 2017: Current Treatment Options in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369799/effect-of-dental-pulp-stem-cells-in-mptp-induced-old-aged-mice-model
#8
Nareshwaran Gnanasegaran, Vijayendran Govindasamy, Christopher Simon, Quan Fu Gan, Vui King Vincent-Chong, Vasudevan Mani, Kesavanarayanan Krishnan Selvarajan, Vellayan Subramaniam, Sabri Musa, Noor Hayaty Abu Kasim
BACKGROUND: Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disease caused by the loss of dopaminergic (DA-ergic) neurons in the substantia nigra (SN) and represented as a huge threat to the geriatric population. Cell replacement therapies (CRTs) have been proposed as a promising strategy to slow down or replace neuronal loss. Among the widely available cell sources, dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) portray as an attractive source primarily due to their neural crest origin, ease of tissue procurement and less ethical hurdles...
March 30, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28356028/the-application-of-nanomaterials-in-stem-cell-therapy-for-some-neurological-diseases
#9
Guilong Zhang, Ahsan Ali Khan, Hao Wu, Lukui Chen, Yuchun Gu, Ning Gu
Stem cell therapy provides great promising therapeutic benefits for various neurological disorders. Cell transplantation has emerged as cell replacement application for nerve damage. Recently, nanomaterials obtain wide development in various industrial and medical fields, and nanoparticles have been applied to neuro-medical field for tracking and treating nervous system diseases. Combining stem cell with nanotechnology has raised more and more attentions; and it has demonstrated that it has huge effects on clinical diagnosis and therapeutics in multiple central nervous system diseases, meanwhile, improving prognosis...
March 28, 2017: Current Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300322/astroglia-as-a-cellular-target-for-neuroprotection-and-treatment-of-neuro-psychiatric-disorders
#10
REVIEW
Beihui Liu, Anja G Teschemacher, Sergey Kasparov
Astrocytes are key homeostatic cells of the central nervous system. They cooperate with neurons at several levels, including ion and water homeostasis, chemical signal transmission, blood flow regulation, immune and oxidative stress defense, supply of metabolites and neurogenesis. Astroglia is also important for viability and maturation of stem-cell derived neurons. Neurons critically depend on intrinsic protective and supportive properties of astrocytes. Conversely, all forms of pathogenic stimuli which disturb astrocytic functions compromise neuronal functionality and viability...
August 2017: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286566/gastrointestinal-manifestations-of-mitochondrial-disorders-a-systematic-review
#11
REVIEW
Josef Finsterer, Marlies Frank
Mitochondrial disorders (MIDs) due to respiratory-chain defects or nonrespiratory chain defects are usually multisystem conditions [mitochondrial multiorgan disorder syndrome (MIMODS)] affecting the central nervous system (CNS), peripheral nervous system, eyes, ears, endocrine organs, heart, kidneys, bone marrow, lungs, arteries, and also the intestinal tract. Frequent gastrointestinal (GI) manifestations of MIDs include poor appetite, gastroesophageal sphincter dysfunction, constipation, dysphagia, vomiting, gastroparesis, GI pseudo-obstruction, diarrhea, or pancreatitis and hepatopathy...
January 2017: Therapeutic Advances in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286110/fast-transdifferentiation-of-human-wharton-s-jelly-mesenchymal-stem-cells-into-neurospheres-and-nerve-like-cells
#12
A R Bonilla-Porras, C Velez-Pardo, M Jimenez-Del-Rio
BACKGROUND: The human mesenchymal stem cells derived from Wharton's jelly tissue (hWJ-MSCs) represent a tool for cell-based therapies and regenerative medicine. hWJ-MSCs form neurospheres (NSs) within 3-7 days. No data is available to establish the neuro-phenotypic markers and time of formation of nerve-like (NLCs) and glial cells from NSs derived from hWJ-MSCs. NEW METHOD: hWJ-MSCs were incubated with Fast-N-Spheres medium for 24 and 72h. The new formed NSs were in turn incubated with forskolin in neurogenic NeuroForsk medium for 1-7days...
March 8, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28243136/mitochondrial-diseases-advances-and-issues
#13
REVIEW
Mauro Scarpelli, Alice Todeschini, Irene Volonghi, Alessandro Padovani, Massimiliano Filosto
Mitochondrial diseases (MDs) are a clinically heterogeneous group of disorders caused by a dysfunction of the mitochondrial respiratory chain. They can be related to mutation of genes encoded using either nuclear DNA or mitochondrial DNA. The advent of next generation sequencing and whole exome sequencing in studying the molecular bases of MDs will bring about a revolution in the field of mitochondrial medicine, also opening the possibility of better defining pathogenic mechanisms and developing novel therapeutic approaches for these devastating disorders...
2017: Application of Clinical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237474/neuroprotective-activity-of-two-active-chemical-constituents-from-tinospora-hainanensis
#14
Dao-Rui Yu, Li-Ping Ji, Tao Wang, Xi-Nan Yi, Guo-Hui Yi, Tong He, Yong-Xiao Cao, En-Wu Long, Qi-Bing Liu
OBJECTIVE: To determine the chemical structure of the new compound and investigate the protective effects of Tinosporaic acid A and B towards in-vitro neuro. METHODS: The structures of two new compounds were established by analyzing its 1D and 2D NMR spectra as well as HRESIMS. Their neuroprotective effects with respect to the antioxidant properties were evaluated by radical scavenging tests and hydrogen peroxide-injured oxidative stress model in PC12 cell lines...
