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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28051273/neural-stem-cells-in-lead-toxicity
#1
W-W Chen, X Zhang, W-J Huang
Lead (Pb) exposure in the early stages of neurodevelopment results in long-lasting alterations that ultimately cognitive function and behaviour. The prime targets of lead toxicity are the multipotent neural stem cells (NSCs). The present review will discuss the basic molecular physiology involved in the toxicity mechanisms induced by lead and its resultant counter effects on nervous system and physiology. The article shall help researchers working in the area to design new drugs and therapeutics for the efficient management of neuro-toxic states especially upon prenatal exposure to lead...
December 2016: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28019696/crmp4-inhibits-bone-formation-by-negatively-regulating-bmp-and-rhoa-signaling
#2
Basem M Abdallah, Florence Figeac, Kenneth H Larsen, Nicholas Ditzel, Pankaj Keshari, Adiba Isa, Abbas Jafari, Thomas L Andersen, Jean-Marie Delaisse, Yoshio Goshima, Toshio Ohshima, Moustapha Kassem
We identified the neuro-protein CRMP4 (collapsing response mediator protein-4) as a non-canonical osteogenic factor that regulating the differentiation of mouse bone marrow skeletal stem cells (bone marrow stromal stem cells, mBMSCs) into osteoblastic cells. CRMP4 is the only member of the CRMP 1-5 family to be expressed by mBMSCs and in osteoprogenitors of both adult mouse and human bones. In vitro gain and loss function of CRMP4 in murine stromal cells revealed its inhibitory effect on osteoblast differentiation...
December 26, 2016: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28009062/cytokine-therapy-mediated-neuroprotection-in-a-friedreich-s-ataxia-mouse-model
#3
Kevin C Kemp, Nadia Cerminara, Kelly Hares, Juliana Redondo, Amelia J Cook, Harry R Haynes, Bronwen R Burton, Mark Pook, Richard Apps, Neil J Scolding, Alastair Wilkins
OBJECTIVES: Friedreich's ataxia is a devastating neurological disease currently lacking any proven treatment. We studied the neuro-protective effects of the cytokines granulocyte-colony stimulating factor and stem cell factor in a humanised murine model of Friedreich's ataxia. METHODS: Mice received monthly subcutaneous infusions of cytokines while also being assessed at monthly time points using an extensive range of behavioural motor performance tests. After 6 months of treatment, neurophysiological evaluation of both sensory and motor nerve conduction was performed...
December 23, 2016: Annals of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27995975/rna-activation-of-haploinsufficient-foxg1-gene-in-murine-neocortex
#4
Cristina Fimiani, Elisa Goina, Qin Su, Guangping Gao, Antonello Mallamaci
More than one hundred distinct gene hemizygosities are specifically linked to epilepsy, mental retardation, autism, schizophrenia and neuro-degeneration. Radical repair of these gene deficits via genome engineering is hardly feasible. The same applies to therapeutic stimulation of the spared allele by artificial transactivators. Small activating RNAs (saRNAs) offer an alternative, appealing approach. As a proof-of-principle, here we tested this approach on the Rett syndrome-linked, haploinsufficient, Foxg1 brain patterning gene...
December 20, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27960039/physiological-and-pathophysiological-roles-of-interaction-between-clec-2-and-podoplanin-partners-from-in-utero-to-adulthood
#5
REVIEW
Katsue Suzuki-Inoue, Makoto Osada, Yukio Ozaki
A platelet activation receptor, C-type lectin-like receptor 2 (CLEC-2) has been identified as a receptor for a platelet activating snake venom, rhodocytin. CLEC-2 protein is highly expressed in platelets/megakaryocytes and at lower levels on liver Kupffer cells. Later, podoplanin has been revealed as an endogenous ligand for CLEC-2. Podoplanin is expressed in certain types of tumor cells, fibroblastic reticular cells (FRCs) in lymph nodes, kidney podocytes, and lymphatic endothelial cells, but not in vascular endothelial cells...
