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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938051/pregnancy-disorders-in-africa-and-the-obstetric-dilemma
#1
Annettee Nakimuli, Ashley Moffett
The high neonatal and maternal morbidity and mortality associated with the extremes of birth weight is referred to as the obstetric dilemma. Pre-eclampsia and other conditions that lead to low birth weight are considered as the Great Obstetrical Syndromes (GOS). At the other extreme is high birth weight resulting in obstructed labour. Fetal weight largely depends on placental function and defective placentation is a common feature of the GOS. There is evidence that the local uterine immune system (KIR and HLA-C) regulates placentation, with racial differences noted...
December 1, 2016: Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937998/selection-of-dna-aptamers-specific-for-live-pseudomonas-aeruginosa
#2
Jennifer Soundy, Darren Day
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic pathogen that causes significant morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised patients, particular cystic fibrosis sufferers, burns victims, diabetics and neonates. It thrives in moist places where it forms biofilms that are exceedingly difficult to eradicate on hospital surfaces, in water supplies and implanted biomaterials. Using a live cell SELEX approach we selected DNA aptamers to P. aeruginosa grown as biofilms in microfluidic cells. From a pool of aptamer candidates showing tight binding a stem-loop structure was identified as being important for binding...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937705/interventions-for-treating-genital-chlamydia-trachomatis-infection-in-pregnancy
#3
REVIEW
Catherine Cluver, Natalia Novikova, David Oa Eriksson, Kevin Bengtsson, Göran K Lingman
BACKGROUND: Genital Chlamydia trachomatis (C.trachomatis) infection may lead to pregnancy complications such as miscarriage, preterm labour, low birthweight, preterm rupture of membranes, increased perinatal mortality, postpartum endometritis, chlamydial conjunctivitis and C.trachomatis pneumonia.This review supersedes a previous review on this topic. OBJECTIVES: To establish the most efficacious and best-tolerated therapy for treatment of genital chlamydial infection in preventing maternal infection and adverse neonatal outcomes...
September 22, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936899/morbidity-and-mortality-of-very-low-birth-weight-multiples-compared-with-singletons
#4
Roser Porta, Eva Capdevila, Francesc Botet, Sergi Verd, Gemma Ginovart, Elisenda Moliner, Marta Nicolàs, Jose Rios
BACKGROUND: Previous studies comparing the neonatal outcome of very low birth weight (VLBW) multiples and singletons have suggested a worse outcome for multiples at gestational ages on the limits of viability. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study is to determine the neonatal mortality and morbidity of VLBW multiples compared to singletons. METHODS: This is a retrospective study including all infants registered in the Spanish network for infants under 1500 g (SEN1500), over a 12-year period (from 2002 to 2013)...
September 22, 2017: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936424/acid-stress-response-mechanisms-of-group-b-streptococci
#5
REVIEW
Sarah Shabayek, Barbara Spellerberg
Group B streptococcus (GBS) is a leading cause of neonatal mortality and morbidity in the United States and Europe. It is part of the vaginal microbiota in up to 30% of pregnant women and can be passed on to the newborn through perinatal transmission. GBS has the ability to survive in multiple different host niches. The pathophysiology of this bacterium reveals an outstanding ability to withstand varying pH fluctuations of the surrounding environments inside the human host. GBS host pathogen interations include colonization of the acidic vaginal mucosa, invasion of the neutral human blood or amniotic fluid, breaching of the blood brain barrier as well as survival within the acidic phagolysosomal compartment of macrophages...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935263/predicting-preterm-birth-cervical-length-and-fetal-fibronectin
#6
REVIEW
Moeun Son, Emily S Miller
Spontaneous preterm birth remains the leading cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality worldwide, and accounts for a significant global health burden. Several obstetric strategies to screen for spontaneous preterm delivery, such as cervical length and fetal fibronectin measurement, have emerged. However, the effectiveness of these strategies relies on their ability to accurately predict those pregnancies at increased risk for spontaneous preterm birth (SPTB). Transvaginal cervical shortening is predictive of preterm birth and when coupled with appropriate preterm birth prevention strategies, has been associated with reductions in SPTB in asymptomatic women with a singleton gestation...
September 18, 2017: Seminars in Perinatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935064/no-231-guidelines-for-the-management-of-vasa-previa
#7
Robert Gagnon
OBJECTIVES: To describe the etiology of vasa previa and the risk factors and associated condition, to identify the various clinical presentations of vasa previa, to describe the ultrasound tools used in its diagnosis, and to describe the management of vasa previa. OUTCOMES: Reduction of perinatal mortality, short-term neonatal morbidity, long-term infant morbidity, and short-term and long-term maternal morbidity and mortality. EVIDENCE: Published literature on randomized trials, prospective cohort studies, and selected retrospective cohort studies was retrieved through searches of PubMed or Medline, CINAHL, and the Cochrane Library, using appropriate controlled vocabulary (e...