February 2017: Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28149774/neuroprotective-effects-of-bdnf-and-gdnf-in-intravitreally-transplanted-mesenchymal-stem-cells-after-optic-nerve-crush-in-mice
#15
Zong-Li Hu, Ni Li, Xin Wei, Li Tang, Ting-Hua Wang, Xiao-Ming Chen
AIM: To assess the neuro-protective effect of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) on retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) following optic nerve crush in mice. METHODS: C56BL/6J mice were treated with intravitreal injection of PBS, BMSCs, BDNF-interference BMSCs (BIM), and GDNF-interference BMSCs (GIM) following optic nerve crush, respectively. The number of surviving RGCs was determined by whole-mount retinas and frozen sections, while certain mRNA or protein was detected by q-PCR or ELISA, respectively...
2017: International Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28132690/mutations-in-extl3-cause-neuro-immuno-skeletal-dysplasia-syndrome
#16
Machteld M Oud, Paul Tuijnenburg, Maja Hempel, Naomi van Vlies, Zemin Ren, Sacha Ferdinandusse, Machiel H Jansen, René Santer, Jessika Johannsen, Chiara Bacchelli, Marielle Alders, Rui Li, Rosalind Davies, Lucie Dupuis, Catherine M Cale, Ronald J A Wanders, Steven T Pals, Louise Ocaka, Chela James, Ingo Müller, Kai Lehmberg, Tim Strom, Hartmut Engels, Hywel J Williams, Phil Beales, Ronald Roepman, Patricia Dias, Han G Brunner, Jan-Maarten Cobben, Christine Hall, Taila Hartley, Polona Le Quesne Stabej, Roberto Mendoza-Londono, E Graham Davies, Sérgio B de Sousa, Davor Lessel, Heleen H Arts, Taco W Kuijpers
EXTL3 regulates the biosynthesis of heparan sulfate (HS), important for both skeletal development and hematopoiesis, through the formation of HS proteoglycans (HSPGs). By whole-exome sequencing, we identified homozygous missense mutations c.1382C>T, c.1537C>T, c.1970A>G, and c.2008T>G in EXTL3 in nine affected individuals from five unrelated families. Notably, we found the identical homozygous missense mutation c.1382C>T (p.Pro461Leu) in four affected individuals from two unrelated families. Affected individuals presented with variable skeletal abnormalities and neurodevelopmental defects...
February 2, 2017: American Journal of Human Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28130759/microrna-analysis-in-mouse-neuro-2a-cells-after-pseudorabies-virus-infection
#17
Yongtao Li, Guanmin Zheng, Yujuan Zhang, Xia Yang, Hongying Liu, Hongtao Chang, Xinwei Wang, Jun Zhao, Chuanqing Wang, Lu Chen
Pseudorabies virus (PRV), an alpha herpesvirus can enter the mammalian nervous system, causing Aujezsky's disease. Previous studies have reported an alteration of microRNA (miRNA) expression levels during PRV infections. However, knowledge regarding miRNA response in nervous cells to PRV infection is still unknown. To address this issue, small RNA libraries from infected and uninfected mouse neuroblastoma cells were assessed after Illumina deep sequencing. A total of eight viral miRNA were identified, and ten host miRNAs showed significantly different expression upon PRV infection...
January 27, 2017: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28117838/early-onset-of-inflammation-during-ontogeny-of-bipolar-disorder-the-nlrp2-inflammasome-gene-distinctly-differentiates-between-patients-and-healthy-controls-in-the-transition-between-ips-cell-and-neural-stem-cell-stages
#18
D Vizlin-Hodzic, Q Zhai, S Illes, K Södersten, K Truvé, T Z Parris, P K Sobhan, S Salmela, S T Kosalai, C Kanduri, J Strandberg, H Seth, T O Bontell, E Hanse, H Ågren, K Funa
Neuro-inflammation and neuronal communication are considered as mis-regulated processes in the aetiology and pathology of bipolar disorder (BD). Which and when specific signal pathways become abnormal during the ontogeny of bipolar disorder patients is unknown. To address this question, we applied induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) technology followed by cortical neural differentiation on adipocyte-derived cells from BD type I patients (with psychotic episodes in psychiatric history) and healthy volunteers (controls)...
January 24, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28051273/neural-stem-cells-in-lead-toxicity
#19
W-W Chen, X Zhang, W-J Huang
Lead (Pb) exposure in the early stages of neurodevelopment results in long-lasting alterations that ultimately cognitive function and behaviour. The prime targets of lead toxicity are the multipotent neural stem cells (NSCs). The present review will discuss the basic molecular physiology involved in the toxicity mechanisms induced by lead and its resultant counter effects on nervous system and physiology. The article shall help researchers working in the area to design new drugs and therapeutics for the efficient management of neuro-toxic states especially upon prenatal exposure to lead...
December 2016: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28019696/crmp4-inhibits-bone-formation-by-negatively-regulating-bmp-and-rhoa-signaling
#20
Basem M Abdallah, Florence Figeac, Kenneth H Larsen, Nicholas Ditzel, Pankaj Keshari, Adiba Isa, Abbas Jafari, Thomas L Andersen, Jean-Marie Delaisse, Yoshio Goshima, Toshio Ohshima, Moustapha Kassem
We identified the neuroprotein collapsing response mediator protein-4 (CRMP4) as a noncanonical osteogenic factor that regulates the differentiation of mouse bone marrow skeletal stem cells (bone marrow stromal stem cells [mBMSCs]) into osteoblastic cells. CRMP4 is the only member of the CRMP1-CRMP5 family to be expressed by mBMSCs and in osteoprogenitors of both adult mouse and human bones. In vitro gain-of-function and loss-of-function of CRMP4 in murine stromal cells revealed its inhibitory effect on osteoblast differentiation...
May 2017: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
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