December 13, 2016: Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis: JTH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924726/neurodegenerative-disease-a-perspective-on-cell-based-therapy-in-the-new-era-of-cell-free-nano-therapy
#6
Su M Metcalfe, Sean Bickerton, Tarek Fahmy
Neurodegenerative diseases (NDD) result in irreversible loss of neurons. Dementia develops when disease-induced neuronal loss becomes sufficient to impair both memory and cognitive functioning and, globally, dementia is increasing to epidemic proportions as populations age. In the current era of regenerative medicine intense activity is asking, can loss of endogenous neurons be compensated by replacement with exogenously derived cells that have either direct, or indirect, neurogenic capacity? But, more recently, excitement is growing around an emerging alternative to the cell-based approach - here nanotechnology for targeted delivery of growth factor aims to support and expand resident central nervous system (CNS) stem cells for endogenous repair...
December 6, 2016: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882538/gene-therapy-with-mesenchymal-stem-cells-expressing-ifn-%C3%A3-ameliorates-neuroinflammation-in-experimental-models-of-multiple-sclerosis
#7
C Marin-Bañasco, K Benabdellah, C Melero-Jerez, B Oliver, M J Pinto-Medel, I Hurtado-Guerrero, F de Castro, D Clemente, O Fernández, F Martin, L Leyva, M Suardíaz
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Recombinant IFN-ß is one of the first-line treatments in multiple sclerosis (MS), despite its lack of efficacy in some patients. In this context, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) represent a promising therapeutic alternative due to their immunomodulatory properties and multipotency. Moreover, by taking advantage of their pathotropism, these cells can be genetically modified to be used as carriers for delivering or secreting therapeutic drugs into injured tissues...
February 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27845244/the-role-of-morphine-on-rat-neural-stem-cells-viability-neuro-angiogenesis-and-neuro-steroidgenesis-properties
#8
Nima Abdyazdani, Alireza Nourazarian, Hojjatollah Nozad Charoudeh, Masoumeh Kazemi, Navid Feizy, Maryam Akbarzade, Amir Mehdizadeh, Jafar Rezaie, Reza Rahbarghazi
A lack of comprehensive data exists on the effect of morphine on neural stem cell neuro-steroidogenesis and neuro-angiogenesis properties. We, herein, investigated the effects of morphine (100μM), naloxone (100μM) and their combination on rat neural stem cells viability, clonogenicity and Ki-67 expression over a period of 72h. Any alterations in the total fatty acids profile under treatment protocols were elucidated by direct transesterification method. We also monitored the expression of p53, aromatase and 5-alpha reductase by real-time PCR assay...
January 1, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27844280/stem-cells-as-a-promising-tool-for-the-restoration-of-brain-neurovascular-unit-and-angiogenic-orientation
#9
REVIEW
Mohammad Hossein Geranmayeh, Alireza Nourazarian, Çığır Biray Avci, Reza Rahbarghazi, Mehdi Farhoudi
Establishing systemic therapeutics for neuro-inflammatory diseases is a main objective of regenerative medicine, certainly focusing on restoration of BBB dysfunction and neurovascular reconstitution. In this context, the regenerative capacity and therapeutic effects of different stem cells have been recently found to bring hopeful outcomes through trans-differentiation, paracrine interactions, and molecular cross-talk of transplanted stem cells with resident cells of blood-brain barrier. Here, we highlight some of the most recent scientific breakthroughs and discoveries by different authorities...
November 14, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833970/subsets-of-telocytes-the-progenitor-cells-in-the-human-endocardial-niche
#10
Florentina Grigoriu, Sorin Hostiuc, Alexandra Diana Vrapciu, Mugurel Constantin Rusu
: Telocytes (TCs) are cells defined by their long and moniliform processes termed telopodes. They were previously identified in the endocardium and express neural markers, such as nestin and neuron-specific enolase (NSE). Previous studies found a positive expression of neuro-filaments in endocardial endothelial cells, and a positive expression of nestin in cardiac side population (CSP) progenitor cells, which allowed us to hypothesize that TCs in the endocardial stem niche could be in fact progenitors that express nestin...