October 2017: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Canada: JOGC, Journal D'obstétrique et Gynécologie du Canada: JOGC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935062/no-260-ultrasound-in-twin-pregnancies
#8
Lucie Morin, Kenneth Lim
OBJECTIVE: To review the literature with respect to the use of diagnostic ultrasound in the management of twin pregnancies. To make recommendations for the best use of ultrasound in twin pregnancies. OUTCOMES: Reduction in perinatal mortality and morbidity and short- and long-term neonatal morbidity in twin pregnancies. Optimization of ultrasound use in twin pregnancies. EVIDENCE: Published literature was retrieved through searches of PubMed and the Cochrane Library in 2008 and 2009 using appropriate controlled vocabulary (e...
October 2017: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Canada: JOGC, Journal D'obstétrique et Gynécologie du Canada: JOGC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935057/no-349-substance-use-in-pregnancy
#9
Alice Ordean, Suzanne Wong, Lisa Graves
OBJECTIVES: To improve awareness and knowledge of problematic substance use in pregnancy and to provide evidence-based recommendations for the management of this challenging clinical issue for all health care providers. OPTIONS: This guideline reviews the use of screening tools, general approach to care, and recommendations for the clinical management of problematic substance use in pregnancy. OUTCOMES: Evidence-based recommendations for screening and management of problematic substance use during pregnancy and lactation...
October 2017: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Canada: JOGC, Journal D'obstétrique et Gynécologie du Canada: JOGC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934984/a-simple-and-rapid-identification-method-for-newly-emerged-porcine-deltacoronavirus-with-loop-mediated-isothermal-amplification
#10
Fanfan Zhang, Yu Ye, Deping Song, Nannan Guo, Qi Peng, Anqi Li, Xingrong Zhou, Yanjun Chen, Min Zhang, Dongyan Huang, Yuxin Tang
BACKGROUND: Porcine Deltacoronavirus (PDCoV) is a newly emerged enteropathogenic coronavirus that causes diarrhea and mortality in neonatal piglets. PDCoV has spread to many countries around the world, leading to significant economic losses in the pork industry. Therefore, a rapid and sensitive method for detection of PDCoV in clinical samples is urgently needed. RESULTS: In this study, we developed a single-tube one-step reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) assay specific for nucleocapsid gene to diagnose and monitor PDCoV infections...
September 21, 2017: Biological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934940/human-development-index-hdi-of-the-maternal-country-of-origin-as-a-predictor-of-perinatal-outcomes-a-longitudinal-study-conducted-in-spain
#11
S Garcia-Tizon Larroca, J Arevalo-Serrano, A Duran Vila, M P Pintado Recarte, I Cueto Hernandez, A Solis Pierna, S Lizarraga Bonelli, J De Leon-Luis
BACKGROUND: In an era of worldwide population displacement, recent studies have identified strong associations between social situations and perinatal outcomes among immigrants. Little is known about the effect of maternal social background on pregnancy outcomes. The Human Development Index (HDI) assesses the following dimensions of human development: life expectancy, education level and income. The objective of our study was to determine if maternal HDI may be used to identify women at increased odds of poor pregnancy outcomes...
September 21, 2017: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934320/household-costs-and-time-to-seek-care-for-pregnancy-related-complications-the-role-of-results-based-financing
#12
Jobiba Chinkhumba, Manuela De Allegri, Jacob Mazalale, Stephan Brenner, Don Mathanga, Adamson S Muula, Bjarne Robberstad
Results-based financing (RBF) schemes-including performance based financing (PBF) and conditional cash transfers (CCT)-are increasingly being used to encourage use and improve quality of institutional health care for pregnant women in order to reduce maternal and neonatal mortality in low-income countries. While there is emerging evidence that RBF can increase service use and quality, little is known on the impact of RBF on costs and time to seek care for obstetric complications, although the two represent important dimensions of access...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933776/association-of-nursing-overtime-nurse-staffing-and-unit-occupancy-with-medical-incidents-and-outcomes-of-very-preterm-infants
#13
M Beltempo, G Lacroix, M Cabot, R Blais, B Piedboeuf
OBJECTIVE: To examine the association of nursing overtime, nursing provision and unit occupancy rate with medical incident rates in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) and the risk of mortality or major morbidity among very preterm infants. STUDY DESIGN: Single center retrospective cohort study of infants born within 23 to 29 weeks of gestational age or birth weight <1000 g admitted at a 56 bed, level III NICU. Nursing overtime ratios (nursing overtime hours/total nursing hours), nursing provision ratios (nursing hours/recommended nursing hours based on patient dependency categories) and unit occupancy rates were pooled for all shifts during NICU hospitalization of each infant...
September 21, 2017: Journal of Perinatology: Official Journal of the California Perinatal Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932412/survival-of-porcine-epidemic-diarrhea-virus-pedv-in-thermally-treated-feed-ingredients-and-on-surfaces
#14
Michaela P Trudeau, Harsha Verma, Pedro E Urriola, Fernando Sampedro, Gerald C Shurson, Sagar M Goyal
BACKGROUND: Infection with Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus (PEDV) causes vomiting, diarrhea, and dehydration in young pigs. The virus made its first appearance in the U.S. in 2013, where it caused substantial neonatal mortality and economic losses in the U.S. pork industry. Based on outbreak investigations, it is hypothesized that the virus could be transmitted through contaminated feed or contaminated feed surfaces. This potential risk created a demand for research on the inactivation kinetics of PEDV in different environments...