2016: Romanian Journal of Morphology and Embryology, Revue Roumaine de Morphologie et Embryologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27817105/neuro-regeneration-therapy-using-human-muse-cells-is-highly-effective-in-a-mouse-intracerebral-hemorrhage-model
#11
Norihito Shimamura, Kiyohide Kakuta, Liang Wang, Masato Naraoka, Hiroki Uchida, Shohei Wakao, Mari Dezawa, Hiroki Ohkuma
A novel type of non-tumorigenic pluripotent stem cell, the Muse cell (multi-lineage, differentiating stress enduring cell), resides in the connective tissue and in cultured mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and is reported to differentiate into multiple cell types according to the microenvironment to repair tissue damage. We examined the efficiency of Muse cells in a mouse intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) model. Seventy μl of cardiac blood was stereotactically injected into the left putamen of immunodeficient mice...
November 5, 2016: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27719625/updates-on-therapeutics-in-clinical-trials-for-spinal-cord-injuries-key-translational-applications-of-human-embryonic-stem-cells-derived-neural-progenitors
#12
Habiba Aurang Zeb, Ishaq Nasib Khan, Iqbal Munir, Wafaa Saadeldin Ramadan, Mian Afaq Ahmad, Deema Hussein, Mohammad Amjad Kamal, Saleh Al Karim
Injuries to the spinal cord often have devastating physiological impacts due to the organ's vital role in neuro-impulse communications between muscles and the brain. Spinal Cord Injuries (SCIs) have recently been estimated to affect up to 80,000 individuals per year worldwide, with most occurring following a traumatic event. Unfortunately, effective treatments standardised globally for patients with SCIs have not yet been established. For many years, inadequate understanding of the complexities of the Central and Peripheral Nervous Systems and Neurogenesis has limited progression towards effective cures...
October 4, 2016: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27690011/aquaporin-4-a-potential-therapeutic-target-for-cerebral-edema
#13
Guanghui Tang, Guo-Yuan Yang
Aquaporin-4 (AQP4) is a family member of water-channel proteins and is dominantly expressed in the foot process of glial cells surrounding capillaries. The predominant expression at the boundaries between cerebral parenchyma and major fluid compartments suggests the function of aquaporin-4 in water transfer into and out of the brain parenchyma. Accumulating evidences have suggested that the dysregulation of aquaporin-4 relates to the brain edema resulting from a variety of neuro-disorders, such as ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke, trauma, etc...
2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27684569/three-dimensional-human-neuro-spheroid-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease-based-on-differentiated-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells
#14
Han-Kyu Lee, Clara Velazquez Sanchez, Mei Chen, Peter J Morin, John M Wells, Eugene B Hanlon, Weiming Xia
The testing of candidate drugs to slow progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD) requires clinical trials that are lengthy and expensive. Efforts to model the biochemical milieu of the AD brain may be greatly facilitated by combining two cutting edge technologies to generate three-dimensional (3D) human neuro-spheroid from induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC) derived from AD subjects. We created iPSC from blood cells of five AD patients and differentiated them into 3D human neuronal culture. We characterized neuronal markers of our 3D neurons by immunocytochemical staining to validate the differentiation status...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27666383/adverse-early-life-environment-increases-hippocampal-microglia-abundance-in-conjunction-with-decreased-neural-stem-cells-in-juvenile-mice
#15
Susan Cohen, Xingrao Ke, Qiuli Liu, Qi Fu, Amber Majnik, Robert Lane
BACKGROUND: Adverse maternal lifestyle resulting in adverse early life environment (AELE) increases risks for neuropsychiatric disorders in offspring. Neuropsychiatric disorders are associated with impaired neurogenesis and neuro-inflammation in the hippocampus (HP). Microglia are neuro-inflammatory cells in the brain that regulate neurogenesis via toll-like receptors (TLR). TLR-9 is implicated in neurogenesis inhibition and is responsible for stress-related inflammatory responses. We hypothesized that AELE would increase microglia cell count and increase TLR-9 expression in juvenile mouse HP...
December 2016: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27646569/a-four-part-working-bibliography-of-neuroethics-part-3-second-tradition-neuroethics-ethical-issues-in-neuroscience
#16
EDITORIAL
Amanda Martin, Kira Becker, Martina Darragh, James Giordano
BACKGROUND: Neuroethics describes several interdisciplinary topics exploring the application and implications of engaging neuroscience in societal contexts. To explore this topic, we present Part 3 of a four-part bibliography of neuroethics' literature focusing on the "ethics of neuroscience." METHODS: To complete a systematic survey of the neuroethics literature, 19 databases and 4 individual open-access journals were employed. Searches were conducted using the indexing language of the U...
September 19, 2016: Philosophy, Ethics, and Humanities in Medicine: PEHM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27644129/differentiation-of-spermatogonia-stem-cells-into-functional-mature-neurons-characterized-with-differential-gene-expression
#17
Maryam Nazm Bojnordi, Hossein Azizi, Thomas Skutella, Mansoureh Movahedin, Fereshteh Pourabdolhossein, Amir Shojaei, Hatef Ghasemi Hamidabadi
Transplantation of embryonic stem cells (ESCs) is a promising therapeutic approach for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. However, ESCs are not usable clinically due to immunological and ethical limitations. The identification of an alternative safe cell source opens novel options via autologous transplantation in neuro-regeneration circumventing these problems. Here, we examined the neurogenic capacity of embryonic stem-like cells (ES-like cells) derived from the testis using neural growth factor inducers and utilized them to generate functional mature neurons...
September 19, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27638002/functional-liver-tissue-engineering-by-an-adult-mouse-liver-derived-neuro-glia-antigen-2-expressing-stem-progenitor-population
#18
Hongyu Zhang, Christopher T Siegel, Jing Li, Jiejuan Lai, Ling Shuai, Xiangdong Lai, Yujun Zhang, Yan Jiang, Ping Bie, Lianhua Bai
Deaths due to end-stage liver diseases (ESLD) are increasingly registered annually in the world. Liver transplantation is the ultimate treatment for ESLD to date, which has been hampered by a critical shortage of organs. The potential of decellularized liver scaffolds (DLS) derived from solid organs as a three dimensional (3D) platform has been evolved as a promising approach in liver tissue engineering for translating functional liver organ replacements, but questions still exist regarding the optimal cell population for seeding in DLS and the preparation of the DLS themselves...
September 17, 2016: Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27604746/postnatal-neural-stem-cells-in-treating-traumatic-brain-injury
#19
Hussein Gazalah, Sarah Mantash, Naify Ramadan, Sawsan Al Lafi, Sally El Sitt, Hala Darwish, Hassan Azari, Lama Fawaz, Noël Ghanem, Kazem Zibara, Rose-Mary Boustany, Firas Kobeissy, Jihane Soueid
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is one of the leading causes of death and disabilities worldwide. It affects approximately 1.5 million people each year and is associated with severe post-TBI symptoms such as sensory and motor deficits. Several neuro-therapeutic approaches ranging from cell therapy interventions such as the use of neural stem cells (NSCs) to drug-based therapies have been proposed for TBI management. Successful cell-based therapies are tightly dependent on reproducible preclinical animal models to ensure safety and optimal therapeutic benefits...
2016: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27596061/effects-of-membrane-properties-on-the-binding-activities-of-the-hn-and-hc-heavy-chain-domains-of-botulinum-neurotoxin-a
#20
B Vijayalakshmi Ayyar, M Zouhair Atassi
Binding behaviors of the HN and the HC domains of BoNT/A were investigated individually to identify if there exist any differences in their interaction with the cell membrane. Recombinant fragments corresponding to both BoNT/A HN and HC regions were prepared (HN519-845 and HC967-1296) and their binding to synaptic proteins was verified. The binding behaviors of these heavy-chain domains were analyzed by treating the Neuro 2a, a murine neuroblastoma cell line, with compounds known to alter membrane properties...
December 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
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