2017: Porcine Health Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928178/trend-analysis-of-mortality-rates-and-causes-of-death-in-children-under-5-years-old-in-beijing-china-from-1992-to-2015-and-forecast-of-mortality-into-the-future-an-entire-population-based-epidemiological-study
#15
Han Cao, Jing Wang, Yichen Li, Dongyang Li, Jin Guo, Yifei Hu, Kai Meng, Dian He, Bin Liu, Zheng Liu, Han Qi, Ling Zhang
OBJECTIVES: To analyse trends in mortality and causes of death among children aged under 5 years in Beijing, China between 1992 and 2015 and to forecast under-5 mortality rates (U5MRs) for the period 2016-2020. METHODS: An entire population-based epidemiological study was conducted. Data collection was based on the Child Death Reporting Card of the Beijing Under-5 Mortality Rate Surveillance Network. Trends in mortality and leading causes of death were analysed using the χ(2) test and SPSS 19...
September 18, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927395/detection-and-risk-stratification-of-women-at-high-risk-of-preterm-birth-in-rural-communities-near-nagpur-india
#16
Archana Patel, Amber Abhijeet Prakash, Yamini V Pusdekar, Hemant Kulkarni, Patricia Hibberd
BACKGROUND: Presently, preterm birth is globally the leading cause of neonatal mortality. Prompt community based identification of women at high risk for preterm births (HRPB) can either help to avert preterm births or avail effective interventions to reduce neonatal mortality due to preterm births. We evaluated the performance of a package to train community workers to detect the presence of signs or symptoms of HRPB. METHODS: Pregnant women enrolled in the intervention arm of a cluster randomized trial of Antenatal Corticosteroids (ACT Trial) conducted at Nagpur, India were informed about 4 directly observable signs and symptoms of preterm labor...
September 19, 2017: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926832/persistent-pulmonary-hypertension-of-the-newborn-in-twin-twin-transfusion-syndrome-a-case-control-study
#17
Manon Gijtenbeek, M C Haak, Derk Jan Ten Harkel, Arjan B Te Pas, Johanna M Middeldorp, Frans J C M Klumper, Nan van Geloven, Dick Oepkes, Enrico Lopriore
BACKGROUND: Persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (PPHN) is associated with severe morbidity and mortality. Twin-twin transfusion syndrome (TTTS) is suggested to increase the risk of PPHN. OBJECTIVES: To describe the incidence of PPHN in TTTS twins and to identify risk factors in TTTS twins for the development of severe PPHN. METHODS: Cases with severe PPHN were extracted from our monochorionic twin database (2002-2016). Severe PPHN was defined as severe hypoxaemia requiring mechanical ventilation and inhaled nitric oxide (iNO) treatment, confirmed by strict echocardiographic criteria...
September 20, 2017: Neonatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926727/early-pregnancy-intrauterine-fetal-exposure-to-maternal-smoking-and-impact-on-fetal-telomere-length
#18
Hooman Mirzakhani, Immaculata De Vivo, J Steven Leeder, Roger Gaedigk, Carrie A Vyhlidal, Scott T Weiss, Kelan Tantisira
BACKGROUND: Reduced telomere length, or its accelerated attrition, has been implicated in aging, mortality, and several human diseases, including respiratory diseases. Age dependent manifestation of telomere-mediated disease during life span indicates the role of developmental stage in these diseases and highlights the importance of fetal developmental process in utero and at earlier life stages. Environmental determinants during developmental and later stages of life could affect telomere length...
September 14, 2017: European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926726/fertility-and-pregnancy-outcomes-after-transvaginal-cervico-isthmic-cerclage
#19
Marie-Emmanuelle Neveu, Hervé Fernandez, Xavier Deffieux, Marie-Victoire Senat, Marie Houllier, Perrine Capmas
INTRODUCTION: Prematurity is the leading cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality. Cervical insufficiency seems to be the main risk factor. Treatment is cervical cerclage. In case of failure, a cervico-isthmic cerclage by Fernandez' technique, with the placement of a polypropylene sling by vaginal approach during the first trimester of pregnancy, has proven its effectiveness. The aim of our study is to report effectiveness of Fernandez' cervico-isthmic cerclage in subsequent pregnancies...
September 11, 2017: European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925896/allopurinol-old-drug-new-indication-in-neonates
#20
Kim V Annink, Axel R Franz, Jan B Derks, Mario Rüdiger, Frank van Bel, Manon J N L Benders
BACKGROUND: Hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) is an important cause of neonatal mortality and neurological morbidity, even despite hypothermia treatment. Neuronal damage in these infants is partly caused by the production of superoxides via the xanthine-oxidase pathway and concomitant free radical formation. Allopurinol is a xanthine-oxidase inhibitor and can potentially reduce the formation of these superoxides that lead to brain damage in HIE. METHODS: The aim of this review is to provide an overview of the animal and clinical data about the neuroprotective effect of allopurinol in HIE and the relevant mechanisms leading to brain injury in HIE...
September 18, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
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